Ëàçóêî Íàòàëüÿ Àíàòîëüåâíà, Ùåòêîâà Îëüãà Àíàòîëüåâíà: äðóãèå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ.

Îò Âàñ áåðó âîñïîìèíàíüÿ, à ñåðäöå îñòàâëÿþ Âàì... Èçäàíèå äîïîëíåííîå â 2016 ãîäó

Æóðíàë "Ñàìèçäàò": [Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ] [Íàéòè] [Ðåéòèíãè] [Îáñóæäåíèÿ] [Íîâèíêè] [Îáçîðû] [Ïîìîùü]
Peêëaìa:
Êîíêóðñ ôàíòàñòè÷åñêèõ ðîìàíîâ "Óòðî. ÕÕII âåê"
Êîíêóðñû ðîìàíîâ íà Author.Today

Ëåòíèå êîíêóðñû íà ÏðîäàÌàí
Îòêðîé ñâîé Âûõîä â íåðåàëüíîñòü
Peêëaìa
 Âàøà îöåíêà:

   ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÑ 1 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒßƒíƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒä ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ (1 ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ) c ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà
  ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ:
  https://cloud.mail.ru/public/CCJD/3iSpSXAQW
  
  
   ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí: ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  
  ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...
  
  
  ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÓ 3-ƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1
  
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒà ƒÓ 2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå
  
  ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî
  
  
  
  
  
  
  2016
  
  ƒ¢ƒ¢ƒƒ 63.3 (235.55).
  ƒ- - 17.
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...', ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ-ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÓ 3-ƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1 (ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ), ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå.
  ƒ¡.ƒ-. ƒ?ƒÑƒäƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ³.ƒ¡. ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒƒ.ƒ¥. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ - ƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ, ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒãƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ´.ƒR. ƒ¥ƒíƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ?.ƒª. ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒÜƒàƒßƒãƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ.
  ƒ²ƒÖƒèƒÖƒßƒÙƒÖƒßƒäƒí: ƒ®.ƒÀ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒÕƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒä ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒí ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒ?ƒ³ƒ·ƒ¡ ƒÚƒÞ. ƒ´.ƒ³. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜ.ƒÚ.ƒß., ƒÔ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒàƒØƒÜƒÖ - ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ 1847 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒØƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ®.ƒÀ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒäƒåƒÖƒÓ. ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  No 2016 - ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà ƒ¯.ƒ¡., ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÓ 3-ƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒà.
  ƒ? ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒåƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ.
  ƒ? ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒ×ƒß ƒÞƒÖƒäƒàƒÕ ƒëƒÑƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒß ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒâƒÚƒä ƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ.
  E-mail:loo_chetkova@mail.ru
  http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒä ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ:
   ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒÚ - ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ - ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ).
   ƒ÷ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑ-ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà - ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ 'ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒÖ' ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ...
   ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒØƒÜƒÑ - ƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚ-ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒç ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî... ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒåƒÕƒÖƒÒ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒÚƒç ƒÒƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ.
   ƒ¢ƒÖƒÙƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒéƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒãƒÞ. ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 2). ƒªƒç ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ.
  
  
  ƒ® ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ
   ƒ´ƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒã ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒà-ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1
  1. ƒ?.ƒª. ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà.............................................................................................................7
  2. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒÚƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ?...............................................................................................................................................
  3. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒºƒÑƒÔ ƒÙƒÑ ƒêƒÑƒÔƒàƒÞ.................................................................................................................................
  4. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒã 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.........................................................................
  5. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒ+ƒåƒäƒÖƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ................................................................
  6. ƒ³.ƒ¡. ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà........................................................................................................................
  7. ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ......................................................................
  8. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ.
   'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ...'.........................................................................................................................
  8.1. ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ (1796 ƒÔ.).........................
  8.2. ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ.........................................................................................................
  8.3. ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ................................................................................................................................
  8.4. ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ (1824-1912 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.)..................................................................................
  8.5. ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî..................................................................................................................
  8.6. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ-ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒã ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ......................................................................................................................................................
  8.7. ƒ´ƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ. ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. 1990-95 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí...................................
  8.8. ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ..............................................................................................................................
  8.9. ƒ® ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ® ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÖ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ........................................................
  8.10. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ XVII-XVIII ƒÓƒÓ. ...................................................................................................
  8.11. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ..................................................................................................................................................................
  8.12. ƒ-ƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÑ.................................................................................................................................................
  9. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) ƒã 1950 ƒáƒà 1980 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒã ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ..........................................................
  10. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. .............................
  10.1. ƒ³.ƒ¢. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®)........................................................................................
  10.2. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®............................................................................................
  10.3. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÓ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ.................................................
  11. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. 'ƒ¡ ƒÓƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÑƒéƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð...'.......................................................................................................
  12. ƒ¡.ƒ¥. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ
   ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ..........................................................................................................................................................................
   12.1 ƒ®. ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß....................................................................................................
   12.2. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç...............................................................................................................
  13. ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒƒ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ........................................................................
  14. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. 'ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå'.............................................................................................................
   15. ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.....................................................................................
   16. ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ..................................................................................................................
   17. ƒ?.ƒ¡.ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. ƒ® ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ,, ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒäƒèƒÖ..................................................................................
   18. ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?.ƒ¡. ...............................................................
   19. ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒí (ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ) ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí.......................................................
   20. ƒ?.ƒR. ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒí..................................................................
   21. ƒ.ƒª. ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ). ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒí ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒí. ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà...............
   21.1. ƒ¯.ƒ³. ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ.....................................................................................
   22. ƒ¡.ƒ². ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ® ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ..............................................................
   22.1. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ¡.ƒ². ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ........................................................................................................................
   23. ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ...........................................................................
   24. ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ - ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒñƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.......................................................
   25. ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.........................................................................................................
   26. ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒàƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ XVII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ....................................................................................
   27. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒã ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒ?.ƒª. .........................................................................................................................
   28. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÝƒîƒÙƒñ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ...............................................................................................................
   29. ƒ®ƒäƒÙƒíƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ...............................................................................................................................................
   30. ƒ³ƒäƒÚƒçƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà..............................................................................................................................
   31. ƒ²ƒÖƒèƒÖƒßƒÙƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒí ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒ?ƒ³ƒ·ƒ¡ ƒÚƒÞ. ƒ´.ƒ³. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜ.ƒÚ.ƒß. (ƒÔ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß) -
   ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí........................................................................................................................................................................
   32. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ.......................................................................................
   33. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ..............................................................................
   34. ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ..................................................................................................................................................
  
  ƒ®ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 2
  (2-ƒð ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒå 2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ)
  
   35. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ...
   35.1. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ
  35.2. ƒ³ƒáƒÖƒèƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí
  35.3. ƒ¥ƒßƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ².ƒ?. ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  35.4. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ
  35.5. ƒªƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  35.6. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒí ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  35.7. ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÑ
   36. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ (ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ)
   37. ƒ-.ƒ?. ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ). 'ƒÁ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà...'
   38. ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒâƒÜƒÑƒÕƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
   39. ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒñƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ
   40. ƒ-.ƒÀ. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒªƒÙ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ
   41. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚ
   41.1. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç
   41.2. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç (ƒã 1719 ƒÔ.)
   41.3. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç
   42. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. 'ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒñ ƒäƒí ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒðƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ... ƒ?ƒâƒñƒÕ ƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒíƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî...'
   43. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒRƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ
   44. ƒ¡.ƒƒ. ƒƒƒâƒíƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒÜƒãƒÚƒßƒÑ). ƒRƒàƒßƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒâƒãƒÜ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒƒƒâƒíƒÔƒÚƒßƒíƒç
   45. ƒ¡.ƒ?. ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒíƒç
   46. ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç - ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç
   47. ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ (ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç). ƒ® ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑƒç ƒ+.ƒª. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒ+.ƒª. ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ
   48. ƒ-.ƒR. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ (ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ). ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç - ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç - ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒíƒç
   49. ƒ³ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
   50. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒîƒÖ ƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒÜƒå. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÓ 1937 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒÙ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯.ƒ´. ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
   51. ƒ¯.ƒ´. ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí
   52. ƒR.ƒ¢. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒÝƒðƒéƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÓƒÑ). ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ
   53. ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒàƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒÜ ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
   54. ƒ¡.ƒ¯. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒ×ƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, 2006 ƒÔ. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒÜ ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
   55. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ
   56. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÜƒàƒÙƒÑ
   57. ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒà, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà
   58. ƒ+ ƒâ ƒÚ ƒÝ ƒà ƒØ ƒÖ ƒß ƒÚ ƒñ :
   58.1. // ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ 24.11.1996 ƒÔ. ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ. ƒ¸ƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒà ƒ·ƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒí
   58.2 .// ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ 12.08.2005 ƒÔ. ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ
   58.3. // ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ 10.06.1996 ƒÔ. ƒ¡. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ, ƒ. ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
   58.4. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ
   58.5. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒí ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí (ƒã 1659 ƒáƒà 2014 ƒÔƒÔ.)
   58.6. ƒªƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ-ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕ (1 ƒÝƒÚƒãƒä)
   58.7. ƒ÷ƒéƒ×ƒä ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÖ I. ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 1795, 1810, 1816, 1834 ƒÚ 1850 ƒÔƒÔ.
  
   59. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ.
   60. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ.
   61. ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ.
  
  
  ƒ®ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî 3
  (ƒÓ 2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ 3-ƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ - ƒÓ 2017 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå)
  
   62. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒã 1941 ƒáƒà 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí:
   62.1. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí 1941-45 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí.
   62.2. ƒ-.ƒÀ. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ® ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà - ƒ?.ƒ¯. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
   62.3. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ÷ƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ.
   62.4. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒí ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ® ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒç
   62.5. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒßƒÚ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒÖƒÓ.
   62.6. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ.
   62.7. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ® ƒÒƒÑƒñƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒÖ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ.
   62.8. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒÒƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.
   62.9. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞ. ƒ® ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒ÷ƒãƒÞƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒ?.ƒ?.
   63. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
   64. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑƒÞ.
   65. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ.
   66. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà
  
   ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÚƒØƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç... ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà-ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒ-ƒ¡ƒNoƒ÷ƒƒƒ® ƒÚ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒ'ƒƒ´ƒƒƒ®ƒ?ƒ®ƒ'.
   ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒí ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒà ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒç ƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒä ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ. ƒªƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑƒç ƒ÷ƒæƒí ƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒí ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒç ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÛ, ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí, ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒðƒä ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå.
   ƒ+ƒàƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ?!
   ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà.
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒßƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒàƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÖ ƒÓ ƒªƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒßƒÖƒäƒÖ. * ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ.** ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî - ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒî ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕ ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ-ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî
  ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔ. ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÑ
  _____________________
  *ƒ+ƒâƒñƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒàƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ 'ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ': http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Op7q0NuVcc
  http://fotofokina.wix.com/fotofo#!showreel/c1au0
  **ƒ¿ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ, ƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ..'. ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒñƒä ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒð ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  '...ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒð ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ,
   ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒåƒÜ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç,
  ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÛƒÕƒñƒãƒî, ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒí ƒÞƒàƒÝƒñƒäƒãƒñ
  ƒNoƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç.
  
  ƒ´ƒí ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒêƒî, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÓƒãƒÖ-ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ -
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒà ƒØƒÚƒÝ,
   ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒí,
  ƒ³ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝ...'.
  
  ƒ³ƒÚƒÞƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒ.ƒR., 1941 ƒÔ.
  
  ƒNoƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒÚƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ?
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÑ http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/
   ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒàƒáƒàƒâƒí. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒÓ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒßƒåƒä ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒãƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒãƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒå-ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÜƒå. ƒ´ƒàƒä, ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒå, ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒßƒÖƒÞƒíƒäƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒåƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒå ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÛ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒàƒâƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ. ƒRƒàƒÝ, ƒÚ ƒäƒÓƒàƒ× ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ, ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒíƒáƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ: ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒåƒãƒàƒÜ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒî ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà? ƒ³ƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒ×ƒä. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒåƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒîƒÞƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒ, ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒàƒÒƒíƒÜƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒâƒÖƒÜ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí-ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ. ƒ³ƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜ 'ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒî ƒãƒàƒÝƒßƒèƒå' ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒ-ƒÑƒÞƒí - ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒÖƒÑƒßƒÑ. ƒª ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÙƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒßƒÖƒÞ* ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒâƒÖƒáƒÖƒäƒßƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒäƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒäƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ... ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖƒãƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒÛ, ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒí ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒí ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒèƒí.
  ____________________
  *ƒNoƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÖƒß, ƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ - ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒíƒâƒî... 1937 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, 1867 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  
  ƒºƒÑƒÔ ƒÙƒÑ ƒêƒÑƒÔƒàƒÞ
   ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ. 2006 -16 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.
  
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒà ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ, ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒãƒàƒÞƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒàƒßƒÖƒâƒàƒÜ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒãƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ×, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒÖƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ....
  ƒ¯ƒà ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒî ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒàƒÒ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒäƒÖƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒà ƒßƒÚƒç. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒñ, ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒå ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚ. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒñƒéƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ³ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ ƒÖƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒí ƒãƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒØƒÖ ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð: 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ ƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç!'.
  ƒÁ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ¯ƒå ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ? ƒNoƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ?'. ƒ¡ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒñ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒå? ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒå? ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ?'. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒäƒÖƒäƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒí ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒÕƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒßƒÖƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒñƒãƒî ƒà ƒäƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒñ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ? ƒ¯ƒå ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå? ƒÁ ƒÒƒí ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¿ƒç, ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÒƒí ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒäƒâƒÚƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒÝƒÖƒéƒà...
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÕƒñƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒ-ƒ×ƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒÖƒ× ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖ 'ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒà', ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñƒÞ. ƒª ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð.
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ, ƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒéƒÑƒëƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå, ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÜƒÚ, ƒÖƒ× ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒî ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå. ƒ?ƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒà 'ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚ' ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÑƒç.
  ƒª ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒñ ƒïƒäƒà ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒãƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà. ƒª ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÚ...
  
  ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ) ƒªƒâƒÑƒÚƒÕƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå
  
  ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÓ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒà, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÖƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà (ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒîƒÖ, ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒÑ). ƒƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒî. ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒäƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒîƒðƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒÖƒáƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒà... ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà!
  ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒåƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÖƒÛ ƒã ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚ. ƒ®ƒß ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÜ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ! ƒ³ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒàƒß ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒÕƒÚƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒñ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒáƒà ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒð ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ - ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÑƒñ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒéƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà 'ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑ', ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ. ƒ? ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒâƒ×ƒÞ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ.
  
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ-ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÜ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒâ.ƒá. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, 1998 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  ƒ÷ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒÕƒâƒåƒÙƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ - ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ, ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî, 'ƒáƒåƒäƒÖƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî' ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå ƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ 'ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ'. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ: ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÒƒíƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå, ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÙƒàƒßƒäƒí, - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒÒƒâƒàƒêƒðƒâƒÜƒå, ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒßƒÖƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒêƒâƒÚƒæƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒ¯ƒå ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÙƒâƒÑƒéƒßƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÓƒíƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖ?'. ƒªƒÙ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ 'ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕ', ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒÖƒÕƒîƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒßƒàƒÞƒÖƒâ! ƒ? ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒ? ƒØƒåƒäƒÜƒåƒð ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒãƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒã ƒÕƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒÞ, ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒéƒÚ ƒÓ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÖ, ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒåƒð ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒÖƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÛ: ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî 'ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ'! ƒ+ƒâƒàƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÓƒãƒÖ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî: ƒã 3-ƒÔƒà ƒáƒà 7-ƒàƒÛ ƒßƒàƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ! ƒRƒàƒãƒÚƒß, ƒƒÝƒîƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ? ƒRƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒÓƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒ¿ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒãƒÚƒñƒðƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒàƒÕƒÚƒéƒÜƒå ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ 'ƒáƒàƒâƒäƒâƒÖƒä' (ƒÓƒíƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒå ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí) 'ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒàƒÔƒà' ƒRƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒèƒÖƒÝƒåƒÛ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒÙƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒéƒÜƒà, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒñƒÖƒä. 'ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒð ƒà ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç'. ƒƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÜƒåƒáƒÑƒð ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒïƒÜƒÙƒÖƒÞƒáƒÝƒñƒâƒí ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ' ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒÑ. ƒ? ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒä 1994 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÔ. ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒåƒÔƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒß ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ - ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÞƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÖ - ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ - 'ƒàƒÒ ƒåƒÞƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜƒÖ'. ƒ® ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÕƒà 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ 'ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒèƒÖ (ƒÓƒÖƒãƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒéƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ)'. ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ: ƒàƒß ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒíƒáƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒç ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒä ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. 'ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒðƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒíƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÑƒÞƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒè, ƒÒƒÑƒßƒñ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒã ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒÖƒÛ'.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒí, ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒíƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒà ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒÑ! ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ³ƒÑƒÞ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ - ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒêƒÖƒÕƒêƒÖƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÜƒÖ. ƒ? 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒèƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ - ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí - ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒð) ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ?ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÚƒãƒÖƒäƒîƒñ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ - ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ - ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 1719-30 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒƒæƒÚƒÞ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ 1753 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ 'ƒî' - ƒƒƒåƒâƒîƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒà ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî - ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ, ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒÖƒÛ (ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí ƒÓ 1788 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå), ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒä, ƒƒƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒã ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÛ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒí - ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒØƒå ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÒƒÖƒãƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒå: 'ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒñ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒð ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒàƒÒ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç? ƒ?ƒí ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ?'.
  - ƒ¯ƒÖƒä, ƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ!
  ƒNoƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ, ƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÚ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÞ: ƒêƒåƒÞ 'ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ' ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÒƒà, ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒêƒåƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒØƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ¡ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒà - ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî, ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÝƒàƒß ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà. ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒá, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒãƒàƒÓ...
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒñ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒÕƒå, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒêƒå ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒª ƒàƒß ƒàƒäƒÓƒ×ƒÙ!
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ÷ƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒßƒà ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä, ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ. 'ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ'... ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ. ƒ¸ƒÓƒÖƒäƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒîƒÖ. ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒéƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÜƒàƒéƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒÖ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒä. ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒí. ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒç-ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ. ƒª ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÖ. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒå ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒßƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒã ƒàƒÒƒÝƒàƒØƒÜƒÚ 'ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ' ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒã! ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖ:
  -ƒ?ƒàƒß ƒãƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒÑƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÖ. ƒ?ƒàƒß ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒÚƒç ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÝƒàƒáƒåƒçƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒª ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒãƒÜƒåƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÓƒÑƒß-ƒéƒÑƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒàƒÒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ. ƒ+ƒà ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒñƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÛƒÞƒå. ƒ¡ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí...
  ƒÁ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä 'ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî' ƒáƒÖƒÛƒÙƒÑƒØ, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒð... ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒî...
  ƒ³ƒÚƒØƒå ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒå ƒàƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚ 'ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ', ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñƒç. ƒNoƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÜ:
  -ƒNoƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÛƒäƒÖ. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÙƒàƒÓƒåƒä ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒÁ - ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒàƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ...
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ XVIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÖƒ× ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒã 1750-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜ.
  ƒÁ, ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒãƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ - ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒå ƒïƒáƒàƒçƒå. ƒ? 1859 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒä ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒå ƒÓ ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ, ƒáƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒåƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ, ƒßƒÖƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ (ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ), ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. 'ƒ? ƒâƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒåƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒÖƒßƒí 35 ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÚƒç 17 ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒàƒÓ'. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒÚƒÝ. ƒª ƒãƒåƒÕ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, 'ƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒß ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ'.
  ƒ³ƒÚƒØƒå ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒ³ƒà ƒÓƒÜƒåƒãƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒáƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒ¢ƒÚƒâƒðƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ 'ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒƒƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå'. ƒª ƒÓƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ, ƒßƒÑ 37 ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒÕƒÑƒÝƒà ƒäƒ×ƒáƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÛ: ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä 'ƒÚƒßƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí, ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒ+.ƒª. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒæƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒÝƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ'.*
  ____________________
  *ƒ³ 2006 ƒáƒà 2016 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒ+.ƒª. ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒÙƒÑƒñƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ. ƒ®ƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒðƒÕƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒèƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒí. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÒƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒíƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÝƒàƒáƒÑƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ... ƒª ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒØƒÖ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ.
  
