1. Arnold defines stylistics as a branch of linguistics, investigating the principles and effect of choice and usage of phonetic, lexical, grammatical and other language means with the purpose of transmitting thoughts and emotions in different circumstances of communication. Stylistics defined as a branch of general linguistics, which touches upon expressive means, stylistic devices of the language, their relations to the idea expressed; the classification of the existing styles of speech. They are independent and are studied by definite branches of stylistics. It has mainly with two tasks: Stylistics is regarded as a language science which deals with the results of the act of communication. There are 2 basic objects of stylistics: - stylistic devices and figures of speech; - functional styles. Branches of stylistics: - Lexical stylistics - studies functions of direct and figurative meanings, also the way contextual meaning of a word is realized in the text. LS deals with various types of connotations - expressive, evaluative, emotive; neologisms, dialectal words and their behavior in the text. - Grammatical stylistics - is subdivided into morphological and syntactical. MS views stylistic potential of grammatical categories of different parts of speech. SS studies syntactic, expressive means, word order and word combinations, different types of sentences and types of syntactic connections. Also deals with origin of the text, its division on the paragraphs, dialogs, direct and indirect speech, the connection of the sentences, types of sentences. Phonostylistics - phonetical organization of prose and poetic texts. Here are included rhythm, rhythmical structure, rhyme, alliteration, assonance and correlation of the sound form and meaning. Also studies deviation in normative pronunciation. Functional S (s. of decoding) - deals with all subdivisions of the language and its possible use (newspaper, colloquial style). - stylistics of encoding - The shape of the information (message) is coded and the addressee plays the part of decoder of the information contained in message.
2. Decoding stylistics (DS) - the most recent trend in stylistics that employs the knowledge of such sciences as information theory, psychology, linguistics, literary theory, history of art, etc. DS tries to regard the esthetic value of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements, stylistic devices & compositional structure in delivering the authors message. This method does not consider the stylistic function of any stylistic feature separately but as a part of a whole text. DS helps the reader in understanding of a literary work by explaining (decoding) the info that may be hidden from immediate view. The term "DS" came from the application of the theory of information to linguistics (Jackobson, Arnold, Lotman). The process is presented in the following way: the writer receives different information from the outside world. He processes this info & recreates it in his own images. The process of internalizing of the outside info & translating it into his own imagery is called encoding. Encoder(writer) sends the information to recipient (addressee, reader) & the reader is supposed to decode the information. This process is not easy. A literary work on its way to the reader encounters many obstacles - social, historical, temporal, cultural... Readers & authors may be separated by historical epoch, social conventions, religious & political views, cultural & national traditions. The author & the reader may be different in emotional, intellectual plan. Many literary works are too sophisticated, they require of the reader a wide educational background, knowledge of history, mythology, philosophy.
3. Stylistics studies the special media of language which are called stylistic devices and expressive means. Expressive means and stylistic devices form three large groups of phonetic, lexical, syntactical means and devices. Each group is further subdivided according to the principle, purpose and function of a mean or a device in an utterance. Expressive means of a language are those phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic units and forms which make speech emphatic. Expressive means introduce connotational (stylistic, non-denotative) meanings into utterances. Phonetic expressive means include pitch, melody, stresses, pauses, whispering, singing, and other ways of using human voice. Morphological expressive means are emotionally coloured suffixes of diminutive nature: -y (-ie), -let (sonny auntie, girlies). To lexical expressive means belong words, possessing connotations, such as epithets, poetic and archaic words, slangy words, vulgarisms, and interjections. A chain of expressive synonymic words always contains at least one neutral synonym. A chain of expressive synonyms used in a single utterance creates the effect of climax (gradation). To syntactic expressive means belong emphatic syntactic constructions. Such constructions stand in opposition to their neutral equivalents. Stylistic devices (tropes, figures of speech) unlike expressive means are not language phenomena. They are formed in speech and most of them do not exist out of context. According to principles of their formation, stylistic devices are grouped into phonetic, lexico-semantic and syntactic types. Basically, all stylistic devices are the result of revaluation of neutral words, word-combinations and syntactic structures. Revaluation makes language units obtain connotations and stylistic value. A stylistic device is the subject matter of stylistic semasiology.
4. A word is a number of language that represents a concept which can be expressively communicated with meaning. A word consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetic value. Typically a word will consist of a root or stem and zero or more affixes. Words can be combined to create other units of language such as phrases, clauses, and sentences. Lexical semantics is a subfield of linguistic semantics. It is the study of how and what the words of a language denote. The units of meaning in lexical semantics are lexical units. Lexical semantics covers theories of the classification and decomposition of word meaning, the differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages, and the relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax. 1) dictionary and contextual meanings - are fixed in dictionaries and in general linguistic meaning is regarded as smth stable at a given period of time. In stylistics meaning is a category which is able to acquire new meanings imposed on the words by a context - contextual meanings. 2) Words usually have denotational meaning (which informs of the subject of communication), and connotational (which informs about the participants and conditions of communication). Connotation supplies additional information, it is not found in all words. The list and specifications of connotational meanings vary with different linguistic schools and individual scholars and include such entries as pragmatic (associative) (related to individual psychological or linguistic associations, connected with related and nonrelated notions), ideological, or conceptual (revealing political, social, ideological preferences of the user), evaluative (stating the value of the indicated notion), emotive (revealing the emotional layer of cognition and perception), expressive (aiming at creating the image of the object in question), stylistic (indicating "the register", or the situation of the communication). 3) Denotational meaning is the precise naming of a feature phenomenon or object but one word can denote different concepts. So we should distinguish between primary or secondary derivative meaning. 4) Logical meaning is a denotative one, emotive deals with connotation. It has reference, not directly to things or phenomena but to the feelings and emotions of the speaker towards this. 5) Logical and nominative meaning.
