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In the space on the airship.

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   A WORD ABOUT SKYSHIP Chapter 3. Engines interact with an external magnetic field. Download Books
  

3.16. In the space on the airship.

  
   Introduction
   The belief, that it is necessary to accelerate an object to escape velocity [v2 - parabolic speed, escape velocity] for walking to space, has been known for a long time and has even become a clichИ. Having reached V2, a flying vehicle can overcome gravitational influence of a celestial body and escape to infinity [1]. Otherwise, simply enter Earth orbit reaching orbital velocity (V1) and then escape velocity. Is this the only way? Is it possible to reach Earth's orbit or orbiting, for example, with subsonic velocity? This article refers to the machine which is possible to put into practice this idea.
   Prop. I suppose and I believe that walking to space without reaching cosmic velocity is possible and every physicist can confirm this. But on one condition! And the condition is a PROP. A flying vehicle must base upon something. Thus, an airplane is based upon the air, however there is no prop for them outside the atmosphere. What can replace the "air"?
   As it happens, anyhow there is some prop outside the atmosphere. And the nature uses it particularly for protection of all life on Earth. And this "prop" is Natural Earth's magnetic field.
  

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   From left to right and top down:
   Impact wave
   Magnetotail
   Solar wind
   Magnetopause
  
   Flowing around the magnetosphere of Earth with solar wind [2]Thus, Lorentz force begins to affect upon charged particles of the solar wind, intruding into the Earth's magnetic field, extracts them from the Earth's magnetic field and the particles, while moving, as if flow around the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetic field becomes a sort of prop for the particles.
   Electrical "wings". So, if airplanes' wings are turned to charged particles carrier and equipped it with rocket engines even relatively low power, the airplanes will be able to fly outside the atmosphere. And the Earth's magnetic field will be the prop. However, flying vehicles must move only perpendicular to magnetic field lines of Earth, because Lorentz force arises only when charged particles go perpendicular to magnetic field lines [3]. The flying vehicle like this is better to call magnetoplan, but not an airplane. With a knowledge of the magnetosphere's size, it is easy to calculate the maximum height at which the flying vehicle can rise. Hence, the magnetosphere has a complex form. Distance to its (magnetosphere's) boundary varies, depending on the intensity of the solar wind, from the side facing the Sun and constitutes to around 70000 km (10-12 Earth's radius Re, where Re is 6371 km, (the distance is measured from the center of Earth). The magnetosphere's boundary - magnetopause - from the downsun has the shape of shell and at rough estimates is located at a distance of around 15 Re. The magnetosphere from the dark side stretches like a long cylindrical tail (magnetotail), the radius of which is about 20-25 Re. The tail runs to a considerable distance, far beyond that of 200 Re. And where is the place of its end we do not know. In other words, the minimal flight altitudes for the magnetoplane will constitute to around 7000 km. And this is actually deep space. At the same time, necessity of rocket velocity must fall away by virtue of the "prop".
  
   Theory of developing thrust. Let's remember what is Lorentz force? It is the force which affects the electrical charge moving in the external magnetic field.

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   Particle direction depending on its charge in the vector of magnetic induction perpendicular to velocity vector (to us from the plane of the picture)
   Pic. 2
   Force affecting the particles is determined by formula: Fm - q[V в B]
   Where
   q is charge of particle; v is speed of particle; B is magnetic field induction. [3]
   As we can see in formula, we must maximize charge q and its speed V. While magnetic field induction B is beyond our control, because it is initially given by nature, namely by the Sun and Earth, natural sources of the magnetic field.
   So, changing magnetoplan's speed relative to the Earth's magnetic field and changing charge quantity, carried by the flying vehicle we'll be able to make the magnetoplan traveling in space outside the atmosphere relying on the Earth's magnetic field. Based upon the formula, the grater the charge carried by the flying vehicle, the less its speed could be.
   It must be also noted that it is necessary, for developing thrust, the only one type of charge interacts with the external magnetic field; otherwise forces affecting the positive and negative charges will be compensated. So, total force will be equal to zero.
  
   Design of the magnetoplane.
   Charge carrier. So, we need some charge carrier or a screen, which will allows the only one of the charge types to interact with external magnetic field. As its basis we can take ordinary "magnetic screen" [4].

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B-external

The Screen

B-internal

   Its operating principle is very simple. Note that the magnetic field lines just bend around the hemisphere of the ferromagnetic, moreover, in its thickness. This rounding phenomenon is can be explained as follows. Thus, magnetic field lines may be compared with electric current or jet flows in space. And the magnetic field lines or jet flows run on the path of the least resistance, like current does. Figuratively speaking, permeability of vacuum is 1, but permeability of iron is 4000. If the line has entered the iron, it is no longer profitable to leave it up in the air to enter the opposite wall and the line will come out the other terminal point passing along the walls due to the difference in 4000 times between iron and air [5].
   So, if you make a "flat" capacitor of thin plate (?платин?) in the form of doubled hemisphere, force lines will always run only in the lower "thin plate", the top one will be screened.

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   And when the capacitor moves perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, generally, it will be observed displacement of the external magnetic field from the body of the "hemisphere" with the vortex magnetic fields arising around charge.

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   Hence, due to "curvature" of the magnetic field caused by outer condenser coating's form (hemisphere) the external magnetic field will always interact with only one of the charge types which are situated in the outer shell.
   Lifting power. Displacement of the external magnetic field from the outer shell condenser caused by mechanical interaction of the external magnetic field and vortex magnetic fields, which appear around moving charges.