  ƒ¯ƒå ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒèƒí, ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒÚ!
  ƒ¢ƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÚ ƒ+.ƒª. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒñ ƒÚƒëƒå ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒãƒí ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ, ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ - ƒßƒÚƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒ?.ƒ+. ƒ¢ƒÚƒâƒÒƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒã ƒ+.ƒª. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒð ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒáƒàƒâƒéƒÖƒßƒà ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÒƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒßƒÚƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå, ƒÓƒíƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ+.ƒª. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒã ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ? ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ!
  ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÑƒð ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí 75-80, ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ 'ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ', ƒä.ƒÖ. ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒåƒéƒ×ƒäƒÑ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ (ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓ), ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒî ƒã 1672 ƒáƒà 1703 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. '...ƒ? 206 (1698) ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå...ƒ³ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÁƒâƒå ƒNoƒàƒäƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒßƒêƒÚƒßƒÜƒå ƒáƒà ƒãƒíƒÕƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà ƒã ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÑ ƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒä'. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ! ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ!
  ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÓ 1698 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒÓƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÑ ƒNoƒàƒäƒÖƒñ. ƒ³ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ ƒÞƒàƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒß ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà - ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ 'ƒÔƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑ'. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ. ƒ? ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÁƒâƒÖ. ƒ¡ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒïƒäƒà? ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒå. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ (ƒàƒß ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ) ƒÚ ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ (ƒàƒß ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ). ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒå, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. 'ƒ¡ ƒéƒîƒÚ ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒåƒä?' - 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒí!'. ƒ¡ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà, ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛƒßƒÑƒñ: ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒÚƒÞƒñ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒNoƒàƒäƒÖƒÖƒÓƒí ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî... ƒ¯ƒÖƒáƒàƒßƒñƒäƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÑ 'ƒÝƒàƒßƒêƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ'. ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒß ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒî ƒ?. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒñ. 'ƒ-ƒ®ƒ¯ƒª, ƒ-ƒ®ƒ¯ƒªƒ³ƒ? - ƒßƒÑƒâ. ƒãƒÖƒÓ. ƒÓƒàƒãƒä. - ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÕƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå... ƒ-ƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒÜ, ƒÝƒàƒßƒêƒÑƒÜ (ƒÞ.ƒâ.), ƒÝƒàƒßƒêƒÑƒéƒÜƒÑ (ƒØ.ƒâ.) - ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒàƒãƒàƒÒ. ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒñ...'. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ ƒÞƒàƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒð. ƒ·ƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî... ƒ²ƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒà! ƒ¸ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒÞƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ: ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒã ƒäƒÖƒÞƒßƒà-ƒâƒíƒØƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒã ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒäƒàƒÛ.
  ƒ³ƒÚƒØƒå, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒð ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒëƒÑ. ƒNoƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÜ:
  -ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ! ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ¡ ƒ?ƒí ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒîƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ?
  -ƒ¥ƒÑ???
  ƒ¥ƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÚƒßƒÑƒéƒÖ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒð. ƒ+ƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒã ƒäƒÑƒÞƒàƒêƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒí ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä: 'ƒ¡ ƒÓƒí ƒßƒÑƒê!'. ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒéƒÑƒð: 'ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒÝƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí'.
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒí!
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒãƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî. ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ.
  'ƒ+ƒÖƒáƒÖƒÝ ƒƒƒÝƒÑƒÑƒãƒÑ ƒãƒäƒåƒéƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ',- ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒ´ƒÚƒÝƒî ƒ÷ƒÝƒÖƒßƒêƒáƒÚƒÔƒÖƒÝƒî. ƒª ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÖƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒÞƒà ƒÒƒîƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÑƒç. ƒ¢ƒàƒÔ ƒÕƒÑƒãƒä, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  ƒã 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà,
   ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 2006-2016 ƒÔƒÔ.
  
  ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÖ!
   ƒRƒí, ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒí, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒà - ƒÓ ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒîƒÞƒÚ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¸ƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ'. ƒÁ ƒïƒäƒå ƒæƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ... ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒà ƒÞƒÑƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒã ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑ. ƒ³ƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ ƒã ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   -ƒÁ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒå, - ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. - ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÑƒÔƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒã ƒàƒäƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒäƒÖƒâƒáƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ: ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒª ƒñ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒð ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ... ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÚ - ƒƒÓƒâƒÖƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒíƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒÒ ƒƒÓƒâƒÖƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç.
  ƒÁ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñƒç: ƒàƒÒ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒìƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒRƒí ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒí ƒÙƒÑƒàƒéƒßƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒàƒéƒßƒà, ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒã ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒÓƒàƒÕƒßƒåƒð:
  -ƒ+ƒÚƒêƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒñ ƒã ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒÒƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÚƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒÁ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð ƒÕƒÑƒäƒí ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí, ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒí ƒàƒä 1748 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ 'ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒâƒç ƒáƒà
   ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒå' ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî 'ƒáƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ' ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒå ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒå.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒìƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ:
  -ƒNoƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÛƒäƒÖ! - ƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒáƒàƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ:
   - ƒÁ - ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà - ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒí ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒí ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 1995 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓ 1987, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒàƒßƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà 'ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒà', ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒÜƒàƒÞƒå-ƒÜƒäƒà.
  -ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÑ! ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒñ!- ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. - ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ! ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒØƒÖ!
  ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒìƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒí: ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ: ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ:
  - ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð!
  - ƒ¥ƒÑ?!
  - ƒ´ƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒêƒÑ-ƒÑƒÔƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒêƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ!
  - ƒ¥ƒÑ!!! ƒ¡ ƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒä!
  ƒ®ƒÒƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
  ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒêƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ. ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒçƒå ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒà. ƒÁ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî: ƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÝƒÚ? ƒ÷ƒØ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒãƒäƒâƒðƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ?ƒÜƒåƒãƒßƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ!
  ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒñƒØƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒâƒåƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒà. ƒÁ ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒåƒäƒÖƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ...'. ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒð ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÑ. ƒª ƒÓƒßƒÖƒêƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒàƒÕƒâƒÚƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ... ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒãƒÚƒÝƒí? ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒå ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1925, ƒÜ ƒäƒâƒÚƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ... ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ 1911-ƒàƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÜƒÖ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ 'ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç'... ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÚ, ƒà ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÚƒç ƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ.
   ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒð ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒàƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒÑ - ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒª ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÜ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ...
  ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒñƒÞ: ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ!
  -ƒ¯ƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒí ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÛ? - ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒÑƒÞ, ƒã ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒî.
  ƒÁ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒð: ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÚ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒäƒî 'ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà'.
  
  
   ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒí 'ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ' ƒßƒÑƒã ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒã ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒÚƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå. ƒ®ƒÒƒÖƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒî, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà....
  ƒ¯ƒà ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒí ƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒàƒñƒÞƒÚ...!
  -ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà!- ƒåƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ.- ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒí ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî ƒÝƒàƒØƒÑƒäƒãƒñ!
  -ƒ¡ ƒÝƒñƒÔƒåƒä?- ƒåƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒñ. - ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚ-ƒäƒà, ƒéƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä: ƒÓƒãƒð ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒØƒåƒØƒØƒÑƒä.
  -ƒ-ƒñƒÔƒåƒä ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà!
  ƒª ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒí ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ ƒßƒàƒéƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî! ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒßƒñ! ƒ¡ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÞƒàƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒàƒéƒîƒð ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒªƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒà, ƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒå ƒÞƒàƒêƒÖƒÜ?
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà (ƒàƒß ƒåƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒßƒÑƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà) ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ ƒÒƒÑƒñƒßƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒÖƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒñƒØƒßƒà, ƒßƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒêƒßƒà, ƒÔƒâƒåƒãƒäƒßƒà. ƒ¥ƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÕ ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒñƒç.
  'ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒå ƒÞƒàƒð' ƒãƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒÚƒÞƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ.
  ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒÑƒä ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÞ - ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒåƒßƒÑ. ƒÁƒãƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ³ƒßƒÚƒÙƒå ƒÓƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ! ƒ·ƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ! ƒÁ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ! ƒ³ƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒä ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒäƒåƒä ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒí ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ. ƒª ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒå ƒÚ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒð.
  
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒí, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒðƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
  
   -ƒ?ƒí ƒÜƒäƒà?- ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ.
  -ƒRƒí - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ,- ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒéƒÑƒð ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒð ƒßƒÑƒêƒå ƒÜƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒéƒÜƒå.
  -ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒí ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ?
  ƒÁ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒðƒãƒî: 'ƒ¯ƒå ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒñ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ?'.
  -ƒ¯ƒÖƒä, ƒñ ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒÙƒßƒà! ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒí, ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛ ƒã ƒäƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒå. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒí ƒÓƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒÚ! ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒêƒî?
  -ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒå,- ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒéƒÑƒð ƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒå ƒäƒå ƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒî ƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç - ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒíƒç, ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒã ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ.
   ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÕ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ? ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒß ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÑƒç? ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ? ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒñƒãƒßƒà. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒî ƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒî.
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÓƒäƒâƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ:
  -ƒRƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ®ƒß ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñƒç.
  -ƒ¡ ƒÜ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÞ?
  
  
  -ƒª ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÞ.
  'ƒ³ƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÚ' (ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒí) ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÑ!
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒNoƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ.
  -ƒ³ƒÑƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ?- ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ.
  -ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒ¡ƒÜ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒØ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÒƒíƒäƒî? ƒ+ƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑƒØƒå ƒÙƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×...
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÜƒà ƒÚ ƒã ƒðƒÞƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ! ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ¨ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ! ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒà ƒáƒñƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÕƒîƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒà! ƒª ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒä: ƒÞƒí - ƒßƒÖ 'ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒí, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒñƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ', ƒÞƒí ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ!
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒñ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ. XVII-XVIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒäƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒà: ƒÒƒÑƒêƒÜƒÚƒâƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒñƒä ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¸ƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒîƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÝƒíƒÖ: ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ! ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒßƒå, ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ¢ƒÖƒÔƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ 'ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒî': ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒäƒî. ƒ¡ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã: 'ƒ®ƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ?', ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒî: 'ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð', ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒíƒëƒåƒä... ƒ®ƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: 'ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ'.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ® ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ 'ƒNoƒÑ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒäƒî 4-ƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ' ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒØƒÖ!.. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ²ƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÑ ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. 'ƒƒƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒáƒÚƒâƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÖƒâƒÒƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ'. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÜƒÓƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒÒ ƒåƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒñƒÛƒèƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà - ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒà, ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà - ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ: ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî.
  
  
  ƒ²ƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÑ, 1927 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ.
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒæƒâƒÑƒÞƒÑ
  
  -ƒ¡ ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà?- ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒãƒî.
  -ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒêƒî. ƒÁƒÛƒèƒÑ ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÜƒåƒâ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí - ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒ×ƒÞ. ƒ·ƒàƒéƒÖƒêƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒêƒî, ƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ,- ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ.- ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑƒã ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒ×ƒçƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ! ƒ¡ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒå ƒÓƒíƒÙƒàƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä: 'ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ 300 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ'. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÝƒ×ƒÙƒí: 'ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒØ ƒÚƒç ƒÓƒÙƒñƒäƒî?'.
   - ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒêƒîƒãƒñ - ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ!...
  -ƒ¡ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî?- ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð.
  -ƒ÷ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒí ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ¡ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÙƒ×ƒä: ƒäƒàƒáƒÑƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ, ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒßƒñƒÝ...
  ƒ³ƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒð, ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, 'ƒ¡ƒÔƒâƒàƒ?ƒ÷ƒ-ƒÑƒÔ', ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¢ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà: ƒáƒàƒâƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÞ. ƒ¯ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒêƒÖƒÜ, ƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒäƒî: ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 12-ƒäƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒàƒäƒÕƒíƒç.
  ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒåƒÞƒîƒñƒç ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒÑ... ƒÁ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒà: ƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒÖ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÓƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî-ƒäƒà! ƒ¢ƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÚ, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒÚ! ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒâƒåƒÕƒîƒð ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÝƒÖƒéƒÑƒç ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒàƒãƒíƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÒƒí ƒÓƒíƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ - ƒÕƒåƒâƒÑƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒå ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ÷ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ.
  ƒÁ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒå.
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒàƒä ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒã ƒÒƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒƒëƒ× ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒð - ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒàƒä ƒ?.ƒR. ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ? ƒßƒ×ƒÞ - ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒí ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç: ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ 'ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒñƒÞ', ƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒå. 'ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒÁ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒßƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒÖƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÓƒéƒÑƒâƒßƒñ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ'.
  
  ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî...
  ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ!
  ƒÁ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒêƒå.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒã 2007 ƒáƒà 2011 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒæƒàƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒ³.ƒ¡. ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒåƒäƒÖƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ
  
  ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ - ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒñ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒí ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî...
  ƒRƒí ƒã ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÚƒðƒÝƒÖ 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ.
  ƒ¥ƒÓƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒØƒåƒäƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÑƒâƒÑ: ƒáƒÝƒðƒã 33! ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÚ - ƒêƒäƒàƒâƒÞƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖƒâ, ƒÕƒàƒØƒÕƒî, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒÞƒÚ:
  -ƒ¡ ƒÓƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒåƒéƒÚƒÖ! ƒ?ƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒØƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà 47 ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒåƒãƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÝƒßƒíƒêƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñ - ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒðƒã 23!
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒäƒî ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ.
  ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ: - ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî 'ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ'.
  ƒ®ƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ. ƒƒƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ - ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒÑ... ƒ¥ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé: - ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒåƒä ƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÜƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ - ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒéƒÑƒâƒßƒñ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÝ. ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒæƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒñƒÔƒßƒñƒä ƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒä. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒíƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒÖƒâƒÞƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒí ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒí.
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ? 1958 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. 'ƒ³ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒç'. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÔƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒå ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ ƒã ƒÔƒàƒâƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒà.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ?ƒßƒÚƒÙƒå, ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒñ ƒÒƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒñ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒíƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞƒäƒÖ, ƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒê ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒØƒå.
  ƒ®ƒäƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒå ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÙ ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé! ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: - ƒ¥ƒÑ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒå-ƒäƒà...
  ƒ³ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒå.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒÁ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ. ƒ³ƒÔƒßƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒ×ƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒâƒåƒÒƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒÑ ƒãƒâƒåƒÒƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒäƒàƒâƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒÝƒÚƒÝ ƒæƒàƒßƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ 30 ƒÓ ƒÕƒÚƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒãƒåƒÙƒÚƒÝ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒä, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí ƒåƒäƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒªƒãƒçƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå. ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒè: ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ! ƒª ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒØƒÑƒâƒå!
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒÛ. ƒ¡ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî - ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒÜ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒÖ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå, ƒäƒÑƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÖ, ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒRƒí ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒÞ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ:
  -ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒåƒä ƒáƒäƒÚƒèƒí ƒÖƒãƒäƒî? ƒRƒí ƒã ƒ®ƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒåƒð ƒçƒÚƒëƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒäƒÚƒèƒå.
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒâƒêƒåƒß.
  -ƒ¡ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÖ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ?
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¥ƒÑ. ƒªƒç ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒáƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä. ...ƒ÷ ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ 'ƒ+ƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚ'.
  -ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå?
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 'ƒNoƒåƒÛƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ': 'ƒNoƒåƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒÕƒåƒä'. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 'ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÚƒêƒÑƒÞƒÚ', ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ 'ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÚƒêƒÑƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ'. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÚƒëƒÑ.
  ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ®.ƒ'.): - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ - ƒ®ƒäƒâƒÖƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒí, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒð-ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒð ƒêƒÑƒáƒÜƒå, ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒäƒàƒâƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒçƒÞƒàƒäƒîƒñ, ƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒáƒîƒñ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒç.
  -ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÚƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒí?
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒèƒÚƒÜƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÛ. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒíƒãƒñƒéƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ - ƒáƒàƒâƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà, ƒã ƒØƒÖƒÝƒäƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ, - ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒà - ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒã.
  -ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå 'ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒã'?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒã - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒãƒàƒÜ, ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÛ. ƒ³ ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒàƒÜ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒäƒãƒíƒáƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒåƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ. ƒ´ƒâƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÔƒßƒÖƒåƒáƒàƒâƒßƒåƒð ƒÔƒÝƒÚƒßƒå ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÖ - ƒàƒÔƒßƒÖƒåƒáƒàƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒàƒÜ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÔƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒàƒÜ 60 ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒßƒàƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒÜƒÑƒç.
  -ƒ÷ ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒéƒäƒà, ƒÔƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÒƒíƒÝ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¯ƒÖƒä. ƒƒƒâƒåƒÔƒÝƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒãƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒåƒñ ƒÜƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒßƒéƒÚƒÜ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÝƒßƒíƒêƒÜƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒØƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒØƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒß ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒëƒÖ. ƒ®ƒß ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒRƒí ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÓƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÓƒÑƒÜ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒâƒí. ƒ? ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí, ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒåƒÔƒåƒßƒàƒÜ ƒã ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÕƒßƒÖ. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒåƒÒƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒåƒð ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÙƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÜƒàƒâƒå, ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒå ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒéƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒäƒñƒÔƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÞƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒíƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒØƒÓƒÑƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒéƒåƒÔƒåƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒÔƒàƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒáƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¨ƒÓƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒØƒåƒðƒä ƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒéƒÜƒå. ƒÁ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒØƒÓƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒà: ƒàƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÙƒÝƒà ƒÓƒíƒäƒñƒÔƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒÑ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÚ. ƒ®ƒãƒÖƒâƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà - ƒáƒàƒØƒåƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒä... ƒ¯ƒå, ƒéƒäƒà, ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒå?
  -ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒÞƒäƒÖ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå 'ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÑ'?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: - ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒðƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÙƒí. ƒªƒç ƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒÓ ƒÚƒðƒßƒÖ-ƒÚƒðƒÝƒÖ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÙƒñƒä: ƒßƒÖƒâƒÓƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÒƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒðƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÙƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÑ.
  -ƒ÷ ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà!
  ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒå. ƒ÷ƒáƒ×ƒâƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒàƒÓƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒÜ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ®ƒÒƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒÞ. ƒ®ƒÓƒâƒÑƒØƒÜƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ®ƒß ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔ ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒàƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ... ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÓƒâƒÑƒØƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒÓƒâƒÑƒÔ ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒà ƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ, ƒàƒß ƒÜƒâƒÚƒÜƒßƒåƒÝ 'ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒåƒÝ', ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒå ƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà. ƒ?ƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒåƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ 3, ƒÑ 4: ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒNoƒÑƒÕƒßƒñƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÖ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒíƒç. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒíƒç ƒÒƒâƒ×ƒÓƒÖƒß. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒæƒåƒßƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ 10 ƒßƒÑ 10.
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞ, ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒä ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒà ƒÜ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒà: ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒ×ƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ (ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ) ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒä ƒÔƒÕƒÖ?...
  ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä, ƒéƒäƒà, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÙ, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒä, ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒåƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÔƒåƒÕƒàƒÜ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÔƒÕƒÖ-ƒäƒà 1896 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒð ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒå ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî... ƒ¥ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÜƒå: ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ.
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒßƒÑƒÒƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒßƒÜƒå. ƒƒƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà-ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà! ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÔƒàƒëƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¯ƒå ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒåƒéƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒßƒÜƒÚ! ƒ?ƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒí ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒÖƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî: ƒåƒäƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí.
  ƒ?ƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÜƒå. ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒãƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒßƒÚ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¢ƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÚƒÕ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒàƒä ƒãƒßƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒßƒîƒñ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒéƒ×ƒâƒÜƒÚ.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÖ - ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒÖ 1905 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒêƒÜƒå 'ƒ®ƒáƒàƒÙƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒå: ƒáƒàƒãƒÓƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒè?'.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî. ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒØ ƒÖƒëƒ×?
  ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß. ƒRƒí ƒã ƒ®ƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî:
  -ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒí ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ?
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ...
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¡ ƒÓ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒâ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ?ƒíƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒí.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒà ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒâ ƒßƒÚƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà. ƒ? ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒã 1900-ƒíƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð... ƒ+ƒâƒà ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒâ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ? ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒãƒäƒâƒà? ƒƒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒî 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒî ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ? ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒ³ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ+ƒà ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒð 'ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒÑ' (ƒã ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑ 'ƒÚ') - ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒäƒàƒÖ ƒâƒåƒãƒÝƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒà ƒåƒÙƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒàƒáƒÚƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ 2 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒÑ! ƒ³ƒáƒåƒÔƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÝƒñƒÔƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ
  ƒÒƒåƒÝƒîƒÜƒßƒåƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒàƒÜ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà: ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ. ƒ-ƒñƒÔƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒâƒñƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä.
   ƒ+ƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ?ƒÜƒåƒãƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ·ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ - ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒèƒÖ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒÁ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒñ. ƒ´ƒàƒØƒÖ, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒÜƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ.
  -ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä 'ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ'?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÓƒâƒÑƒØƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒèƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð ƒéƒÖƒÛ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÞƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒí, ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ...
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: - ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÑƒÕ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒÁ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '8-ƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ' ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒå 'ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ' ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒåƒéƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒäƒî. ƒªƒÔƒâƒÑƒäƒî-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒäƒàƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ, ƒã ƒØƒÖƒÝƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒäƒîƒð. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒî! ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ!
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒÁ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒªƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒå ƒéƒäƒà? ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ.
  ƒ®.ƒ'.: -ƒ¡ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒñƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒƒƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ?ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒâ - ƒáƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒêƒäƒâƒÑƒæ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒå ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà 3-5 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ - ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÜ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ: ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ, ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÖƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒíƒáƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÖ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî?
  ƒ®ƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ:
  -97.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒà ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒíƒÓƒÑ 1957 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑ...
  ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¥ƒÑ! ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ! ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒØƒÑƒâƒÜƒà, ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÜ ƒãƒÕƒåƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä. ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒé ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒç. ƒƒƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒç ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÚƒØƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒç ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒé ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒä ƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒëƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ! ƒªƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒà. ƒ¡ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒNoƒÞƒÖƒñ-ƒ?ƒàƒâƒíƒßƒíƒéƒÑ.
  ƒÁ: -ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒïƒäƒà?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ?ƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÔƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒêƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜ ƒã ƒçƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒNoƒÞƒÖƒñ-ƒ?ƒàƒâƒíƒßƒíƒéƒÑ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØ.
  ƒ®.ƒ'.: -ƒ¡ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒêƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒñ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.(ƒãƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ): - ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒNoƒÞƒÖƒÛ-ƒ?ƒàƒâƒíƒßƒíƒé. ƒ¡ ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒã ƒ¢ƒÑƒÛƒÜƒàƒßƒåƒâƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÜƒÖƒäƒí ƒÙƒÑƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÒƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒðƒÔƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖ.
  ƒ¡.ƒª.: -ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÖ: ƒßƒÖƒÒƒà ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÖ ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒRƒí ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî: 'ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÒƒí ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒà?'.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒñƒÕƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒíƒÓƒí. ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒà. ƒª ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒÔƒàƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà... ƒ¡ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑ-ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒî.
  ƒNoƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ³ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒñ ƒÓƒàƒß ƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÒƒíƒãƒäƒâƒà ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒä. ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒáƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÓ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÞ 38 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒåƒØƒÖ.
  ƒ®.ƒ'.: -ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä 'ƒÜƒÑƒáƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ'?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒßƒîƒÚ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÝƒÖƒéƒÑƒä. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÚ - ƒÚ ƒäƒ×ƒÞƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒðƒä: ƒÜƒÝƒÚƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒäƒñƒÔƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÕƒñƒä. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒª ƒÓƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑƒÞ 'ƒÜƒÑƒáƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ'.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒä, ƒÜƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÞƒàƒâƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒâƒàƒéƒÑƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒÞƒåƒäƒñƒä. ƒ³ƒãƒàƒâƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÖƒÖ... ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà!
  ƒ+ƒàƒàƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÑƒßƒÕƒÖ. ƒ·ƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà! ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ!
  ƒƒƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ-ƒäƒà 'ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑƒêƒßƒÚƒÞ'.
  ƒÁ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÝƒð ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒäƒñƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒßƒà. ƒ¡ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî...
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒêƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÖ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒå ƒã ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒåƒð-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒÓƒÙƒñƒäƒî: ƒâƒÚƒã ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒà... ƒÁ ƒâƒÚƒã ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒí. ƒRƒí ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒäƒåƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒí. ƒÁ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒð ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒå, ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒäƒåƒä ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖƒß ƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒñƒßƒÚ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚ ƒÚƒÞ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ!'. ƒ¡ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒêƒîƒãƒñ, ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒî.
   ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒëƒÚƒáƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑƒç ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒ×ƒÙƒí ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ... ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ! ƒ¥ƒÑƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí!
  
