Новиков Евгений Алексеевич: другие произведения.

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   СОЗНАНИЕ И ТЁМНАЯ МАТЕРИЯ
   (Английский вариант статьи принят к публикации в журнале "Мозг и Космос")
  
   Евгений А. Новиков
  
   Аннотация
   На основе моделирования сознания и модифицированной общей теории относительности, рассматривается связь явления субьективности с тёмной материей.
  
   CONSCIOUSNESS AND DARK MATTER
   (To be published in the Journal "Brain and Cosmos")
  
   Evgeny A. Novikov
   University of California - San Diego, BioCircuits Institute, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402
  
   Abstract
   Based on the modeling of consciousness and the modified general relativity, it is suggested that the phenomena of qualia (subjectivity) is associated with the dark matter.
  
   Introduction
  
   The phenomena of consciousness can be considered as hierarchy of observations and control (Novikov 2010). Hierarchical structures appear naturally in systems with strong interaction of many degrees of freedom. Typical signatures of such hierarchy are so-called similarity laws. Particularly, in turbulence the concept of scale-similarity was developed and was associated with the infinitely-divisible distributions (Novikov 1994). The activity of the human brain also revealed the regime of scale-similarity, which was discovered by using the multi-channel MEG (magnetoencephalogram) (Novikov at al. 1997, 1997a) and EEG (electroencephalogram) (Freeman at al. 2000), see also (Ward 2002, Robson 2009). Hundreds of billions of interconnected neurons and surrounding sells (particularly, astroglia), apparently, is favorable playground for hierarchical structures in the brain.
   The electrochemical brain activity is taking place in wet and warm surroundings. To reproduce such activity in artificial systems, even approximately, seems impossible. However, modeling of the effects of consciousness (Novikov 2003, 2003a, 2004, 2005, 2005a) can be used to enhance performance of artificial stochastic systems (Novikov 2010). In this paper such modeling is combined with the modified general relativity, which takes into account creation of dark matter by the vacuum. This leads to a better understanding of both phenomena - consciousness and dark matter.
  
   1. Modelling of consciousness
   In the modeling of effects of consciousness (Novikov 2003a, 2004, 2005, 2005a), the subjective experiences were divided into three major groups: sensations (S), emotions (E) and reflections (R). Note, that subjective S should be distinguished from the automatic sensory input into the neuron system of the brain (Damasio 1999). Consider so called quaternion (generalization of complex number), which in our case has real component (the electric current density perpendicular to the cortical surface) and three imaginary components representing the indicated above (S, E, R) - effects. Corresponding imaginary units satisfy conditions: 1) square of each of them is equal to -1; 2) product of two different imaginary units is antisymmetric (changes sign with transposition) and is equal to the third unit with sign determined by the cyclic order ( say, product of the first and second units is equal to the third unit with sign plus, while product of the third and second units gives the first unit with sign minus). The quaternion is a function of time and space coordinates on the surface of the cortex. The model equation for this quaternion (Novikov 2003a, 2004, 2005, 2005a) is a nonlinear partial differential equation, which contains the linear wave terms (with the second order time and space derivatives), linear relaxation term and a nonlinear term representing the sigmoidal firing rate of neurons. If we omit the (S, E, R) -effects, than equation will be similar in spirit to equation used for interpretation of EEG and MEG spatial patterns ( see [Jirsa at all 2002] and references therein).
   The essential point of (S, E, R) - modeling is that imaginary fields produce real effects because of the nonlinear firing rate of neurons. Note, that complex fields have been used (Novikov 2005b) to eliminate classical electromagnetic divergencies, namely, the infinite self-energy of electrons and the paradoxical self-acceleration of electron. The same (algebraic) approach works for the quantum interaction of charges. In new interpretation of quantum theory (Novikov 2007) imaginary trajectory and corresponding momentum play an important role.
   The (S, E, R) - modeling is designed for description of the effects of consciousness on the electric currents in the human brain. In order to advance in the problem of qualia (subjectivity) we now turn to a new type of cosmology, which is based on modified general relativity (MGR) [Novikov 2003b, 2005c, 2006].
  
