By Niels Bohr's atomic model, electrons travel inside the atom, around the nucleus, by a strictly allowed orbit, though the electrons can transit to another allowed orbit. Nowadays, these "orbits" are used to be called "allowed energy levels". As the majority of the phenomena in the world of the quantum mechanics, the suggested process is not that simple to present visually. An electron simply disappears from an orbit, and materializes in the other one, never crossing the space between them. This phenomenon was named the "quantum jump", or the "quantum leap". Later, this term acquired a wide popularity, and entered our vocabuary with the meaning of a "sudden vigorous improvement" ("A real quantum leap in the watches production technology!"). If an electron jumps to a lower orbit or an allowed energy level, it looses energy and, accordingly, emits a light quantum - a fixed energy photon with a fixed wave length. Visually, we distinguish different energy photons by the colour - hot copper wire glows with blue, and a sodium lamp of the street lighting - with yellow. For the transit to a higher orbit or a higher allowed energy level, an electron must, accordingly, absorb a photon .
It is clear, that where the orbit and the energy change, the speed of the electron travel around the nucleus also changes.
Thus, we contemplate, that an electron posseses two features.
Featureone. An electron is capable of a quantum jump; at that, it emits or absorbs a photon.
Featuretwo. An electron absorbs photons of various spectra, including the X-rays, infrared waves and the visible spectrum waves.
Moreover, according to Compton's effect , worst of all free electrons do absorb the X-ray spectrum photons.
Namely these electron features were laid in the basis of the quantum engine operation.
I'm stating, that the ability for a "quantum jump" is also maintained by free electrons.
The final result of free electrons "quantum jumps" is the formation of "beta radiation".
The name of "beta-rays" was historically assigned to one of the radioactive emissions types, which, like was discovered later, represents free electrons. The electrons energy of this emission does not have a fixed value .
Let us conduct an imaginary experiment. We put a free and static electron in a certain perfect medium, e. g. the absolute vacuum. And we direct a photon towards it. Apparently, a static electron will absorb a photon. And thanks to the photon energy the electron starts to travel in space, at that, its velocity will be approximately equal to the photon velocity. Figure1.
It is evident, that an electron will absorb a photon, since it is one of an electron's features.
The following change of an electron velocity or energy is nothing else but a free electron "quantum leap". A leap, that is always following the absorbtion of a photon by an electron. Of course, the offered scheme of an electron "quantum leap" is too idealized, since for the electron to transform from a predominantly corpusle to a predominantly wave, it should absorb a sufficiently great amount of photons .
We also need to clearly understand the difference between the "solar sail" and the "quantum engine".
The solar sail absorbs and turns into forward motion quite an unsubstantial photom momentum while ignoring the high enough photon energy.
But the quantum engine, conversely, absorbs the photon energy and transforms it into motion. At that, the photon momentum is not practically ignored.
Transformation of the photon momentum into the electron mechanical energy is described by the formula 1.
Vp - photon velocity
Ve - electron velocity after collision
Mp - photon net mass
Me - electron net mass.
And the formula describing the transformation of the photon energy into the electron mechanical energy is yet to be developed. That is if the effect is proven experimentally.
Understandable, that if we do close electrons safely in a certain secure carcass, that will reflect photons insignificantly, then the electrons, absorbing photons and next performing a "quantum jump", while partially shedding energy for the thermal heating of the carcass, will move in the environment, pushing the carcass before them. Figure 2.
An ordinary plane condenser can be a carcass prototype. And the atmoshere can be the supplier of photons or the infrared radiation. Figure 3.
And if we put the condenser into the vacuum where no radiation is present, e. g. from the sun, then the condenser will remain motionless. But if the negatively charged plane or rather the electrons are hit by the sun rays, then the electrons will start moving due to the photons sorbtion and the following "quantum jump". And together with them, thanks to the "quantum jump", the condenser will also start moving. Figure 4.
I am convinced that in the basis of the "flying condensers" or the "electrogravitation" lies namely the "quantum jump"effect. The condensers' motivity is possible not only due to the ions reactive discharges, but also due to sorbtion of energy quantums from the environment. At least, thanks to the effect, I have described, the condenser can move in the outer space providing there is a prolonged and intensive exposure of electrons to photons of different spectra.