  
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÔƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ-ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ
   ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ?ƒÑƒêƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒí ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒåƒÒƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ 1923 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÚƒßƒÑƒéƒÖ. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÔƒâƒàƒÒƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒà. ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒíƒç. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒä: ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÞƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÛ...
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒä. ƒ´ƒÖƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ³ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒà.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒà, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ...
  ƒÁ: -ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑ... ƒÁ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒåƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒå ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝ... ƒ¡ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä, ƒàƒä ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒä.
  ƒ®.ƒ'.: -ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒí ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒïƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒªƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒãƒî. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ: ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒà. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒä 60-65 ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ. ƒ÷ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒèƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÞ.
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒí ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒí ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ: ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä. ƒ+ƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖ ƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç.
  ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÒƒÚƒëƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚƒäƒÜƒå. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÖƒêƒÑ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå.
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒå - ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÓƒîƒð ƒã ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÝƒñ, ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒðƒãƒî. ƒƒƒàƒÞƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî: ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒäƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ:
  -ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒñ! ƒÁ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÝƒðƒÕƒÑƒð, ƒÕƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒí ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒíƒç ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÚƒêƒî, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒ×: 'ƒÔƒÝƒåƒçƒàƒÛ-ƒÔƒÝƒåƒçƒàƒÛ'.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒî ƒÕƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒå, ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒî. ƒÁ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð ƒà ƒéƒåƒÕƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ: ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ, ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒí, ƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ - ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ...
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÑƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ:
  -ƒ÷ ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÚƒÜ ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒå ƒæƒÖƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ!
  ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒí, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒëƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà: ƒåƒðƒäƒßƒà, ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒà, ƒêƒäƒàƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒêƒÖƒÒƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ.
  ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÓƒîƒð. ƒª ƒáƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒåƒØƒÚƒßƒÑƒäƒî.
  ƒ÷ƒØƒÚƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ:
  -ƒ÷ƒÒƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒà. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒäƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒà ƒãƒßƒÖƒÔƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ.
  -ƒºƒÚƒêƒäƒàƒÜ,- ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä:
  - ƒƒƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä: 'ƒƒƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒØƒÜƒå ƒÓƒíƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒäƒî?' ƒÁ - ƒÖƒÛ: 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒß, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒêƒÚƒêƒäƒàƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÚ'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒêƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑ'. ƒÁ: 'ƒ¡ ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒïƒäƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ? ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒÞ'.
  -ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ 'ƒêƒÚƒêƒäƒàƒÜ'?
  -ƒºƒÚƒêƒäƒàƒÜ? - ƒºƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒå ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÔƒÕƒÖ?
  ƒ®ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒÔƒàƒßƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒß, ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÞƒåƒãƒàƒâ ƒãƒÕƒÓƒÚƒÔƒÑƒðƒä ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒéƒî, ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒãƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÖƒä.
  -ƒƒƒâƒÑƒäƒéƒÖ - ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒáƒàƒäƒÚƒçƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒå.
  -ƒ÷ƒäƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ - ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒäƒÚƒçƒÚƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ.
  -ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÓƒÖƒã ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÓƒÑ - ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÚƒÙƒå ƒÚ ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÜƒå ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÚ.
  ƒ-ƒÖƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒà-ƒäƒÚƒçƒà. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒãƒáƒñƒä, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒå ƒåƒãƒßƒåƒäƒî: ƒÕƒ×ƒâƒÔƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒàƒÔƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒàƒäƒâƒàƒÕƒñƒãƒî ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒçƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒà, ƒÑ ƒÓ 6.30 ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÕƒà. ƒ? 7 ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒñ, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ®ƒÝƒñ:
  -ƒ?ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒæ! ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒØƒÕƒåƒä ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ!
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒæ ƒ³ƒÖƒß ƒ¨ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÖƒß ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒÝƒåƒÔƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒà ƒåƒäƒâƒÑƒÞ: 'ƒ?ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒæ! ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒØƒÕƒåƒä ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ!'.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
   ƒÁ: -ƒ¡ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒã?
  -7.30.
  -ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒØ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒßƒà ƒØƒÕƒåƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ?
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñ ƒáƒà ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒå ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÓƒîƒð ƒã ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒã ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒÜ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ.
  ƒNoƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ:
  -ƒ¡ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ - ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒßƒîƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ. ƒ³ ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ - ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒã, ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ - ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒá ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 'ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî'. ƒ®ƒß ƒå ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒÓƒíƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒäƒà ƒÞƒÑƒãƒÝƒà, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒñƒÛƒèƒÑ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒæƒîƒñ ƒƒƒâƒíƒãƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÖƒ× ƒàƒäƒèƒå ƒáƒàƒá ƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÞƒñ 'ƒƒƒâƒíƒãƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÛ' ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒáƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒß ƒƒƒâƒíƒãƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ. ƒª ƒãƒÞƒÖƒç, ƒÚ ƒÔƒâƒÖƒç! ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒäƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖ!'.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ. ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ 'ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒßƒÚ - ƒÔƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ'. ƒ?ƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÚƒä ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒßƒà. ƒƒ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ÷ƒÔƒàƒëƒÖƒßƒîƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒã, ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒäƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒÔƒàƒëƒÑƒäƒî... ƒ¥ƒÑ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒñ ƒãƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ...
  ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÓƒîƒð, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ. ƒ¡ƒç, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÑƒÓƒÚƒèƒÑ!
  
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ. ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑƒç - ƒãƒÞƒÖƒêƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒäƒñƒäƒÜƒÚ. ƒª ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ ƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ!
  ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÓƒîƒð, ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒƒ ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ: ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒåƒä! ƒ¯ƒå ƒÚ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ! ƒ¯ƒå ƒÚ ƒïƒßƒÖƒâƒÔƒÚƒñ! ƒ¯ƒå ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÒƒÑ! ƒ·ƒàƒçƒàƒéƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÚƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞ!
  ƒ÷ ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
  ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ:
  -ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÙƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒñƒãƒî, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒêƒÝƒðƒä.
  ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒØƒÖ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî? ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 1929 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒàƒßƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒâƒãƒÜ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒª ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ.
  ƒª ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ.
  ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ:
  -ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ: ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒß ƒÞƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ? ƒ¢ƒåƒÒƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ? ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ? ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÒƒåƒÒƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒñ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ: ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî.
  ƒÁ: -ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé! ƒÁ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒâƒà ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÛƒè ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ... ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒð ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒð ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî 'ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ', ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒäƒåƒä ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒäƒí'... ƒ?ƒí ƒéƒäƒà-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ?
  ƒ?.ƒ¡.: -ƒ¥ƒÑ. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒð. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒ¢ƒàƒ×ƒÓ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒêƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ 5-6 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒå ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÚƒç ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ×, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ: ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒ ƒáƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ 25 ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ! ƒÁ-ƒäƒà, ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒåƒØƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒà ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒÑƒäƒî?'. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒçƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ: ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒåƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒÛƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑƒâƒð ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒåƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ-ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒÚ. ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÔƒÚƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒÖ: ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒÑƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¡ ƒ¢ƒàƒ×ƒÓƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒáƒåƒãƒäƒñ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð, ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒéƒåƒØƒàƒÛ... ƒª ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒí ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ?
  -ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒà 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä - ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÓƒÑƒê ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÛ. ƒ®ƒß ƒÓ 70 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒßƒîƒñƒç ƒÓƒíƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒíƒç ƒáƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ: 'ƒ¥ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒÜƒÚ? ƒƒƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÔƒàƒßƒÚƒä, ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒð ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒäƒßƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ!'. ...ƒ¡ ƒÓ 75 ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒÜ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ). ƒƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÖƒ× ƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ³ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå ƒêƒÝƒÑ... ƒäƒ×ƒäƒñ ƒÀƒÝƒñ! ƒ?ƒíƒÝƒÚƒäƒÑƒñ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒñ ƒÀƒÝƒñ, ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ.
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒNoƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒáƒâƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒßƒíƒÞ: ƒäƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜ, ƒäƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒðƒÞƒàƒâ, ƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÚƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒñ.
  'ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑƒç ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒà'.
  'ƒ¡ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà: ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒçƒÑ ƒã ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒíƒÓƒÑƒçƒàƒÛ...'.
  'ƒ¯ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒÖƒß, ƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒãƒÖƒß!'.
  ƒª ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ:
  'ƒRƒí ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒÞ' - ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ.
  'ƒ?ƒäƒÚƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ' - ƒÓƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒå.
  'ƒNoƒÑƒçƒâƒåƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒð ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÔƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÖ' - ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒèƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ³ƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒä: ƒÞƒí - ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒñ.
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÜƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒä ƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ... ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî... ƒRƒí ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒî...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³.ƒ¡., ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 2016 ƒÔ.
   ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒìƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî, ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ. ƒRƒíƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒáƒåƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
   ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒà ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒâƒåƒéƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç... ƒ¯ƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒàƒëƒÑƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒà ƒåƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒäƒÑƒñ, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÚƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒÁ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒØƒåƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒáƒÑƒâƒÑƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà - ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒäƒÚƒèƒí ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÝƒî ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç 'ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒáƒà'. ƒÁ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒàƒäƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÕƒí. ƒÁ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÑƒð ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒçƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒáƒàƒçƒå ƒåƒáƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒïƒäƒà - ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÑ. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñƒç.
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒàƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒáƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÔƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ×. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ - ƒÓƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒß ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒªƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒÞƒÖƒâƒèƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒßƒÑƒç, ƒäƒ×ƒÞƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒåƒïƒäƒí ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒãƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒí ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒÑƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç.
   -ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ, - ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒñ. - ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ - ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà... ƒ¯ƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒáƒåƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÙƒâƒÚƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÝƒî ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒåƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.
   ƒ-ƒÚƒêƒî ƒàƒÕƒÚƒéƒÑƒÓƒêƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒçƒàƒÝƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒñ. ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ, ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÓƒÝƒðƒÒƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒßƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ, ƒãƒãƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ¢ƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒãƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÙƒÕƒíƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒåƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒÚ.
   ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒÑƒÛƒß ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒä ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ? ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒßƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒÛ... ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒäƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒäƒî. ƒRƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒÚƒèƒí ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒåƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÑƒÝƒîƒÒƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒäƒÖƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ. ƒ®ƒèƒÖƒßƒñƒä ƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒí ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ? ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÒƒåƒÕƒàƒâƒÑƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒí.
   ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä, ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÔƒà? ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî? ƒ¡ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒð ƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒàƒâƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÑƒä ƒÓ ƒßƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÚƒêƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒÑƒñƒß, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒÔƒåƒä ƒÒƒàƒãƒíƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒáƒà ƒÞƒÖƒâƒèƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ, ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒñƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒí, ƒàƒëƒåƒäƒñƒä ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒî ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒî ƒÜƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ... ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ - ƒÒƒÖƒãƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÒƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñ.
   ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒØƒÜƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒ³ƒ×ƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ-ƒ´ƒñƒßƒî-ƒºƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ
  ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ: 'ƒ¢ƒíƒäƒî ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒÕƒñ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒà ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒéƒîƒ×-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒñƒâƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, - ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ
  ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒí ƒÓƒãƒáƒíƒçƒßƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒçƒàƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ? ƒ²ƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà 'ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä', ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒãƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ
  ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒßƒÚ - ƒâƒÖƒêƒÑƒðƒãƒî ƒÓƒÙƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒà...'.
   ƒ-ƒåƒéƒêƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒêƒî.
  
  
  
  ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³.ƒ¡. - ƒÕƒÚƒÙƒÑƒÛƒßƒÖƒâ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÑ ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒÀƒ÷ƒ²ƒ® ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ-) http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/ . ƒ-ƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒä: http://fotofokina.wix.com/fotofo
  
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß - ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  
   ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕƒÑ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓ 60-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒ®ƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒä: 'ƒ³ƒ×ƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒã ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞ'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒàƒäƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ: ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒåƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî. ƒ? 1737 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ (ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ): ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒñ, ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒñ, ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒïƒÜƒãƒáƒÖƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ. ƒªƒÙ ƒ´ƒàƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒãƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ²ƒíƒéƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ, ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà: 'ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒð, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒßƒíƒßƒÖƒêƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒä ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒí: ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ÷ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ; ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒåƒßƒäƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ÷ƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí (ƒRƒÚƒñƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒªƒäƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÒƒÑƒâƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ÷ƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒƒƒàƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ³ƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ). ƒ¥ƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒí ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒç ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒÑ) ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒä, ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒÚƒÞ, ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒñƒãƒå ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÖ ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒí: ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒß ƒÓ 1676 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå), ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒéƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÓ 1743 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå), ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒ?ƒåƒÞƒÝƒñƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà.
  ƒÒ) ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒä, ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒßƒÚƒØƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ÷ƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒÚ; ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒä. ƒÖ. ƒðƒØƒßƒÑƒñ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí:
  --ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1745 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå),
  --ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1747 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå)
  --ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1749 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå);
   ƒÜ ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 20 ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÑ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 3356 ƒÕƒåƒê ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ'.
   ƒªƒÙ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒä, ƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ - ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí (ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ) ƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 20 ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ? ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ 1782-1795 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ - ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÜ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ - ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ - ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà) - ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÚƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ 80-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ·VII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒƒ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒå ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒñƒÕ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒí ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒäƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß. ƒ?ƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒí ƒ·Iƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒÞƒå. ƒƒƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒâ. ƒá. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê - ƒ³. ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒ-. ƒ¡. ƒ¡ƒãƒäƒÑƒæƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ 'ƒ³ƒåƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒà', ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒä ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒàƒä 14 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 1748 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒå ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒå: '... ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒå ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒå ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒç ƒáƒà ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ, ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒä ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒàƒð, ƒÜƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒà ƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÖƒáƒÝƒðƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒã ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒÑƒÔƒà 1743 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 17 ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒð 9 ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒà ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒãƒàƒä ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒçƒàƒéƒÚƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÞƒàƒêƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒã ƒäƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒØ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒí, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑƒç ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ' . ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÖƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ 17 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1743 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒãƒàƒä ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÖ 'ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 14 ƒÕƒßƒñ 1748 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ', ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà: 'ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÖƒáƒÝƒðƒÖƒÓ, ƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒãƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒ²ƒíƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒà ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒæƒÑƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒãƒä ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ?ƒåƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ'. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÚƒßƒÑƒéƒÖ ƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒí ƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒî 1748 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ®ƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÕ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî. ƒ? ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒÑƒñ ƒæƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ: 'ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖ, ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒàƒáƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒÚƒÖ'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÕ: ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ 1749 - 1750 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÚƒçƒÚƒÛƒßƒà, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒàƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ®ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒñƒðƒä ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒâƒÖƒÔƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ. ƒ? ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒñƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÖƒçƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒÚ, ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒç ƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ (ƒ²ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ¥ƒ¡). ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒä 14 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1752 ƒÔ. ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒñ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ: 'ƒ+ƒà ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒå ƒƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒðƒëƒðƒðƒãƒñ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒàƒçƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒÜ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒå ƒÕƒåƒê ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒð ƒã ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÞ. ƒƒ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒñ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒëƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒâƒäƒßƒñƒÔƒÚƒß ƒâƒåƒÜƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ'.
   ƒ? 1753 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒÙ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒßƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒßƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: '... ƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ, ƒã ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒÓƒâƒÑƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ'. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî: '... ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒã ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ'.
   ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒãƒíƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒÕƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒã ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ, ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒÑƒáƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒâƒÒƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒñƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ? ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÓƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒàƒãƒÓƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÓ 5-10 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒàƒä ƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒâƒÑƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÜ, ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâ, ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒç, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒà ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒðƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà* (ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà) ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  ____________________
  *ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒä ƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒæƒÚƒã. ƒ¢ƒåƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒÖ ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ (ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ-ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ).
  
   ƒ? ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒªƒÙ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒí:
  --ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ - 88 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ;
  --ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ - 24 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ;
  --ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ - 18 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ;
  --ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ) - 37 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ;
  --ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ - 25 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ;
  --ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ) - 37 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒ? 1782 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑ 6888 ƒéƒÖƒÝ. (3324 ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 3564 ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ), ƒÑ ƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒå ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÚƒç ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑ 7150 ƒéƒÖƒÝ., ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç 3423 ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 3727 ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒå ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒà ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒà-ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒèƒí:
  -- ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî;
  -- ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî;
  -- ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ;
  -- ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒéƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒäƒå.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒÚ 5-ƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ 1795 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ?1 ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ: 'ƒ®ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒí ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ 5-ƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒêƒÑƒç ƒã ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒåƒê, ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒà ƒàƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÚƒä! ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒÚƒÞ'.
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ? 1
  
  
  ƒ¿ƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß
   ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒåƒê ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ
  (ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñƒç) ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ
  (ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñƒç)
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç
  ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß
   ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒåƒê ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ
  (ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñƒç) ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ
  (ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñƒç)
  ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ 233 233 699 ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ 218 218 654
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç: ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç:
  ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 137 137 411 ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ (ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ) 194 194 582
  ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 104 104 312 ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 147 147 441
  ƒƒƒåƒáƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 139 139 417 ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ 334 334 1002
  ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ 115 115 345 ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 187 187 561
  ƒ³ƒÑƒâƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 62 62 186 ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 43 43 129
  ƒRƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒèƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 38 38 114 ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ 240 240 720
  ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒàƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) 74 74 222 ƒNoƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ (ƒR.ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ) 56 56 168
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ 53 53 159 ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÑ 276 276 828
  ƒ?ƒâƒñƒÙƒßƒåƒçƒÚ 60 60 180 ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 67 67 201
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 43 43 129 ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÑ 70 70 210
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ 42 42 126 ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 162 162 486
  ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 157 157 471 ƒƒƒÚƒáƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 373 373 1119
  ƒƒƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 29 29 87 ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 100 100 300
  ƒ²ƒÚƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 53 53 159 ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 129 129 387
  ƒ÷ƒÔƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 48 48 144 ƒÀƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 27 27 81
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 119 119 357 ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 16 16 48
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 71 71 213 ƒ?ƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 14 14 42
  ƒºƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 80 80 240 ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 198 198 394
  ƒƒƒàƒÜƒåƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 46 46 138 ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 120 120 360
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒéƒÑƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 116 116 348 ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 109 109 327
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 82 82 246 ƒƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 16 16 48
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ 113 113 339 ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 44 44 132
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 20 20 60 ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 44 44 132
  ƒ-ƒÖƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 109 109 327 ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ 57 57 171
  ƒƒƒåƒêƒÞƒí 66 66 198 ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 35 35 105
  ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 238 238 714 ƒƒâƒàƒçƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 48 48 144
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ 68 68 204 ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ 102 102 306
  ƒ®ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ 78 78 234
  ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒäƒàƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 75 75 225
  ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ 167 167 501
  ƒRƒÑƒñƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 157 157 471
  ƒ´ƒåƒÞƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 57 57 171
  ƒ?ƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 37 37 111
  ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 24 24 72
  ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ 24 24 72
  ƒƒÑƒÕƒðƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ 44 44 132
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 95 95 285
  ƒƒƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 21 21 63
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 68 68 258
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 66 66 198
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒäƒàƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ 70 70 210
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà
  ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß 3734 3734 11202 ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà
  ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß 3426 3426 10278
  
   ƒ´ƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ? 1 ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒãƒà ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ 1795 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒåƒê, ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç. ƒ? ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ: ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ. ƒ? 1923 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒã ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒÖƒ× ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒ¸ƒªƒƒ ƒàƒä 03.11.1923 ƒÔ. ƒÚ 12.11.1923 ƒÔ. ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒí: ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑ 1 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1925 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ (ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒà - 4 ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÑ). ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ.*
  ____________________
  *ƒ¯ƒÑ 08 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ³ƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß, ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ (ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà).
  
   ƒ? 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ: ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒƒƒàƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒƒƒåƒáƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒRƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ³ƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ - 6403. ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà 29604 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒí: ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ®ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ²ƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ. ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒà 6718. ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ - 39916 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ.
   18 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ 1935 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒ¸ƒªƒƒ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒã ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. 17 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1940 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ²ƒ³ƒƒ³ƒ² ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà.
   06 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1943 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ² ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ. 01 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1963 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ²ƒ³ƒƒ³ƒ² ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒßƒí, ƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒåƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒºƒåƒÞƒÚƒçƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒí. 03 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1964 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ²ƒ³ƒƒ³ƒ² ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß, ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒí ƒÚ 27 ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ. 03 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1965 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ²ƒ³ƒƒ³ƒ² ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒäƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑ 01 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 2004 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä 17 ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ: ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒƒƒåƒáƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒáƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ®ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒ²ƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ.
  
