Луценко Роман Иванович: другие произведения.

ВІдтворення УкраЇнською Мовою ЗниженоЇ І ПросторІчноЇ Лексики У ДискурсІ СлІдства (На МатерІалІ СерІалу A Touch Of Frost "детектив Джек Фрост")

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  • Аннотация:
    Научная работа (на англ. языке). Луценко Роман, 2019 год.


Луценко Роман

ВІДТВОРЕННЯ УКРАЇНСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ ЗНИЖЕНОЇ І ПРОСТОРІЧНОЇ ЛЕКСИКИ У ДИСКУРСІ СЛІДСТВА (НА МАТЕРІАЛІ СЕРІАЛУ A TOUCH OF FROST "ДЕТЕКТИВ ДЖЕК ФРОСТ")

Серія "Філологічні записки"

Київ

Самвидав - 2019

CONTENTS

  
  
   INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................1
   СHAPTER 1.
   COLLOQUIALISMS AS A LANGUAGE PHENOMEMON AND TRANSLATION CHALLENGE..............................................................3
   1.1 Colloquialisms as a language phenomenon ............................................................3
   1.2 Theoretical background of colloquialisms translation ...................................7
   CHAPTER 2.
   COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DISCOURSE: DISCOURSE FEATURES, TRANSLATION OPTIONS........................................................................................12
   2.1 Specifics of fictional discourse text analysis ...........................................12
   2.2 Options in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse....................................................................................................................16
   2.2.1 Lexical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse.......................................................................16
   2.2.2 Grammatical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse.......................................................................20
   2.2.3 Lexical and grammatical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse.........................................................25
   CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................29
   BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................31
   LIST OF REFERENCE SOURCES.........................................................33
   LIST OF DATA SOURCES..................................................................34
   ANNEX ........................................................................................36
   РЕЗЮМЕ.........................................................................................47
  

INTRODUCTION

   The term paper is focused on the investigation of colloquialisms in the field of criminal investigation discourse on the basis of "A Touch of Frost" television series.
   Communication between different judicial and police institutions has become an objective linguistic reality, as it is the most common form of virtual communication in the world, which ignores the canonical principles of the genre, rules and spelling became very important from the point of view of the prospects of speech and speech development, hence, translation options became very important.
   The actuality of research is caused by peculiarities of communication in the field of criminal investigation discourse, variety of different translation techniques and ambiguity of speech markers in English and Ukrainian.
   The problems of colloquialisms' translation in the criminal investigation discourse as a specific linguistic phenomenon in modern languages ??attracted the attention of many researchers. These issues are discussed in numerous articles and some works by Ukrainian and foreign authors. The most extensive works on these issues include works by O. Feschenko, V. Dievkin, V. Komissarov, M. Swift, W. Bullard, W. Trask, M. McCrimmon and others.
   Among the main aims and objectives of the following term paper are:
   1) to provide information on colloquialisms and their classifications;
   2) to describe different processes that take place in the translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse and give them definitions;
   3) to define lexical, grammatical and lexical and grammatical transformation used in the process of translation;
   4) to reveal features of translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse in English and Ukrainian.
   The object of research is colloquialisms used in the criminal investigation discourse.
   The subject of research is represented by various translation options (transformations) being used in English and Ukrainian.
   The main data source is sentences taken from the "A Touch of Frost" television series.
   In order to achieve the aim, the following methods have been applied: the comparative method, the method of translation, the method of dictionary definitions, the method of interpretation, the quantitative analysis.
   The following term paper comprises:
   1) INTRODUCTION;
   2) CHAPTER 1 in which theoretical background of the investigation is provided;
   3) CHAPTER 2 in which practical analysis is conducted;
   4) CONCLUSIONS;
   5) ANNEX in which sentences are arranged according to the frequency of the usage of translation transformations.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

  

CHAPTER 1

COLLOQUIALISMS AS A LANGUAGE PHENOMENON

AND TRANSLATION CHALLENGE

      -- Colloquialisms as a language phenomenon
   The wide range of semantic and stylistic functions which characterize different colloquial elements has made colloquialisms a pure language phenomenon. The colloquial component has become very important in fictional works as a special tool for representing familiarity and routine speech, namely, slang, jargon and professionalisms, owing to national peculiarities conveyed in the source language text and should be rendered into the target language - the main problem for translators [1: 5]. Among the scholars who investigated this problem were: V. Dievkin [2], V. Komissarov [3], I. Lieviy [4], A. Petrov [5], Ya. Retsker [6], O. Cherednychenko [7], V. Khomiakov [8].
   V.A. Khomiakov defined colloquialism as a stable for a certain period, widely used and stylistically marked lexical layer, common to colloquial language and existing as a part of a literary language [8: 44]. Some other definitions of colloquialism identify it as a colloquial variant of language peculiar to certain professional or social groups and underline that when slang words get into the literary language or are used by people outside those professional or social groups they receive special emotional connotation [4: 56]. In some cases slang is considered to be the same as jargon [3: 14]. Such a variety of attitudes towards the notion of slang resulted in the fact that I.R. Galperin suggested that slang cannot be called a separate linguistic category and the word "colloquialism" can only be used as a synonym for "jargon" [9: 108]. We can see similar picture in the English linguistics [8: 45].
   In Webster's "Third New International Dictionary" we can find the following definition of this term:
  
   1. Language peculiar to a particular group such as:
  
      -- the special and often secret vocabulary used by a class (e.g., thieves, beggars) and usually felt to be vulgar or inferior: argot;
  
      -- the jargon used by or associated with a particular trade, profession, or field of activity.
  
   2. A non-standard vocabulary composed of words and senses characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality and usually a currency not limited to a particular region and composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties usually experiencing quick popularity and relatively rapid decline into disuse [29: 446].
   Slang is defined by the "Oxford English Dictionary" as:
  
      -- the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type;
      -- the cant or jargon of a certain class or period;
      -- language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense [30: 545].
   Colloquial words are created according to the common morphological principles of the English language. Thus, we have identified the main means of word-building that exist in the language. These are derivation, compounding, shortening (abbreviation, clipping), back-formation, conversion, blending, sound imitation. Morphemes and words that are created with their help are considered to be the objects of morphology [5: 13-14]. Other linguists limit morphology to the study of morphemes solely, calling them "the basic building blocks of meaning in language" or "the smallest units of form that bear meaning or have a grammatical function" [1: 77]. As a branch of linguistics, morphology deals with the structure of the words and how their parts are related to each other, as well as how words are related to other words and how the structure of a word is dependent on other branches of linguistics, such as grammar, phonology, syntax or semantics [12: 45].
   For example, blends are words created by combining the first element of one word with the final element of the second word. Sometimes a blend includes elements which are common for both of the words [2: 141].
   Depending on the kind of word-building linguists identify several kinds of blends. First of all, these are additives, when two independent stems are combined, e.g. French + English = Frenglish, Niagara + Falls = Niffles, breakfast + lunch = brunch, smoke + fog = smog [10: 45].
   Shortening and abbreviation are the most productive ways of word-building in English. The large group of lexical items created this way was coined in order to save time during chatting; these are whole phrases and sentences. And, of course, there are abbreviations of colloquialisms in all types of discourse, including the detective one [3: 56].
   Colloqualisms can be used in contemporary English discourse and criminal investigation discourse. According to L. Pavliuchenko, the discourse of criminal investigation is defined as a "subtype of legal discourse distinguished on the basis of constitutive characteristics and their variant realizations depending on the procedural status of interrogated persons" [9: 17]. The researcher states that the constitutive features of the discourse of pre-trial investigation which ensure its status as a separate subtype of pre-trial discourse are the global institutional goal and the goals derived from it, status-role distribution of communicators, a type of socio-communicative relations between the participants of interrogation, specificity of the chronotope, stereotypical linguistic and pragmalinguistic features proper, an institutional form of interrogation as dialogical communication with narrative inclusions [13: 18].
   The phenomenon of colloquialisms appeared before it got the name "colloquialisms". According to M. Swift colloquialisms are as old as speech, and traces of this may be found as far as we can refer back [14: 89]. Old English colloquialisms were coarser, and depended more upon downright vulgarity. Slang of those days was generally termed "flash" language which represented both cant and slang. It is important to underline that the term "slang" was first recognized by W. Grose in 1785. He defined it as "cant or vulgar language" [15: 77].
  
