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What to do to us with the officials?

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    What to do to us with this damned nettle seed that prevents us from living a normal life, robbing and demeaning us hourly? Who always uncompromisingly counteracts the authorities and whether complete victory of one of the parties is possible? What forces do the social development move actually?

  The development of civilization reflects the gradual but uneven growth of the public self-awareness of various communities, the driving force behind the development of which is the struggle of egocentrism, stemming mainly from the animal consciousness of every person, caring primarily for their own good and self-preservation, and altruism - it is based on the awareness of each person of himself as part of a community that should be supported in every possible way by taking care of its members.
  At the head of each community is the power elite in the form of civil servants at various levels, and in one way or another they are delegated the right to govern the country.
  In varying degrees, controls the effectiveness of the management of the informal-intellectual opposition of the authorities, represented in developed countries by civil society.
  The imperious elite has at its disposal all the resources of the state, it would seem, for the purposes of the development of the country, the care of all citizens.
  However, an obstacle to this is the negative selection of civil servants from the president to the last clerk.
  The noble guardians of the people benefit quite do not aspire to the civil service, but vigorous, fairly clever, self-interested, hypocritical and selfish individuals, but, as a rule, without special talents aspire to it. The dominant feature of these persons is inevitably the lower consciousness, that is, in their consciousness there is a clear lack of awareness of themselves as self-valuable individuals, and not as consumers. The power and practically unlimited access to the privileges and resources of the state belittles them so much that they see in the masses only a source of benefits for themselves and a field for the manifestation of their own, in fact, animal aspirations (the personal well-being, comfortable existence, domination over others).
  he corporate solidarity, directed to improvement of own existence, is characteristic of representatives of governing bodies, the benefit, for this purpose there are means, but not public morals which reflects the interests of all community.
  Therefore, the power elite is always separated from the masses and rejects the sincere fighters for the welfare of the people, and welcomes the "natural" bureaucrats who serve only those in power on the principle of loyalty to them, as a result of which the interests of the people, the country is put by them in the second turn, and in the first - personal and corporate interests [1].
  Nevertheless, in those countries where control of authorities, especially executive, being represented by various public and electoral institutes, is put to the proper height, abuse of power, any corruption relations can be reduced to some minimum, and respectively the number of officials in these countries is at rather low level.
  In other words, the high level of public self-consciousness represented by numerous public institutes interferes the bureaucratic rampant and subsequent ruin of the country.
  As an example, one can cite two groups of large developed countries with different levels of public self-consciousness, which are reflected in the presence of numerous public institutions that provide the feedback of the whole community with the government, or, respectively, - in their practical absence.
  Thus, the obvious signs of distinguishing between states by the level of public self-consciousness should be the level of corruption and the number of officials in relation to the population.
  Indeed, if we consider the relevant statistics for the few relatively large and developed countries, then two separate groups are clearly visible in this respect.
  The first group includes Japan, France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States, whose political system is characterized by a relatively democratic system of power, evidenced by a developed system of public institutions, ensuring a fairly effective influence of active groups on the behavior of the authorities.
  Below are data on the level of corruption and the number of officials in these countries.
  Japan: population - 128 million, the number of officials - 0.332 million, there are 309 persons for 1 official.
  Corruption perception index - 73 (place 20 in the general list of countries of the world).
  United Kingdom: population - 66 million, the number of officials - 0.450 million, there are 147 persons for 1 official.
  Corruption Perception Index - 82 (place 8 in the general list of countries of the world).
  USA: population - 309 million, the number of officials - 2.1 million, there are 147 persons for 1 official.
  Corruption Perception Index - 75 (ranked 16 in the list of countries of the world).
  To understand the term "the corruption perception index", we note that it is calculated according to the methodology of the international non-governmental organization "Transparency International", based on a combination of publicly available statistical data and a results of global poll.
  Within this index corruption is defined as any abuses for personal benefit.
  The index of perception of corruption represents the summary indicator counted on the basis of the data obtained from the expert sources provided by the international organizations. All sources measure the general degree of prevalence of corruption (frequency and / or volume of bribes) in the public and economic sectors and include an assessment of many countries. Sources assess the level of perception of corruption by experts and are a collection of surveys of entrepreneurs, analysts and country-specific specialists in relation to the assessment of commercial risks.
