In the beginning, I would like to tell you how the idea of creating a photonic nano-rocket arose. At school, we often asked physics teachers questions. For example: "Why does a photon move"? After all, he has no engine and, nevertheless, he always moves. Similar questions put our teachers and many physicists at a dead end. In particular, if we are still talking about the Brownian or chaotic motion of gas or water molecules. Naturally, physicists tried to get out, referring to the quantum theory of motion, certain energy quanta, absorbing which molecules begin to move. But time passed and it became clear that the deep movement, especially the causes of the Brownian movement, is still a mystery for modern physicists. And this article is a kind of attempt to answer the questions about the movement, to which there are still no intelligible answers.
Types of movement.
Before proceeding to the description of the types of movement, it is emphasized that I am very impressed with the principle known as the "Occam's Razor". According to this principle one should always avoid certain new entities, nature loves simplicity. With this, let's begin. Objectively in nature, we can observe only two types or types of movement. This "inertial motion" and "jet motion". Yes, many may disagree with this, and indeed it is still possible to single out "movements as a result of interaction with the external environment." But deep down, this is also the most reactive motion, only the "medium" no longer expires from the nozzle. And from her environment as a whole, mostly immobile, repels anything. That is, with a stretch, any movement in the medium can also be considered primarily a jet propulsion, in which the element of inertial motion is naturally present. So, to summarize, in nature there are only two types of movement:
1. Movement by inertia
2. Reactive movement.
And if we see that a certain body moves, then it moves either predominantly by inertia, or mainly it is a reactive movement. From this further and we will build.
About movement at the nano level.
If we are talking about movement at the macro level, then much is clear, thanks to Isaac Newton. But when it comes to the movement of microparticles, for example, such as positrons or electrons, we mean beta radiation or the so-called secondary or tertiary electrons formed as a result of air ionization - the so-called delta rays and epsilon rays. And also in the Brownian motion of gas molecules or air. There are certain difficulties. For a deep understanding of this problem, I propose to divide the problem of particle movement into two conditional levels:
First level. This is the movement of photons.
Second level. This movement of elementary particles is primarily electrons and thermal or Brownian motion.
I'll start, strange as it may, from the second level. So, as a result of much deliberation, I came to the idea or conclusion that all movement at the second level is beta rays, or delta or epsilon all this movement is mostly reactive. Including the Brownian movement this movement is primarily reactive. And only in the second place this movement by inertia.
What does it mean? This literally means that all particles emit photons in the predominantly infrared spectrum into space. All "heated" electrons or molecules just radiate intense infrared photons into space. And they fire at each other with photons. If electrons or molecules were ideal spheres, there would be no Brownian motion or beta, etc. there would be no waves. The ideal sphere, emitting photons, radiates them in all directions, evenly and eventually all forces are compensated. But in real life all the "nanoparticles" have a complex configuration in space and a different relief of the "surface". And most likely due to this, photons emit non-uniformly, in different planes in different ways, somewhere more intense where there is none. And any microparticle begins to move in that direction where the "torch" of photons is smaller, less intense. Adjusted for the fact that the trajectory is changed and the photons that are shooting at them and the neighbors molecules. It turns out that both fast electrons and positrons, and gas or liquid molecules, are simply photonic nano-rocket.
At the nanoscale level, as a whole, there are only two types of motion in nature. By inertia and reactive. Therefore, explaining the nature of the movement of microparticles, there is no need to produce some new essence, a new kind of movement. The reason for the Brownian motion of molecules such as water or gas is the emission of photons by them.
On the motion of photons.
Now it should stop at the first level, or the movement of photons. It should be argued that the motion of photons is pure motion by inertia. Photons are matter and wave. A wave is always a motion by inertia. Photons are matter that moves by inertia.
On the direction of motion.
So, what is the practical value of this "flare" theory of motion of all microparticles? She's next. Imagine that we have created a mechanism in which we successfully solved the problem of "pumping" the energy of electrons or molecules. Naturally, all the "nozzles" or "torches" of the data "nanocketts" are directed in different directions and this thermal movement becomes chaotic and, in general, the system remains stationary in space. In order for this hypothetical "quantizer" or "stove" for electrons or molecules to move. It is necessary to solve the problem of stabilization of data "nanocketts" in space. To obtain a straight-line motion, all the systems in which the nanoparticle energy is pumped. All "nanoparticles" must be arranged so that all their photon "torches" are directed in one direction. But this is very difficult to do.