   Italian researcher Winona Bullard writes that different dialects and pronunciations in the Middle Ages represented the first meaning of the term "colloquialism". It was represented by certain writers such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Caxton and William of Malmesbury [16: 2]. The present-day meaning for colloquialisms began to form only in 16th or 17th century. English Criminal Cant is considered to be the starting point of colloquialisms. It was a new kind of speech used by criminals in saloons and gambling houses. It was at first believed that English criminal cant originated in Romania or had occurred in France. The researcher also argues that some popular plays of Richard Brome, poems and songs by James Copland already contained some colloquial words [17: 34]. By the 1700's the cultural differences in England had begun to influence the English-speaking population, and slang started to expand. During the 18th century colloquialisms were thought of as incorrect usage of English and were considered forbidden.
  
   Eric Partridge in "Colloquialisms Today and Yesterday" notes that from about 1850's, slang has been the accepted term for "illegitimate" colloquial speech [18: 55].
  
   John Ayto in the introduction to the "Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang" writes that the first to which the term "colloquialisms" was applied, in the mid-eighteen century, was the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low and disreputable character. In the earlier centuries it was referred to as thieves' cant or patter of earlier centuries [19: 12].
  
   Nowadays colloquialisms are not associated with criminals. They acquire their form and are influenced by different cultures and the innovations of technology, which has left the society a variety of slang extremes from Street colloquialisms to Afro-American [20: 89].
  
   Moreover, colloquialisms tend to originate in subcultures within a society. Colloquial expressions often embody attitudes and values of group members. They thus contribute to a sense of group identity and may convey information to the listener concerning the speaker's background.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   1.2 Theoretical background of colloquialisms' translation
   The word "colloquialism" stems from the Latin colloquium that means 'conference' or 'conversation'. Colloquialism - as a literary device - implies using informal or everyday language in literature. Colloquialisms have generally a geographic nature, as a result, every colloquial expression belongs to a regional or local dialect [20: 34].
   J. Leech and M. Svartvik [22: 66] regard the colloquial language as the equivalent of the umbrella term of informal language calling it the first form of language that a native speaking child becomes familiar with. As they argue, since the comprehension of informal or colloquial language is easier compared to formal language, it is now used for some certain public communications such as newspapers and advertisements.
   In general, a colloquialism is any informal word or expression used aptly in conversation among ordinary or educated people [ibid.: 44]. A colloquialism is "a word, phrase, or other form used in informal language. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier [ibid.: 45].
   In the same vein, W. Trask [21: 12] argues that, "colloquial language, colloquial dialect, or informal language is a variety of language commonly employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations. The word colloquial by its etymology originally referred to speech as distinguished from writing, but colloquial register is fundamentally about the degree of informality or casualness rather than the medium, and some usage commentators thus prefer the term casualism".
   According to Mary McCrimmon, the word "colloquial" has been defined by the researcher as "characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing." In his opinion, this definition does not mean that a colloquial word is improper or inappropriate or careless. M. McCrimmon himself calls colloquialism any word or expression that may accurately be used in conversation among educated people. He maintains that such a definition of colloquial word transforms it to a wider term than popular words or idioms covering the popular words and idiomatic constructions as well. They also include constructions that are not strictly idioms, particularly abbreviated or clipped versions of more formal words, such as ad for advertisement [25: 167].
   Beyond a shadow of a doubt, translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse makes for a sort of specialized translation which has been regarded as "the ultimate linguistic challenge, combining the inventiveness of literary translation with the terminological precision of technical translation" [20: 67]. This demanding nature of legal translation has been acknowledged by many scholars and legal experts who call for treating legal translation as a separate research field [21, 22] requiring independent approaches.
   Many challenges and trials of the detective discourse translation result from intrinsic characteristics of the criminal investigation discourse. The character of the investigation language tends to be rather informative and is employed primarily in the interaction between legal entities and natural persons. This accounts for the matter-of-fact and impersonal veneer of the criminal investigation discourse, which does not allow for any subjective intrusion on the part of writer into the style of legal documents. The most crucial feature marking the criminal investigation discourse off from all other subtypes of (specialized) language is that it is endowed with legal force. Thus, the task for translator to re-create a source text content in the target text in such a manner that it represents its legal equivalent with identical legal effects. While lay people commonly think of the criminal investigation language as abstruse, arcane or grave, experts speak of its template-like and clichИd nature which is in particular attributed to legal phraseology, schematicity and repetitiveness of certain textual elements. H. Matilla [23: 12] associates it with "archaic verbal magic" and treating "language as a fetish". Thus, the reliance on a set of fixed phrases greatly contributes to the perception of legal language as a "frozen genre" [19: 34] or "fossilized language" [24: 21].
   The fuzziness of the label `criminal investigation translation' derives from the fuzziness of the category `legal language'. As argued by J. Asensio [21: 52], such translation is notoriously strenuous to define through traditional criteria applied to specialized translation, such as the situation (official translation, court translation), subject matter of the texts (economic, commercial, legal, scientific), grade of specialisation (a continuum from general to specialized), and a more recent one, genre. As to the degree of specialization, translation is not only communication between experts but may also be addressed to citizens (e.g. judgements, legislation, investigation). With regard to the subject matter, it should be attended to as a category with fuzzy boundaries as law regulates miscellaneous fields and areas of life and "the legal frame of activity" may sometimes be decisive in classifying a text as legal translation in the sphere of the criminal investigation [ibid.: 51].
   Furthermore, the criminal investigation discourse translation is many a time marked by a strong conflict between accuracy and naturalness. In this connection, M. HollДnder contends that there is a paradoxical relationship between accuracy and intelligibility of legal parlance because the efforts to make legalese unambiguous and precise de facto lead to decreasing its comprehensibility. Still, accuracy is of supreme importance in legal translation and takes precedence over stylistic considerations. In more recent approaches to legalese, accuracy as to the information content (equivalence) is apprehended as "the presumption of equal intent and the `spirit' rather than the `letter' of the law [25: 78].
   Among the main problems in translation of specific investigational utterances in the context of the criminal investigation discourse are:
      -- Legal-system specific: incongruity of legal terms and concept systems resulting from the differences between legal systems and interpretative rules;
      -- Language specific: structural, semantic, pragmatic differences between languages in general and between legal languages in particular;
      -- Translation-process specific: distortions redolent of the translation process [26: 79].
  