  
  
  ƒªƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ-ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒí ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà: ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒàƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê
   ƒªƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ - ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé. 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, 2006-2016 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ-ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÑƒäƒÜƒÑ
  
  
  'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ...'
  
  'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ:
  ƒ? ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒç ƒå ƒçƒÚƒØƒÚƒß - ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒíƒßƒÚ.
  ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ,
  ƒ¡ ƒßƒíƒßƒéƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÖ...'.
  ƒ¥ƒå ƒƒå, ƒƒƒÚƒäƒÑƒÛ
  
  I. ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ (1796 ƒÔ.)
  
   ƒ´ƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒã ƒÞƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÖ 200 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒãƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÔƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÚƒãƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒáƒà-ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ.
   ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 1624 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒäƒåƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ? 1680 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒ-ƒÖƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒß ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒåƒð ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÚƒÔ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒíƒÛ: ƒäƒàƒáƒÚ, ƒéƒÑƒëƒÚ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ - ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒáƒà ƒâƒåƒãƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÜ. ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒà, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒÛƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÝƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒàƒä ƒÔƒßƒ×ƒäƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒç ƒßƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒ×ƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒØƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÞƒí ƒÓƒâƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒäƒÝƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒàƒäƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ.1
  
  *ƒ¥ƒà 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ - ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒåƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÑƒßƒäƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒ÷ƒ?ƒ¡ƒºƒ®ƒ? - ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ.2 ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚ, ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÜ ƒà ƒÒƒàƒÜ ƒã ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒãƒí - ƒÞƒÑƒâƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ.3 ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÝƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÓƒÚ ƒæƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒí. ƒ? ƒ·VII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒâƒÚƒÛƒèƒí ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒéƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ - ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒåƒÔƒÑƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒƒ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒàƒÝƒÜƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒå. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒäƒâƒíƒÓ ƒàƒä ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒ³ 1758 ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒã ƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒÚ 'ƒã ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒäƒî ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒà ƒàƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒ³ƒàƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚ'. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒå ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÙƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒà ƒàƒä ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒÖƒÓ 18 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒí ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒäƒí ƒÕƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ.4
   ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ ƒƒƒ÷ƒ²ƒ¢ƒ¡ƒ´ƒ®ƒ? ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒãƒàƒâƒàƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒ 1800 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒå ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç - ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒí. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒÚƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒíƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç, ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç, ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí, ƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒä ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ? 1790-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒä (ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä) ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒð. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí, ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ*, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒNoƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ.
  ____________________
  *ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ-ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒR.ƒ?. ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑƒç ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ ƒÚ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒí.
  
   ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒªƒƒƒªƒ¯ƒ? - ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÜ 1750-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒå, ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ.
   ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒÓ 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒã ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒä ƒÞƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ? ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒãƒî ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ¡ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒÛƒÙƒÑƒØƒÚ! ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒâ ƒã ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒäƒåƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ²ƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ ƒã ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå. ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÝƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒÞ - 10 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒÛ (21 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâ!), ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒã ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ?ƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä 2-ƒç ƒÕƒà 3-ƒç ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒß (2 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ).5 ƒ¥ƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÞ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒâƒíƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ. ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ 20 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒå (ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 43-ƒç ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ) ƒÚ 5 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒß ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒå( 3,5 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ). ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒãƒåƒçƒå ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒåƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒÙƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒß ƒÝƒ×ƒÔƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒãƒä. ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒß ƒÜƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒãƒä ƒã ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒîƒð, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒãƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒåƒð ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒå. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÓƒíƒêƒÑƒÖƒä ƒäƒâƒ×ƒç ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒå. ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà - 1,5-2 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒå. ƒƒ× ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÜƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛƒäƒÚ, ƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒèƒÖ. ƒªƒãƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒñƒÕƒàƒçƒÚƒÞƒÚƒÜƒÑƒäƒí, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ.6
  
  
  
  ƒ÷ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. 22 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ - ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑ 'ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ' ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ³.ƒ¡.
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ - ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. 22 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ³.ƒ¡.
  
  
   ƒRƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒèƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ?ƒâƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒí, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒç. ƒRƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒåƒÜƒåƒãƒí ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒç ƒå ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒãƒñƒä ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒå.7 ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒí ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒí, ƒñ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒå ƒàƒä ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒåƒêƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒíƒçƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒåƒð ƒÔƒâƒñƒÙƒî ƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî 'ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî' ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒÝƒàƒáƒÑƒäƒí. ƒ? 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒã ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒäƒÕƒíƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
   ...ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒãƒäƒâƒà. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ 1810 ƒÔƒàƒÕ - ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ. ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒä ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ - 23 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒƒ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒÓ 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒã 1800 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒáƒÚƒäƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ - ƒÑƒØ 840 ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓ! ƒ¥ƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ 1812 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒà 769 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ.
   ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒè ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒä. ƒ-ƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒÜƒåƒâƒí, ƒÔƒåƒãƒÚ - ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÖƒØƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒäƒî ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç. ƒ¥ƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒíƒäƒßƒà. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà, ƒàƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ... ƒ¯ƒÑ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà: ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒáƒíƒç, 22 ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒçƒàƒâƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÞƒÑƒäƒÚƒÙƒÞƒàƒÞ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, 1 ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÝƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒèƒí ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒêƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 1990 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒß (1413 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ) ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÓƒÚƒäƒà 1356 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒÛ (2888 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ).
   ƒ÷ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 85 ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔ, 84 ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒãƒÑƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒãƒÑƒÒƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ (ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒÝƒåƒÔƒàƒÓ) - 85 ƒÚ 20 ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒè ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒß. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ³ƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒå, ƒñƒâƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒâƒàƒØƒî, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒà, ƒàƒÓƒ×ƒã, ƒÔƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒå, ƒÝƒ×ƒß, ƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒáƒÝƒð. ƒ³ƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ.
   ƒ-ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÖƒßƒà ƒáƒà ƒàƒáƒåƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÚƒë.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒß ƒáƒÑƒÝƒà 22 ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ, 18 ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, 24 ƒàƒÓƒèƒí. 'ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒå ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ 8 ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà'.
   ƒ? 1872 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÓ 8 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 38 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ 434 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ - ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ.
   ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 15 ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓƒí, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ+ƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒí, ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí, ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí, ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒí, ƒªƒÓƒàƒßƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí: ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒØƒÜƒà, ƒ¢ƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒà, ƒ¢ƒÚƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒéƒåƒÜ, ƒ?ƒåƒÒƒÖƒâ, ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒÕƒðƒÜ, ƒRƒÑƒßƒÕƒðƒÜ, ƒRƒàƒâƒÖƒèƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒRƒÚƒÜƒåƒã, ƒ¸ƒåƒáƒÖƒâ, ƒ?ƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒƒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒåƒÜ, ƒ¸ƒÜƒÚƒÕƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒðƒÜ, ƒƒƒàƒÝƒÖƒéƒåƒÜ, ƒ-ƒåƒèƒåƒÜ, ƒºƒÑƒÞƒåƒâƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ³ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒÖƒÓƒí, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÓƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒðƒÜ, ƒ¨ƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒí.
   ...ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒ³ƒ÷ƒ·ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒ®ƒ? ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ®ƒß ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÙƒäƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒÚ 14-ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒã ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒåƒâ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒåƒâƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒÖƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑ, ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÚƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒà ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒç ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚƒß*. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ: ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ). ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ 233 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒã 1759(?) ƒáƒà 1992 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒ´ƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒâƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒ×ƒä...7
  ____________________
   * ƒªƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÓ 2008 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÖ 'ƒ´ƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒí ƒÚ ƒÔƒÚƒÕƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒã ƒäƒðƒâƒÜƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâ-', ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ:
   'ƒ? ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒí ƒã ƒäƒðƒâƒÜƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâ-' ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒâƒÖƒÜ, ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒåƒâƒàƒéƒÚƒë. ƒ? ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß' ƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒßƒî 'ƒÜƒåƒâ-' ƒåƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ 'ƒãƒàƒçƒßƒåƒäƒî, ƒÓƒíƒãƒíƒçƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÙƒÑƒãƒíƒçƒÑƒäƒî'.
   ƒ²ƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒßƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒå. ƒ®ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ-ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒðƒâƒÜƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒä' - 'ƒéƒÖƒâƒÓƒî'. ƒ¥ƒàƒÒƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒæƒæƒÚƒÜƒã '-ƒÑ', ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝ ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒäƒÑ' - 'ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ'. ƒ? ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒå ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî '-ƒÞƒíƒê', ƒÞƒÑƒâƒÜƒÚƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ. ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒê - 'ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ' [ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ].
   ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒã ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâ-'. ƒƒƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒÒƒêƒÚƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒáƒÝƒàƒëƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒçƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒÚƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ 'ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒ¥ƒÑƒéƒÑ'. ƒ³ƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ 'ƒÕƒÑƒéƒÑ' ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà - ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÓƒà 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ' ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÞƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÜƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑƒß ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒäƒðƒâƒÜƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑƒéƒÑƒÜ' - 'ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÛ', ƒÔƒÕƒÖ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑ' - 'ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî', ƒÑ '-ƒéƒÑƒÜ' - ƒàƒäƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÑƒæƒæƒÚƒÜƒã. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà ƒØƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ
  ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÒƒí-ƒñƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÑ - ƒçƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒãƒä - 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑƒÛ' (ƒÜƒÑƒÙ.). ƒ? ƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒêƒåƒÞƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒñƒßƒí, ƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ 'ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒßƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒð'. ƒ³ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÓƒêƒÑƒñƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ - ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ 'ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ'.
  
  II. ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒã 1759 ƒáƒà 1993 ƒÔƒÔ. 8
  
  
  ƒ?ƒ®ƒ¥ƒ? ƒ¥ƒ?ƒ®ƒ²ƒ®ƒ? ƒ¯ƒ¡ƒ³ƒƒ-ƒƒ¯ƒªƒ
   ƒRƒ÷ƒ¨ƒ?ƒªƒ¯
  (ƒ?ƒƒ-.) ƒ¨ƒƒ¯ƒ'ƒªƒ¯
  (ƒ?ƒƒ-.) ƒ?ƒ³ƒƒ?ƒ®
  (ƒ?ƒƒ-.)
  1759
  1778
  1795
  1810
  1816
  1834
  1850
  1868
  1872
  1877
  1889
  1901
  1916
  1917
  1926
  1950
  1990
  1992
  1993 ƒ®ƒÜ. 10
  ƒ®ƒÜ. 37
  28
  16?
  34
  36
  41
  81
  91
  89
  87
  110
  151
  140
  103
  ƒ®ƒä 54 ƒÕƒà 97
  2
  1
  - ƒ®ƒÜ. 50
  ƒ®ƒÜ. 100
  109
  120
  122
  169
  193
  231
  228
  229
  343
  -
  367
  -
  201
  -
  -
  -
  - ƒ®ƒÜ. 50
  ƒ®ƒÜ. 100
  111
  121
  141
  192
  193
  239
  244
  234
  356
  -
  402
  -
  260
  -
  2
  1
  - ƒ®ƒÜ.100
  ƒ®ƒÜ. 200
  220
  241
  263
  361
  386
  470
  472
  463
  699
  607
  769
  744
  461
  -
  2
  1
  -
   ƒªƒÙ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÜ 1950 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒåƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒð 1850 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒä. ƒÖ. ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒéƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ 100 ƒÝƒÖƒä!
  
  III. ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ
  
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ' ƒÙƒÑ 1872-1916 ƒÔ.ƒÔ., ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒãƒî: ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç!
   ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ - ƒáƒàƒÝƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÙƒàƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒåƒÛƒãƒäƒÑ , ƒÕƒÚƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒå ƒáƒà ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ´ƒí ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâ. ƒÜƒßƒÚƒØƒÜƒÑƒç.
  
  
  
   ƒ? 1757 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒã ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒÖƒ× ƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ 19 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒØƒÖ (ƒã 1750 ƒáƒà 1760 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.) ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 2 ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ, 1 ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒß, 2 ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ 2 ƒáƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒñ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã 6 ƒáƒà 9 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ, ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ - ƒã 16 ƒáƒà 19 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ - ƒã 17 ƒáƒà 22 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÞ.9 ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒØƒÚƒäƒî 6 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð (ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚ - ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð). ƒNoƒÑ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒÕƒå ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÚ - 150 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÑƒãƒãƒÚƒÔƒßƒÑƒèƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ - 1618 ƒÕƒåƒê, ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ - 35 ƒÕƒåƒê. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ, ƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî ƒàƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒß. ƒ? ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒãƒÑƒÞƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. (ƒªƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî!). ƒƒ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖ, ƒ+ƒÖƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ, ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒèƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ.10
   ƒ³ 1777 ƒáƒà 1801 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒäƒåƒÖƒÓ, ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞ - ƒRƒÑƒäƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ, ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒÜƒàƒÞ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÞ - ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¢ƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒñƒØƒ×ƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ (ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÜƒÚƒÞ?). ƒ÷ƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒç ƒãƒäƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ.11 27 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ 1784 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒáƒàƒâƒä ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒÚƒÙ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒãƒãƒí. ƒ³ 1789 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÑ 19 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1801 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒèƒÑƒâƒÚƒä ƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÖƒâƒÚƒçƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒä ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒâƒÑƒáƒàƒâƒäƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒÚƒè ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒä ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒßƒà. ƒ³ 1800 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒå ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ - ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ, ƒàƒß ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà - ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒãƒÚƒäƒåƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒåƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÚƒäƒãƒñ. ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒí - ƒïƒäƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒí ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒñ. ƒ+ƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒå ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒç ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ? 1840 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ. ƒ¸ƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ. ƒ÷ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒß ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒñƒÛƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒð. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. 16 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1846 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÓƒà ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒñ ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒðƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒåƒÕƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒèƒÑ, ƒÓ 1859 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÓƒà ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ 'ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒð ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒä ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒèƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ? 1845 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒáƒà 2 ƒêƒäƒÑƒäƒÑ 198 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒß, ƒßƒà ƒÖƒð ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒðƒäƒãƒñ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÖƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒðƒä ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ'.
   ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒðƒä ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒîƒÖ:
   ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ - 144 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ,
   ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ - 108 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ,
   ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒß - 54 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ,
   ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒàƒÜ - 36 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ,
   ƒáƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒî - 24 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
   ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒå ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒå ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒÑ - ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ.
   9 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1879 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ 100 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒç ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒäƒÑ.
   ...ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒèƒÑƒÞ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒàƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒñ.
   ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ:
   - ƒÒƒàƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ - 53 ƒêƒä.,
   - 'ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒç ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè' - 24 ƒêƒä.,
   - ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ - 88 ƒêƒä.,
   - ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 8 ƒêƒä.,
   - ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 6 ƒêƒä.,
   - 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ' - 32 ƒêƒä.,
   - 'ƒ¸ƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ' - 16 ƒêƒä.,
   - ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 2 ƒêƒä.,
   - ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒç - 2 ƒêƒä.
   ƒ¸ƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ 1 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1898 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÓ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜƒÝƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ ƒã 1782 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒå ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÑƒãƒàƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÒƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒíƒÖ.
   ƒNoƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒã 1930 ƒáƒà 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒí, ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒÔƒÑƒâƒÑƒØƒÚ 49 ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓ, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ - 15. ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒªƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ '8-ƒÔƒà ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ'. ƒ? ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒÑƒç ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÓ 1942 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒïƒÜƒãƒáƒÝƒåƒÑƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕ.12 ƒ? ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒNoƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÖƒäƒêƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒñƒÜƒàƒÒƒí, ƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒñ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒßƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ... ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒí, ƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÓƒàƒä ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä 'ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ'. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒãƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒä.
   ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒåƒð ƒâƒàƒÝƒî ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒà ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç'.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓ 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒí. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ
  
  
  ƒ³ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒí. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà,
  ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒí. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒßƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ
  
  
  
  
  
  IV. ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ (1824-1912 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.)
  
   ƒ÷ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒåƒÞƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ, ƒäƒà ƒà ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒ? ƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒñƒãƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÚƒãƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒªƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ 1824 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé (1796 ƒÔƒâ.) - ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒí, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ - ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÕƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÒƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒêƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà 1834 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÖƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ. ƒ¡ ƒã 1834 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒßƒåƒð ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒî - ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ (1796 ƒÔƒâ.). ƒ÷ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒí: ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ (1817 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ (1820 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ (1822 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß (1827 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ (1830 ƒÔƒâ.) ƒÚ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒæƒÑƒß (1833 ƒÔƒâ.).
   ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒã ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒåƒâƒã ƒÓ ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒÖ 1846 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒÑƒäƒäƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ 1-ƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒî.
  
  
  ƒRƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ 1841 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®), ƒæƒàƒßƒÕ ƒª-226, ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî 1, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà 85
  