5. Stylistics deals with styles. Style is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication (Galperin). Style is a selection of non-distinctive features of language (Bloomfield). According to Galperin the term `style' refers to the following spheres: 1) the aesthetic function of language. 2) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea. 3) expressive means in language in the following spheres - poetry, fiction, colloquial speech, speeches but not in scientific articles, business letters and others. 4) emotional coloring in language. 5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices. It has hundreds of definitions and characterizations, such as `the dress of thought' (S.Wesley), `proper words in proper places' (J.Swift), etc. Linguistic definitions may be grouped in the following way: 1. style as a product of individual choices and patterns of choices among linguistic possibilities (S.Chatman, D.Crystal). This definition treats style as an individual style of an author. 2. style as embellishment of language (M.Murry). From this point of view language and style are separate bodies, style is like trimming on a dress, and users of language can easily do without it. 3. style as a deviation from the norm (E.Sapir, L.V.Scherba) The notion of the norm mainly refers to the literary language. It is treated as the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns in circulation during a given period in the development of the given language. 4. style as the technique of expression (H.Spencer, F.L.Lucas) Style is understood as the ability to write and speak clearly, correctly which can be taught, as there are certain rules as to how to speak and write and all deviations from them are regarded as violations of the norm. 5. style as a literary genre (classical style, realistic style, style of romanticism, etc.) The arrangement of what are purely literary facts is under observation. But still all various definitions have something in common. All of them point to some integral significance, that a style is a set of characteristics by which it is possible to distinguish one author from another.
6. In accordance with the division of language into literary and colloquial, we may represent the whole of the word stock of the English language as being divided into 3 main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer. The literary layer of words consists of groups which have no local or dialect character. The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1. common literary (are chiefly used in writing and in polished speech); 2. terms and learned words (to indicate the technical peculiarities of the subject dealt with); 3. poetic words (aim at producing an elevated effect, to evoke emotive meanings); 4. archaic words (1 obsolescent- words becomes rarely used, gradually passing out of general use, 2 obsolete- have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized; 3 archaic proper- no longer recognizable in ModE; 5. barbarisms and foreign words (words of foreign origin which have not entirely been assimilated into English); 6. literary coinages including nonce-words (neologisms). The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. That means it is unrestricted in its use. It can be employed in all styles and in all spheres of human activity. Neutral words, which form the bulk of the English vocabulary, are used in both literary and colloquial language. Neutral words are the main source of synonymy and polysemy. The colloquial layer of words as qualified in most English or American dictionaries is not infrequently limited to a definite language community or confined to a special locality where it circulates. The colloquial vocabulary falls into the following groups: 1. common colloquial words; 2. slang (language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech;) 3. jargonisms (to preserve secrecy within some social group); 4. professional words (words used in a definite profession); 5. dialect words; 6. vulgar words (expressions of an abusive character to express strong emotions, mainly annoyance, anger); 7. colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non-literary) vocabulary.
7. The sound of most words taken separately will have little aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word acquire a desired phonetic effect. The theory of sound symbolism is based on the assumption that separate sounds due to their properties make awake certain ideas or perceptions. This theory is widely used in poetry.
Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature: hiss, grumble, sizzle, murmur, bump., sea, thunder, by things like machines tools, by people (laughter, cough), by animal.
1) Direct onomatopoeia: in words that imitate natural sound (ding-dong, buzz, hiss, roar, ping-pong, mew, cock-a-doodle-doo) 2) Indirect: a combination of sounds, the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense (And the silken sat uncertain, rusting of each purple curtain).
Alliteration is the repetition of the same construction at the beginning of words. It's often used in newspaper headlines, proverbs, set expressions. (As blind as bat; Pride and prejudice. Sense and sensibility. The school of scandal) Assonance is the repetition of similar vowels usually in stressed syllables. (Nor soul flesh now more than flesh helps soul).
They both produce the effect of euphony (афония) - a sense of ease and comfort, a pleasing effect of pronouncing and hearing. The opposite process is cacophony - a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing and hearing.
Rhyme is one of the properties of poetry, which is the repetition of the same sound, identical/similar, usually at the end of 2 or more lines. We normally distinguish between: full rhyme (I-sky, night-right), incomplete rhyme (fresh-press), compound rhymes, eye-rhymes (visible, but not pronounced):(love-prove), masculine rhymes (monosyllabic words): e.g. down-town - and are standing on the last line or , or bisyllabic words Functions: 1) to signalize the end of line and mark the arrangement of lines into stanzas 2) rhythm becomes evident because of rhyme 3) the ends receive greater prominent
Poetic rhythm is created by the regular recurrence of (un)stressed syllables of equal poetic lines.