   Colloquial expressions belong to the culture-bound concepts category since they have root in the culture of their users. The following are the different translation procedures that P. Newmark proposes for this category of language items [27: 67]:
      -- Transference: transference of an SL item to the TL text. It also includes transliteration. (e.g., The Paradine Case - Cправа Передайна);
      -- Naturalization: adapting the SL word firstly to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology of the TL. (e.g., inspector - інспектор);
      -- Cultural equivalent: replacing a cultural word in the SL with a TL equivalent. However, "they are not accurate" [ibid.: 68]. (e.g., barrister - адвокат);
      -- Functional equivalent: using a culture-neutral word (e.g., court - суд);
      -- Descriptive equivalent: explaining the meaning of the culture-bound terms in several words (e.g., theatre - театр 'операція з захоплення особливо небезпечного злочинця').
   As the most commonly identified as translation, synonymy is a kind of semantic relation. It is used when there is a TL equivalent or near equivalent for a SL word or concept. This can be regarded as an ideal situation by itself reflecting the success of the translators in correct transference of the SL concepts. However, according to M. Quine, synonymy can be subdivided into two categories: "complete synonymy and partial synonymy" [28: 45]. Complete synonymy refers to the words all components of which are the same while partial synonymy refer to the words that only some of the main components are similar to each other. It is noteworthy that not all the synonyms used by the translators in the target texts in question are of complete synonymy type due to the difference in their register that is level of formality. In some cases of synonymy, translators have decided to sacrifice the connotative meaning for transferring the semantic meaning not preserving the informal tone of the SL words.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

CHAPTER 2

COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DISCOURSE: DISCOURSE FEATURES, TRANSLATION OPTIONS

   2.1 Specifics of fictional discourse text analysis
   Fictional discourse is subdivided into four groups:
      -- of prose (the literary register of speech);
      -- of drama;
      -- of poetry;
      -- of feature films.
   The fictional discourse implements any communicative intention with the aim to persuade the addressee to change his/her mind and believe the author thus influencing his/her cultural, aesthetic and ideological benchmarks in the way the author has planned.
   The communicative intention in texts is implemented by reference to fictional, unreal or imaginary worlds with the use of tropes and figures of speech (stylistic devices and expressive means; imaginary worlds created by the author's artistic "ego" through the artistic images.
   The criminal investigation discourse as the main subject of our research shows the ways of interaction between investigators and suspects.
   Fictional discourse is represented by mentafact types of texts that reflect the unreal (fictional) worlds.
   Temporal deixis refers to the past, present and future [27: 55].
   For instance, the basic analysis of the text is as follows:
   Inspector Frost: -It's more salubrious in here isn't it? Right, well, let's have a quick rundown of the filing system, shall we? In, out, LBW.
   Carl Tanner: -LBW?
   Inspector Frost: -Let the buggers wait. What's that say?
   Carl Tanner: - Mac dog.
   Inspector Frost: -Yes, just what I thought.
   Carl Tanner: -You know why I'm here don't you, sir?
   Inspector Frost: -You've come to solve our burglaries.
   Carl Tanner: -Sir, it's cause I'm black.
   Inspector Frost: -Yes, whites can't solve it.
   Carl Tanner: -Positive discrimination, right? See there's two other guys in the crime squad far better qualified for this attachment than me.
   Inspector Frost: -Oh, it's Mr. Mullett, forward thinking, we all have to suffer for it.
   Carl Tanner: -Oh, no, no, I mean I can handle it, the backbiting and I wanted to work with you.
   Inspector Frost: -Oh, really? Most people think it's like getting the black spot. Come on. Arthur, what can I do for you?
   Arthur: -A non-accidental injury reported from St. Mary's Hospital, Jack. Is that your boy?
   Inspector Frost: -Yeah, I'll catch up with you.
   Arthur: -I just thought you'd want to know the family's name is Bell, Brunsick House, East Dean Estate.
   Inspector Frost: -Matthew Bell, not Natalie's kid?
   Arthur: -Yeah.
   Inspector Frost: -Well, here we are son. Welcome to the East Dean Estate, crime academy of Denton.
   Carl Tanner: -Yeah, I've heard about it. Yes.
   Inspector Frost: -Well you'll hear a lot more. I'll tell you if there (unintelligible) would end up here on the East Dean.
   Man: -You slut!
   Natalie Bell: -Now you listen you just get out of my flat. Go, now.
   Man: -You slut! I'm throwing you out. I don't want you around here.
   Natalie Bell: -Just get out, get out, get out.
   Inspector Frost: -Miss Natalie Bell, Detective Inspector Frost, and this is Detective Constable Tanner. Child protection team asked me to visit. Thank you. Oh hello, who's this?
   Natalie Bell: -He's a friend. He's just leaving.
   Man: -Don't look at me man. I don't hit kids. It's a white man thing.
   Inspector Frost: -That's a rather racist remark, sir. What did he want?
   Natalie Bell: -He's a friend.
   Inspector Frost: -Oh, on home ground now, unlike you.
   Natalie Bell: -And what are you doing on home ground? That's more to the point. You're trying to blow me out or what?
   Inspector Frost: -No, I'm not. I got worried about you when I heard. You know I worry about you.
   Natalie Bell: -So you come here?
   Inspector Frost: -Child protection is CID's responsibility, Natalie. It would look fishy if we didn't attend. So where's Matthew?
   Natalie Bell: -I left him at his nan's.
   Inspector Frost: -Is he okay?
   Natalie Bell: -No bones broken.
   Inspector Frost: -Good, so who?
   Natalie Bell: -Oh, who do you think?
   Inspector Frost: -Your latest?
   Natalie Bell: -Yeah, Phil Aspinall. He come around last night, drunk as per. Matthew wound him up cause Phil (unintelligible) and bang, bastard.
   Inspector Frost: -So where's darling Phil now?
   Natalie Bell: -Oh, no idea. He was too pissed to drive us to the hospital. When I got back he had thrown up on the carpet and left.
   Inspector Frost: -All right, we'll nick him.
   Natalie Bell: -Yeah, you do that. You find him and I'll nail him. The rest is between you and me, right. But this one I ain't grassing.
   Carl Tanner: -She's a real diamond mine, Natalie. She's been running it for the last couple of years.
   Inspector Frost: -And she's not common knowledge! (TF: S02E01)
  
  

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

      -- Discourse parameters of the text
   The text belongs to fictional discourse.
      -- Communicative characteristics of the text
   The communicative situation of the dialogue from "A Touch of Frost" series belonging to fictional discourse can be described as follows: Inspector Jack Frost with chats his new assistant Carl Tanner at the police station encouraging him to be confident as Inspector Frost is. They head to Natalie Bell's house and make an interview with her. In this text deictic markers are all placed on the "I - here - now" and "I - here - was" deixis. Deictic markers of person are: I, he, she. Deictic markers of time are: last couple of years, I thought, she's been running, he was too pissed to drive, we'll nick him, it's a white man thing, it would look fishy if we didn't attend, last night, he had thrown up on the carpet, what are you doing on home ground. Deictic markers of place are: to the hospital, here, where, at his nan's, on home ground, on the carpet, get out, in here, there.
   The communicative intention of the text is to show the way investigators interact in the process of investigation and interview suspects or victims of misdemeanors.
  

STYLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEXT

      -- The lingual means of transmitting information in the text:
      -- the "strong" positions in the text: absolute beginning and end of the text, composition of the dialogue which contain central textual information etc.;
      -- the "weak" positions in the text, i.e. positions, which provide arguments to the "strong positions".
      -- Tropes and figures of speech: The psychological state of the character is revealed by the use of tropes, for instance, repetition of elliptical sentences in course of the dialogue through the whole passage expresses impulsiveness and worry of Inspector Frost and Natalie Bell. Inspector Frost's speech is full of interjections (well, oh). Natalie Bell expresses her worry through idiomatic expressions (drunk as per) and interjections (oh).
      -- Special literary and colloquial vocabularies used in the text: The readers' vision of the event and the character's feelings is sharpened by mostly colloquial words in the mouth of Inspector Frost and Natalie Bell.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   2.2 Options in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse
   2.2.1 Lexical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse
   In the process of translation a source language text as a whole or its segments may undergo varied modifications that are known in the theory and practice of translation as translation transformations. The term `transformation' is polysemantic and there are at least six meanings that are associated with this word in translation studies including intralinguistic translation. The discussion of translation transformations below includes the following: definition, causes (determinants), levels and techniques of translation.
   Not all sense units need to be structurally transformed in the process of translation. A considerable number of them are also transplanted to the TL in the form, meaning and structure of the original, i.e. unchanged or changed.
   Translation transformations are operations with the SLT aimed at conveying its meaning with maximum faithfulness in strict compliance with the standards of the TL. The type of the operation transformation is identified by comparing the SLT and the TLT.
   Following transformations applied during the translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse may be classified according to different criteria. These classifications offer an overlap and are rather conventional.
   Substitution of a source language unit by a target language unit, which is not registered as its dictionary equivalent, is called lexical transformation.
   Taken separately they have a different from the original referential meaning.
   Thus, semantically lexical transformation is substitution of a SL lexical unit by a lexical unit with different inner form, which actualizes the sense of the SL lexical unit realized in the given context.
   Lexical transformations comprise imitation translation transformations which are characterised by imitation of the form of a SL word / word group in the TL [27: 12]:
   1) Transcription (phonetic imitation) is a substitution of sounds in the process of translation, i.e. the replacement of SL sounds with the corresponding sounds of the TL, e.g., You missed 'em! How come SOCO missed these, too? At least now we know what they were looking for, Jack. - Ви не впіймали їх! Як хлопці з СОКО його теж прогавили? Принаймні, Джеку, тепер ми знаємо, чого саме вони хочуть. (TF: S11E02); COP Cook? COP Frost. - КОП Кук? КОП Фрост. (TF: S04E05). It is worth mentioning that the practice of transliteration is not a common option for the translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse, since common names are rarely used.
   2) Transliteration (graphic imitation) the substitution of letters in the process of translation, i.e. the replacement of SL letters with the corresponding letters of the TL, e.g., The DNA swab I lied - Брехня, "Мазок" (ДНК) хибний.
   (detectives use this expression as a colloquialism to denote the process of hereditary identification).
   3) Loan translation (ways of translating equivalent-lacking units) (калькування, запозичення) - the creation of words and word-combinations from the material available in the TL but according to SL patterns by way of word-for-word or morpheme-for-morpheme translation.
   This option is applicable when the equivalent in the TL does not fully correspond to the notion presented in the SL text. Loan translation is used to translate proper names, internationalisms, neologisms and units of specific national lexicon. For instance, Where's Lawson? Duty CID sergeant - Де Лоусон? Сержант "Центру" заступив на зміну (TF: S11E01) where CID is a unit of the nationally biased lexicon because this institution serves only the UK area. In the course of translation colloquialism is observed, since "центр" in Ukrainian criminal investigation discourse is an administrative unit of exceptional power.
   The hare is on the move. - А "заєць" тим часом своє діло робить (TF: S02E01) - idiomatic expression given above shows the impulsive nature of the burglar and is conveyed in Ukrainian by means of loan translation since the notion of "заєць" is associated with rapidness of action.
   4) Specialization (конкретизація, уточнення) is the choice of a more specific TL word or word-combination, which gives a more detailed description of the notion designated to be the SL unit. It is frequently used in the English-Ukrainian translation because English often makes use of general terms/ words to describe quite definite notions, e.g. Bowman's money from being nicked. - Щоб гроші Боумана не "відмили" (TF: S01E03); Oh, guv, that mobile phone he nicked. - Хлопче, мобільний телефон, який він вкрав. (TF: S04E05); The night before, after we'd had this bloody row, Cheryl went down to the shops to get some things, and Paula must have thought I'd gone too, because she made this telephone call. Those scums have spoiled everything - Вчора після месива Черіл пішла до магазину, аби щось купити до столу, і Пола теж вирішила, що я пішов з нею, тому що вона зателефонувала. Ці маргінали, злочинці все зіпсували. (TF: S01E02).
   The first two examples show the case of polysemy, a notion when word has more than one meaning, frequently specific one.
   5) Generalization (узагальнення) is the use of an equivalent with a more general meaning. This transformation is often used in the Ukrainian-English translation, for instance, DC Toolan - слідчий Тулан. (TF: S01E01). Is there anything previous on him, any complaints? No, nothing on record. - Чи є в його досьє інформація? Ні, немає (TF: S01E02).
   Generalization is also used in those cases when a SL a word with differentiated meaning corresponds to a word with non-differentiated meaning in TL, e.g., - Are you a copper? - Detective Inspector. - То ви начальник? - Детектив. (TF: S02E01); What you say Phyllis? All the good coppers are out on a rape case. - Ну що ти кажеш, Філіс? Усі хороші копи на "жнивах". (TF: S01E03). We've got hit and run - Нам вдалося це зробити (TF: S01E04).
   Yeah, but I mean, if it's only people playing silly buggers. - Так, але якщо люди вдавали нікчемних злодіїв (TF: S03E04).
   6) Modulation (засіб змістового розвитку) is the creation of an equivalent by logical deducing of its meaning from the SL unit, e.g., We've got a hit and run - Сьогодні нам не пощастило спіймати злочинця. (TF: S01E02).
   "Hit and run" in this case is unclear for Ukrainian interlocutor, hence, it is much better to paraphrase the expression with further logical development to make the notion more obvious.
   7) Descriptive translation is the replacement of an equivalent lacking word or phrase of the source language text for its description employing the language units familiar to the target language speaker, e.g., Two more break-ins reported. Friendly fire. - Два пограбування. Вогонь по своїм.(TF: S05E02); Are you telling me to hop it? Oh no sir. - Ви хочете, аби я припинив розслідування цієї справи? Ні. (TF: S01E03); This passport number's on a circulated list. - Цей паспорт значиться у Реєстрі недійсних паспортів. (TF: S07E02). There's no point sticking another body in. - Немає сенсу проводити розтин іншого трупа (TF: S03E01). What better way to welcome you back than to include you in the briefing? - Краще тобі повернутися до справи, ніж допитувати цього пройдисвіта (TF: S05E02).