  
   ƒ®ƒß ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ 1846 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ³ƒÓƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÖƒÔƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ. ƒ? 1847-ƒÞ ƒÚ 1849-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒà ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ 1852-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒä ƒãƒíƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà - ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ - ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒîƒð ƒºƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒãƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ. 13
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒRƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®), ƒæƒàƒßƒÕ ƒª-226, ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî 1, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà 85, ƒãƒäƒâ. 110. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÖƒäƒí ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà 13 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1846 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  
   2 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1853 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒà. ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒáƒàƒáƒÖƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒí.
   19 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1853 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÙƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒáƒíƒäƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ. ƒ? 1854 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ. ƒ? 1855 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑƒê ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒäƒðƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒß ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒáƒåƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñƒç. ƒ®ƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒÕ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ 20 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1856 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ , ƒßƒà ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚ 27 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ? 1857 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒå, ƒÑ ƒÓ 1859 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÑ.
   17 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1859 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÕƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒåƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒñƒç. ƒ? ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, 'ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí 1853-56 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.' ƒàƒß ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒÒƒâƒàƒßƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ.
   11 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1862 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒãƒäƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒ?.ƒ¯. ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒÚƒßƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   14 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1862 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÚƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒà ƒ·VII ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒå. ƒ? ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒí: 14
   (ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ 1880ƒÔƒàƒÕ)
   1. ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   2. ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   3. ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   4. ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   5. ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   6. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   7. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒãƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒäƒÑ, ƒÓƒÖƒäƒçƒÑƒñ ƒ¸ƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒÓƒà ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒîƒñ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒí)
  8. ƒƒƒÚƒáƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  9. ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  10. ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   11. ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   12. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  13. ƒ®ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  14. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  15. ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  16. ƒƒƒàƒãƒåƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  17. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ.
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒÕƒâƒÚƒß ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç' (? 25 ƒÙƒÑ 21 ƒÚƒðƒßƒñ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ) ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒí ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà: ...'ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà XVII ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ. ƒ?ƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒí ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ: ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¢ƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒåƒâƒÔƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒƒƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒàƒß ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒåƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒèƒÖƒÝƒî ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ; ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÖƒß, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ?. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒâƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒà ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ, ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒ., ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒäƒàƒäƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒÓ - 61. ƒ?ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ¸ƒÑƒâƒð ƒ¯ƒÖƒÒƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÛ'; ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒñƒÔƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒí: ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ?. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ: ƒ¡. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ, ƒƒ. ƒRƒåƒçƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒƒ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ, ƒ¡. ƒ®ƒâƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒ³. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÓƒÙƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒ?. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ; ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¡. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒÜ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒéƒî, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒç ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÞƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒð, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒâƒÖƒÙƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑ 61 ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç: ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ 51, ƒƒ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ 44, ƒ¡. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ 23, ƒƒ. ƒRƒåƒçƒÚƒß 14, ƒ¡. ƒ®ƒâƒÝƒàƒÓ 28, ƒ³. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÓƒÙƒàƒâƒàƒÓ 19, ƒ?. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ 21. ƒ?ƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒÜƒÖ, ƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÚƒç, ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÞ, (ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒå! - ƒàƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒñƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå). ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒà ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÞƒå - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞƒå (ƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒå ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå) ƒÑƒÕƒâƒÖƒã, ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒåƒð ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà'.
   ƒ? 1872 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, 'ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÖƒçƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒñ, ƒáƒà ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒå ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒåƒÓƒàƒÝƒÖƒß' ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ 1872 ƒáƒà 1881 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒå ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç, ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ¡ ƒã 1881 ƒáƒà 1898 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒà ƒ·VII ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒå ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒä ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒß ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓ 1898 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð.
   19 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1864 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÒƒÑƒâƒçƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒÚƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÜƒåƒæƒîƒ×ƒÛ. 15
   ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒåƒð ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒð. ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒßƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä: ƒÓ 1886 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒæƒÑƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒßƒÚƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒÑ. ƒ+ƒà ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ: ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒªƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ 1898 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. 16 ƒ?ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒÖƒëƒÑƒßƒÚƒß. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ 1904 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒªƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒªƒàƒÑƒßƒß ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî).
   ƒ? 1867 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒå ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒà - 4 ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑƒðƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒäƒÖƒâƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ? ƒäƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑƒç ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ÷ƒæƒí.17
   ƒ? 1868 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÒƒÑƒâƒçƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒÚƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒàƒÛ. 18
   ƒ? 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1871 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒåƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒå.
   ƒ³ 1870 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒê ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒäƒðƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒã 1845 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒâƒÑƒç ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒí. ƒ®ƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð 1871 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒàƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ 'ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒßƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ'.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ÷ƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒß ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÓƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1868 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒß ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 17 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒß - 4. 19 ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒºƒÑƒâƒàƒÞƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒíƒß ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒçƒàƒäƒßƒà, ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä ƒäƒàƒä ƒæƒÑƒÜƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒñƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà 1881 ƒÔƒàƒÕ 20 ƒáƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒÛ (320 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒàƒÓ!). 20
   ƒ? 1872-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ? ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå 3 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ 1875 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒàƒä 14 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜƒàƒãƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ: ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒç - 'ƒãƒäƒåƒÕƒÖƒßƒä ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ', ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ - 'ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ'. ƒ+ƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒçƒå: 'ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ, ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒñƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ'. ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ - 'ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÛ XVIII ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ'.
   ƒ? 1876 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ, 24-ƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ®ƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒáƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒÖ - ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒàƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð ƒåƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÚ.21 ƒ+ƒàƒéƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒàƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒã ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒ? ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ - ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒëƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ.
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå, ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒí ƒåƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒçƒàƒÞ: ƒÓ 1880 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ II, ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÖƒß ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒí - ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí 3-ƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ.22
   ƒ? 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ, ƒÓƒíƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞ. ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒåƒÖƒä ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒí ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒå ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç, ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî-ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÚƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ.23
   ƒ? 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒ?.ƒ¯. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒå.24 ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑƒç ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒðƒä ƒàƒä ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ 'ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ' ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒÚƒç ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞ. ƒ? ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÓƒí ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ. ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ 8-10 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕ - ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ.25
   ƒ³ 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ·VII ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ·ƒ·Iƒ· ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ26 ƒáƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ·ƒ·IV ƒáƒà ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ.27 ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÖƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒêƒÚƒâƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ.
   6 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1885 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒç ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒ¨ƒÚƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒÖƒÞ, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÑƒçƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒåƒðƒä ƒäƒíƒãƒñƒéƒÖƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒRƒÖƒæƒàƒÕƒÚƒñ.28 ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÞƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒáƒíƒêƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒâƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒÔƒàƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒáƒÖƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí (ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒºƒÞƒåƒâƒÝƒà). ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÓ ƒäƒå ƒáƒàƒâƒå ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
   ƒƒƒà ƒÕƒßƒð ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒãƒçƒÚ 1886 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÞ.29
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÚ 1884-85ƒÔƒÔ. ƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒí ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒð ƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒÙƒßƒàƒã ƒã ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑ30, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑƒðƒä.
   ƒ? 1886 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÑƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ.31
   ƒ? 1888 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒà ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¥ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒÖƒÓƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒçƒàƒâƒí ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒñƒç, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒå ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ.32 ƒ?ƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒçƒàƒâ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒàƒÓ (1879-1934 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.). ƒNoƒÑ ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒãƒçƒÚ 1933 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ¯ƒƒƒ?ƒ¥-ƒ®ƒ?ƒ+ƒ÷ ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?.ƒÁ. ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒÕƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒà-ƒñƒáƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ? ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 10 ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä 1921 ƒÚ 1933 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.33
   ƒ? ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒåƒÕƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒçƒàƒâ, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒð.34
   ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÓ 1888 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕ, ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒéƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒå. ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ?. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÝ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ. ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒàƒçƒàƒäƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒå. ƒ³ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ ƒßƒÚ ƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒÞƒå. ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒàƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒç ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒçƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒÒƒà ƒÓƒãƒ×ƒÞ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒå ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÙƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒñ ƒƒÔƒà ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ: 'ƒ®ƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒçƒÓƒÑƒÝƒå ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒå ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞ'. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ - ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ. 35
   15 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1888 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒð 900-ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ: ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒíƒêƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒäƒÚƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1890 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒí ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒâƒîƒÒƒå ƒã ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒð ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒã ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒä ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒâƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÖƒÕƒí ƒã ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ.36
   ƒ? ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒÖ 1891 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ - ƒÖƒÕƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒàƒßƒÖƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒNoƒÑ 1891-92 ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒí ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒç: ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓƒà, ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒîƒÖƒÞ, ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÖ, ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÕƒðƒâƒñƒÔƒÚƒßƒÖ. ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒåƒéƒÑƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ. ƒºƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÕ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÒƒÝƒðƒÕ. ƒRƒÖƒßƒð ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒëƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒêƒÚ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒêƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒçƒÝƒ×ƒÒƒÜƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ. ƒ³ƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒáƒÖƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒå 1 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒî 50 ƒÜƒàƒáƒÖƒÖƒÜ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒè. ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒí ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒ×ƒÞƒßƒíƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑƒç ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒÑƒç ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ.37
   ƒ? 1901 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí II-ƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ.
   ƒ? ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑƒç ƒÙƒÑ 1904 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÜ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒä - ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒä. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. 38 ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç.
   ƒ³ 1902 ƒáƒà 1910 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒàƒß ƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà.39 ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒä ƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒáƒà ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÓ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒÜƒÝƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 1904 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒãƒßƒàƒçƒÑ - ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ.
   6 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒ ƒåƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒå ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ 82 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.40 ƒ+ƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝ.
   6 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒî-ƒªƒÞƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒâ 'ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚƒÝ ƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒäƒî' ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÛ - ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ 4-ƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ - ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ.41
   15 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒâƒàƒÝ ƒRƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ.42 ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí, ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒÓ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÖƒØƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒáƒîƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒâƒíƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ 5-10 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
   2 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒÓƒàƒÝƒÖƒß ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒä ƒªƒÓƒÚƒß ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒäƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒà ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ - ƒßƒÖƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒíƒÛ, ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ.43 ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ, ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒå ƒ?ƒÚƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒåƒð ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒí ƒ¢ƒàƒØƒîƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ, ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð 250 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ - ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÚ!44
   ƒƒ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒØƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑƒç ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒä ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒí ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒß. ƒ? 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç' ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ, ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî: 'ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ', ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒîƒÖƒÞ 'ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà'.45 ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå, ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒåƒâƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÝƒåƒãƒäƒîƒÖ. 'ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒàƒÔƒàƒßƒî ƒàƒÔƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ¡ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒäƒåƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒÜƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ... ƒ+ƒàƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒßƒÖƒêƒî. ƒ·ƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä'. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒØƒÑƒØƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒª ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒí ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÖ.
   ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒè, ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÝƒîƒÚƒß ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒíƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ.46 ƒ?ƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒå ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒåƒçƒÚƒß 22-ƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 24-ƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä.
   ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ, ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ, ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí, ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒçƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç - ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ²ƒàƒÔƒÑƒéƒ×ƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ - ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ 'ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ... ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ'. ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ²ƒàƒÔƒÑƒéƒ×ƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç-ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕ ƒã ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ.
   ƒªƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ', ƒéƒäƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒ?.ƒ¯. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ 20 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1912 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÔ ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ÷ƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒß ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒ×ƒçƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒä ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒNoƒÑƒÒƒíƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒ?ƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå - ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚƒÕƒÖƒâƒí, ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÝƒÚƒàƒßƒí ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÝƒÑƒÕ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒå ƒã ƒ?ƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð.
  ƒ-ƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ. ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒàƒÜƒÑƒåƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒàƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä.
  
  
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒƒÓƒÓƒåƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ - ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÑƒßƒÜƒä-ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒÖƒâƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ, 1915 ƒÔ. ƒ? 1936-42 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒç ? 36 ƒÚ ? 23 ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒí ƒ-ƒñƒëƒÑƒÜ ƒƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÝƒÚƒèƒà. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒäƒàƒÞ ? 13, ƒãƒäƒâ. 7. 2009 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒªƒÙƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÝƒàƒÞ 'ƒ?ƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒñ'
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒæƒàƒäƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ ƒ-ƒñƒëƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒç. ƒƒÓƒÓƒåƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒ-ƒñƒëƒÑƒÜ ƒã ƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒÞ - ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ: ƒNoƒàƒñ ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ - ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 1930-ƒç ƒÔƒÔ.
   ƒ®ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ-ƒñƒëƒÑƒÜ-ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒç
  
  
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒÜ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ
  
  
  
  V. ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî
  
   ƒ÷ƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ... ƒªƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÒƒí ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒ÷ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓ, ƒÑƒâƒÞƒñƒß ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒñ: ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒíƒßƒå.47 ƒ÷ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ¯ƒÑƒê ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒÝ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒà ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒâƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ 'ƒÓƒâƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ' ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÖ.
   ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒä ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß. ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒã 1929 ƒáƒà 1934 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ? ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ 'ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒïƒßƒäƒåƒÙƒÚƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÑ' ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒÑƒëƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ. ƒ´ƒàƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÞƒÖƒð ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒßƒÕƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ.48
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÞƒÖ.49 ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒÖ 1916 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒå ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ, ƒáƒà ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒå ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ·ƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒáƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÕƒßƒÚ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ 'ƒÓƒîƒÖƒÝƒÑƒãƒî' ƒáƒãƒÚƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒÓƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒäƒÖƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÛ... ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒäƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒå ƒàƒäƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒ×ƒØƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒã ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÚƒÔƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÙƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÑƒç, ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚƒç ƒäƒâƒåƒÕ, ƒßƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒâƒåƒðƒä ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚƒßƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÕƒåƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ.
   ƒ÷ƒÕƒÑƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞ ƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒ×ƒØƒî ƒÓ 1950-60-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓƒíƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî.
   ƒÁƒÕƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒíƒÓ ƒÓ 1957 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ 'ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜƒÖ' ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ 1986 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒñƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒî ƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÒƒíƒÝƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒñƒÕƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒñƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒí ƒÔƒâƒÚƒæƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ.
  
  ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ-ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ... 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ®.ƒ¡.
  
  ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÑƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒ²ƒåƒãƒî, ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ
  
  
  ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÑƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÝƒÚƒàƒßƒí ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ... ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒ³ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒç ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ
   ƒ?ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒäƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒíƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒíƒç, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒç. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒàƒëƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒå ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙ... ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒã ƒÒƒíƒÝƒíƒÞ, ƒÕƒíƒêƒÑƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑƒß...
   ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒà ƒÒƒÖƒäƒàƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÓ!!! ƒ¥ƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ 'ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç' ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒÚƒäƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒƒƒàƒáƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒí... ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÔƒÚƒÔƒÑƒßƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒàƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÑ - ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÑƒñ. ƒ¨ƒåƒäƒÜƒà... ƒ¢ƒÖƒãƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒçƒå ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒÚƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒî ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÞ. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÚƒä ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒí ƒÖƒëƒ×... ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒêƒî ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ: 'ƒ¯ƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí...'. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÒƒí ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî: 'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ - ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí?!'. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒñƒãƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒå ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä. ƒNoƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒàƒß ƒÓƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ! ƒªƒÙƒåƒéƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ, ƒñ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÞƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ: ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒåƒÕƒí, ƒå ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ (ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÝƒÖƒã), ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒå. ƒ³ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒà, ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ ƒãƒÑƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒâƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑƒÞ.
   ƒƒƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÞƒßƒà ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ? ƒƒƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚƒÕƒÖƒâƒÑ - ƒÙƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ? ƒ¯ƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒä ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒå, ƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî, ƒãƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ. ƒÁ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒð ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 'ƒãƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒðƒä' ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ 'ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒå' ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÕƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒñƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ: ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒä ƒÑƒÞƒÒƒÑƒâ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ. ƒ®ƒß ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî, ƒñƒÜƒàƒÒƒí, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒÖƒß. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒñƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÓƒãƒñƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ... ƒ¡ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß, ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒà ƒÒƒí ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ? ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒØƒ×ƒãƒäƒÜƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒäƒâƒàƒÝƒÚƒâƒåƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß... ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒñƒÕƒñ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒí ƒãƒàƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒèƒÖƒãƒã ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒä, ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒáƒíƒä ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒç.
  
  
  VI. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ-ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒã ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ-ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÑ http://uralgenealogy.ru/ ƒNoƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÚƒãƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ - ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒæƒàƒßƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. 1990-95 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒ¿ƒÜƒãƒáƒàƒßƒÑƒä ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒNoƒÓƒ×ƒÙƒÕƒàƒéƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓƒíƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ... ƒ¿ƒäƒà - ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒñ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜ...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  VII. ƒ´ƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ. ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. 1990-95 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí*
  ? ƒ¯ƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒÕ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒã ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ
  1 2 3
  1. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒÖ 1964
  2. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒà-ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ 1947
  3. ƒRƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ (ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ) 1946
  4. ƒ+ƒÚƒàƒßƒÖƒâ 1943
  5. ƒRƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ 1955
  6. ƒƒƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒåƒã. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ) 1981
  7. ƒ?ƒåƒÕƒàƒÜ 1956
  8. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒçƒàƒÕ 1938
  9. ƒ¥ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒßƒÜƒÑ 1966
  10. ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝ 2003
  11. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒÜƒÑ 1971
  12. ƒã. ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒÖ 1979
  13. ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ 1972
  14. ƒ¢. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑƒêƒÚ 1958
  15. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 1966
  16. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒå ƒàƒÙ. ƒƒƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÖ) 1944
  17. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒä 1964
  18. ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒå ƒÕ. ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà) 1962
  19. ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1973
  20. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1945
  21. ƒ¢. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1965
  22. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 2002
  23. ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ 1949
  24. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 1992**
  25. ƒƒÑƒÜƒÖƒÝ 1947
  26. ƒ¢. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1974
  27. ƒ?ƒÑƒëƒÖƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ 1946
  28. ƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ 1971
  29. ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ 1955
  30. ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ 1968
  31. ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒðƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà 1973
  32. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒå ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà) 1-ƒñ 1972
  33. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1950
  34. ƒ³ƒäƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1950
  35. ƒ²ƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ 1978
  36. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 1-ƒñ 1955
  37. ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ (ƒRƒÑƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒàƒâ) 1971
  38. ƒ²ƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ 1971
  39. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1974
  40. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1967
  41. ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1968
  42. ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ 1962
  43. ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ 1970
  44. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ 1960
  45. ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1977
  46. ƒ?ƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ 1991
  47. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1970
  48. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒä ?
  49. ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1976
  50. ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1976
  51. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ (ƒ¢ƒÖƒâ. ƒâƒàƒëƒÑ) 1965
  52. ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1990
  53. ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1948
  54. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ 2-ƒñ (ƒå ƒã. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖ) 1949
  55. ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒí 1979
  56. ƒ¥ƒåƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ 1950
  57. ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ 1948
  58. ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ 1978
  59. ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 1935
  60. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 2-ƒñ 1970***
  
  ________________________________
  * ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÚ... ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ... ƒ? ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒíƒÕƒÝƒÚƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ.
  **ƒ? ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà - 1990. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒñƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ - ƒáƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓ 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå.
  ***ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÖ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ? 50 (285) ƒàƒä 04 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒÀƒ÷ƒ²ƒ® ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ-).
  
  
  VIII. ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÚƒðƒÝƒÖ 1847 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒåƒÕƒàƒØƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¢ƒÑƒäƒåƒÖƒÓ ƒ®ƒÝƒÖƒÔ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒ×ƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒ·Iƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒç-ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî... ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ
  
  ...ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒéƒåƒÕƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ³ ƒÓƒ×ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð ƒãƒÓƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ. ƒ? 1848 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ... ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ. ƒRƒàƒãƒä ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒß, ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ. ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒÚƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒÚƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒÑ - ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ - ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒÚ ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒRƒàƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ 'ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒä' ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí ƒÓ 1810 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒÓ 1812 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒí. ƒNoƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ - ƒÒƒÑƒßƒñ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÑƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî - ƒïƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚ, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒéƒÑƒÖƒáƒÚƒäƒÚƒñ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ - ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ. ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒäƒÖƒÜƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê - ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî!
  ƒ? 1850 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÕƒÖƒä ƒãƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÙƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒßƒà ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ - ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒéƒÑƒâƒßƒð. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒß ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒñƒä ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒñ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒä ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒíƒßƒÖ.
  ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒå ƒáƒàƒâƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ÷ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒNoƒÑƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒßƒåƒð, ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒí ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ XVIII-XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ²ƒàƒÕ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ - ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒ×ƒßƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒí ƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ! ƒ+ƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒí XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç - 31 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ! ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ - ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ. ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒ³ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒíƒäƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ, ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒç ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒñƒç ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒâƒÑ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒßƒÑƒéƒßƒåƒä ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¢ƒíƒÙƒåƒçƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ...
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå - ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÖ. ƒ-ƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒ²ƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ÷ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÔƒßƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÜƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒßƒà ƒÓ 1845 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÖ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ. ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒèƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒä ƒÖƒ× ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒí ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒëƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒÛ. ƒ®ƒä ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑ, ƒàƒä ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÖ-ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒí. ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ 'ƒáƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒí', ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí. ƒªƒç ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà 5 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä.
  ƒ²ƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒà. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 62 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒñƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒî, ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÓ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒä. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒåƒä ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒí ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒâƒåƒÜƒå. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÜ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒå, ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒç ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ 'ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ' ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒáƒà 2-3 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä: ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒí. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒß, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà- ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà!
  ƒ³ ƒÓƒíƒâƒåƒÒƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ? ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒÜƒÝƒåƒÒƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒßƒí, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒ×ƒä ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒå. ƒÁƒÕƒàƒçƒÚƒÞƒÚƒÜƒÑƒäƒí ƒã ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒßƒÖƒãƒåƒä ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒåƒâƒàƒß ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ. ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ... ƒ÷ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒà*, ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒä ƒÙƒàƒßƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒíƒçƒÑ, ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÕƒåƒä ƒÚƒãƒÜƒåƒãƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÚƒä ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå. ƒ¯ƒíƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒäƒà ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1802 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒä ƒäƒàƒä ƒæƒÑƒÜƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ - ƒÓ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ®ƒÒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÝ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà.
  ...ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒÖƒä ƒã ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ...
  ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒßƒÚ ƒà ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÔƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ®ƒß ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ, ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ - ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî...*
  _______________________
  *'ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÔƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ' - ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÑƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒã 1872 ƒáƒà 1912 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÜ ƒã 1834 ƒáƒà 1850 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ.
   IX. ƒ® ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ® ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÖ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ
  
  
  ƒªƒÙ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà: ƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç:
  
  1 ƒ¥ƒßƒñ ƒÁƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ ƒRƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ 1876 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ:
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ÷ƒÝƒÚƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒß. ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒß, ƒßƒà ƒáƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ 1700-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒå ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÑƒßƒÔƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒí.
  
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒ?ƒÚƒÕ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒƒƒàƒÝƒÓƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒ?ƒÚƒêƒÖƒâƒå. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒßƒî, ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ
  ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒ³.ƒR. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒåƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ-ƒ?ƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒàƒÜ. 1910-12 ƒÔƒÔ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  13 ƒ¥ƒßƒñ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ ƒRƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ 1877 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒí ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ: ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÝƒÕƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  
  (ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒ×ƒÛ).
  
  
  
  2 ƒ¥ƒßƒñ ƒ¥ƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ ƒRƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ 1881 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ - ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒƒÔƒà ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÖƒÓƒí ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒí ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ: ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒàƒâƒæƒÚƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ.
   ƒª.ƒÕ. ƒáƒãƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÓƒèƒàƒÓ.
  
  (ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒß. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÝƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ).
  
  
  ƒRƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ 1876 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ - ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ
  ƒ?ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒß ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒÑƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ.
  