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   Pic. 1. Interaction of the magnetic field and current-carrying conductor. A-current in the conductor is directed "at us", B--current in the conductor is directed beyond the drawing's plane, "from us"
   Pic. 86. Interaction of the current-carrying conductor and magnetic field
  
   Hence, lifting power appears in the external magnetic field.
   Choice of the charge. I also should explain why the only positive charge must be on the outer shell, rather then negative. Let's see the law of electromagnetic induction: "If in the H plane perpendicular to the magnetic field the conductor with length I is moved with speed V in such a way as to cross magnetic field lines, then difference of potential will appear across (at the ends of) this object U=-dф/dt/c=-H*V*l*cos ( V < l) / c" [Sivuhin. "General course of physics. Volume 3. Electricity"]. N.B. the voltage, whereby difference of potential appears, appears alone. It is decree of nature [6].
   Positive charge in metal is protons tough "inserted" into the structure of the positively charged ions. And negative charge is free electrons permanently staying in a sort of chaotic or Brownian motion and capable of moving throughout the conductor. [7]

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   [7]
   So, if we apply voltage U between two ends of the conductor which is being the external hemisphere, then one of the ends will become a positively charged and another one negatively charged. But upon condition, that there are positive and negative charges in the conductor.

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   Electromotive force (EMF) in conductor affects both positively charged ions and free electrons. Electrons begins to move under the EMF, but ions remain motionless, because they are tough built in crystal grid of the conductor
  
   So, there will be two equal charges across the hemisphere-conductor, moreover, positively charged ions will uniformly distributed over the whole conductor's surface. And only positively charged "pole" will be free of negative charge or free electrons.

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   They will be two different charges moving with equal speed in the equal magnetic field. That is why these two charges or the whole conductor will be worked up with the forces with different directions" [6]. These forces will compensate each other and the total lifting force will be zero.
   Of course we can say that there will be more charges, because it is not just conductor, it is cover of the condenser. It means the forces will not be equal and there is a high probability that this is true.
   But yet as a precaution only protons tough built in ions of crystal grid of metal must stay in the external hemisphere and due to this reason they are motionless even they are interacted with U-voltage appearing due to moving of the hemisphere-conductor in the magnetic field. The outer shell of the hemisphere-compensator is to be free of free electrons to avoid the estimated charge polarization.
   Reactive airship. After that this vehicle is to be delivered to low-density atmosphere and the best way is using helium. Or rather gondola-hemisphere filled with helium.

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   Front view
   B-external
   1. Gondola filled with helium
   2. Rocket engines
   3. Screen-condenser with hemispheric form
  
   This vehicle is easier than air, actually reactive airship. Its main difference from ordinary airship is availability in its structure of screen-condenser (3) for taking the lifting force in the external magnetic field outside the stratosphere.

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   Top view
   1. Gondola filled with helium
   2. Rocket engines
   4. Elevon (aerodynamic controller-stabilizing fin)
  
   Availability of the gondola filled with helium allows the airship-magnetoplan to scream-up and land-on in any place on Earth.

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   Earth's magnetic field
   Victory
   Atmosphere
   Flying path
   Earth
   Trajectory of flying and walking to space of Magnetoplane "Victory"
  
   A minimum of necessity of space ports and airports because of necessary refueling and due to maintenance makes this device a unique vehicle for the delivery of goods and people into space.
   Operation concept.
   When the sphere or flying vehicle lighter than air "ascents" into the top of the atmosphere, the pilot directs the "airship-magnetoplane" perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field lines. Then, he starts the jet engine and the magnetoplane leaves upper low-density atmosphere and "surfaces" Earth's magnetic field due to Lorentz force affecting the machine when it's moving in the magnetic field. It is practically walking to space. Moving of the machine perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field lines all the time when driving, this is the main thing. Altitude as already mentioned above can be equal to minimum of 7000 km. And the speed will be not much of rocket. In practice, it becomes possible to enter an orbit and higher without overload. It is very promising for the civil aviation. Thus, it becomes possible to deliver cargo and passengers at fantastic distances in a relatively short period of time due to walking to space.
  
   Hypersonic jet airship.
   Also, this may well be a blimp and hypersonic . As is well known in the design of hypersonic aircraft , designers are faced with a problem as overheating housing hypersonic cars even in sparse atmosphere . Electrostatic same "pillow " interacting with the Earth's magnetic field may well push or withdraw hypersonic airship beyond dense and even rarefied atmosphere that will prevent overheating of the car body , when the hypersonic . Besides possibly be able to use hydrogen as a fuel that can be pumped into the gondola instead of helium is at a minimum will significantly increase the range hypersonic car. It hypervelocity " electrostatic air " should work most effectively , as the buoyancy acting on the Lorentz charges in a magnetic field depends on the speed and motion of the charges in an external magnetic field.
  
   Literature:
      -1- Space velocity.
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C
      -2- Magnetosphere.
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%84%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0
      -3- Lorentz force.
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B0_%D0%9B%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B0
      -4- Encyclopedia of Physics. Magnetic screening.
       http://www.femto.com.ua/articles/part_1/2064.html
      -5- About Evstratov's magnetoplan.
      http://samlib.ru/l/lemeshko_a_w/alg.shtml
      -6- About Filimonenko's magnetoplan.
       http://samlib.ru/editors/l/lemeshko_a_w/all.shtml
      -7- SA. Metal current.
      http://www.physbook.ru/index.php/SA._%D0%A2%D0%BE%D0%BA_%D0%B2_%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%85
   Andrey Lemeshko
  
  
  

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