   In the second example we observe the transformation of colloquial expression in the English criminal investigation discourse into a formal set expression peculiar for Ukrainian legislative system.
   In further discussion of translation transformations it is useful to keep apart related aspects of transformations: transformations as modifications/changes of a SL text made on various levels, transformations as certain operations made in particular conditions of activity and transformations as translator's techniques caused by certain translation difficulties and problems.
   These aspects of translation refer to the `nuts and bolts' of the translation craft and business, yet in translation studies scholars often use respective terms indiscriminately, especially often mixing levels of transformations and techniques of translation. Suffice it to mention that even well known classifications of textual modifications confuse transformations proper and techniques of translation. The term operations of translation is reserved by us to those cases when a translator makes use of ready dictionary correspondences to translate a given unit by merely replacing it.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   2.2.2 Grammatical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse
   In connection with the discussion of the nature and mechanism of lexical transformations it seems reasonable to apply the above given concepts to any other transformations including grammatical. For example, when rendering English sentences with an active voice predicate it is not always best to retain it in translation, but use instead a passive voice construction as there may be which have an influence in a given speech situation. The same goes for stylistic devices as there may be shifts in the choice of proper devices in place of ready formal correspondences to produce in a TLT a desirable stylistic effect. Such examples are discussed later in connection with respective types of transformations.
   Grammatical transformations are the changes of the grammatical elements of sentence structure or grammatical pattern of the sentence as a whole according to the requirements of the target language norms. The reasons for grammatical transformations are:
      -- complete/partial discrepancy of grammatical categories, forms and features of source language and target language. Some grammatical categories and forms (articles, perfect tenses simply do not exist in the Ukrainian language, e.g., A bloke? What do you mean? - Якийсь злочинець? Що ви маєте на увазі? (TF: S04E02).
   The Mac dog. - Цей "Мек Дог" (TF: S01E03).
      -- the frequency of using the correlated grammatical forms in target language and source language. The findings of contemporary linguists show that possessive pronouns in English are used 5 times as often as their counterparts in Ukrainian [28: 14]. The frequency factor can lead to grammatical interference even with rather experienced translators. There is a considerable frequency difference in active and passive voice forms. Passive is more common in English, e.g., Or when he was dumped there. - Або коли його замочили. (TF: S02E05) or as in this sentence: Cheap rum laced with industrial alcohol by smell of it. - Запах дозволив мені виявити, що подібна "бовтанка" виготовляється за допомогою дешевого рому та технічного спирту. (TF: S02E03).
   Different grammatical combinability of words in the respective languages. The same lexical unit may require different types of syntactic relationship in the source language and target language, e.g., Yes, very civil of you Arthur. - Поводиш себе, Артуре, неначе якийсь цивільний. (TF: S02E05). Why would muggers bother to hide the body? - Good question, Vicky. - Навіщо тоді вбивці перейматися, куди заховати тіло? - Гарне питання, Вікі (TF: S10E01).
   Among the main grammatical transformations used during the translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse are:
   Transposition is the change of the sequence of elements in the target language text as compared to that of the source language text, e.g., Do they got him? They've got him in the interview room. - То піймали його?У кімнаті допитів піймали (TF: S09E01).
   To make the colloquial expression "будка" emphatic, translator changes the word order and, thus, tries to make an accent that the suspect has been arrested there.
   a) Transposition occurs very often and it is usually accompanied by the other types of transformations;
   b) substitution is the change of the grammatical category. This type of transformation falls into a number of sub-types depending on the grammatical categories that are substituted:
   2.1) substitution of one part of speech for another (a widespread transposition) is the substitution of an English verb for a Ukrainian noun: Who? The punter she was with at the hotel yesterday. - Розважалася у готелі вчора. (TF: S04E05)
   Gerund is always replaced since there is no precise equivalent in Ukrainian: from being nicked - щоб не вкрали (TF: S02E01);
   2.2 substitution of one tense form for another is mostly caused by the need to keep to the rule of the sequence of tenses in English while there is no such rule in Ukrainian. Sometimes the source language structure may turn out ambiguous. This requires the reconstruction of all the possible options of its rendering and for another thing - very careful choice of the variant which suits the communication best: They probably occurred after he was tipped in the truck. - Це можна спостерігати після того як його нейтралізували у вантажівці. (TF: S03E01)
   Present tense is the indicator of power, since Inspector Frost is aware of the problem.
   2.3 substitution of passive voice for active. Active voice is more common for Ukrainian language in most functional styles, especially in the oral variety of speech. That is why active is used instead of passive while translating from English into Ukrainian: What happens if she gets picked up with a dodgy passport - А раптом її спіймають з липовим паспортом? (TF: S02E01). Well, I suppose I'd better be getting back to the villains and sundry scum of Denton who'll be wanting my undivided attention. - Думаю, що мені знову необхідно почати розслідувати кримінальні справи щодо маргіналів з Дентону, які хочуть, щоб я звернув на них увагу. (TF: S04E03). Or when he was dumped here. - Коли його "замочили" там. (TF: S01E04).
   2.4 an interrogative sentence can be substituted for declarative: There's no unsolved cases anymore. - Ну що, "висяків" у нас немає? (TF: S01E01). LBW? Let the buggers wait. - НЗЗ? - Нехай Злодюги Почекають. (TF: S01E02). You've had a bit of luck in this case, seeing how you let him go. It's a very tidy result, murder, then suicide. - Задоволений? Ти дав йому втікти. Гарна динаміка - вбивство, тоді самогубство... (TF: S01E03)
   2.5 Common enough is the replacement of adjectives (transferred epithets) which syntactically express attributive relations while semantically they express adverbial relations by adverbs: He's an arrogant bastard - Він неймовірно зухвалий пройдисвіт (TF: S04E01).
   3) Difference in the word order. It is generally known that the word order in English is different from that in Ukrainian. In English the word order is predominantly direct. In Ukrainian it is more free.
   The usual word order in English is: S-P-Adv.mod. In Ukrainian: Adv.mod.-P-S [28: 56].
   This means that in order not to violate the natural word order of the TL grammatical transformations should be made in the process of translation from English into Ukrainian and vice versa. Hence, in the process of translation we very often change the direct word order of the English sentence. It is reasonable to examine the following translation: There's no full time attendant anymore. - Постійних відвідувачів у нас немає (TF: S01E02). I know he's a good copper too. - Він теж хороший коп, я знаю (TF: S01E02). We'll wait and see when the post mortem shows up. - "Морг" що нам скаже...потрібно чекати (TF: S01E03).
   As can be seen, complete rearrangement of the order of words became necessary, because it is more typical of Ukrainian to place the noun clusters "full time attendant" and "good copper" at the beginning of the sentence.
   Besides, it is characteristic of Ukrainian to place the word bearing the main/ new information of the utterance (the rheme) at the end of the sentence.