  The index ranks countries and territories on a scale from 0 (the highest level of corruption) to 100 (the lowest level of corruption) based on a perception of the level of corruption in the public sector.
  The index mainly contains averaged data collected over the last three years, giving an idea of the current estimates of the level of corruption by experts.
  The situation is completely different with the number of officials in relation to the population and the level of corruption in China and Russia, almost not having effectively working the public institutes, what is the reflection of the authoritarian structure of these states and the practical absence of feedback of the population with the authorities.
  Below are data on the level of corruption and the number of officials in two large in population and economically and technically developed countries in China and Russia.
  China: population - 1340 million, the number of officials - 70 million, there are 19 persons for 1 official.
  Corruption perception index is 41 (ranked 77 in the list of countries of the world).
  Russia: population - 144.5 million, the number of officials - 4.850 million, there are 30 persons for every official.
  Corruption perception index - 29 (place 135 in the general list of countries of the world).
  Since the data on the number of officials, or civil servants in Russia vary significantly, we give below the way we count the number of officials in the Russian Federation.
  Rosstat indicates the number of officials in 1.107 million
  However, a number of regional apparatuses are either excluded from consideration, or the number of civil servants in the regions is significantly underestimated.
  According to "Novay Gazeta"(New Paper), 15 thousand people represent the legislative power of the federal level.
  35 thousand are deputies of republican, regional and regional parliaments, their assistants and employees.
  24 thousand municipalities are represented by 700 thousand deputies of the legislative assemblies with the apparatus.
  At least 700 thousand people work in ministries, federal agencies and their regional branches.
  Regional administrations, regional ministries and departments with apparatuses contain about 600 thousand people.
  Municipal officials number - about 1 million.
  1.3 million are employees of licensing, regulatory and registration authorities.
  There are 1.5 million people in the pension, insurance, social and other funds.
  Thus, there are at least 4.850 million officials in Russia.
  According to Rosstat, the average monthly salary of civil servants in the first quarter of this year (2018) was 63.800 rubles, and this calculation does not include bonuses to officials.
  Serving officials, cleaners, secretaries, car drivers, canteen workers and other personnel is at least 1/3 of the number of officials, and their wages without bonuses are at least 30 thousand rubles. on average in Russia.
  Thus, the monthly expenses for officials and personnel serving them amount to at least 309 + 48 = 357 billion rubles, and for the year - 4.284 trillion rubles. At the same time, Russia's revenues in 2018 will amount to 15.26 trillion rubles. That is, at least about 21% of the revenue item of the budget of the Russian Federation is spent on all types of officials - from the president and ministers to deputies, judges, employees of pension, insurance and social funds, as well as their services.
  For comparison, we note that spending on health in 2018, that is, on the whole nation, will be only 460 billion rubles, and on education - 663 billion rubles.
  From the comparison of these groups of countries, one can clearly see the connection of the level of public self-consciousness not only with the level of corruption, but also with the structure of the state, in particular, the number of officials in it, a large number of which under authoritarian regimes are required primarily to control the loyalty of the population to the current regime and to implement propaganda explaining the lack of well-being of the majority of the population, as a rule, by the significant costs for defense from the potential enemies.
  The actual lack of effective control over the work of officials in authoritarian regimes by the public with an existing shortage of civil society institutions inevitably leads to the irresponsibility of officials for the results of their activity and to the inevitable use of their own position for mercenary purposes, that is, to large-scale corruption, the struggle with which, in particularly, in China, by the execution of corrupt officials does not lead to anything.
  As a result, in the actions of civil servants, it is not the proper fulfillment of their duties that comes to the forefront, but their imitation, all the more so as in the expanded ranks of officials penetrate not the knowing specialists, but rather incompetent rogues and conformists, who look around only to the authorities, numerous relatives of the authorities, moneymakers, hoping to warm their hands in their posts, etc. subjects.
  Such low quality of representatives of the governing structures of authoritarian states very significantly affects the efficiency of the country's economy and the moral climate of the population.
  However, not only under authoritarian regimes, but also in the ruling elite of any state - even the most democratic, prevails not the highest consciousness that is characterized by altruism in relation to all people in different countries without exception.
  The somewhat higher level of self-consciousness as the power elite of the developed democratic states mentioned above (the first group), but also of the entire population of these countries, formed as a result of their long-term development within the framework of the participation of various strata of the population in management at different levels, nevertheless, was based on the idea Reasonable egoism, first formulated by Hobbes.