It can be assumed that it is possible to convert an electron in a certain system to the delta epsilon state and further beta particles. But to make it so that they all emit photon torches in one direction is very difficult. We need to come up with a kind of nozzle for photons that emit molecules or heated electrons. To place each molecule each quantized electron in a certain nano-mirror. Then you can pump electrons and molecules with energy by anything even with a laser, even with a maser, even with a microwave, and so on. Of course, this theory is correct, provided that I, correctly, defined the movement of "nanoparticles" excluding photons as mainly reactive movement. Now let's look at how to put this idea into practice. Of course, this is just one of the ideas. Perhaps someone will offer other ideas to control the directivity of photon "torches" around molecules or fast electrons.
The basis of this "rocket" can be taken, for example, the "electron gun". The problem is still to be forced according to the flare theory, the electrons emitted by the gun can send their hypothetical photon flares to one side. With flying electrons under the action of another EMF. It is generally difficult if possible. But you can do differently. And this effect may already be registered. If you pick up Coolidge. Also a kind of "electron gun", the electron pumped by energy hits an obstacle or a cathode and radiates x-rays into space. And these rays are already directed, that is, the very obstacle for the electron to become its "nozzle" the main part of the radiation goes to the side and the Coolidge tube must move somewhat towards the Cathode. And slightly up the diagonal.
And this effect was supposedly registered by TT. Brown  So In the 20 years of the twentieth century, TT Braun was still a high school student. Interested in X-rays. He wanted to find out whether the rays emanating from the X-ray apparatus could have a beneficial effect. For his experiments, the inventor got Coolidge tube. And he did with her what no one had done before him. For convenience, the scientist hung Coolidge's pipe on wires running to the pipe parallel to Earth. In the process, he noticed that whenever a current was supplied to the tube, it shifted to the side, trying to make a slight translational movement. 
Nobody checked this experience exactly. But I suppose that in order to obtain a greater pushing force, the cathode must be well, I don't know, it is important to cover ceramics so that when an accelerated electron hits, it is the photons that appear that most noticeably press on the obstacle, that is, they have minimal permeability. And these are the photons of the visible spectrum and infrared. That is, our "starship" on "fast" electrons is the Coolidge Pipe, but at the exit it must have photons of the infrared spectrum.
The most interesting thing is that electrons in the Coolidge tube are "pumped" with energy also by thermal photons. Let me remind you about thermoelectric emission. The ions of the crystal lattice of the anode "pump" free electrons by irradiating them with infrared rays. That is, in fact, they "quantize" them, plus EMF, and we have the output of free electrons into space.
Further, when hitting an obstacle, we get a unidirectional "torch" of photons. Moreover, pre-pumping free electrons with energy, we can influence the intensity of this torch. And this means also on the speed of movement in space in the whole of the whole system, in which electrons are "pumped" with energy. Naturally, other variants of "pumping" electrons with energy are possible . It is important to keep the very mechanism of their interaction of accelerated electrons with an obstacle in order to get the jet flux of IR photons at the output. Yes, you need to create a very large flow of photons in the nozzle. The principle of obtaining photons of the x-ray spectrum will not give such a density as when using antimatter. But at least something. Moreover, the future belongs to nanosatellites, but what would be enough to push them and a weak photon torch.
Other types of nanocketts.
This article proposed a photon nano-rocket on "fast" electrons. But back to the molecules of gas or liquid. As already mentioned, it is quite possible that by turning a liquid or gas into ions and placing them in a constant electromagnetic field, we also get an anglo-photon nano-rocket but already on "fast" ions.
The figure shows that ions in a horseshoe-shaped vessel under the action of an external electromagnetic field, are separated and fixed near the walls-MIRRORS facing the Thomson coils. Since the vessel's mirror walls are impermeable to IR photons, which emit ions when heated, since this surface has a reflective property, behind the ions there is a "torch" from the photons of the infrared spectrum. This is how the reactive force "F" arises.
The more intense the heated ions, the greater the reactive force "F". Of course, the reader may argue, but why the Thomson coil? You can simply boil anything and partially placing this vessel in the mirror-hemisphere and at the exit we will get a "torch" from the IR rays. I answer, the magnetic field reduces the chaotic or Brownian motion of molecules. That's all.
It is difficult for me to judge how practically these photon nanoworks are applicable. Especially for moving in space of space ships and probes of usual sizes. I can only assume that, most likely, the most promising engine is a photon engine on ions. Due to the fact that the area of ??the vessels can still be much larger than the cathodes of the rocket of the "Cobble Tube" type and the ions used to produce "photon" torches can be much larger than free electrons. In addition, it can be a whole cluster of such vessels, fired with a solution of ions. Of course, the Coolidge Tubes can also be clustered. But again, we must also decide how to get in them not x-rays, namely photons of the visible or infrared spectrum. In the case of a solution of ions, they will always emit an infrared wave naturally when heated. Therefore, I still propose to take this article only as a description of the principles, and not as a guide to action
1.Плазменный двигатель "ТОРНАДО". http://samlib.ru/l/lemeshko_a_w/j.shtml