8. In modern advertising, mass media & creative prose sound is fore grounded through the change of its accepted graphical representation. The intentional violation of the graphical shape of word or word combination used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called a graphon. Introduced into English novels & journalisms in the 18 century graphon proved to be an extremely effective means of supplying info about speaker's origin, social & educational background, physical & emotional condition, etc. Graphons are also good at conveying atmosphere of authentic life communication. We have such clichИs as in conversation as gotta, wonna, gimme, lemme, wille. It becomes popular with advertisers. E.g.: Pik-wik (pick quick). There also exist different forms of foregrounding: 1)capitalization, 2)italics, 3)spacing of graphemes: - hyphenation(ч/з дефис, с пробела); multiplication(one &the same letter written several times). A special trend- graphical imagism: for example the whole poem is written in form of a bird.
9. In our cognition or perception of the world there are three stages: 1) sensory perception, 2) intellectual perception, 3) imaginative, or artistic perception. Image is the main means of generalizing reality. An artistic image is specific as it not only gives a man new perception of the world but evokes certain attitude to what is depicted. The main functions of an artistic image are cognitive, communicative, aesthetic and educational. Image may be defined as an artistic presentation of the general through the individual, of the abstract through the concrete. There also exists verbal art where imagery is embodied in words -- thus words are the material writers /speakers use when they want to create verbal images. The verbal image is a pen-picture of a thing, person or idea expressed in a figurative way by words used in their contextual meaning. As I.V.Arnold points out the verbal image is a complex phenomenon, it is a double picture generated by linguistic means, it is based on the co-presence of two thoughts of different things active together: the direct thought termed the tenor (T), the figurative thought -- the vehicle (V).The tenor is the subject of thought, while the vehicle is the concept of a thing, person or an abstract notion with which the tenor is compared or identified. The structure of a verbal image also includes: the ground of comparison (G) -- the similar feature of T and V; the relation (R) between T and V; the type of identification/comparison or, simply, the type of a trope (metaphor or simile). Trope is the figurative use of a word or a phrase that creates imagery. Tropes are used in verbal art to create general or individual images and to attain a higher artistic expressiveness. A trope is based on establishing connections between two notions, two things, being different on the whole, but understood to have some connection, some similarity in the given context. From the viewpoint of a linguist, all tropes are based on the interplay of lexical meaning. It should be remembered that imagery can be created by lexical SD's only. All other stylistic devices (such as phonetic, graphic, morphological and syntactical SD's) do introduce imagery, but can serve as intensifiers; any of them can add logical, emotive, expressive info to the utterance.
10. Metaphor is a stylistic device based on interaction between the logical & contextual meanings of the word which is based on likeness between objects & implies analogy & comparison between them. The basis of metaphor is the mental process of comparison, but, unlike in simile, in metaphor the ground of comparison is never stated openly. Metaphors can be embodied in all the basic parts of speech--nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The stylistic functions of the metaphor: 1) by evoking images & suggesting analogies it makes the author's thought more concrete definite & clear.2) it reveals the author's emotional attitude towards the described. Varieties of metaphors: 1) personification - a special kind of metaphor in which abstract ideas or inanimate objects r identified with person. 2) animalification - a special kind of M. in which abstract ideas or inanimate objects are identified with the beasts. Metaphors may be classified according to a number of principles. 1. According to the pragmatic effect produced upon the addressee metaphors are subdivided into trite (or dead) and genuine (or original). Dead metaphors are fixed in dictionaries. They often sound banal and hackneyed, like cliches: to prick up one's ears; the apple of one's eye; to burn with desire. Original metaphors are not registered in dictionaries. They are created in speech by speakers' imagination. They sound fresh and expressive, unexpected and unpredictable: Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested 2. According to the degree of their stylistic potential metaphors are classified into nominational, cognitive and imaginative (or figurative). Nominational metaphors do not render any stylistic information. They are intended to name new objects or phenomena of the objective world: the foot of the hill. When an object obtains a quality which is typical of another object, cognitive metaphor is formed: One more day has died. The most expressive kind of metaphor is imaginative metaphor: Time was bleeding away. If there is enough rain, the land will shout with grass. 3. Metaphors may be also classified according to their structure (or according to complexity of image created). There are such metaphors as simple (or elementary) and prolonged (or sustained). A simple metaphor consists of a single word or word-combination expressing indiscrete notion: The leaves were falling sorrowfully. A sustained metaphor appears in cases when a word which has been used metaphorically makes other words of the sentence or paragraph also realize their metaphoric meanings: Metaphor is one of the most powerful means of creating images. Its natural sphere of usage is poetry and elevated prose.
11. Such lexical SD as metonymy and irony belong to the first group of LSD based on the interaction of lexical meanings. Metonymy (Gk. metonymia 'changing of name') is a trope in which the name of a thing is replaced by the name of an associated thing. One name is used instead of another. Unlike metaphor where the interaction b/w the meanings of different words is based on resemblance, metonymy reflects the actually existing relations. The following types of metonymy ore differentiated: 1) the abstract stands for the concrete : It was a representative gathering-- science, politics, business. 2) the container is mentioned instead of the contents : He drank one more cup (of coffee). 3) the material instead of the thing made of it: He examined her bronzes and clays. 4) the maker for the thing made : He had several Picassos (paintings by P. Picasso.). He bought a Ford. 5) the instrument it put for the agent. His pen is rather sharp. The saxophone has the flu today. 6) a part is put for the whole (synecdoche): the crown(= king); a hand(= worker) Metonymy reflects the actually existing relations between two objects. Since the types of such relations are limited, they are observed again and again, and metonymy in many cases is trite, as to earn one's bread; to ton by the pen; to keep one's mouth shut; to read Shakespeare Irony is a stylistic device based on the simultaneous realisation of two meanings: the literal meaning is the opposite of the intended meaning; used in ridicule, contempt, or humour. Emphasis is placed on the opposition between the dictionary and the intended meaning of a statement: one thing is said and the opposite is implied. Nice weather isn't it. (On a rainy day) Intonation plays an important role in expressing irony. Irony is generally used to convey a negative meaning, but only positive concepts may be used in it (as above: great, nice). Her distaste is impeccable.
12. Epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning of an attributive (or adverbial) word or phrase used to characterize an object so as to give an individual perception and evaluation of some features or properties. It differs from the logical attribute which is purely objective.
Compositionally epithets may be divided into several groups:
1) Sample or word-epithets (adjectives, nouns or participles): He looked at them in animal panic. 2) Compound epithets (compound adjectives): Apple-faced woman;3)' Two-step epithets (supplied with intensifiers): a marvellously radiant smile 4) Phrase epithets (hyphenated epithets): I-am-not-that-kind-of girl look. 5) Reversed epithets -- composed two nouns linked by an of-phrase: the devil of a sea
Taking into consideration their semantic properties, linguists suggest different classifications of epithets, According to I.R.Galperin, epithets may be divided into 2 groups: 1) associated with the noun following it, pointing to a feature which is essential to the objects they describe: dark forest 2) unassociated with the noun, epithets that add a feature which is unexpected and which strikes the reader by its novelty. voiceless sands. Kukharenko classification includes: 1) fixed epithets. Merry X-mas, a valiant youth. 2) figurative epithets are formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes. smiling sun, sleepless pillow. Oxymoron is a stylistic device where the tenor and the vehicle are diametrically opposite, antonymous. It is a combination of two words with opposite meanings, living death, cold fire, delicious torment, you are awfully nice, pretty bad.
Close to oxymoron is paradox, a statement that is contradictory or absurd on the surface: The worse -- the better. War is peace. Freedom is slavery.
At first sight, oxymoronic collocations seem irrational but on closer examination we find that they disclose the complexity of things and the contradictions of life.
Oxymoron is often met within a simile (He was gentle as hell). The words have lost the primary logical meaning and are used only with emotive meaning as intensifiers; they have lost their stylistic value.
13. Antonomasia is a stylistic device in which the proper name of a person, who is famous for some of his features, is put for a person having the same feature. It is based on interaction between logical and nominal meaning of a word. Antonomasia is brief and picturesque. Several types of antonomasia are distinguished by scholars: 1) a proper noun is used for a common noun. It describes a person's features and qualities through those commonly associated with the name of some historical figure or some mythological, religious, literary character. Its stylistic function is to give concrete expression to abstract things. - Her husband is an Othello. - Some modern Samsons were walking by. 2) a common noun is used instead of a proper noun. Often they are used to create a humorous effect - Miss Dirty Fringe, - Mr. Know-All, - Mr. Fix-it, - Mr. Facing-both-ways (вашим и нашим). They are usually spelled with hyphens between their components to stress their close syntactical and semantic relations. 3) 'speaking names' -- names whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived. In the 18-19 centuries it was customary to provide literary characters with speaking names. Their stylistic function is to characterize a person through his name: Mr. Scrooge, Oliver Twist, Becky Sharp. They are more frequently used in Russian literature and seldom in English.
14. The intensification of some single feature of a thing is realized in simile. To use simile is to characterize the object by bringing it into contact with another object belonging to a different class of things. The formal means to establish comparison between the tenor and the vehicle in the simile are:
1) link words as, like -- establishing the analogy categorically: His face remained as immobile as stone.
2) link words as though, as if-- establishing but a slight similarity. It looked as though he had been tortured. 3) lexical means to express resemblance. He reminded Julia of an old dog lying in the sun.
Simile should not be confused with simple (logical, ordinary) comparison. Structurally identical they are semantically different: objects belonging to the same class are likened in a simple comparison, while in a simile we deal with the likening of objects belonging to two different classes. The girl is as clever as her mother
Hyperbole is a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential to the object. Hyperbole produces a more striking effect than a plain statement. I saw it ten times. A variant of hyperbole is understatement in which smallness is exaggerated: A woman of pocket size.
Hyperbole is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. When it is directed the opposite way, when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are hot overrated, but intentionally underrated, we deal with understatement. I haven't seen you for ages.
Periphrasis is a word-combination that is used instead of a word, designating an object. Real periphrases attract the reader's attention and serve as effective means of creating imagery. Periphrasis is often used with the aim of producing humorous effect. 1) logical-is based on logical notions; a certain feature of an object is taken to denote the whole object or a wider notion is substituted for the concrete notion (The instruments of destruction(pistol)). 2) figurative- may be based on the methapho (back to your native spring(=eyes)). May be based on metonomy (he married a good deal of money (=rich lady)). 3) euphemistic -a word/phrase used to replace a rude word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one.(to die-pass away, join the majority).
