Хмельник Соломон Ицкович: другие произведения.

Energy processes in free-full electromagnetic generators

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  • Аннотация:
    We present here the theory of functioning for various magnetic fuel free energy generators. The theory is within the confines of the existing physical paradigm. It is shown that such generators (regardless of their construction) draw energy from the environment similarly to a heat pump. The constructions of generators are not considered here.

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  Introduction \ 6
  Chapter 1. Longitudinal electromagnetic Wave as a Consequence of Maxwell Equations Integrating \ 8
  Foreword \ 8
  1. Maxwell Equations with Magnetic Charges \ 8
  2. The Problem Statement \ 10
  3. The Solution of Maxwell Equations \ 11
  3.1. The General Case \ 11
  3.2. Normal Environment \ 13
  3.3. Volume Distribution of Charges \ 14
  4. Conclusions \ 16
  Chapter 2. Magnetic Field of Permanent Magnet \ 17
  Foreword \ 17
  1. Induction at the end of the permanent magnet \ 17
  2. Magnetic Charges of the Face of Permanent Magnet \ 19
  3. Maxwell Equations for a Permanent Magnet \ 19
  4. Magnetic Field created by permanent magnet charges. Coulomb"s Law \ 20
  5. Magnetic Field Found by Analytical Solution of Maxwell Equations \ 21
  6. Discussion \ 23
  Chapter 3. Energy-dependent Standing Wave \ 25
  1. Traveling electromagnetic wave \ 25
  2. Standing Electromagnetic Wave \ 26
  3. Energy-dependent Standing Electromagnetic Wave \ 27
  4. Energy-dependence of a Longitudinal Standing Magnetic Wave \ 30
  5. Experiments \ 32
  Chapter 4. Longitudinal Wave in the Body of Permanent Magnet \ 34
  1. Longitudinal Wave in the body of Permanent Magnet \ 34
  2. Energy Conversion Power \ 38
  3. Quantitative Estimates \ 39
  4. Derivation of some formulas \ 42
  Chapter 5. The Conditions of Longitudinal Energy-dependent Electromagnetic Wave Existence \ 43
  1. Foreword \ 43
  2. Electrical and Magnetic Polarization of the Electrical Dipoles of the Air \ 44
  3. The Energy of Electromagnetic Wave \ 49
  4. Catalyzation of Heat Processes \ 49
  5. Simulation of dipole magnetic polarization \ 52
  6. Temperature Around the Electromagnetic Wave \ 55
  7. About the Speed of Longitudinal Wave Propagation in the Air \ 56
  8. Transformation of the Wave's Magnetic Energy into Heat Energy of the Environment \ 58
  9. Quantitative Estimates \ 58
  10. Discussion \ 60
  Chapter 6. Energetics of Generators \ 62
  1. Construction and Functioning of Generator \ 62
  2. Processes in the Generation System \ 63
  3. General Scheme of Energy Transformation Process \ 63
  4. The Mechanical Energy Transformations - arrows 1, 2, 9 \ 66
  5. The Magnetic Energy Transformation into Kinetic Energy - arrow 3 \ 67
  6. The Standing Electromagnetic Wave Generation - arrow 4 \ 68
  7. Longitudinal Wave in the Body of Permanent Wave - arrow 5 \ 68
  8. The Heat Energy Transformation into Magnetic Energy - arrow 6 \ 69
  9. The Heat Flow - arrow 7 \ 70
  10. The Balance of Energy and Power \ 72
  11. Conclusions \ 75
  References \ 77
  There exists a considerable number of projects for electromagnetic generators. Some of them are certainly quite efficient. Most convincing of them are generators described in [20, 3, 19]. [21] contains the detailed descriptions of various constructions. However, there doesn"t exist a theory of their functioning not entering into conflict with universally accepted laws of physics. There is also no theory that would permit to develop a computational model of these generators. The absence of a relevant theory leads to the fact that the authors inevitably encounter experts distrust and impossibility to organize the planning and industrial production of such generators - even for the purpose of creating a prototype.
  Two main questions arise in this case
  1) How may mechanical work be performed at magnets interaction, i.e. how may an operable construction using only be built the magnets interaction forces and their magnetic energy.
  2) If such operable construction exists, then how the magnetic energy of magnets, which inevitably is spent during the construction functioning, is replenished..
  The second question is answered further. The answer in short is as follows: the operable construction creates in its vicinity a lowered temperature (that is convincingly confirmed by experiments), inducing a heat flow from the environment; this flow is the primal energy source. One may observe here an analogy with a heat pump, which also makes use of low- temperature environment. However, in the heat pump an additional energy source is used (although less than was extracted from this environment ). Here we show that magnetic generator (regardless of its construction) contrary to the heat pump functions without any additional energy source.
  In Chapter 1 we are considering the Maxwell equations solution in the case when only one specific distribution function of charge density. It is shown that only magnetic charges of a certain kind form an electromagnetic field having some specific features - there emerge a flat electric field and a space variable magnetic field, and a longitudinal magnetic wave is generated - so-called "magnetic wall" that is convincingly confirmed by experiments.
  Chapter 2 deals with magnetic charges on the end of a permanent magnet. The solution on the base of Coulomb"s law is found, and its conformity to the Maxwell equations is shown. Then the analytical solution of Maxwell equations for the same charges is found. It has a completely different form, but may exist only if there exists an environment polarized by the field. In this case it turns out that the magnetic field strength varies periodically in the space - there exists a longitudinal magnetic wave. It is shown why the analytical solution hasn"t been found experimentally.
  Chapter 3 shows that the described above standing longitudinal wave is energy-dependent, i.e. cannot exist without energy exchange with the environment.
  Chapter 4 considers the interaction between the permanent magnet and longitudinal magnetic wave. It is shown that the energy of such wave is transformed into the magnetic energy of the permanent magnet. The dependence of energy conversion power from the longitudinal wave"s frequency and from geometrical characteristics of the magnet is established.
  In Chapter 5 it is shown that in a longitudinal energy-dependent electromagnetic wave one may observe magnetic polarization of air dipoles, consisting in the fact, that the dipoles are polarized by Lorentz forces in the direction perpendicular to the vector of heat velocity with which they are moving in the vicinity of this wave. It is further shown that such polarization restricts considerably the degrees of freedom of the air molecules, which leads to decrease in the air"s internal energy. The changing internal energy of the wave, total with the changing internal energy of the air, satisfy the energy conservation law. The conditions of this law fulfillment are also conditions of this wave"s existence. It is shown that the consequence of this condition is temperature lowering in the wave area. This phenomenon is experimentally observed. The speed of this wave propagation is determined.
  Then it is shown that there exists also the opposite process - depolarization of polarized molecules in the air, and this is equivalent to the conversion of magnetic energy of the wave into heat energy. Hence, in this wave area there exists an oscillatory process of the wave"s magnetic energy conversion into heat energy, and vice versa.
  In Chapter 6 we describe the general outline of the energy conversion process in electromagnetic generator. We describe here interrelation of separate energy processes (described in previous chapters), and creating a chain of conversions of environment energy into consumers energy.
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