   2. Modified general relativity
  
   The modification of general relativity (Novikov 2003b, 2005b, 2006) does not introduce new fields, but takes into account the effect of spacetime stretching (divergency) along with classical spacetime curvature. The modification is especially important when global spacetime curvature is close to zero, which is the case in our universe.
   The exact analytical solution of MGR equations was obtained (Chefranov & Novikov 2010, Novikov & Chefranov 2011) for the scale factor of the universe. It turns out to be Gaussian function of time (which means minus squire of time in the exponent). This solution (without any fitting parameters) shows good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnLa, SDSS-BAO, see details in [Chefranov & Novikov 2010, Novikov & Chefranov 2011]). The solution corresponds to continuous and metric-affecting production of dark matter particles out of vacuum, with its density being retain constant during the expansion of spatially flat universe. This solution is shown (Chefranov & Novikov 2010) to be stable in the regime of cosmological expansion until about 38 billions years.
   Mass of corresponding dark matter particles is estimated (Chefranov & Novikov 2010, Novikov & Chefranov 2011) 10 in -66 power of gram. So, these primary dark matter particles (PDMP) are ultralight.
   According to this solution, our universe was born in infinite past out of small fluctuation. The averaged density of PDMP is very high: 10 in 36 power per cubic centimeters. With such density we can expect multiple hierarchical collisions and formation of more heavy particles in some sort of "natural selection". During the steady and stable expansion of the universe, the ordinary matter was synthesized in this way, probably, starting with light particles. This process was accompanied by radiation, which is reflected in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The eqilibrium character of CMB and the condition of global curvature close to zero are naturally explained by the large amount of time available for the evolution. Some peculiarities of CMB can be associated with synthesis of various particles in expanding universe. In context of such evolution of our universe, what we call ordinary matter is, in fact, an exotic matter, which was synthesized from PDMP and, sofar, constitute only small fraction of the total mass of the universe. The theory of elementally particles should be modified by inclusion dark matter as primary basis for all particles.
  
   3. A connection between consciousness and dark matter
   From cosmological observation it is suggested, that dark matter interacts with ordinary matter only gravitationally and seems indifferent to EM, strong and week interactions. Note, that gravitation is resisting quantization, unlike the other three interactions. In a sense, interaction of ordinary matter with dark matter can be presented in the form of indicated above quaternion with gravitation as real component and other three components imaginary (see also Novikov 2003b). If we continue with this analogy, than (apart from gravitation) some indirect form of interaction, similar to nonlinear firing rate of neurons, can exist between dark and ordinary matter. Indeed (see above), ordinary matter was synthesized from dark matter as result of multiple hierarchical collisions. In this sense, dark matter is working similarly to neural system.
   The qualia (subjectivity) was historically considered as otherworldly. In contemporary cosmology we got the dark matter, which is unusual in indicated above respects. From what was described in this paper, it seems natural to suggest that qualia is inherited from dark matter. The indicated above ultralight particles PDMP are constantly produced by the vacuum everywhere, including our body and our brain. Perhaps, so called biophotons (see [Widom at al. 2011] and references therein) are related to production of PDMP. Inside neurons and in surrounding sells we may have special conditions, which can facilitates interaction with PDMP. Every living creature may have halo of enormous number of PDMP without noticeable gravitational effect. At the same time, hierarchical processes in such system of PDMP can be associated with qualia.
   The best way to investigate these effects is, probably, during events of extremal qualia, such as pain or orgasm (preferable). Orgasm has many definitions (Komisaruk at al. 2006), none of them totally satisfactory. Generally, orgasm has different feeling depending of sources of stimulation (including mental stimulation) and corresponding nerves. Combinations of sources in simultaneous stimulation produce so-called blended orgasms, which are, generally, more powerful (particularly, in women). The physical nature of orgasm is a total mystery. The electrochemical signals repeatedly reach brain and than something happens, which reminds lightning, but in a "mental world".
   The modeling of the effects of consciousness suggests existence of a particle or a group of particles - mediators between dark and ordinary matter (MEDOM), which may have a superluminal component. PDMP can produce MEDOM spontaneously, or, more likely, during collisions. MEDOM in turn produce additional ordinary photons during the nonlinear process of neuro-firing. So, the one thing, which can be tested during orgasm is enhanced radiation with a peculiar spectrum (details will be presented elsewhere).
   Similar scheme can be applied to cosmic events. Collisions of PDMP produce MEDOM - sparks of dark matter. In nonlinear process of hierarchical collisions, the "plasma" of PDMP and MEDOM produces particles of ordinary matter, including ordinary photons. Note, that only small fraction of PDMP collisions produces ordinary matter. Cosmological observations (for example, [Chynoweth at al. 2010]) indicate that more substantial portion of such collisions produce some lumps and clouds of dark matter.
  