15. Zeugma and pun are stylistic devices based on polysemantic effect, on interaction of primary and derivative meaning. Zeugma is a simultaneous realization of 2 meanings of one polysemantic word within the same context. - The boys took their places and their books. - Jane wasn't a narrow woman in mind and body. She took her breakfast and her bath. Here we feel the blending of 2 or more semantically incompatible word-groups having an identical lexical item make a single construction in which this item is used only once. The resulting effect is strongly humorous/ironical. The same effect is achieved when a word upon which this trope is based is repeated. Pun -- the use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or the use of words alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning, often with humorous intent. It can be also called a play of words. Puns are often used in riddles and joke. - What is the difference between a schoolmaster engine driver (one trains the mind and the other minds the train). - She was too beautiful for wards. The difference between them is very slight. The only reliable distinguishing feature between pun and zeugma is a structural one: zeugma is a structure with a verb, in which one element is central. Pun is more independent, but it must be penned by a context.
16. To the first group of syntactical stylistic devices which are based on the syntactical arrangement of the elements of a sentences or a paragraph belongs such SD as inversion.
Stylistic Inversion. The violation of the traditional word order of the sentence (subject-predicate-object-adverbial modifiers) which does not alter the meaning of the sentence only giving it an additional emotional coloring is called stylistic inversion. Stylistic inversion is used to single out some parts of the sentence and sometimes to heighten the emotional tension. Stylistic inversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional coloring to the surface meaning of the utterance. Therefore a specific intonation pattern is the inevitable satellite of inversion.
The following patterns of stylistic inversion are most frequently met in both English prose and English poetry. Stylistic inversion may be of various types:
1. The object is placed at the beginning of the sentence. - Over everything she brooded and brooded.
2. The attribute is placed after the word it modifies, - With fingers weary and worn.
3. The predicate is placed before the subject, - A good generous prayer it was.
4. The adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence. - My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall.
5. Both modifier and predicate stand before the subject, - In went Mr. Pickwick.
17. Parallel construction is a device which may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macro - structures dealt with the syntactical whole and the paragraph. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of sentence. Constructions formed by the same syntactical pattern, closely following one another present the stylistic device of parallelism. Parallelism strongly affects the rhythmical organization of the paragraph, so it is imminent in oratoric speech, in pathetic and emphatic extracts.
Parallelism can be complete when the construction of the second sentence fully copies that of the first one. Or parallelism can be partial, when only the beginning or the ends of several sentences are structurally similar. The necessary condition in parallel constructions is identical or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of sentence in close succession.
- Summer was silent as well. In much of what had been the United Stale's, no birds sang, no dogs barked, no frogs croaked, no fishes leaped. - The south had been truly shabby, faded and desperate. The taps had been large and brass, the floor had been of spotted marble, the staircases had been wide, the porter had been thirteen years old, and the roof garden had been utterly empty, deserted like a closed building site.
The two examples show, that one should differentiate complete (as in the first case") and incomplete, or partial parallelism (as in the second example).
Chiasmus is based on repetition of syntactical patterns, but it has a reversed order in one of the utterances. - She was a good sport about all this, but so was he.
In chiasmus the central part of the sentence - the predicate remains the hinge around which occur syntactical changes - the subject of the first sentence becomes the object of the second and vice versa.
- The coach was waiting, the horse were fresh, the roads were good, and the driver was willing.
18. To the group of compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement belong such syntactical SD as repetition, enumeration and suspense.
Suspense - is a compositional device which is realized through the separation of the Predicate from the Subject by deliberate introduction between them of a clause or a sentence. Thus the reader's interest is held up. This device is typical of oratoric style. To keep the reader in uncertainty and expectation. - I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me, not so much for my own sake as for the sake of criticism in general.
Enumeration is a SD which separates things, properties or actions brought together and forms a chain of grammatically and semantically homogeneous parts of the utterance.
- She wasn't sure of anything and more, of him, herself, their friends, her work, her future.
Repetition as a stylistic device is a direct successor of repetition as an expressive language means, which serves to emphasize certain statements of the speaker, and so possesses considerable emotive force.
As to the position occupied by the repeated unit in the sentence or utterance, we shall mention four main types, most frequently occurring in English literature:
1) anaphora - the repetition of the first word of several succeeding sentences or clauses (a ..., a ..., a ...); 2) epiphora - the repetition of the final word (... a, ... a, ... a); 3) anadiplosis or catch repetition - the repetition of the same unit (word or phrase) at the end of the preceding and at the beginning of the sentence (...a, a ...); The combination of several catch repetitions produces a chain repetition. 4) framing or ring repetition - the repetition of the same unit at the beginning and at the end of the same sentence (a ..., ... a). Repetition emphasizes the most important part of the utterance, rendering the emotions of the speaker or showing his emotive attitude towards the object described.
Types of lexical repetitions: 1)pleonasm - the use of more words in the sentence then necessary to express the meaning, 2)tautology - the repetition of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in different grammatical forms.
19. Climax and antithesis belong to the 1st group of syntactical SD. According to Galperin this group is called compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement.
Climax (gradation) - an ascending series of words or utterances in which intensity or significance increases step by step. Every racing car, every racer, every mechanic, every ice - cream van was also plastered with advertising.