  The idea of reasonable selfishness of Hobbes, further supported by the concept of Pierce's pragmatism, in essence, is the basis of the ideology of capitalism.
  Hobbes argues that the person, as a natural being, is egoistic, striving first and foremost to satisfy his own needs, but he is also reasonable, that is, he is able to understand with his mind that taking into account the interests of other people often turns out to be beneficial.
  For illustration, we present a small excerpt from "Leviathan" by Hobbes: "... natural laws (as justice, equality, modesty, mercy and (in General) behavior towards others as we would wish them to behave towards us) by themselves, without the fear of some force, forcing to carry out them, contrary to the natural passions, attracting us to partiality, pride, revenge, etc..." [2, p. 192].
  As for pragmatism, it is characterized by its founder, Pierce, as follows: "Consider what effects that might conceivably have practical bearings you conceive the object of your conception to have. Then your conception of those effects is the WHOLE of your conception of the object" [3, p. 331-346]
  Reasonable egoism and pragmatism, on the one hand, liberate the productive forces of each individual, making him competitively free within the framework of the state that supports the striving of each person to improve the living conditions. Thus, the pace of development of the respective communities becomes the maximum possible.
  On the other hand, the inequality of abilities and conditions under the domination of unlimited competition of individuals seeking to obtain benefits for themselves, cannot but lead to the separation of society with respect to the possession of property or its equivalents, at this, the difference in the size of this property can reach astronomical values.
  The natural occurrence of permanent tension between the "offended poor" and the "rich people who are snickering", the power elite is trying to smooth over with a robbery of less developed communities, the funds from which are largely transferred to the additional pro-feeding of both the ordinary people and the middle class to avoid social cataclysms.
  As a result, the world community is automatically divided into parasitic states, which make currently so-called "the golden billion", and other states, the development of which the parasitic states impede by "sucking out" in various ways of their natural and human resources, the main one of these ways is to bribe the imperious elites of developing countries.
  Thus, a slightly higher level of public self-awareness in these countries of the first group and other developed capitalist countries adjoining them, reflected mainly in the achievements of culture and education, a more progressive social structure, which takes place in developed capitalist countries, was, nonetheless, not high enough because the advantages obtained from a comparatively high level of culture and technology were transformed into a parasitic attitude towards the rest, less developed countries. And it is still happening, dividing the world into eternally poor countries, which is continuously being depleted in favour of the developed countries mainly by bribing the ruling elite, and the countries of the "golden" billion, in which are maintaining a good standard of living for the entire population due to actual robbery of the rest of the world.
  This fact for the ruling elite of developed "democratic" countries indicates only the desire to preserve their power at the expense of others, that is, to avoid disasters in their own countries at the expense of "feeding" their own population at their expense.
  The low level of self-consciousness of the power elite and the structures adjacent to it, which is limited, as a rule, by pragmatism, leads to the dominance of the lower or animal consciousness, for which the main feature is a sense of self-preservation, seeking not to lose anyway consumption of sensations, preferably the most pleasant, at the expense of the rest of the population, on which to representatives of the imperious elite to spit, but, nevertheless, the awareness of their own position hints to representatives of the imperious elite, that having lost or having destroyed this miserable, according to them, folk, they will lose a basis of own existence, and they are forced, creaking heart, somehow to interact with it.
  For greater clarity, we shall give the definition of the highest and the lowest consciousness, as well as we shall point out the features of their interaction.
  There are two irreconcilable creatures in each person.
  One of these beings is determined by the lowest consciousness, which is the only inherent in all flora and fauna, except the person; This type of consciousness manifests itself in inseparability with the environment on the basis of sensations.
  Beings with this type of consciousness are in the general stream of life, but are not capable "to rise" over it, they do not understand that they live. In this regard they remind in advance programmed mechanisms capable to sense, forming own environment and adapting themselves to it, but deprived of spontaneous or conscious memories, fantasies, notions of time, they have only a genetic memory in the absence of oral or written memory of generations, and are not able to consciously influence the habitat.
  These beings do not even know that they will die, but can feel approach of death only instinctively. Similar restriction of consciousness for these beings means impossibility of any purposeful change of the environment even for the most developed their representatives - these beings are completely subordinated to it, though, at the same time, quite reasonably and effectively interact with surrounding from the position coming from their sense organs to the processing information centers of an organism, which for them is not distorted by reflections, the reminiscences and experiences peculiar to human consciousness as a whole.