   4) Addition is the transformation of the target language sentence structure when new elements non-existent in the original appear in the target language text in accordance with the requirements of the structural adequacy. It is often used to compensate for the absence in the TL of some SL grammatical category, to fill out SL elliptical expressions, to amplify implications. Additions in translation from English into Ukrainian stem from differences in the syntactic structure of these languages. These additions are either structurally or contextually motivated.
   Structurally motivated additions are of completely regular type and therefore predictable. Contextually motivated additions are of relatively irregular nature. They mostly reflect the differences of combinability and peculiarities of social norms of the respective languages: The whole thing was a complete, a complete and malicious fabrication. - Процес розгляду цієї справи був нічим іншим, окрім фарсу та комедії (TF: S04E03). You can catch the bastard, bring him here, and give him to me, that's what you can do. - Все, що ти можеш зробити, - піймати злодія, привести до відділку та "здати мені" (TF: S01E02).
   Then why are you letting Mullett take me off the case? - Тоді чому Маллетт позбавив мене можливості продовжити розслідування? (TF: S06E01) It's always nice to put a face to a name. - Як приємно вклеювати фотокартку до справи підозрюваного (TF: S01E01). Luck seems to be something you have in spades. - Розгляд справи просувається доволі швидко (TF: S02E01). Skiving bastard, Who? Johnny Johnson. - Клятий негідник! Хто? Джонні Джонсон! (TF: S02E01) Someone chucking stuff in my eyes. - А тим часом мене нахабно грабували (TF: S02E04).
   5) Omission - some structural elements can be regarded as redundant.
   The phenomenon of redundancy is typical mostly of English. Redundant elements in a sentence may be expressed by a word, word combination or a phrase: Billy likes playing with children then, does he? They take him at face value. Kidnapper. - Білл викрадає дітей. Його особу встановлюють експерти. And do you know why? Because I have a witness who saw you and Neil at the same place where Brain Shanklin was stabbed. - У мене є свідки, які бачили, як ти з Нілом пограбував Брейна Шанкліна (TF: S01E02). Why would they put back an empty wallet? I don't do wallets, Inspector. - Чому вони повернули гаманець пустим? Інспекторе, кишеньковими крадіжками я не займаюся (TF: S02E03).
   These were by far all the possible objectively required or deliberately introduced grammatical transformations called forth in the process of translation. They are absolutely necessary in order to achieve a faithful expression of content of the English sentences and maintain the logical flow of thought characteristic of the national Ukrainian speech.
   It should be noted that any rearrangement, substitution, addition or omission of a grammatical category is actually part of the process of structural alteration of the utterance so that one technique cannot be rigidly isolated from another.
   It goes without saying that in most cases grammatical transformations are accompanied by changes in the lexical structure of the utterance.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   2.2.3 Lexical and grammatical transformations in the translation of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse
   When performing any translation, and in our case it is about literary translation, the translator needs to use numerous transformations for the most exact transfer of the contents of the text ­in target language.
   As illustrative material, it is reasonable to provide examples of both lexical, and grammatical transformations from scripts of "A Touch of Frost" series translated into Ukrainian by the author of this term paper.
   Among the main options applicable in the translation of colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse it is reasonable to distinguish:
      -- Antonymic translation which is based on antonyms. It means that a certain word is translated not by corresponding word of target language but by its antonym and at the same time negation is added (or, if there is negation in the original sentence, it is omitted in translation): He's an arrogant bastard. - Та він просто самовдоволений "янгол" (TF: S02E03). Mullett, forward thinking, we all have to suffer for it. - Ми не думаємо, як спіймати злочинця (TF: S05E01).
   The necessity for this transformation arises due to several reasons: 1) peculiarities of the systems of source language and target language, 2) contextual requirements, 3) traditional norms of target language.
   In some cases antonyms become the most adequate way of rendering the contextual meaning: Come on, Constable, let's have some light on the case. -Констеблю, цього недостатньо, нам потрібно детальніше дослідити матеріали справи (TF: S02E03).
   This shade of meaning is better rendered by the antonym.
   In a particular context this transformation may help to render emotional and stylistic colouring of the text: I bet she's done all the graft since I've been away. - Я впевнений, що саме вона "господарювала", поки мене не було (TF: S01E02).
      -- Compensation is a technique which involves making up for the loss of a source text effect by recreating a similar effect in the target text through means that are specific to the target language and/or text.
   Compensation in translation is a standard lexical transfer operation whereby those meanings of the SL text, which are lost in the process of translation, are rendered in the TL text in some other place or by some other means. 
   A classical case of compensation involves the rendering of individual, vernacular or class speech patterns with means available in the target language, e.g., regional expressions, slang words or distorted grammar (local compensation). It is also a form of compensation if the translator takes advantage of the opportunities offered by the target language and uses striking and idiomatic expressions thus compensating the reader for having had to use less than ideal solutions in other areas (global compensation): Cheap rum laced with industrial alcohol by the smell of it. - Експертиза встановила, що у крові загиблої містилася суміш рому та технічного спирту. (TF: S04E01). DS Toolan's been quite prompt. - Сержант нам допоміг (TF: S01E03).
   In context of the series it is reasonable to omit the second part of the sentence because it does not bear essential information for viewers.
   Hence, compensation, i.e. making up for inevitable losses suffered in translation is a transfer operation independent of language pair or direction of translation. It is a translation specific operation, since it stems from the very nature of translation: a change in code will inevitably lead to losses. These losses must be remedied by other means.
   While local compensation (e.g., dialectal features) can be noticed immediately, global compensation can be tracked only by examining the whole work. In the case of global compensation, the translator makes every effort in order that the target language text resulting from the translation should not be poorer and less colourful than the original source language text. It would seem that this means simply adherence to target language standards, but in reality it is much more than that. We are confronted with translation norms since translators make a special effort in order that certain expressions should appear in the translation. The "add and subtract" game must be played with a sound sense of proportion, "enrichment" of the target language text must not be carried to extremes and "overtranslation" must be guarded against.
      -- complex compensation is a deliberate change of the word or structure by another one because the exact equivalent of the target language word or phrase is unable to produce the same impact upon the as does the source language word or phrase. For example, it is important to compensate on the lexical level the meaning of Present Perfect in the Ukrainian text translation, since there is no similar tense category in Ukrainian: Oh, yeah? We've been sent a new university fast-track DC. - Так? Надіслали нового слідчого, нещодавно закінчив університет (TF: S02E04).
   Puns, riddles, tongue-twisters are often compensated; for example, The hare is on the move. - Злодюжка наближається (TF: S01E02).
   Thus, for the most right or ­­ adequate translation, the translator should use different types of translation options.
  