Climax presents a structure in which every successive sentence or phrase is emotionally stronger or logically more important than the preceding one. Such an organization of the utterance creates a gradual intensification of its significance, both logical and emotive, and absorbs the reader's attention more completely.
Climax may be of three main types:
1) quantitative, when it is quality or size that increases with the unfolding of the utterance.
2) qualitative, when intensification is achieved through the introduction of emphatic words into the utterance, which fact increases its emotive force.
3) logical, the most frequent type, in which every new concept is stronger, more important and valid.
A peculiar variety is presented in those cases when a negative structure undergoes intensification. As counterpart to climax stands Anticlimax, where emotion or logical importance is accumulated only to be unexpectedly broken and brought to a sudden cadence.
Silence fell upon Closter. Place, peace, oblivion."
Antithesis is a SD based on the author's desire to stress certain qualities of the thing by appointing it to another thing possessing antagonistic features. They speak like saints and act like devils.
Antithesis is a stylistic device presenting two contrasting ideas in a close neighborhood. The phenomena opposed to one another can be pictured in an extended way. Or else the contradictory ideas may intermingle, thus creating the effect of not only the contrast, but also of the close unity of the contrasting features. The smell of life and richness, of death and digestion, of decay and birth, burden the air.
20. To the second group of syntactical SD of peculiar linkage according to Galperin belong asyndeton, polysyndeton and gap - sentence - link.
Asyndeton is a deliberate avoidance of conjunctions in constructions in which they would normally used. He couldn't go abroad alone, the sea upset his liver, he hated hotels.
The connection of sentences, phrases or words without any conjunctions is called asyndentic. Asyndeton helps the author to make each phrase or word sound independent and significant, creates an effect that the enumeration is not completed, creates a certain rhythmical arrangement, usually making the narrative measured and energetic. She watched them go; she said nothing; it was not to begin then.
Polysyndeton - is an identical repetition of conjunctions: used to emphasize simultaneousness of described actions, to disclose the author's subjective attitude towards the characters, to create the rhythmical effect. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect.
Polysyndeton is the connection of sentences, phrases or words based on the repetition of conjunctions or prepositions. The repetition of the conjunction "and" before each word or phrase stresses these enumerated words or phrases.
Polysyndeton is sometimes used to retard the action and to create the stylistic effect of suspense and is one of the means used to create a certain rhythmical effect. He put on his coat and found his mug and plate and knife and went outside.
Gap - sentence - link. It presents two utterances where the second is brought into the focus of the reader's attention. It is a peculiar way of connection which is mainly found in dialogues and reported speech. Unlike logical segmentation of an utterance it represents author's subjective interpretation of the links between parts of an utterance. She and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and they were in Italy.
21. To the third group of syntactical SD based on peculiar use of colloquial constructions belong ellipsis, aposiopesis and question - in - the narrative.
Ellipsis - is the omission of a word necessary for the complete syntactical construction of a sentence, but not necessary for understanding. The stylistic function of ellipsis used in author's narration is to change its tempo, to connect its structure. You feel all right? Anything wrong or what?
More frequently it is used in represented speech, it creates a stylistic effect of the natural abruptness and the fragmentary character of the process of thinking and used to heighten the emotional tension of the narration or to single out the character's or the author's attitude towards what is happening.
A dark gentleman... A very bad manner. In the last degree constrained, reserved, diffident, troubled.
Aposiopesis (Break - in - the narrative) is a sudden break in the narration has the function to reveal agitated state of the speaker. It is caused by strong emotion or some reluctance to finish the sentence. In belle-letters style a break in speech is often used in dialogue to reflect its naturalness. On the hall table there were a couple of letters addressed to her. One was the bill. The other...
Aposiopesis is marked graphically by a series of dots or a dash. It is often used in represented speech. I still don't quite like the face, it's just a trifle too full, but -" I swung myself on the stool.
Question in the narrative changes the real nature of a question and turns it into a stylistic device. A question in the narrative is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author. For what is left the poet here? For Greeks a blush - for Greece a tear.
The questions asked, unlike rhetorical questions do not contain statements. Question in the narrative is very often used in oratory. This is explained by one of the leading features of oratorical style - to induce the desired reaction to the content of the speech.
22. The style of scientific prose has 3 subdivisions: 1) the style of humanitarian sciences; 2) the style of "exact" sciences; 3) the style of popular scientific prose. Its function is to work out and ground theoretically objective knowledge about reality. Functions: to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. The peculiarities are: objectiveness; logical coherence, impersonality, unemotional character, exactness. The scientific prose style consists mostly of ordinary words which tend to be used in their primary logical meaning. The impersonal and objective character of scientific prose style is revealed in the frequent use of passive constructions, impersonal sentences. Personal sentences are more frequently used in exact sciences. Scientific popular style has the following peculiarities: emotive words, elements of colloquial style. There are following characteristic features of scientific style: 1. the logical sequence of utterances; 2. the use of terms specific to each given branch of science; 3. so-called sentence-patterns. They are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative and formulative. 4. the use of quotations and references; 5. the frequent use of foot-note which helps to preserve the logical coherence of ideas. The impersonality of scientific writings can also be considered a typical feature of this style. Unlike the belles-letters style it is never original, individual but it is always contextually bound and devoid of individuality and originality.
23. To the fourth group of syntactical SD based on stylistic use of structural meaning belong rhetorical questions and litotes.