  In this respect, these natural organisms are more perfect than humans, and ignorance of their own essence makes them completely "happy" in existence, despite the fact that in the common natural circulation they only do that they devour each other.
  And such "being" necessarily "sits" in every person, and it cannot fail to determine its existence in one way or another, no matter how tried the person to distance himself from it.
  Another "being" in the person is represented by the highest consciousness, which separates it from the environment and from fellow tribesmen; it manifests itself in the realization of its own existence, for example, in the form of abstract ideas about the world and about oneself, a return to the past in the form of memories, designing subsequent actions based on consciously selected data from memory, combining them with newly received information, responsibility for the committed, the ability to make any decisions, even the most unprofitable and useless, which in fact is the most vivid manifestation of liberty of consciousness.
  On this basis the person tries to set to himself the purposes, to solve various problems and to change thereby by means of the developed representations the surroundings. For example, this being is capable to build to itself the dwelling not according to the standard, but as it is pleasant to it more, thinking out new ways of supply of materials on the course of the construction, changing a palette of walls and a roof, bringing into the extent of his intelligence, these or other innovations, in contrast, for example, from the invariable standards of the anthill.
  New projects and ideas develop the mind of a person, his insight, contribute to the most effective manifestation of various abilities during life, lead to the thought of beautifying life, that is, the culture of one's own beingness and beingness of the public.
  In the person both these antagonistic in relation to himself and to the surrounding, hypostasis, are merged together. Therefore, they do not manifest themselves separately, but operate in a hidden way, and the degree of their domination depends on the degree of development in a person of the highest consciousness.
  And the person himself often cannot predict what in the next moment will become predominant: love or hatred, anger or sympathy, sincerity or hypocrisy, timidity or courage, discretion or recklessness.
  The lowest consciousness "feeds" only on the sensations that give it everything, including the harmony of existence, i.e. something acceptable and even pleasant in our understanding in a certain combination of feelings if, of course, to distract from fight of each being for survival. Therefore, it does not wish to lose the sensations at all.
  Similar the type of consciousness has natural egocentrism, automatically seeking to survive, no matter what.
  In the process of development of the living beings, this type of consciousness undergoes relatively minor changes, since it is not able to withdraw own basic property - an unconscious desire for survival, based on the primordial activity of any living thing.
  The highest consciousness which is contained in the person at any level of its development is radical contrast to the lowest consciousness.
  In the presence of the highest consciousness in the living being, it begins as though to see the light, becoming not so much "poured" in the environment, how many separated from it, and, so it acquires the opportunity to look at it and on oneself from the outside, to appreciate this ratio in attempts to consciously set to itself goals in mind certain shortcomings in one's own existence, which, in the opinion of this being, could be overcome, and to try to obtain implementation of goals in actions.
  All this obviously drops out of an instinctive and reflex sphere of action of the lowest consciousness, and even begins to contradict it as the highest consciousness often neglects utilitarian reasons, chasing something to unattainable, but kind heart and mind.
  Being separated in self-consciousness from the environment, this being, in the course of time, in its development in relationship with the beings, which are like him, begins to feel the need for new forms, different from the primitive communal relations of still wild people, completely absorbed in the struggle for survival. In mutual communication this creature reaches such a limit that its various conscious aspirations begin to pour into significant changes in the environment, and not just in its use.
  From gathering, a person passes to cattle breeding, growing cereals, other forms of economic activity and the corresponding exchange of the labor products. Inequality, ownership, the struggle for the preservation and augmentation of property, for power and et cetera are arising, that in turn requires establishment of some institutions of order in order to avoid chaos - the local states in the bosom of a growing and improving civilization were being formed.
  New forms and institutions, on the one hand, ensure the accelerated development of communities already in a structured form, that is, as the states with the bodies of governance, security, courts, etc., and on the other hand, do not allow to the states to fall apart because of the contradictions, invariably tearing-apart the last.
  Despite a certain progress in development of human communities according to development of self-consciousness, the essence of human consciousness which is expressed in dualism, more precisely, in divergent life-aspirations of the lowest and highest form of consciousness does not disappear anywhere, and cannot be substantially modified.