    
  

CONCLUSIONS

   After thorough theoretical foundation of the problem and full analysis of data sources it is reasonable to make final conclusions and personal observations related with the subject of this term paper.
   First of all, the theoretical material being analysed shows the main problem of the subject - the contradictory nature of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse because the number of different classifications differs from source to source that, in turn, shows the contradictory nature of reality and language as well.
   Among the main theoretical works that can be mentioned are those of V. Dievkin, V. Komissarov, I. Lieviy, S. Petrov, Ya. Retsker, O. Cherednychenko, V. Khomiakov.
   Taking an overall look at the whole set of data, several conclusions can be made:
   Firstly, no specific criterion was found dominating the use of a certain translation procedure for translating colloquialisms in the criminal investigation discourse. The procedures used, are, to some extent, dependent on translators' taste, their knowledge and their faithfulness to the source text.
   Secondly, colloquial expressions are among the cultural elements of a society that may get the translator into trouble while rendering them.
   Thirdly, conveying what the source language writer or speaker means is a crucial matter in translation studies. Based on the nature of some writings or even style of writers, a number of colloquial expressions may be found in various texts that make them specific from the translation point of view. Unfortunately, misunderstanding of colloquial expressions in different texts has resulted in totally inadequate translations that could not meet the expectations of the target language reader and fall short of expectations of the critics.
   Fourthly, regarding the previous note, the researcher would like to assert that translation is just like "painting". The product of every translation will reflect the overall scene to the audience, however, it will not fully capture the atmosphere of the original text. When another translator retranslates the same text, different nuances will appear. Definitely, some translations will perform better than others while a very bad job is also possible. But, it simply is impossible to completely duplicate this painting using a different palette and different brushes. In the same vein, there are no specific rules regarding how to translate the colloquial words and expressions, hence, it is the task of the translator to make decisions about the priorities at first and select the most appropriate translation procedure.
   There are several groups of target audiences who can benefit from this study.
   At first, these results can provide novice translators with some general guidance on how to treat and render the colloquial language in the materials being translated. In fact, procedures used by the experienced translators and their strengths and weaknesses in this regard can guide them through their way of translation.
   Secondly, the present study has pedagogical values for the lecturers. Both lecturers and language teachers can use the data collection and the outcomes of the study as an input in their classes for the purpose of teaching the translation procedures in a more practical way.
   Thirdly, language learners can also take advantage of this research in terms of getting some information regarding the colloquial expressions including their types, their translation-related challenges and the procedures used for their translation. This information may be useful for their language knowledge.
   Finally, the result of this research is expected to open new windows for further future research on colloquialism [26: 45].
   Colloquialism is considered as stable for a certain period, widely used and stylistically marked lexical layer, common to colloquial language and existing as a part of a literary language.
   Secondly, there is no definite classification of colloquialisms used in criminal investigation discourse applicable in the process of translation due to specific connotative meaning carried by the language stock in this particular type of discourse.
   Thirdly, colloquialisms used in "A Touch of Frost" series belong to fictional discourse since they reflect an unreal world and possible scenes of reality.
   Furthermore, communicative intention in texts is implemented by reference to fictional, unreal or imaginary worlds with the use of tropes and figures of speech (stylistic devices and expressive means; imaginary worlds created by the author's artistic "ego" through the artistic images.
   Fourthly, owing to the differences in the structure of two languages compared (synthetic and analytical in Ukrainian and English respectively) we can distinguish several peculiarities of the usage of colloquialisms in criminal investigation discourse:
   1) the most commonly used translation options used both in English and Ukrainian are represented by grammatical transformations (0,14 %).
   Among the main grammatical transformations are:
   1) substitution (word stock);
   2) grammatical replacement (syntax);
   3) compensation;
   4) omission;
   5) addition.
   2) Lexical and grammatical transformations are rarely used in translation of colloquialisms belonging to criminal investigation discourse due to specific connotative meaning.
   3) Lexical transformations are applicable when Ukrainian word stock possesses vocabulary with similar connotative meaning in English.
   Hence, this work was aimed to represent the following subject in a different way. This problem can not be solved only in terms of this particular work as this problem is even wider and remains controversial in the field of linguistics. Colloquialisms seem rather easy to understand but hard to handle with, so this term paper may be beneficial for further investigation of the problem.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

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   27. Newmark P. A Textbook of Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Educational Press, Prentis Hall, 1988. 311 p.
   28. Quine M. On Language. London: Longman, 1990. 96 p.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

LIST OF REFERENCE SOURCES

   29. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984. 1600 p.
   30. Third New International Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1961. 2816 p.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

LIST OF DATA SOURCES

   1. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1992. S01E01
   2. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1992. S01E03
   3. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1992.S01E04
   4. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1994. S02E01
   5. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1994. S02E03
   6. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1994. S02E04
   7. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1994. S02E05
   8. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1995. S03E01
   9. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1996. S04E02
   10. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1996. S04E03
   11. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1996. S04E05
   12. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1997. S05E01
   13. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 1997. S05E02
   14. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 2000. S07E02
   15. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 2002. S09E01
   16. TF - A Touch of Frost. Yorkshire Television, 2003. S10E01
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ANNEX
   Original source text
   Translation
   Translation option/transformation
   Frequency of usage (in %)
   1. LBW? Let the buggers wait.
   НЗЗ. - Нехай Злодюги Почекають.
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
   2. The Mac dog.
   Цей "Мек Дог".
   compensation/grammatical
   0,08
   3. Mullett, forward thinking, we all have to suffer for it.
  
   Ми не думаємо, як спіймати злочинця.
   antonymic translation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   4. We've got a hit and run.
  
   Нам вдалося це зробити.
   Сьогодні нам не пощастило спіймати злочинця.
   generalization/lexical
  
  
   modulation/lexical
   0,10
  
  
   0,02
   5. Two more break-ins reported. Friendly fire.
   Два пограбування. Вогонь по своїм.
   descriptive translation/lexical
   0,10
   6. What you say Phyllis? All the good coppers are out on a rape case.
   Ну що ти кажеш, Філіс? Усі хороші копи на "жнивах".
   generalization/lexical
   0,10
   7. Bowman's money from being nicked.
   Щоб гроші Боумана не "відмили".
   specialization/lexical
  
  
   0,06
   8. Someone chucking stuff in my eyes.
  
   А тим часом мене нахабно грабували.
   omission/grammatical
   0,08
   9. Billy likes playing with children then, does he? They take him at face value. Kidnapper.
   Білл викрадає дітей. Його особу встановлюють експерти.
   omission/grammatical
   0,08
  
   10. Is there anything previous on him, any complaints? No, nothing on record.
   Чи є в його досьє інформація? Ні, немає.
   generalization/lexical
   0,10
  
   11. There's no point sticking another body in.
  
   Немає сенсу проводити розтин іншого трупа.
   descriptive translation/lexical
   0,10
   12. Yeah, but I mean, if it's only people playing silly buggers.
   Так, але якщо люди вдавали нікчемних злодіїв.
   generalization/lexical
   0,10
   13. Come on, Constable, let's have some light on the case.
  