Rhetorical question is one that expects no answer. It is asked in order to make a statement rather than to get a reply. It frequently used in dramatic situation and in publicistic style. What was the good of discontented people who fitted in nowhere?
A question appealing to the reader for an answer, is emphatic and mobilizes the attention of the reader. The form of a rhetorical question is often negative. Rhetorical question preserves the intonation of a question.
Rhetorical question is an indispensable element of oratorical style. So it is widely employed in modern fiction for depicting the inner state of a personage, his meditations and reflections.
Through frequent usage some rhetorical questions became traditional (What business is it of yours? What have I to do with him?) Can anybody answer for all the grievances of the poor in this wicked world?
Litotes - is a device whereby an affirmation is expressed by denying its contrary. Usually litotes presupposes double negation - one through a negative particle (no, not), the other - through a word with negative meaning. Its function is to convey doubts of the speaker concerning the exact characteristics of the object or a feeling. It's not a bad thing - It's a good thing. He is no coward. He is a brave man. He was not without taste.
They are used to weaken the positive characteristics of a thing or phenomenon. The obligatory presence of the particle "not" makes the statement less categorical and conveys certain doubts of the speaker as to the quality he mentions.
The final result of litotes is always the assertion of a positive, though weakened quality or characteristics. She said it, but not impatiently.
24. Publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical substyle. The new spoken varieties are the radio commentary, the essay and articles. The general aim of publicistic style is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essays or article. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, PS has features in common with the style of SP and that of emotive prose. Subdivision. 1. Oratory and speeches. Oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the PS. Direct contact with the listeners permits the combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honorable member(s), the use of the 2nd person pronoun you, etc.), sometimes contractions (I'll, won't) and the use of colloquial words. Repetition, parallel constructions, antithesis, suspense, climax, rhetorical questions and questions-in-the-narrative. 2. The essay. The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects. Personality in the treatment of theme and naturalness of expression are 2 of the most obvious characteristics of the essay. An essay is rather a series of comments than a conclusive argument. Feature articles are generally published in newspapers, especially weeklies and Sunday editions. In comparison with oratorical style, the essay aims at a more lasting, hence at a slower effect. 3. Articles. Irrespective of the character of the magazine and the divergence of subject matter - whether it is political, literary, popular-scientific or satirical, all the features of publistic style are to be found in any article. The character of the magazine as well as the subject chosen affects the choice and use of stylistic devices.
25. The style of official documents is the most conservative. It is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants: 1. the language of business documents; 2. the language of legal documents; 3. that of diplomacy; 4. that of military documents. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this style. 1. conventionality of expression; 2. absence of any emotiveness; 3. the encoded character of language; symbols and 4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence. Each of substyles makes use of special terms. Legal documents: military documents, diplomatic documents. The documents use set expressions inherited from early Victorian period. This vocabulary is conservative. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. In diplomatic and legal documents many words have Latin and French origin. There are a lot of abbreviations and conventional symbols. The most noticeable feature of grammar is the compositional pattern. Every document has its own stereotyped form. The form itself is informative and tells you with what kind of letter we deal with. Business letters contain: heading, addressing, salutation, the opening, the body, the closing, complimentary clause, the signature. Syntactical features of business letters are - the predominance of extended simple and complex sentences, wide use of participial constructions, homogeneous members. Morphological peculiarities are passive constructions, they make the letters impersonal.. Its typical feature is to frame equally important factors and to divide them by members in order to avoid ambiguity of the wrong interpretation.
26. Newspaper style is a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. To attract the reader's attention specific headlines, space ordering, a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, and individuals are used. Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as: a) Brief news items The function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. It has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of special political and economic terms; non-term political vocabulary; newspaper clichИ; abbreviations; neologisms. b) The headline. The headline is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns: interrogative sentences; nominative sentences; elliptical sentences; sentences with articles omitted; phrases with verbals; complex sentences; c) Advertisements and announcements. The function is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of them: classified and non-classified (separate). In classified various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name. As for the separate, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out. d) The editorial bears the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style. The function is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring is achieved with the help of various SD (metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
27. The purpose is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the b-l style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. Linguistic features : 1. genuine imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices. 2. the use of words in contextual and in more than one dictionary meaning. 3. a vocabulary which reflects the author's personal evaluation of things. 4. a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax. 5. the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language. a) Language of poetry. Verse is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances.. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle are held in check by rhythmic patterns. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities. Rhythm and rhyme are distinguishable properties. The most important is the power of the words used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language. b) Emotive prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry; the percentage of words with contextual meanings is not so high as in poetry. It is a combination of the literary variant of the language with the colloquial variant. It is more exact to define it as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language; there are always 2 forms of communication present - monologue and dialogue. Here we find elements of the newspaper style, the official style, the style of scientific prose. c) Language of the drama. The language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author's speech is almost entirely excluded, except for the playwright's remarks and stage directions. Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure and the language of plays is of the type which is meant to be reproduced.
28. The colloquial style is a peculiar subsystem of the English language. On the one hand, its major field of application is found in the spoken variety of language; on the other hand, elements of this style penetrate the written varieties such as the BLS, the PS and NS.
When written, the colloquial style's function is to render the specificity of everyday conversation. Underlying many of its specific features are the following factors: 1) the spontaneous character of communication; 2) the private character of communication; 3) face-to-faceness.