  Both these parties of consciousness continuously conflict both in the person, and in the interpersonal relations: discontent with, visible inability to change quickly, the felt limitation of intelligence, abilities, etc.; the envy and hatred to competitors instantly would rip to shreds any human community if not the state with its institutes.
  Nevertheless, each person manifests also qualities of the highest consciousness which are expressed not only in the intellectual and production sphere, but also in inquisitiveness, various religious and cultural forms and also in the affectional relations, somehow: friendship, love, experiences for relatives, for the fatherland, etc.
  If the relationship between people on the basis of self-awareness slowly but steadily develops, then the lowest consciousness in the person remains unchanged.
  Therefore, the ideal persons do not appear, and the lowest consciousness, despite any form of its disguise, acts at any stage of the development of human consciousness, being expressed in deep-rooted egoism (egocentrism) - personal and corporate, hypocrisy (masking), suspiciousness (caution), contempt for people of other circle (mistrust to other communities), animal instincts concerning an opposite sex, etc.
  The main characteristics of representatives of the operating elite of the state and the reason of their emergence stated above, exclude long presence of persons at it with the high level of consciousness, that is with self-respect, altruistic, noble, honest, serving with total dedication. If such people fall into the elite, their fate cannot be envied: they either relatively quickly are removed under false pretenses from this highest layer of the state, or descend in their self-consciousness to the level of ordinary scoundrels, hypocrites and rogues, who have a highest form of consciousness, largely pushed back to the role of the subordinate by the lower consciousness.
  The lowest consciousness, without applying for creativity, free will and abstract thinking, never loses aspiration to survival of both the individual, and community of individuals. This its property does not allow to be developed in all breadth to the highest consciousness, having captured all people. Nevertheless, among them there are always representatives of the highest level of consciousness - generally it is the intellectual nonconformists neglecting opportunities of stay in imperious elite, and who more are interested in harmonization of community.
  The resulting confrontation of relatively few strata consisting of educated and, as a rule, fairly clever persons with polar aspirations - the lowest consciousness which displaced the highest on the second plan, against the highest consciousness - creates a constant tension and struggle in society, ensuring the development of society, that is, exciting the rest -In general, passive population, increasing the influx of the most active representatives of the masses into these strata.
  Therefore, even elimination of imperious elite in the maximum coverage never led to a "fair" society organization, its harmonization that visually is confirmed by actions of Bolsheviks after occupation of the power by them in Russia in 1917 and further almost full destruction or remove abroad them the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie.
  Already in the twenties the XX centuries in the Soviet Russia the new imperious elite, having replaced former, and at once separated itself from the people various privileges, as well as set as an object achievement of domination on a global scale that represents reflection of the typical properties of animal consciousness, namely: the maximum convenience of existence (pleasantness of sensations) and domination in the environment.
  Moreover, the low level of self-consciousness of the persons from the popular masses, who had reached power, the main qualities of which were energy, interpersonal skills, adaptability, corporate solidarity, hypocrisy, and along wih that - the insufficient education, utopian views, has been manifested in oblivion of increase in the standard of living of a people at large of Russia and use of its human and material resources for the sake of achievement of world revolution, and, as a result, continuous wars have resulted in catastrophic losses of the population and its enduring poverty.
  Naturally, this kind of subjects could not but take advantage of the privileges of power at all its levels, and a few years after the civil war in Russia the number of civil servants (officials) reached 700 thousand, exceeding their number in Russia until 1917 (500 thousand people).
  Based on the positions noted above, it should be noted: as it is impossible to bring a swan out of chicken, so and the official is deprived of the opportunity to be an honest person, a sincere altruist and a fighter for justice.
  The level of self-consciousness among individuals seeking to become officials is too low, as a result of which they first of all want to serve themselves and their own corporation in the person of the authorities, and not for the society.
  And always will be so, and not otherwise.
  You can reduce the number of officials, change the structure of the state apparatus, conduct regular inspections of the quality of work of officials, dismiss them for the slightest offense.
  The effect of these measures will be insignificant and, in the end, everything will return to normal.
  Nevertheless, the efficiency of activity of civil servants at all levels can be improved, despite the poor quality of human material in this field of activity. And an example of this can be dogs, which, as you know, came out of wolves, however, it took a lot of time.
  Therefore, haste in this process of transforming low-grade bureaucratic material into a fairly efficiently working set is inappropriate and can take more than one year, requiring a change of the state system at all levels.