  
  
   Констеблю, цього недостатньо, нам потрібно детальніше дослідити матеріали справи.
   antonymic translation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   14. Skiving bastard, Who? Johnny Johnson.
  
   Клятий негідник! Хто? Джонні Джонсон!
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
  
   15. We'll wait and see when the post mortem shows up.
  
   "Морг" що нам скаже...потрібно чекати.
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
  
   16. Luck seems to be something you have in spades.
  
   Розгляд справи просувається доволі швидко.
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
  
  
  
   17. A bloke? What do you mean?
  
   Якийсь злочинець? Що ви маєте на увазі?
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
   18. The night before, after we'd had this bloody row, Cheryl went down to the shops to get some things, and Paula must have thought I'd gone too, because she made this telephone call.
  
   Вчора після месива Черіл пішла до магазину, аби щось купити до столу, і Пола теж вирішила, що я пішов з нею, тому що вона зателефонувала. Ці маргінали, злочинці все зіпсували.
   specialization/lexical
   0,06
   19. And do you know why? Because I have a witness who saw you and Neil at the same place where Brain Shanklin was stabbed.
  
   У мене є свідки, які бачили, як ти з Нілом пограбував Брейна Шанкліна.
   omission/grammatical
   0,08
   20. Well, I suppose I'd better be getting back to the villains and sundry scum of Denton who'll be wanting my undivided attention.
  
   Думаю, що мені знову необхідно почати розслідувати кримінальні справи щодо маргіналів з Дентону, які хочуть, щоб я звернув на них увагу.
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
  
   21. What better way to welcome you back than to include you in the briefing?
  
   Краще тобі повернутися до справи, ніж допитувати цього пройдисвіта.
   descriptive translation/lexical
   0,10
   22. - Where's Lawson? - Duty CID sergeant.
  
   Де Лоусон? Сержант "Центру" заступив на зміну.
   loan translation/lexical
   0,04
   23. I bet she's done all the graft since I've been away.
  
   Я впевнений, що саме вона "господарювала", поки мене не було.
   antonymic translation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   24. DS Toolan's been quite prompt.
  
   Сержант нам допоміг.
   compensation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
  
   25. Oh, yeah? We've been sent a new university fast-track DC.
  
   Так? Надіслали нового слідчого, нещодавно закінчив університет.
   compensation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   26. Why would they put back an empty wallet? I don't do wallets, Inspector.
  
   Чому вони повернули гаманець пустим? Інспекторе, кишеньковими крадіжками я не займаюся.
   omission/grammatical
   0,08
   27. They probably occurred after he was tipped in the truck.
  
   Це можна спостерігати після того як його нейтралізували у вантажівці.
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
  
   28. Or when he was dumped here.
  
   Коли його "замочили" там.
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
   29. - Are you a copper? - Detective Inspector.
  
   - То ви начальник? - Детектив.
   generalization/lexical
   0,10
   30. What happens if she gets picked up with a dodgy passport?
   А раптом її спіймають з липовим паспортом?
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
   31. Why would muggers bother to hide the body? - Good question, Vicky.
   - Навіщо тоді вбивці перейматися, куди заховати тіло? - Гарне питання, Вікі.
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
   32. This passport number's on a circulated list.
  
   Цей паспорт значиться у Реєстрі недійсних паспортів.
   descriptive translation/lexical
  
  
  
   0,10
  
  
  
  
   33. COP Cook? COP Frost.
  
  
   КОП Кук? КОП Фрост.
  
   transcription/lexical
  
   0,04
   34. - Who? The punter she was with at the hotel yesterday.
   - Розважалася у готелі вчора.
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
   35. The DNA swab I lied.
  
   Брехня, "Мазок" (ДНК) хибний.
   transliteration/lexical
   0,02
   36. You've had a bit of luck in this case, seeing how you let him go It's a very tidy result, murder, then suicide.
  
   Задоволений? Ти дав йому втікти. Гарна динаміка - вбивство, тоді самогубство...
   substitution/grammatical
   0,14
  
   37. You missed 'em! How come SOCO missed these, too? At least now we know what they were looking for, Jack.
  
   Ви не впіймали їх! Як хлопці з СОКО його теж прогавили? Принаймні, Джеку, тепер ми знаємо, чого саме вони хочуть.
   transcription/lexical
   0,04
  
  
  
  
  
   38. The hare is on the move.
  
   А "заєць" тим часом своє діло робить.
   loan translation/lexical
   0,04
   39. Are you telling me to hop it? Oh no sir.
  
   Ви хочете, аби я припинив розслідування цієї справи? Ні.
   descriptive translation/lexical
   0,10
   40. Yes, very civil of you Arthur.
  
   Поводиш себе, Артуре, неначе якийсь цивільний.
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
   41. There's no full time attendant anymore.
  
   Постійних відвідувачів у нас немає.
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
  
   42. Cheap rum laced with industrial alcohol by the smell of it.
  
   Експертиза встановила, що у крові загиблої містилася суміш рому та технічного спирту.
   compensation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   43. It's always nice to put a face to a name.
  
   Як приємно вклеювати фотокартку до справи підозрюваного.
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
  
  
  
   44. Oh, guv, that mobile phone he nicked.
  
   Хлопче, мобільний телефон, який він вкрав.
   specialization/lexical
   0,06
   45. He's an arrogant bastard.
  
   Та він просто самовдоволений "янгол".
   antonymic translation/lexical and grammatical
   0,08
   46. I know he's a good copper too.
  
   Він теж хороший коп, я знаю.
   grammatical replacement/grammatical
   0,12
   47. Do they got him? They've got him in the interview room.
  
   То піймали його? У кімнаті допитів піймали.
   transposition/grammatical
   0,02
   48. The whole thing was a complete, a complete and malicious fabrication.
   Процес розгляду цієї справи був нічим іншим, окрім фарсу та комедії.
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
  
  
   49. You can catch the bastard, bring him here, and give him to me, that's what you can do.
  
   Все, що ти можеш зробити, - піймати злодія, привести до відділку та "здати мені".
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
   50. Then why are you letting Mullett take me off the case?
   Тоді чому Маллетт позбавив мене можливості продовжити розслідування?
   addition/grammatical
   0,12
  
  
  
  

РЕЗЮМЕ

   Курсову роботу присвячено дослідженню способів перекладу зниженої та просторічної лексики у дискурсі слідства на матеріалі телевізійного серіалу `A Touch of Frost' "Детектив Джек Фрост. У ході роботи висвітлено основні етапи наукової думки у галузі зниженої та просторічної лексики, описані основні способи перекладу одиниць зниженої та просторічної лексики у дискурсі слідства, проаналізовано зразок тексту художнього дискурсу і здійснено перекладацький аналіз фактичного матеріалу дослідження (одиниць зниженої та просторічної лексики, усього 50 одиниць). Крім того, у курсовій роботі складено таблицю, що містить можливі способи перекладу одиниць зниженої та просторічної лексики у дискурсі слідства та частотність використання перекладацьких трансформацій.
   Ключові слова: переклад, перекладацький аналіз, дискурс слідства, знижена та просторічна лексика, перекладацькі трансформації, художній дискурс.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

24

  
  
  
  
  
  
  

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