Four tendencies may explain the peculiarities of the colloquial style:
1) prefabrication and 2) creativity, 3)compression and 4) redundancy.
1) The colloquial style has a great amount of ready-made formulae, cliches, all kinds of prefabricated patterns. Spontaneous conversation is facilitated by using stereotyped units - social phrases such as greetings (hello), thanks and responses (not at all...) 2) Creativity is also a result of spontaneous speech production. We make our conversation as we go along. We have no time to polish it deliberately, but one can do corrections, thus there are many hesitations, false starts, loose ends in grammar and syntax. 3) Compression tends to make speech more economical and laconic. It is reflected in the use of the following language phenomena: a)Shortened forms and clipped words (nouns: fridge, lab, math; verbs: am -'m, . is-'s, are-'re, have-'ve, etc.). b)Words of broad semantics (thing, one). c) Ellipsis is usual in face-to-face communication as the situation (context) easily supplies the missing part (Same time, same place?). d) Simplicity of syntax. Long sentences are seldom used in colloquial informal communication, for a simple reason that the speaker doesn't want : lose the thread of his own thought 4) Redundancy reflects another aspect of unprepared speech production. Among the elements reflecting this tendency are: a) time-fillers (you know, I say, let me tee, sort of). b) the pleonastic use of pronouns (John, he is late). c) senseless repetition of words and phrases. (Liza: I'm a good girl, I am.)
The vocabulary of the literary colloquial style comprises neutral, bookish and literary words, though exotic words and colloquialisms are no exception. It is devoid of vulgar, slangy and dialectal lexical units. Sentences are short and elliptical, with clauses connected asyndetically.
29. Morphological stylistics deals with morphological expressive means and stylistic devices. Words of all parts of speech have a great stylistic potential. Being placed in an unusual syntagmatic environment which changes their canonized grammatical characteristics and combinability, they acquire stylistic significance. The central notion of morphological stylistics is the notion of transposition. Transposition is a divergence between the traditional usage of a neutral word and its situational (stylistic) usage. Words of every part of speech are united by their semantic and grammatical properties. General lexico-grammatical meaning of nouns is substantivity, i. e. the ability to denote objects or abstract notions. Due to the diverse nature of substantivity, nouns are divided into proper, common, concrete, abstract, material and collective. Cases of transposition emerge, in particular, when concrete nouns are used according to the rules of proper nouns usage, or vice versa. It results in creation of stylistic devises named antonomasia or personification. Besides general lexico-grammatical meaning, nouns possess grammatical meanings of the category of number and the category of case. Stylistic potential of nouns is significantly reinforced by transpositions in the usage of articles as noun-determiners. Such transpositions occur against generally accepted normative postulates which run: articles are not used with names of persons and animals, some classes of geographical names, abstract nouns and names of material. Uncommon usage of articles aims at importing specific shades of meaning into speech. General lexico-grammatical meaning of adjectives is that of qualitativeness. Qualitative adjectives are always estimative, that is why they are used as epithets (picturesque' view. idiotic shoe-laces, crazy bicycle, tremen-dous achievements) and can form degrees of comparison. Expressive devices may be created by transposition of pronouns. When objective forms of personal pronouns are used predicatively instead of nominative forms, sentences obtain colloquial marking (It is him: It is her: It is me: It is them: It is us,). Transposition of verbs is even more varied than that of nouns. It is explained by a greater number of grammatical categories the meanings of which may be transposed. Most expressive are tense forms, mood forms and voice forms. Deviation from the general (most frequently realized) meaning makes verbs stylistically coloured. Such transposition brightens the narration, raises its emotional tension, expresses intrigue, makes the continuity of events visual and graphic. Transposition is not the only way to make verbs expressive. A good many verbal forms are expressive in themselves. The imperative mood forms are not just commands, invitations, requests or prohibitions. They are a perfect means of rendering an abundance of human emotions. A wide range of subjunctive mood forms offers a good stylistic choice of synonymous ways to verbalize one and the same idea.
30. A style of language can be defined as a system or coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. Each style is a relatively stable system at the given stage in the development of the literary language. Therefore style of language is a historical category. The development of each style is predetermined by the changes in the norms of Standard English. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. Each style, however, can be recognized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. According to Galperin, FS is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. Galperin's 5 styles include: 1. The Belles - Lettres FS poetry; emotive prose; drama; 2. Publicistic FS: oratory; essays; articles in newspapers and magazines; 3. The Newspaper FS: brief news items; advertisements and announcements; headlines; editorials; 4. The Scientific Prose FS: exact sciences; humanitarian sciences; popular- science prose; 5. The Official Documents FS: diplomatic documents; business letters; military documents; legal documents;
Naer's seven macrostyles embrace: a) official documents; b) scientific, c) professional-technical, d) newspaper, e) publicistic, f) belles-lettres and, g) religious texts.
Kuznets and Skrebnev style hyerarchy: a) the literary refined style - the publicistic, the scientific-technical, the style of official documents; b) the free (colloquial) style - literary colloquial, familiar colloquial.
Arnold's style division: a) neutral style, b) colloquial style: literary, familiar, low, c) bookish style: scientific, official documents, publicistic (newspaper), oratorical, lofty-poetical.
All the mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the international approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation & the official, formal nature of the latter.