  First of all, it is necessary to separate decision-makers, fraught with substantial losses or acquisitions, from the rest of the bureaucratic mass, and put them under the systematic control of public organizations in each field of activity and at each level.
  Without public organizations and institutions, self-governing regional cells, as well as capable parliamentary structures with the opposition of the current power elite active in them, it makes no sense to carry out any reorganization of the state apparatus.
  Every important decision at lower levels of government must be framed by referendums of the population, and fundamental decisions at the highest levels of government need to be coordinated with the parliament, having first polled the population, and when the executive power evades the will of delegates or deputies, elected by the people, it is necessary to dismiss the corresponding heads of executive bodies by legislative decisions when agreed with public organizations.
  One should not be afraid of wrong decisions of referendums or parliaments, since they can be quickly corrected by seeing firsthand the erroneousness of these decisions in practice, what will be a science to all for the future and will contribute to the nomination of more efficient managers, who managed to correct these mistakes. At this, these new managers and organizers can be used later, due to justified trust in them population.
  In this way, the transparency of the approach will largely eliminate corruption and will make it possible to determine the most talented managers and organizers by the quality of the implemented proposals and the correction of errors.
  Naturally, similar systematic approach requires the independence of courts, the press, a shift of focus from centralization to the distribution of power at local levels, like Switzerland, which is quite possible now even for vast territories thanks to digitalization and the Internet.
  Introduction of systems of artificial intelligence in the field of management and control will allow to reduce more than much the total number of officials at all levels.
  All of them and also other employees, discharged thanks to the artificial intelligence from the routine work is possible to distribute on propensities, vocational preparedness and education in private business, including agriculture, the service sector, or allow them to decide themselves the employment problem, for example, as self-employed, and other persons to provide an opportunity for retraining or to guarantee the sufficient allowance for the existence.
  As for the general approach, the most effective work of "public servants" can be under the following conditions.
  First, in order to ensure the greatest possible responsibility of those who elect their own "servants" into the state apparatus, it should be that the voters are persons, who have an education not lower than secondary. This, in particular, will allow them with some knowledge of the case to understand how candidates are deputies, judges, ministers, etc. with the request of the relevant information.
  Secondly, the voters should have a certain autonomy and independence in material terms, which is possible, as a rule, if they possess some property, for example, real estate, as well as if they have financial assets that exceed debts. Otherwise, they are easy to bribe or coerce due to the threat of dismissal, eviction, etc.
  Thirdly, for attraction to elections of people not indifferent, interested in progress and prosperity of all society, but not individuals and corporations, it is necessary to allocate from lump for participation in elections only those who really participates in production of goods and services in the age from 25 to 55 years, that is, in the most productive and responsible for themselves and own families age.
  Fourthly, in order to exclude the creation of corruption networks, it is desirable to remove officials of all levels from public service after the expiration of three-year term of their job with the transfer they to another job, as well as to eliminate the possibility of adopting them again to the job into the state structures over next 5 years.
  Fifthly, each public servant conducting or supervising work on certain objects or the directions is obliged to provide quarterly the report on work flow and the obstacles revealed for them for them to the special commissions of the active voters, controlling voluntarily the important for society areas of activity at all levels, that strengthens the active (civil) society, reveals the true quality and timeliness of working, as well as promotes an exception of an overrun of the budgetary funds.
  Sixthly, the voters receive in the person of own initiative groups at all main levels of the state activity the right to recall at any time the officials who did not cope, judging by the reports received by these groups, as well as complaints and actual state of affairs with the solution of tasks set.
  Seventh, the incomes of civil servants are limited to the size of the average wage in the country, that repels obvious fraudsters and rascals from the state service.
  Of course, such innovations may seem far from the existing practice, especially in conditions of authoritarian states, in the current conditions of a general decline in morals and passivity of the population, but without them, any community is doomed to the stagnation and subsequent decomposition.
  1. Nizovtsev Y. M. The person in the attractive field of power. 2017. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: www.litres.ru. Amazon.
  2. Гоббс Т. Левиафан. Соч. в 2 тт. 2 т. М. 1991, с. 192.
  3. Peirce. C. S. The Fixation of Belief. The Writings. Volumes I - VI. Vol. III. Indiana University. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: www.iupui.edu/-arisbe/menu/.../bycsp.HTM
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