   4. Discussion
   Do dark matter, which we now observe only by the gravitational effect, has some sort of qualia? If so, are they similar to indicated above SER-qualia, which we possess? And, finally, can we communicate with dark matter? The positive answer to this question can lead to revolution in the history of humankind.
   The main conclusion of this paper is that such seemingly divorced phenomena as consciousness and dark matter, in fact, could be closely connected. These two very important areas of research can greatly benefit each other from their proper coordination.
  
  
  REFERENCES
  
   Chefranov, S. G. & Novikov, E. A. (2010). Hydrodynamic vacuum sources of dark matter self-generation in accelerated universe without big bang. J. Exper. Theor. Phys., 111(5),731-743 [Zhur. Eksper. Theor. Fiz.,138(5), 830-843]; arXiv:1012.0241v1 [gr-qc].
   Chynoweth, Katie M., Langston, Glen I., Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly. (2010). HI clouds in the M81 filament as dark matter minihalos--a phase-space mismatch. arXiv:1009.5679 [astro-ph.CO].
   Damasio, A. R. (1999).The feeling of what happens, Harcourt Brace & Company
   Freeman, W. J., Rogers, L. J., Holms, M. D., Silbergelt, D. L. (2000). Spatial spectral analysis of human electrocorticograms including alpha and gamma bands, J. Neurosci. Meth. 95, 111
   Jirsa, V. K., Jantzen, K. J., Fuchs, A. and Kelso, J. A. (2002). Spatiotemporal forward solution of EEG and MEG using network modeling. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 21(5),497
   Komisaruk, B. R., Beyer-Flores, C. & Whipple, B. (2006). The science of orgasm, The John Hopkins University Press
   Novikov, E. A. (1994). Infinitely divisible distributions in turbulence, Phys. Rev. E 50(5), R3303
   Novikov, E. A. (2003). Towards modeling of consciousness, arXiv:nlin.PS/0309043
   Novikov, E. A. (2003a). Quaternion dynamics of the brain, arXiv:nlin.PS/0311047
   Novikov, E. A. (2003b). Dynamics of distributed sources. Phys. of Fluids, 15(9), L65
   Novikov, E. A. (2004). Manipulating consciousness, arXiv:nlin.PS/0403054
   Novikov, E. A. (2005). Modeling of consciousness, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 25, 1
   Novikov, E. A. (2005a). Imaginary fields, arXiv:nlin.PS/0502028
   Novikov, E. A. (2005b). Algebras of charges. arXiv:nlin.PS/0509029
   Novikov, E. A. (2005c). Distributed sources, accelerated universe, consciousness and quantum entanglement. arXiv:nlin.PS/0511040
   Novikov, E. A. (2006). Vacuum response to cosmic stretching: accelerated universe and prevention of singularity. arXiv:nlin.PS/0608050
   Novikov, E. A. (2007). Random shooting of entangled particles in vacuum. arXiv:0707.3299
   Novikov, E. A. (2010). Towards conscious stochastic systems. arXiv:1008.0449v1 [physics.gen-ph].
   Novikov, E., Novikov, A., Shannahof-Khalsa, D., Schwartz, B. and Wright, J. (1997). Scale-similar activity in the brain. Phys. Rev. E56(3), R2387 (1997)
   Novikov, E., Novikov, A., Shannahof-Khalsa, D., Schwartz, B. and Wright, J. (1997a). Similarity regime in the brain activity, Appl. Nonl. Dyn. & Stoch. Systems (ed. J. Kadtke & A. Bulsara), p. 299, Amer. Inst. Phys., N. Y.
   Novikov, E. A. & Chefranov, S. G. (2011). A quiet cosmology and halo around the visible universe, The Journal of Cosmology, v.16, 6884-6891
   Robson, D. (2009). Disorderly genius, New Scientist, v. 202, No 2714
   Ward, L. M. (2002). Dynamical cognitive science, Chapter 17, MIT Press
   Widom, A., Srivastava, Y. N., S. Sivasubramanian, S. (2011). Biological nuclear transmutations as a source of biophotons. arXiv:1102.4605 [physics.gen-ph].
  
  
  
  
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