  
  
   ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒÕƒà 1680-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒîƒÖ, ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒØƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒïƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒ²ƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒØƒßƒñƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä. ƒ¿ƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ+ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒåƒð, ƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå.
   ƒ? 1780-90-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí-ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒêƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒÚ ƒã 1800-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ - ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ-ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà. ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒÕ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜ.
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒð ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ,ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒñ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒðƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒÖƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1750-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒçƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ (ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒÖ), ƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ·. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ XVII-XVIII ƒÓƒÓ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ: ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ. ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1792 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÒƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒÛƒß ƒâƒÖƒÜ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒàƒßƒí, ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÓƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒÕƒí, ƒ?ƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒÚ ƒ-ƒåƒÙƒí ƒÚ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÜƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ (ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒà) ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÚƒßƒåƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒåƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒî (ƒÙƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ
  
  
  
  ƒÔƒàƒâƒí) ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒáƒâƒÚƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒâƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒåƒÔƒâƒàƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒäƒÖƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð: ƒÜƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒÙ, ƒÒƒÑƒêƒÜƒÚƒâ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÑƒÜ-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÞƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒª ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜ, ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒ? XVII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ, ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒí ƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ, ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ: ƒáƒà ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖ, ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒå ƒÚ ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒå.
   ƒ+ƒàƒáƒÑƒÓ ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒã 1700-ƒç ƒÔƒÔ., ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÔƒÚƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒÙƒÑ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ.
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ¡ƒÜƒãƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ http://www.mishbanych.livejoumal.com/
  
  
   ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ-ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ
   ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ.
   (ƒ? ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ - ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 1867
   ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ)
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒáƒåƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã, ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒåƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ 1750-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç - ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒäƒî.
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒå? ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  XI. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ
  
  ? 213. ƒªƒNo ƒ+ƒ®ƒ³ƒ´ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒ®ƒ?ƒ-ƒƒ¯ƒªƒÁ ƒ+ƒ²ƒƒNoƒªƒ¥ƒªƒ÷ƒRƒ¡
  ƒ÷ƒ²ƒ¡ƒ-ƒ?ƒ³ƒƒƒ®ƒ?ƒ® ƒ®ƒ¢ƒ-ƒªƒ³ƒ+ƒ®ƒ-ƒƒƒ®ƒRƒ¡
  'ƒ® ƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ'
  29 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1931 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ³ ƒ ƒƒ ƒ² ƒ ƒ´ ƒ¯ ƒ®
  
  1. ƒ®ƒäƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒßƒÖƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÕƒí ƒÞƒÑƒñ (43,6% ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ).
  2. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒåƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ.
  3. ƒ®ƒäƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒí ƒäƒà ƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  4. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒÝƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒÚƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒå ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒâƒÞƒàƒÙƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ.50
  5. ƒ®ƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒÝƒãƒàƒðƒÙ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒí ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÛƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÜƒå ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒå.
  6. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒåƒâƒàƒâƒå ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒÚƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒå ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒåƒâƒàƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒè, ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒâƒÞƒàƒÙƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÛ.51
  ƒNoƒÑƒÞ. ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ®ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ: ƒ?.ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ___________
  ƒNoƒÑƒÞ. ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒñ ƒ®ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ: ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒâƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑ ___________
  
  ***
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒéƒÖƒß. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒéƒÑƒÛƒêƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒã ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ. ƒRƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒñƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑƒç ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÑƒáƒáƒÑƒâƒÑƒäƒí ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒàƒß. ƒƒ 30-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒ·ƒ· ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ² ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒíƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒã 1931 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÙƒÚƒÝ. ƒª ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÛƒßƒíƒÖ 70-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒåƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÜƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒßƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÚƒÙƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ.
  ƒ?ƒÚƒÒƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÜ ƒãƒÒƒàƒð ƒÑƒÝƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒç ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒÚ, ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒíƒÓƒå ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒàƒßƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒïƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒÞƒí ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ-ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ-ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ.
  ƒ? ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒàƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÙƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕ, ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒåƒÙƒÜƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒåƒÔƒåƒÒƒà ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð, ƒÕƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒïƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð. ƒªƒÒƒà ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî - ƒïƒäƒà ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâ ƒáƒà ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÖƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ!52
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  XII. ƒ-ƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÑ
  
   1. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒÚƒâƒðƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ?.ƒ+., ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ. 1926-27 ƒÔƒÔ.
   2. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ.
   3. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1890 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 519. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒ¿ƒßƒèƒÚƒÜƒÝƒàƒáƒÖƒÕƒÚƒñ. ƒ´ƒàƒÞ 6, ƒÔ. ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÑ, 1937 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³.546.
   4. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ¡. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÓ ƒ·VII-XVIII ƒÓ.ƒÓ., ƒÔ.ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 1966 ƒÔ.
   5. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ, 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
   6. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ¡.ƒª. (ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑ).
   7. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ.ƒÁ., (ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑ).
   - ƒ?ƒàƒÕ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒí ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒã 1750 ƒáƒà 1760 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒí ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ
   ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒã 1759(?) ƒáƒà 1992 ƒÔƒÔ.
   8. ƒ?ƒƒƒ÷ ƒ²ƒ¢ ƒ¸ƒªƒ¡ƒ²ƒ¢. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒÔ. ƒ÷ƒæƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 1810, 1816, 1834, 1850 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.
   9. ƒ¡. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ, ƒ .ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ.// 'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ', 1996, ? 19, 13 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ.
  10. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ.
  11. ƒ.ƒ¯. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 2005 ƒÔ.; ƒ.ƒ¯. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÔ.ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 2006 ƒÔ.
  12. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒâƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ, - 1998 ƒÔ., ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ³.21.
  13. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒƒƒÝƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1843, 1872 ƒÔ.ƒÔ.
  14. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1880 ƒÔ., ? 23, 1 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ. ƒ³. 955.
  15. ƒ³ƒÜƒåƒæƒîƒñ - ƒå ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ: ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒâƒçƒÑƒäƒßƒÑƒñ ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒæƒÚƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒêƒÑƒáƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ. ƒ? ƒ?ƒÚƒÙƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒåƒæƒîƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÚ
   ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒâƒÑƒÔƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒåƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÞƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ. ƒªƒÙ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå
   ƒãƒÑƒßƒå, ƒÔƒâƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ³ 1890 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒí ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ
   ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÜƒåƒæƒîƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÚƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒáƒâƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. (ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ
   1907 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 267).
   16. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1898 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 212.
   17. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 280. ƒ³. 660.
   18. ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑ - ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒèƒÚƒÝƒÚƒßƒÕƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒãƒêƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒå ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÒƒàƒâ - ƒáƒàƒéƒ×ƒäƒßƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ.
   19 ƒ¡. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ, ƒ. ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ. //'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ', 1996, ? 19, 13 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ.
   20. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1881 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 377. ƒ³. 379.
   21 ƒ¡. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ, ƒ. ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ. //'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ', 1996, ? 19, 13 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ.
   22. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. 1880 ƒÔ., ? 13, 1 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ. ƒ³. 480.
   23. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 90.
   24. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1885 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 760.
   25. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 485.
   26. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1883 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 853.
   27. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1887 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 131.
   28. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1885 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 774.
   29. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1886 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 264.
   30. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1887 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 604.
   31. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1886 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 264.
   32. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1888 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 108.
   33. ƒ¡. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ, ƒ. ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ. //'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ', 1996, ? 19, 13 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ.
   34. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ 1888. ƒ³. 811.
   35. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1888 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, 1 ƒÞƒÑƒñ. ƒ³. 239.
   36. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1890 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 320.
   37. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1894 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 37. ƒ³. 61-62.
   38. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1900 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 312.
   39. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1907 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 53. ƒ³. 337.
   40. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 145.
   41. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 160.
   42. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 172.
   43. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 218
   44. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 280.
   45. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 478.
   46. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1908 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³. 204.
   47. ƒ³ƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß. //ƒªƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒñ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³.-ƒ+(ƒÒ)., 20., ? 9.
   48. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ¡. ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÔƒâƒàƒ?ƒ÷ƒ-ƒÑƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, 1991.
   49. ƒ³ƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ¡.ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß. //ƒªƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒñ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³.ƒ+(ƒ¢)., 20., ? 9. ƒ³. 98-100.
   50. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒä 11 ƒÚƒðƒßƒñ 1935 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒíƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒØƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî
   ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÚƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒí ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÔƒÑƒâƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà
   ƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒí. (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ.274. ƒ®.3. ƒ¥. 351. ƒ-. 31).
   51. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ. 88. ƒ®.1. ƒ¥. 63. ƒ-. 87-87ƒàƒÒ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1917-1945 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒÔ.ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ 1999 ƒÔ. ƒ³. 148.
   52. ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒí: ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà ƒ¯.ƒ¡., ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡.ƒª., ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³.ƒ?., ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒR.ƒ?., ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ?.ƒ¡., ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒƒ.ƒ¥. ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ²ƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà ƒ¯.ƒ¡.
   ƒ³ ƒ+ ƒ¡ ƒ³ ƒª ƒ¢ ƒ® ƒ? ƒ³ ƒ ƒR !
   ƒ?ƒíƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ' ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí, ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ' ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ÷ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ:
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒƒƒ¡ƒ²ƒ´ƒ¡ ƒÓ 4 ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ, ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒéƒÜƒå ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ 4 ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ 2 ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒç
  1. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒ-ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
  2. ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒâƒÚƒáƒáƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
  ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
  3. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
  4. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  5. ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
  6. ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
  7. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
  8. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
  9. ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
  10 - 19. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ
   ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒà ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ
   ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒÓ 1930 ƒÔ. ƒ·ƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓ
   ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
   20. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   21. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   22. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   23. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   (ƒÕƒà 1931 ƒÔ.)
   24. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒàƒß
   25. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ
   26. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒâƒÚƒáƒáƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   27. ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒñ
   28. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   (ƒÕƒà 1910 ƒÔ.)
   29. ƒƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒß ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÑ, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙ-ƒÓƒà
   ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç
   30. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒá 31. ?
   32 - 41. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ
   ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒà ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ
   ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒÓ 1930 ƒÔ. ƒ·ƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓ
   ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
   42. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒîƒñ
   ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   43. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ
   ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   44. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÚƒñ
   ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   45. ƒRƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ
   ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   46. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ
   ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   47. ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒß
   ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ
   ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ
   48. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ
   ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   49. ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ
   ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ
   50. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒîƒñ
   ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   51. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒðƒÜ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ
   ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   52. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ
   ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   53. ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   54. ƒƒƒàƒßƒäƒàƒâƒÑ
   55. ? 56. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   57. ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ
   ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   58. ƒºƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ
   59. ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ
   60. ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß (ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß) ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ
   ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé (ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒß ƒã
   1960 ƒÔ.)*
   61. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ
   ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   62. ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
   62ƒÑ.ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ
   ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   62ƒÒ.ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
   ƒ´.ƒ¯.
   63. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ
   64. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   (ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒß ƒÓ 60-ƒç ƒÔ. ƒÔ.)
   65. ?
   66 - 70. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ 'ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç'
   ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒß
   ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕ
   71. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   72. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ
   ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   73. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   74. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   75. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   76. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   77. ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ
   78. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÖƒßƒÑ
   ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   79. ƒƒƒàƒãƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   80. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   81. ƒƒƒÝƒåƒÒ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ
  
  
  
  
   82. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ
   ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   83. ƒRƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÚƒß, ƒÝƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÜ
   84. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒRƒÑƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ
   ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒæƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   ƒºƒÚƒäƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒNoƒàƒñ
   ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   85. ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒñ
   ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   86. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ
   ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   87. ƒ²ƒÖƒÙƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÛ
   88. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ
   ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
   89. ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ
   ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   90. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ
   ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ
   91. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
   92. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ
   ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
  
   ƒƒƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓ:
  1) ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?. ƒ¡.
  2) ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ¡. ƒª.
  3) ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ?. ƒ¡.
  4) ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ+. ƒ¯.
  5) ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¡. ƒ?.
  ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ:
  ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ®. ƒ¡.
  ƒ®ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝ:
  ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒƒ. ƒ¥.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ____________________
  *ƒªƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà:
  ƒ®ƒä: Saunin
  ƒƒƒàƒÞƒå: ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ: ƒ³ƒÒ 31 ƒªƒðƒÝ 2010 17:13:58
  ƒ´ƒÖƒÞƒÑ: Re: ƒ® ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  
   ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî!
  
   ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ 'ƒƒƒ¡ƒƒ ƒ+ƒ÷ƒ³ƒ´ƒ® ƒ?ƒ³ƒ§ ƒ¯ƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ®ƒ¥ƒªƒ¯ƒ ƒRƒ®ƒƒ'...' ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑƒç ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç.
  ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒãƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒñƒÕƒÚ - ƒ-ƒÑƒÒƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒß ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ...
   ƒ´ƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒà ƒßƒÖƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ 'ƒƒƒ¡ƒƒ ƒ+ƒ÷ƒ³ƒ´ƒ® ƒ?ƒ³ƒ§ ƒ¯ƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ®ƒ¥ƒªƒ¯ƒ ƒRƒ®ƒƒ'...'. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒß ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒàƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ 60, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒß ƒàƒß ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß, ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒRƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß, ƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒãƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß, ƒßƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒåƒÖƒä ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒâƒà ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒñ. ƒ®ƒß ƒåƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒåƒð ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒð, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒäƒèƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ... ƒª ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒñƒä ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß... ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖ, ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒÚƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ,- ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒå ƒÒƒåƒÜƒÓƒå ƒÓ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒß ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß.
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ (ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí 1909 ƒÔ.ƒâ. )ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ 6 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ(ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí) - ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä - ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã. ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÖ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî...
   ƒƒƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚ, ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ 1960 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà.
   ƒ¡ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÕƒîƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒäƒèƒå ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒâƒåƒÒ... ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ , ƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒèƒí... ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ ƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒßƒà ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ, ƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð,
   ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä... ƒªƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ...
   ƒNoƒàƒÓƒåƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒ?ƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒâ, ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒå ƒÓ ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒí ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ... ƒRƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ 24 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 2010 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ 80 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒâ. ƒá. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒí ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ. ƒªƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒéƒ×ƒÞ ƒäƒåƒä ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ... ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒñ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ - ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà? ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÝƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒå ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒà?
  
  ƒ³ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ,
  ƒ?ƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß, Saunin diagnos777@mail.ru
  
  ƒ®ƒäƒÓƒÖƒä ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ:
  ƒNoƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒ?ƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒâ!
  ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí - ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒà. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒñ ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒð ƒßƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå ƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð). ƒ? ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒå-ƒãƒçƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒñ ƒÓƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒRƒàƒÔƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒð ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ.
  ƒ³ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. 1 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  (ƒ?ƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒñ ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå ƒßƒÑƒêƒå ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç-ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
   ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÑƒç, ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒãƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒè ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒàƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÑƒäƒâƒÑƒä. ƒ®ƒäƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÞƒí ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ - ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒãƒãƒí - ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÖ XIX ƒÓ., ƒßƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒçƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒàƒáƒíƒä ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒç ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑ: ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ 'ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒí' ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ 1877 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ 1891 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒç ƒèƒÖƒß ƒÓ 1893-1895 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒéƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒà ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖ 1895 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒàƒÓ 1869 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒÑƒãƒã ƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÞ ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÑƒÖƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓƒÙƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒç ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ (ƒàƒä 10 ƒÕƒà 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.), ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒÑƒÖƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓƒÙƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒàƒáƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒãƒáƒÑƒÖƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒêƒÚƒâƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÝƒÚƒÖƒßƒäƒåƒâƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒéƒ×ƒä 'ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç' ƒãƒÝƒàƒ×ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ? 90-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí XIX ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓ, ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒç ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÚƒñƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒíƒßƒàƒÜ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒÜƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ XX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒëƒåƒäƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒíƒéƒßƒà ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒ×ƒÞ ƒÑƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ (ƒÓ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒå 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ 1289 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ). ƒ+ƒà ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒàƒä 7 ƒÚƒðƒßƒñ 1904 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒÕ 6% ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒƒ× ƒáƒàƒÔƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒñƒäƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ 9 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒâƒàƒÜ ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒáƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒàƒÒƒâƒÖƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒßƒÓƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒâƒñ, ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒåƒØƒÕ ƒÚ ƒáƒâ. ƒ®ƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒíƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕ ƒÙƒÑƒ×ƒÞƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ: 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÑ; ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒí ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà 300 ƒÚ 800 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà.*
  ____________________-
  *ƒRƒÑƒçƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ´.ƒƒ. 'ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ (ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ XIX - ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒà XX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ)'.
  
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÜ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà 1911 ƒÔ.: ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒí. ƒ? 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒà 'ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒç ƒãƒÚƒÞƒáƒÑƒäƒÚƒñƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ' ƒÜ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒñƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÖ 70% ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒà ƒãƒßƒÑƒÒƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒí, ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒãƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒàƒÛ: ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí, ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒå 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒáƒåƒÝƒñƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒå ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒãƒÝƒàƒ×ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒð ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒîƒÔƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÕ 4,5 % ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî', ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð 'ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒêƒÑƒÔƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒä.ƒÖ. ƒÓƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒñƒäƒÚƒñ'.
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒ?ƒÑƒÞƒÚ - ƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®) ƒÓ ƒæƒàƒßƒÕƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ (ƒ. ƒ²-20)
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒð ƒ?. ƒªƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒå ƒRƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ
  ƒ?.ƒ®.ƒ?.ƒ¢.
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÑƒã, ƒãƒàƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ 6 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒã.ƒÔ. ƒÜ 10 ƒéƒÑƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒî ........ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒàƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒãƒéƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒð (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!).
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
   ƒ+ƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  
  
  
  
  Cƒäƒâ. 264
  3 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔ., ? 1271
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒå ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒå 8 ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒàƒå ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒÑƒêƒÖ ƒàƒä 6 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ ƒã.ƒÔ. ƒÙƒÑ ? 26, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÚƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ, ƒRƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒä-ƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ 24 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1911 ƒÔ.; ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà. ƒ³ƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ³ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒÑƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒä-ƒÓƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒñ. ƒ´-ƒÓƒå ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖ 30 000 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒä-ƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÒƒí ƒÓƒÖƒãƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà. ƒ³ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒä-ƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ.
  
  ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ_____________________
  ƒªƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâ_____________________
  
  
  
   (ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ: ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒêƒÚƒæƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒå ƒæƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ)
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒç. ? 1843 ƒàƒä 10 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔ.
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 19
  (ƒ´ƒÖƒÜƒãƒä ƒÑƒÕƒÑƒáƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ®.ƒ¡)
  
  ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ? 6364 ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 6 ƒÕƒßƒñ.
  
   ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ 705 (?), ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî 80 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ+ƒà ƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÚ 112-ƒÛ ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ, ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÞ.
  
   ƒNoƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà 114 ƒãƒä. ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒéƒÝƒÖƒß ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒ+ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒÚƒâƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÜ ƒàƒÒƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÔƒà:
  
  1. ƒ³ƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ ?? 18 ƒÚ 14 ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ´ƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà: ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒØƒå ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒàƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒç, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒãƒéƒÖƒä, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒÓƒíƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒãƒàƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒã ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ 12 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1906 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ: ƒáƒÝƒåƒÔƒÚ, ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí, ƒãƒÖƒñƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒñƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒØƒÑƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒàƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒà.
  
  2. ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÛ ƒã ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÞ, ƒáƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâ ƒÚ ƒéƒîƒñ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒà, ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒÚƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒã ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ.
  
  
  3. ƒNoƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâ ƒÓƒÙƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒå ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÖ 2 %% ƒã ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒñ..., ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà: ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒéƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâ.
  
  4. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑ 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒÚ.
  
  
  5. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà ƒçƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ ƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒà 5000 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  
  6. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒà ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒã.....(ƒãƒÖƒñƒÝƒÜƒå?) ƒ´ƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÒƒÖƒâ ƒáƒà ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ ƒàƒä 45 ƒÕƒà 75 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒåƒáƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒà ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒãƒàƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒã ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÓƒÙƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒã ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒà 25 ƒÜƒàƒá., ƒÑ ƒã ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÚƒç ƒÝƒÚƒè - ƒáƒà 50 ƒÜƒàƒá.
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒÚƒñ.
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒÜƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒª. ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒß
  
  
   ƒ³ƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÓ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒã 15000 ƒÕƒà 25000 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÙ 'ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ' ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ
  
  
  
   ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÑƒâƒäƒÖƒÝƒî
  
  
  
   19 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ®ƒß ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒàƒä ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒã ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒØƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒNoƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒàƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒãƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒêƒÜƒÑƒæƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé - ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒå ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå. ƒ+ƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒå ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ - ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒå ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒßƒå. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÞ. ƒ®ƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà.
   ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ 15 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ´ƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒð, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÚƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ+. ƒ?. ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒƒàƒáƒÚƒñ. ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 318
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 5
  ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ
  21 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  
   ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒªƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒíƒãƒàƒéƒÑƒÛƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ: ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒÛ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒƒÓƒÔƒÖƒßƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒàƒß ƒØƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒä ƒÜ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒƒÔƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ-ƒÑƒÒƒåƒäƒÚƒß, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÚƒØƒßƒÚƒç ƒéƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒàƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒïƒÜƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒéƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒáƒà ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ (ƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒä ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒí ƒÕƒà ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ), ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝ:
  ƒ?ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÕƒà ƒãƒàƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑ ƒéƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒÑƒç ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÜ ƒßƒÚƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒãƒãƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÖ 288 (ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒä ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒî) ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ 45 ƒÜƒàƒáƒÖƒÖƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒå ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒØƒÖ - ƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒßƒÖƒãƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒêƒÜƒÑƒæƒÑ, ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé - ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒå ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒå ƒßƒÖƒãƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒêƒÜƒÑƒæƒÑ ƒàƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒîƒð ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒå ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒßƒå.
   ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒÞƒÚ.
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒÞ:
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ: ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ: ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒß
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒ¯. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
   ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒÛ: ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒãƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÕ: ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚƒñ: ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
   ƒªƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ: ƒ+. ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ __________________ ƒ?. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ________________ƒ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  
  ***
  
   ƒ¯ƒÑ 01.01.1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà737 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒâƒàƒßƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒàƒäƒãƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒíƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒØƒÖƒÛ.
  ***
  
  ƒ·ƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÑƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ
  (ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâ. 335,
  ƒÑƒÕƒÑƒáƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ,
  ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒà ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ®.ƒ¡.)
  
  
   ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒéƒ×ƒä ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓ, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒí ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ, ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒñƒãƒî ƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç (ƒÓƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓ). ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÒƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒàƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ³ƒãƒåƒÕƒí ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒâƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒåƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑƒç ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ. ƒ³ƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÚ.
   ƒ? ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå. ƒ?ƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒñ. ƒ? ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ. ƒ³ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒí. ƒ? ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒà ƒãƒéƒÖƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ - ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ.
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÓƒíƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒåƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒí ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÑƒéƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒí ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ, ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒàƒÒƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ!'...
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒà ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÑƒß ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÚƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒàƒÔƒà, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä.
  ƒªƒßƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒRƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ___________________ƒ+. ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  28 ƒàƒÜƒä. 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ
  ƒÜ 11 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1915 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  (ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒâ. 408)
  
  ƒƒªƒ® ƒ³ƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ? ƒáƒà ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒ? ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÞƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕ ƒ³ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒâƒàƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒß
  1 2 3 4 5
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 10 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 1000 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 2000 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓ ƒƒÔƒàƒâ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 9 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 800 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 15 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 400 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 800 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒçƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 125 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 250 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 150 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 11 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1912 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 191 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 900 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒî 32 ƒªƒÞƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÞƒÖƒÒƒÖƒÝƒî - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒ³ 1911 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ 625 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 1000 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 300 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä -600 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒRƒåƒÜƒàƒÞƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒã ƒßƒÖƒæƒäƒñƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÓƒÚƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ - 2000 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 3900 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 23 ____? 1913 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÚƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 37 ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä - 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  _________
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 500 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÖƒéƒßƒÖƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒàƒéƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ 583 ƒªƒÞƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ - ƒÞƒÖƒÒƒÖƒÝƒî - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒäƒÑ - 100 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ____
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒà: 200 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
   ƒ³ 31 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1914 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒÞ. ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ (ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ).
  ƒ+ƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒî
  
  ***
  
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÑƒÕƒâƒÖƒã-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ 1911, 1915 ƒÔƒÔ.
  
  ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒÕƒâƒÖƒã-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒî ƒßƒÑ 1911 ƒÔ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒã ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒñ: ƒÕƒÖƒâ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕ. ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜ. ƒªƒÓ. (ƒãƒäƒâ.257);
  ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒà, ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç: ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒÖƒÕ. ƒªƒÓ. (ƒãƒäƒâ.260);
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒåƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒåƒâƒÑ: ƒÕ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒã. ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜ. ƒªƒÓ. (ƒãƒäƒâ.261);
  ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒÕƒâƒÖƒã-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒî ƒßƒÑ 1915 ƒÔ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒñ: ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒƒÖƒÕ. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß. ƒÚ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓ. (ƒãƒäƒâ. 339).*
  
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÑƒÕƒâƒÖƒã-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ 1911-1915 ƒÔƒÔ. (ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ)
  ƒ¡ƒáƒäƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒè - ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒƒÓƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒºƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒñ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÚ, ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒá ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé; ƒ³ƒÑƒÝƒäƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé;
  ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒRƒàƒÜƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé; ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒƒâƒÞƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÚƒãƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒñ ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà': ƒ-ƒÑƒáƒäƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒß ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒà, ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç. ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé;
  ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒ?ƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÞƒÖƒãƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÚƒÚƒÝ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ´ƒÖƒáƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ¢ƒÑƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒƒƒÖƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒß ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒºƒÚƒäƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ, ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÒƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ-ƒÖƒã ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒ´-ƒÓƒà 'ƒ-ƒÑƒáƒäƒÖƒÓƒí ƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÖƒÓ'
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒåƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒåƒâƒÑ ƒÕ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒã. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé;
  ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ: ƒ¥ƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒá ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ³ƒÑƒÝƒäƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒåƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÖƒæƒàƒÕƒÚƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé;
  ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒºƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé;
  ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒîƒè.), ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ¯ƒÑƒåƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔ. ƒÕƒàƒÞ 'ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡. ƒ¯. ƒÚ ƒƒƒà', 'ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒåƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ?. ƒ. ƒÚ ƒãƒíƒß'.
  ƒ²ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒßƒí, ƒÒƒåƒæƒÖƒäƒí, ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒíƒÖ:
  ƒÒƒåƒæƒÖƒä ƒãƒä. 'ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà', ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØ.ƒÕ.: ƒ¡ƒâƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒÚƒÞƒáƒÚƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ;
  ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒâ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ-ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒä ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ·ƒÝƒÖƒÒ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ¢ƒåƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒâƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ÷ƒãƒîƒÓƒÚƒßƒÚƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÒƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒºƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒÁƒÛƒèƒÑ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒÓƒàƒÝ.: ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒêƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ (ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®)
  ƒ³.ƒ¢. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®, ƒ. ƒ²-183, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 338
  
  ? 35. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒÓ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - 26.02.1922 ƒÔ. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ. ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ 1 ƒâƒÑƒÙ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 72 ƒäƒíƒã. ƒâ., ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒè.
  ? 99. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÔƒâƒÖƒèƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒßƒà ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝ. - 16.03.1922 ƒÔ. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ. ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ 1 ƒâƒÑƒÙ., ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 72 ƒäƒíƒã. ƒâ., ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒÒ. ƒãƒÚƒÝƒàƒÛ 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝ.
   ? 79. ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜ. ƒÓƒàƒÝ. - 9.09.1922 ƒÔ. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 1440 ƒâ., ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÑ.
   ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®, ƒ. ƒ² 183, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 265
  ? 78. ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - 12.02.1923 ƒÔ. ƒ+ƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ. ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 60 ƒâ., ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ.
  ? 220. ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - 9.06.1923 ƒÔ. ƒ+ƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ. ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ 1 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 100 ƒâ., ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒ×ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑ.
  ? 309. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒß ƒƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - 28.07.1923 ƒÔ. ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä 1 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 210 ƒâ., ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÑ.
  ? 323. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ - 1.08.1923 ƒÔ. ƒ+ƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ. ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 50 ƒâ., ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒè.
  ? 358. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - 1.09.1923 ƒÔ. ƒ´ƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒä 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ 210 ƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÙƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒñ ƒÑƒâƒÒƒåƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÑ.*
  _________________
  *ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒà-ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒ¡ƒÕƒâƒÖƒã-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÛ 1911-1915 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒæƒàƒßƒÕƒÑ ƒ²-183 ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ® ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒÑƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ - ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ (ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ).
  
  ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí, ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®
  ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ®.ƒ¡.
  
  ? ƒæƒàƒßƒÕƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ, ƒÕƒÖƒÝ, ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒå ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ® ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒà-ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ® ƒ?ƒàƒÕ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖ-ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑ-ƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÑ-ƒßƒÚƒè ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒà ƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ: ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ
  1 2 3 4 5
  ƒª-9, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 45 5 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1915-16 ƒÔƒÔ. 167 ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð
  ƒ¯ƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1915 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÕƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒã ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒéƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒãƒéƒÖƒä ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ, ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒå (ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ ƒàƒä 20 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ ƒã.ƒÔ. ƒÙƒÑ ? 2406) ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖ, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒß, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒä ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ - ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒåƒð ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒå.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒß ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒí__________________
  ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ*__________________
  _______________________
  *. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ® ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒÀƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ (ƒÀƒ÷ƒ²ƒ® ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ-).
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 1708 5 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1926-27 6 ƒÝ. ƒ¥ƒÚƒãƒèƒÚƒáƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒáƒà ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ®ƒÓƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒR.ƒª. ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  ***
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒæƒÝƒÚƒÜƒä ƒã ƒãƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒNoƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ.
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 2235 5 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1928-29 ƒÔƒÔ. 153 ƒÝ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒí ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ.
  ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÑ ƒàƒáƒíƒäƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÑ-ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒñ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ.42. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 11ƒàƒä 6 ƒÕƒÖƒÜ.1928 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒð ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒã/ƒã ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒå ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÙƒÑ ƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî ƒã/ƒã ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÖ 275 ƒâƒåƒÒ. (ƒ®ƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒâƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒàƒä 23 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ).
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî___________ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓ
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 64. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 15 ƒàƒä 21 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâ.1929 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ? 24, ƒáƒÑƒâƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒæ 7 ƒàƒä 6 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒð ƒÓƒÚƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒÚ: ƒáƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 69. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒí ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒàƒðƒÙ
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 75. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 15 ƒàƒä 7 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1929 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ (ƒ¯ƒÚƒéƒÚƒØƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ). ƒ®ƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÚƒéƒÚƒØƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒàƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÜ 20 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ***
  ƒ? ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà: ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒàƒÒƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒå ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí 340 ƒâƒåƒÒ. 50 ƒÜƒàƒá., ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÑƒÞƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑ - 328 ƒâƒåƒÒ., ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ - 60 ƒâƒåƒÒ., ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà 728 ƒâƒåƒÒ. 50 ƒÜƒàƒá. - ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ.84. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 15 ƒàƒä 23 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1929 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã ƒáƒà ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÞƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ®ƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒã 15 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 99. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 22 ƒàƒä 1 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1929 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑƒêƒ×ƒß ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒÜƒÚƒß - ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ I ƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒ´7.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 109. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒçƒàƒÙƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÓ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒà ƒãƒäƒâ. 121. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 22 ƒàƒä 14 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1929 ƒÔ. ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ.
  ƒªƒäƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒå ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÓƒâƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒå ƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞ, ƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ.
  ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒÚƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé____________________ƒ÷ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒ®ƒƒƒ²ƒªƒƒ
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 2599
   6 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1928-29 ƒÔƒÔ. 95 ƒÝ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÙƒàƒâƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 39: ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒßƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ______________ (ƒ¯ƒÖƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒâƒéƒÚƒÓƒà)
  .
  12 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ - ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒß ƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 41 - ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒß ƒàƒäƒéƒÖƒä ƒà ƒëƒÖƒÝƒñƒç ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛƒãƒñ ƒêƒäƒåƒÜƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÜƒÖ: ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒî, ƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒâƒÖƒéƒî). ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÙƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒñ: ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒî, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒä....
  21 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 43 ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒßƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÑƒÜƒä ƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÑ ƒæƒåƒßƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ___________________ (ƒ¯ƒÖƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒâƒéƒÚƒÓƒà)
  27 ƒÚƒðƒßƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 44. ƒ¡ƒÜƒä ƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÑ ƒæƒåƒßƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ.
  25 ƒÚƒðƒßƒñ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒåƒßƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒß
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ________ ƒ²ƒíƒØƒÖƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÞ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ, ƒÙƒÑƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ____________ƒ-ƒÑƒÒƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ __________ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ
  (ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒäƒéƒÖƒä: ƒæƒåƒßƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒÖ 1, 65 ƒÞ ƒÚ ƒäƒÕ.)
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ 46
  ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒð ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ - ƒ.ƒR. ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ.
  ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒä, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà 'ƒàƒäƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÑƒáƒÖƒâƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒßƒßƒí ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÕ ƒÒƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒÚ ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒèƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒßƒà ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÑƒßƒÜƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÓƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÒƒàƒâ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ'.
  26.4.28 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  (ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒä ƒáƒåƒäƒ×ƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 47. - ƒ¡ƒÜƒä
  ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä - ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒÓƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒð ƒãƒà ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÞ (1 ƒâƒåƒÒ.) ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒß. ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓ ƒã 290 ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒÞƒÚ. (ƒ? ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒÑ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ). ƒ³ƒà ƒãƒäƒâ. 94 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒñƒä ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî...
  (ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÔƒà: ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒåƒÖƒä ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 3359 07 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1930 ƒÔ. 272 ƒÝ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒí ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒÕƒÚƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 130: ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 16 ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒä 27 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞ.ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒí ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ.
  ƒ´. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÔ ƒäƒàƒä ƒæƒÑƒÜƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç.
  ƒ? ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒã ƒäƒÖƒÞ, , ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒã ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒå ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒåƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒáƒâƒÚƒñƒäƒÚƒÛ.
  ***
  ƒ³ƒà ƒãƒäƒâ. 200: ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÓ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒ+ƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒàƒÖ ƒã ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà.
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 3397 07 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1930 ƒÔ. 195 ƒÝ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÔƒÚƒàƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ.19: ƒ´ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒæƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ²ƒªƒƒƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ, ƒºƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒå:
  ƒ¯ƒÑ 14 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ:
  ƒ÷ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒå - 17, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ - ƒÕƒÓƒÖ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ____________ ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 23. ƒ? ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞ. ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  ƒ´ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒæƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒæƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ? 10: ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!) ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒà ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒñƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ - 1.
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜ.... ___________ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî____________ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ***
  19 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ? 26 ƒàƒä 15 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ® ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ (ƒ+ƒåƒäƒ×ƒÞ ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÑ).
  ƒ²ƒÖƒÙƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒäƒñ: ƒ·ƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ²ƒªƒƒƒÑ ƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒî.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒå:
  ƒÑ) ƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒä.ƒãƒä. 36, 37, 39 ƒÚ 40 ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒ¸ƒªƒƒ ƒÚ ƒ³ƒ¯ƒƒ ƒ²ƒ³ƒƒ³ƒ² ƒàƒä 3 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1929 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 'ƒ® ƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÔƒÚƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒÚ ƒÒ) ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒåƒâƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ.
  ƒ+.ƒá. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ _____________ƒ+ƒàƒáƒÜƒàƒÓ,
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒ®ƒÜƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ _________ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÚƒÔƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒà____ƒ¡. ƒ+ƒàƒë.......
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÑƒä.
  (ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ - ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  ***
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 115, 121: ƒ? ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒâ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒí ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒãƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒéƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒí ƒÓƒíƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 132: ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÑƒç ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ 25 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1930 ƒÔ.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 22 ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ (ƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÒƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒçƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒàƒÜƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ) , ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒä;
  ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ (1 - ƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ 1 - ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒñƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒã ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç - 1800 ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÑƒç.
  ƒ²-98, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 3426 08 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1930 ƒÔ. 31 ƒÝ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ¥ƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ', ƒèƒÚƒâƒÜƒåƒÝƒñƒâƒí ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ 'ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ'.
  
  ƒ²-138, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 261 30 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 2014 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ 1920-21 ƒÔƒÔ. 129 ƒÝ. ƒ? ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî - ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ ƒ¯.ƒ³., ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÛƒßƒíƒÛ 42 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÓ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ
  
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®: 24.07.2013 ƒÔ.
  ƒ. ƒ²-542, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 37
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒä-ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒî 1919 ƒÔ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ 86 ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒç
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 7. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒä 18 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ:
  ...
  ƒÒ) ƒƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒéƒßƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒå ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÕƒíƒãƒÜƒÑƒßƒÚƒð (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!) ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÖ.
  ƒÓ) ƒ+ƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒæƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒéƒßƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒå ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒ. ƒ. ƒà ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒåƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÕ.
  ƒÔ) ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒåƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÕ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒã ƒáƒàƒÕƒíƒãƒÜƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!) ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ.
  ƒÕ) ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ:
  ƒÑ) ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ - ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒð ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒå ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå.
  ƒÒ) ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ - ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒå ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒå.
  ƒÓ) ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒä-ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ - ƒÓƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒå.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ: ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕ. ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ___________________ƒ+. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ,
  ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî _________________ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ®ƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâ 27-ƒÛ ƒãƒä. ƒÕƒÚƒÓ. ______________ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ 18.08.1919 ƒÔ.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 9.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ?1 ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà 15 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒßƒñ:
  1) ƒ´ƒÖƒÜƒåƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒä.
  2) ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî.
  3) ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ.
  
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒí ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞ:
  1) ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  2) ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  3) ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  4) ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  5) ƒÀƒâƒÚƒß ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  6) ƒºƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé.
  7) ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÛ ƒÀƒâƒÚƒß.
  8) ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  9) ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  10) ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒß ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  11) ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 9-ƒàƒÒ.
  ƒRƒí, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÚƒãƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÔƒßƒ×ƒä, ƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒ×ƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ, ƒÞƒí ƒåƒÒƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒí, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ, ƒä. ƒÖ. ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÒ ƒâƒåƒÜƒå ƒã ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒð, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒíƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒã. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÙƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÖƒÖ-ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓƒàƒØƒÕƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÚ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÜƒßƒåƒäƒÑ ƒçƒÚƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒßƒêƒàƒÞ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒàƒäƒßƒÚ ƒäƒâƒåƒáƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒåƒâƒØƒåƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒàƒÞƒå ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÞƒå.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 10.
  ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÙƒñƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ? 27 ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒë ƒ¯ƒÖƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒàƒÒƒâƒÚƒãƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒåƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒÞ 'ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒí? ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒí?', ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒà ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒåƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 12.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒä 17 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔ. ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒ. ƒª. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒñ ƒR. ƒ+. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒßƒñ:
  1) ƒ´ƒÖƒÜƒåƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒä.
  2) ƒ®ƒâƒÔ. ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã.
  3) ƒ?ƒíƒÒƒàƒâ ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ.
  4) ƒ´ƒÖƒÜƒåƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà (ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÜƒßƒåƒäƒÑ ƒçƒÚƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒßƒÕƒÑƒêƒàƒÞ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  ...........
  3] ƒ+ƒà ƒäƒÖƒÜƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒàƒä ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ: ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ____________ƒ+. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ,
  ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî ____________ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 13.
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒïƒÜƒÙƒÖƒÞƒáƒÝƒñƒâƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒàƒÒƒë. ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ .......
   (ƒ÷ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ.ƒª. ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÜ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒØƒÚƒÞ. ƒ®. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 33.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ?1 (ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÑƒäƒí) ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒã ƒãƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ: ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒéƒåƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 3 ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ 27 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔ.
  ƒƒƒàƒàƒáƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒß (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!, ?) ƒÙƒÑƒÓ. ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 30.
  30 ƒÑƒÓƒÔƒåƒãƒäƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 4 ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ: ƒÙƒÑƒÓ. ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!) ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒÓƒãƒñƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 39.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ?8 ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒã. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒßƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒºƒåƒÞƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒãƒãƒí ƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒãƒãƒÚƒâƒêƒÖ ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒºƒåƒÞƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒâƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ.
  12 ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 40.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 9 ƒàƒä 4 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ.ƒª. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 41.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ?10 ƒàƒä 5 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒÕƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã: ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒåƒÝƒñƒèƒÚƒÚ.
  (ƒƒƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî - ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ®. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ)
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 42.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 11 ƒàƒä 6 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ 7 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒã 11-00 ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ - ƒÞƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒÔ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 43.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 12 ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ,
  ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖƒãƒñ 8 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ:
  1) ƒ® ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒîƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒà ƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒåƒÝƒñƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒîƒð ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒãƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒäƒàƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝ ƒÚ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒã ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒîƒð ƒ. ƒª. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  2) ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒèƒÖƒßƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ ƒæƒâƒÑƒßƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ (ƒäƒÑƒÜ!) 50 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒí-ƒçƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒäƒí.
  3) ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒßƒí ƒÙƒÑ (?) ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ - 32 ƒâ. ƒáƒà 1 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒæƒåƒßƒä.
  ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ:
  ƒNoƒÑƒÓ. ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ_______________ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß.
   ***
  ƒ´ƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ?13 ƒàƒä 11 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  ***
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 14 ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒä 16 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  1) ƒ+ƒà ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒð ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒÚƒÞ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒà ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒð ƒßƒÖƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ. ƒ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒàƒäƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒáƒà ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒà ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒå ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒ´ƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒå ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒàƒäƒÝƒåƒéƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒå ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâ.
  2) ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÑƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ - ƒ+. ƒƒ. ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ - ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
  3) ƒ÷ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒÚƒÞ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
  4) ƒ÷ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒéƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒ®ƒßƒåƒæƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ-ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ.
  5) ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒßƒãƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒè. ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
  6) ƒ÷ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÓ. ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ:
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî_______________ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî__________ ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ
  ƒNoƒÑƒÓ. ƒáƒâƒàƒÕ. ƒàƒäƒÕ._______________ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒÕƒÑƒä ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ____________ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ: ___________________ƒƒÕƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝ
  ___________________ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓ
  ___________________ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒß
  ___________________ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ
  ___________________ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 46.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 15 (ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒñ) ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ
   ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ 16 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  
  ƒ³ƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ
  1. ƒ?ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒÖƒÛ, ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒç ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒè, ƒÓƒàƒÝ. ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ.
  2. ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒå-ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒð ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒïƒäƒÑƒØ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÖ-ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒïƒäƒÑƒØ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒºƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  3. ƒ® ƒãƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒÖ, ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒª. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÜ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒØƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ 1 ƒáƒåƒÕ 33 ƒæƒåƒßƒäƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÑƒçƒÑƒâ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ 5 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒåƒÕ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÜ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÒƒåƒæƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒÑƒç ƒáƒà ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî _______________ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ,
  ƒÙƒÑƒÓ. ƒáƒâƒàƒÕ. ƒàƒäƒÕ. _________________ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß,
  ƒÙƒÑƒÓ.ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒä. _______________ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓ,
  ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî _________________ƒƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà, _________ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒåƒáƒâ. _____________ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 47.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 16 ƒàƒä 16 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  ƒ²ƒÖƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒâƒåƒðƒä ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí, ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒåƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: 'ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒé ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒà ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒíƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ'.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÚ: ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒîƒÖ ƒáƒà 900 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒè ƒÕƒà ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒàƒÜ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî_______________ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ,
  ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí _____________ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß,
  ___________ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß,
  ___________ƒ¢ƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÓ,
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî____________ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß.
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ___________ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ,
  ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒåƒáƒâ. _______________ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  
  ***
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ?17 (ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÑƒäƒí.ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà 25 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ. ƒ®. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ)
  ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ:
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒñ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒƒÕƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ:
  3) ƒ®ƒä ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÖƒÞƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒå ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒñ.
  4) ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ: - ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒãƒéƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓ. ƒáƒâƒàƒÕ. ƒàƒäƒÕ. ƒáƒà ƒåƒãƒä. ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÖ 24 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒåƒÕ.
  5) ƒ´ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒÖ ƒèƒÖƒßƒí: ƒÞƒñƒãƒà 6 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒæƒåƒßƒä, ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÒƒÑƒãƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒâƒ×ƒßƒÑƒñ - 12 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒæƒåƒßƒä.
  6) 27 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ 12-00.
  7) ƒ® ƒãƒåƒäƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ: ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÖ: ƒãƒåƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒà 40 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî_____________ƒ÷ƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ,
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒî ______________ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒß,
  ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÜƒäƒàƒâ-ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâ ___________ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ,
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÖƒßƒí _______________ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß.
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî______________ ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ,
  ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ______________ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
  
  ***
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 18 ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒä 22 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ. ƒ®. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒäƒÑƒâƒñ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒãƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒéƒåƒÜƒÑ.
  3) ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ: ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ 2 ƒáƒåƒÕƒÑ 10 ƒæƒåƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà 22 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÜƒå, ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒå ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒÚ - 10 ƒæƒåƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà 22 ƒâƒåƒÒ.
  5) ƒ® ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ: ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÞƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒâƒñƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒéƒåƒÜƒÑ.
  6) ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒàƒÞ n x 1S = 320090; ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒàƒâƒÚ... ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ....[ƒå] ƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑ ƒ²ƒàƒÔƒàƒØƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒâƒäƒàƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒÖƒâƒåƒð ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒå ƒãƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ? ƒÓ ƒåƒáƒÝ ? ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒå n x ƒƒR ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕ.
  ƒ³ 27 ƒãƒÖƒßƒä. ƒáƒà 1 ƒàƒÜƒä. 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒç ƒßƒÖƒä ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÒ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ (ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÜ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ®. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ).
  ƒ³ƒäƒâ. 60.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÝ ? 22 ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒØƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ,
  ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ 1 ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1919 ƒÔ.
  1) ƒ?ƒÝ. ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒåƒØƒÕ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ 1 ƒäƒíƒãƒñƒéƒå ƒáƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ 17 ƒâ. 50 ƒÜƒàƒá. ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒåƒÕ. ƒ® ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒÑƒÔƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÑƒÞ, ƒÒƒàƒâƒèƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒàƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒÝƒñƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÜƒÑ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÑƒâƒÞƒÖƒÛƒèƒÑƒÞ, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ.
  4) ƒ® ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒç: ƒ?ƒíƒÓƒÖƒÙƒäƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÜƒàƒÞƒå, ƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒáƒà ƒåƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà.
  7) ƒ?ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒéƒÑƒñ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒÑƒÛ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî________________ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ,
  ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒí _________________ƒR. ƒ-ƒÑƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÔ,
  _________________ƒ³. ƒºƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ,
  _________________ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÝƒÖƒÓ,
  _________________ƒ?. ƒ¡ƒãƒäƒÑƒæƒîƒÖƒÓ.
  ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒà, ______________ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒ¢ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ.*
  ____________________
  *ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒßƒñƒä ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ 1921-23 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒð ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒÝƒà ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒÝƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒä ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒÙ ƒàƒäƒèƒå 2 ƒÞƒÖƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒªƒâƒÜƒåƒäƒãƒÜƒÑ. ƒƒÝƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ.ƒª. ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒÕƒà 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒáƒÑƒã ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒÔƒâƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒÚƒßƒåƒÖƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒÚƒÒƒÖƒÝƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ? 1925 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒå. ƒƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÔ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒí ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 1926 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ? ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒÖ 1929 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒð ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒå ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ: 'ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÕƒà ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ - ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒî!'. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ... 'ƒ¡ ƒÓƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÑƒéƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð...'*
   ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ®.ƒ¡.
  
   ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, - ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÝƒÚ? ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒî ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ÷ƒÜƒãƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ: ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒáƒàƒÛ. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî, ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÖ, ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝ 1958 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ, ƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÚƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒîƒð-ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÑƒÝƒñƒð, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒêƒßƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒäƒî...
   ƒ? ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒã ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒâƒíƒÓƒàƒéƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÑ ƒàƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÑƒÒƒãƒàƒÝƒðƒäƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒäƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒñ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒà ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ:
   - ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖ ƒäƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒêƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ?
   ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒçƒÚƒçƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ, ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒåƒÒƒí, ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒñ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒàƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒðƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÑƒÓƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ. ƒÁ ƒáƒâƒà ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒñ...'. ƒª ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒàƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒñ.
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒÝƒñ ƒ¥ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒåƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ - ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ - ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÔ. ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ, 1966 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
   ƒÁ ƒÚƒç ƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒç. ƒ¥ƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ, ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÞƒñƒäƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒãƒÞƒåƒäƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâ ƒêƒ×ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒàƒÕƒÖƒñƒÝƒàƒÞ, ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒáƒàƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒßƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ: ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒ³ƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒÑƒáƒÑ, ƒÁ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒ³ƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ. ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒñ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞƒå...
   ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒÕƒíƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒRƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÒƒí ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒî, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒíƒÞƒå, ƒßƒà ƒñ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒñ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ.
  
  ____________________
  *ƒ? 60-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÖƒçƒÚƒäƒâƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒßƒÚ, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÝƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÝƒßƒèƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒÒƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒ ƒÙƒÓƒÖƒßƒÖƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒåƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÑƒéƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð, ƒ?ƒí ƒÓƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒÖƒ× ƒã ƒãƒäƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ...'.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ, ƒÓƒÚƒÕ ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒåƒßƒÕƒâƒí
  
   ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒí ƒàƒä ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒ×ƒçƒåƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒÑƒâƒÜƒÚ. ƒ´ƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒí, ƒñ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?ƒåƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒïƒäƒÑƒØƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ®ƒä ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒà ƒéƒÖƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÚƒãƒÝƒíƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒàƒçƒàƒäƒå ƒå ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ - ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÚƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ. ƒƒƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÛƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ: 'ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒêƒî ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒäƒî - ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÖƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒäƒà...'. ƒ³ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî - ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÖ! ƒÁ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒåƒáƒí ƒÓƒãƒáƒíƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒâƒð. ƒNoƒÑƒäƒà ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÕƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÙƒÚƒäƒî, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÙƒÝƒàƒÒƒßƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒçƒÚƒçƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒNoƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒªƒâƒÑƒÚƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÚƒä ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒíƒÜƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ-ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒ×ƒâƒäƒíƒê, ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒéƒåƒÕƒÖƒãƒßƒåƒð ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð, ƒßƒà ƒã ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÑƒð ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ.
  
  
   ƒªƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒå. ƒ?ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒí ƒã ƒÔƒàƒâƒñƒéƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖ, ƒÞƒí ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒäƒî ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒÜƒâƒàƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí, ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑƒç, ƒÞƒí ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÚ ƒàƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ:
   - ƒ¡ƒãƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚ! - ƒ¡ƒãƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒæƒàƒâƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒàƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ:
   - ƒ¡ ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒÞ?
   - ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒí!!!
   - ƒ'ƒÑƒã, ƒÓƒíƒÛƒÕƒå!
  
  
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÓ 2000 ƒÔ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ ƒÓ 1960 ƒÔ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒäƒåƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ
  
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒäƒÚƒè, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒâƒÙƒÝƒàƒäƒÖ ƒßƒÑ 69-ƒÛ ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒäƒÖ. 1964 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
   ƒ´ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¡ƒãƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ-ƒÑƒâƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒåƒÝƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒäƒåƒßƒÕƒâƒå. ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ 10 ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒßƒàƒÜ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ 12-14 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÒƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒå, ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞƒåƒð ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ?.....ƒäƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒà ƒÓ ƒäƒåƒßƒÕƒâƒå, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÞƒí, ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒÖƒêƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÒƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÕƒäƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒêƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒí ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒàƒÚƒêƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå - ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒè ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÑƒñƒÓƒêƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ, ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÖƒâƒí.
   ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÓ 1965 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÓƒíƒÖƒçƒÑƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ 'ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÜ' (ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒßƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒç), ƒÓ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒñ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå - ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÔ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒñ ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ. ƒ¿ƒäƒÚ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ, ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒêƒÖƒâƒêƒÑƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜ... ƒRƒí ƒã ƒ³ƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒã ƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒñƒÞƒÚ.
   ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ?ƒí ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà.
   ƒÁ ƒÓƒíƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒåƒäƒÖ. ƒ·ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ: 'ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÕƒåƒç ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÛ!!!'. - ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ-ƒäƒà!!! ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÕƒåƒç ƒÓ ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÖ?
  
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ 2000 ƒÔ.
  
   ƒÁ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ 29 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒñƒÜƒåƒð ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒä ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒå. ƒ³ƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒãƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒäƒà ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔ - ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ 'ƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒâƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒçƒÑƒç', ƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç-ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî...
   ƒÁ ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒƒàƒäƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÖ, ƒßƒÑƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî ƒáƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå. ƒÁ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ - ƒ¥ƒÚƒÞƒå, ƒàƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒî. ƒƒƒàƒÖ-ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÝ, ƒÜƒàƒÖ-ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÔƒÓƒàƒÙƒÕƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒÚƒÝ, ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒãƒäƒ×ƒÜƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÚƒäƒíƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒßƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒà, ƒÑ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒáƒÑƒäƒî ƒñƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÞƒåƒãƒàƒâ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒåƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ. ƒNoƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒçƒßƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒà ƒ¥ƒÚƒÞƒå, ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒå, ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð: ƒÑ ƒàƒß ƒÓ ƒñƒÞƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒÚƒÕƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒç ƒàƒäƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÖƒä. ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð:
   - ƒ¥ƒÚƒÞƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒí ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒíƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒñƒÞƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ!
   ƒ®ƒß:
   - ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà! ƒ¯ƒå ƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒáƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒà...
   ƒ¿ƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒáƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒåƒÞƒíƒÓƒÑƒñ, ƒÓƒíƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒÞ 27 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒÓƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒå. ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒäƒå ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒáƒßƒåƒð, ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒà-ƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒâƒíƒäƒåƒð ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒåƒð ƒñƒÞƒå.
  
  
  ƒ¿ƒäƒà - ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ 1993 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ? ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒâƒÑƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ - ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ... ƒ¨ƒÑƒÝƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒã ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒÖ...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ...ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÚƒÕƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ?ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ... ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒÖƒÖ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà - ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÞƒÖƒâ 355 ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒå ƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒãƒäƒð. ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒØƒßƒàƒÖ: ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒê ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒàƒÑƒÙƒÚƒã ƒÓ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒíƒßƒÖ. ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒâ, ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒäƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ - ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒî, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ. ƒ+ƒà ƒåƒäƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ (ƒáƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå). ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑƒç ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒíƒßƒå ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 4 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒß ƒÒƒåƒßƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ - ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒÖ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÞƒí. ƒ®ƒß ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÕƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒàƒäƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÑ. ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî - ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ. ƒ³ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒâƒàƒëƒÖ... ƒ? ƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒÞ, ƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒàƒÜƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒàƒã ƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÛƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÝƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒåƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕ, ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÜƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒåƒÞƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒÖƒãƒàƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÜ, ƒßƒà... ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ.
   ƒ? ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÑƒç. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÓƒíƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒå ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒå. ƒÁ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ:
   - ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒàƒÜ, ƒàƒß ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒßƒÖƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒÞƒíƒÛ!
   - ƒ¡ ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒßƒÖƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒÞ?
   - ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ... - ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒñ.
   - ƒ¥ƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒ?ƒí ƒÞƒàƒñ, ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒê ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒàƒÜ ƒáƒÝƒàƒç, ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒäƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ! ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ - ƒñ ƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÑƒð ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÙƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒíƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒ?ƒÑƒê ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜ - ƒÙƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÛ, ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà!
   - ...ƒ®ƒÛ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÑ?
   - ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒåƒØ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒäƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒàƒáƒíƒäƒå.
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒåƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî, ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà-ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒ¿ƒäƒàƒä ƒåƒâƒàƒÜ ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒåƒðƒãƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒåƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ, ƒå ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒã ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒäƒàƒâƒàƒáƒÝƒÚƒÓƒà, ƒã ƒåƒÝƒíƒÒƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÖƒÕƒå. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒå. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¿ƒäƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒà ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ, ƒã ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒç: ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÜƒÖƒÞ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒä ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒñƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒã ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâ:
   - ƒ?ƒÑƒê ƒãƒíƒß ƒÞƒÖƒéƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÚƒâ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒåƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒðƒä ƒÜƒàƒâƒÑƒÝƒÝƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÚƒæƒí, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒí. ƒ®ƒß ƒÞƒÖƒéƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒÜƒÖƒÑƒßƒÖ.
   ƒÁ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒã ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒåƒÒƒí? ƒRƒÑƒâƒê ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî!'.
   ƒÁ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ:
   - ƒ¡ ƒÜƒäƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ? (ƒÁ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ...!!!).
   - ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒê ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ. ƒ?ƒí ƒã ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒäƒÖ?
   - ƒ¡ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ...
   - ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒîƒäƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒ?ƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒßƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà.
   ƒ? ƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ.
   ƒ®ƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒåƒäƒãƒñ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒã ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒãƒàƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÓƒÚ, ƒïƒßƒÖƒâƒÔƒÚƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑ? ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÚƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒàƒÒƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ - ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒßƒà, ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà. ƒÁ ƒßƒÑƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒð ƒÙƒÑƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî: 'ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒ?ƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒñƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÖ!'.
   ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÑƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒåƒäƒÑƒç, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒðƒä, ƒßƒà ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒëƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÖƒ× ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ.
   ...ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÑ... ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÜƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÖƒÕƒí ƒã ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÞƒí, ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒç... ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ
  
  
  ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÚ ƒà ƒÜƒàƒâƒÑƒÝƒÝƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒâƒÚƒæƒÑƒç, ƒÚ ƒàƒÒ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÑ ƒå ƒáƒäƒÚƒè, ƒÚ ƒà ƒÖƒÔƒÚƒáƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÚƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÕƒÑƒç...
   ƒ³ƒíƒß ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒâƒàƒã, ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÓ. ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒRƒàƒßƒäƒÑƒØƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÕƒØ, ƒàƒäƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒáƒíƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒçƒßƒÖ. ƒª ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒß ƒáƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒå. ƒ?ƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÚƒä, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔ. ƒ÷ƒÓƒÝƒÖƒéƒ×ƒß ƒÚƒÔƒâƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒã-ƒÔƒÚƒäƒÑƒâƒÖ, ƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÞƒåƒÙƒíƒÜƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒíƒêƒÜƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒäƒÖƒßƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ!
   ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒð ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒðƒä, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÕƒåƒêƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ - ƒäƒñƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå...'
  
  
  ƒ-ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ - ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒñƒñ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÚƒä, ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ. 1997 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒÕ ? 355
  
   ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒð ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒØƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒé ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒîƒÞƒÚ! ƒªƒç ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî-ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà.
   ...ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒáƒà-ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒÞƒå. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒä ƒéƒäƒà: 'ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒÖ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà: ƒáƒàƒÕ 30 ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒåƒãƒàƒÓ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒÔƒå - ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒØƒå, ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÖƒØƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒàƒã ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒð... ƒ?ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒî, ƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÜƒÖƒä ƒèƒÖƒÝƒÝƒàƒæƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒèƒÖƒáƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒåƒÙƒíƒâƒ×ƒÞ. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒî ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒä - ƒÚ ƒáƒåƒÙƒíƒâƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÞ, ƒàƒß ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÖƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒÜƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä. ƒ®ƒä ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÖƒä, ƒãƒåƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒä - ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä. ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ - ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒî ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ. ƒÁ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÞ - ƒàƒß ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ. ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÔƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒÔƒà...'. ƒ?ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒî ƒáƒàƒÕƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÑƒÜƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî, ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÞƒÚƒßƒåƒäƒí ƒäƒâƒÚ-ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒñƒç ƒãƒäƒàƒð, ƒãƒåƒÞƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒäƒñƒäƒãƒñ - ƒàƒÒƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà. ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒñ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒäƒÚƒèƒå - ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒéƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÑ.
   ...ƒ¯ƒà ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒÁ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒãƒåƒÞƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ - ƒçƒàƒÕƒå! ƒ³ƒÝƒíƒêƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒä:
   - ƒ®ƒÛ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒí ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÔƒàƒÝƒåƒÒƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒÝƒÚ!!! ƒ¡ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÑ-ƒäƒà... ƒ®ƒÛ-ƒàƒÛ!!! ƒ¯ƒå, ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒà-ƒäƒà.
   ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒä, ƒáƒàƒåƒÝƒíƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî - ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
   ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ·ƒàƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâ-ƒâƒàƒêƒà! ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà!'.
   ƒ³ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒïƒÞƒàƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚƒãƒáƒíƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒðƒð ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒñ ƒÚƒãƒáƒíƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒð ƒäƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî, ƒßƒà ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙ ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒðƒä ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝ-ƒåƒçƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒÓƒÚƒØƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒí ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜƒÑƒç - ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ, ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒí. ƒ? ƒÙƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑƒÝƒà ƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒðƒãƒî ƒã ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒªƒßƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÚƒÞƒà ƒÙƒÖƒâƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒÙƒÕƒâƒàƒÔƒßƒå: 'ƒ®ƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒÑƒñ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ? - ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒñ...'. ...ƒ¯ƒà ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜ, ƒàƒß, ƒÙƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà-ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà, ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà-ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒñƒãƒßƒà ƒàƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒí ƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà!
   ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒ+ƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒãƒäƒÚƒçƒÚ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒñ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒð, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒà. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓƒãƒ×-ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒÚƒçƒÚ:
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ***
  ƒ?ƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä
   ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà...
  ƒ®ƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÝƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ,
   ƒ¡ ƒñ ƒÓ ƒ¯ƒ×ƒÞ ƒÒƒåƒÝƒäƒíƒçƒÑƒðƒãƒî...
  
   ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒ×... ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒñ ƒÒƒåƒÝƒäƒíƒçƒÑƒðƒãƒî - ƒïƒäƒà ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒÙƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÖ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒí ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒí ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒßƒà ƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. **
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒ³ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÑƒÝƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒÁƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒä ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÚƒÞƒåƒÝ ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ: ƒñ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ, - ƒàƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒñƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒåƒð ƒàƒáƒàƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÜ...
   ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒNoƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒñƒç. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ: ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒñƒÕƒñ, ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒäƒãƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã: ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÞ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ 'ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ', ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÞ. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÖƒÝƒîƒÙƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒäƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÒƒí ƒÜ ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒßƒÚƒð ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒïƒäƒà, ƒáƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒéƒ×ƒäƒå - ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒØƒÜƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÒƒí ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒÜ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ? ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒåƒÕƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî. ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒàƒß ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒãƒàƒÞ: 'ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ? ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÕƒà ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ'. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÑƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒßƒã ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ.
  ƒªƒäƒÑƒÜ...
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ
  ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ¥.
  
  
   ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒñ - ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒãƒî ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒí ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ: ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí.
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ - ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒàƒß ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓ 1690 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÑƒßƒÔƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒî-ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÜƒà: ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ XVII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒèƒÑƒâƒñ, ƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒÞƒàƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒÖƒÛ - ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ. 1
   ƒ? ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒÚ ƒâƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ - ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒàƒä ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ! ƒª ƒáƒàƒäƒñƒßƒåƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒàƒÒƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚ.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒî-ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÖ ƒ³ƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå, ƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä, ƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ¡ƒÜƒãƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒãƒä. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒí ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒí. 2 ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒåƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒß ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕ, ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒã ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ, ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî 'ƒåƒÒƒÖƒÔƒàƒÞ' ƒàƒãƒÓƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒåƒØƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒð, ƒßƒà ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÜƒä ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ (ƒàƒÜ. 1713 ƒÔƒâ.) ƒÓƒíƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝ ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒð. ƒ+ƒåƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞ: ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒî, ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ? ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒªƒƒƒªƒ¯ƒ?, ƒ³ƒ´ƒ¡ƒ´ƒ¯ƒ?ƒ·, ƒ?ƒ®ƒ²ƒ¯ƒ?ƒ· ƒÚ ƒÕƒâ. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÔƒßƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒåƒêƒÖ. ƒ¿ƒäƒå ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÚƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒñ ƒàƒëƒåƒëƒÑƒð ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÑƒç ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒíƒßƒÖ.
   ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ 1752 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒÑ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÚƒß (ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß). ƒ¯ƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒàƒÓ. ƒ? 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ-ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚ. ƒ? ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒãƒî ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ. 3.
   ƒRƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒâ ƒã ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ®ƒß ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒí ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒñ ƒã ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒãƒäƒâƒà. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÛ. ƒ? 1776 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒÚ ƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ.
   ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî-ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî - ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç. ƒ-ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà - ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 15 ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓƒí, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí (ƒƒƒåƒâƒîƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí), ƒ+ƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÓƒí, ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒí, ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí, ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒí, ƒªƒÓƒàƒßƒÚƒßƒí.
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒ³ƒ÷ƒ·ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒ®ƒ? ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ®ƒß ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÙƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒÚ 14-ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒã ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒåƒâ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒåƒâƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒÖƒÓ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÙƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ: ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ). ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒà, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒ´ƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (1913 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÓ 1960-80 ƒÔƒÔ.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ 'ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ' ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒàƒä ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒîƒñ', ƒäƒà ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ, ƒã ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÚƒç ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒß ƒàƒÞƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒåƒâƒîƒñ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÜƒåƒâƒîƒð ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒÒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒã ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ.
   ƒƒƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÜ ƒã ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ 'ƒÜƒåƒâ-' (ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ), ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒàƒä ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒäƒðƒâƒÜƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑƒéƒÑƒÜ' - 'ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÛ', ƒÔƒÕƒÖ 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑ' - 'ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî', ƒÑ '-ƒéƒÑƒÜ' - ƒàƒäƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÑƒæƒæƒÚƒÜƒã. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà ƒØƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÒƒí-ƒñƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÑ - ƒçƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒãƒä - 'ƒÜƒåƒâƒÑƒÛ' (ƒÜƒÑƒÙ.). ƒªƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒçƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1757 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ (ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒã ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ 19 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 2 ƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ, 1 ƒÕƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒß, 2 ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ 2 ƒáƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒñ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒàƒâƒÔƒàƒÓƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒÚ.
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ - 1618 ƒÕƒåƒê, ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ - 35 ƒÕƒåƒê. ƒ? ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒãƒÑƒÞƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä. ƒªƒÕƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒèƒÖƒãƒã ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒâƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒâƒåƒÖƒä ƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ. ƒªƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒí ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1829 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒî-ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒíƒÞ ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÓƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ 1750-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê.
  
   ƒªƒÙ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒè ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒÑƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒð ƒäƒâƒ×ƒç ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒñ, ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒãƒÔƒÚƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 1782-93 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒßƒÚƒç ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí ƒã 1782 ƒáƒà 1810 ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒà ƒã ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÑƒÜ-ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÞƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓ (ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒÜƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒÙ'), ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒßƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒã ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒRƒàƒÔƒÝƒà ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜ: ƒÜƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒëƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð, ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒàƒéƒîƒð ƒÓƒíƒâƒÖƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒØƒÖƒéƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒRƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒñƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÚƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒåƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒß (ƒáƒÝƒÖƒß). ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒëƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒß. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒîƒñƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒß ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒƒÚƒÙƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒð ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒ×ƒÙƒí ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒç ƒàƒä ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒî ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ...
   ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÓ ƒÖƒÔƒà. ƒ?ƒãƒð ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒä ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒç ƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒ×ƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒÝƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÑƒñ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ: ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒð, ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÖƒÓƒå, ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÖƒÓƒå ƒØƒÖ, ƒƒæƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒîƒð. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ - ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒ×ƒßƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒîƒÖ ƒèƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒà...
   ƒªƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒäƒñ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒÚƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒëƒÖƒäƒÖ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒß. ƒ¥ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒåƒð ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÚƒãƒÖƒÝ ƒàƒä ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒ×ƒßƒÖ ƒƒƒÝƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒà 1810 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ - ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒÚ ƒRƒàƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒí ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒí ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒä, ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒâƒàƒã ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒà! ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÖƒäƒî. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ: ƒÒƒíƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ - ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà-ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà - ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ³ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒ×ƒãƒäƒâƒí ƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ - ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ - ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒêƒî... ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ, ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕ, ƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓ XVIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ, ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ...
   ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ 1848 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÖ 1923. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑƒä. ƒªƒÞƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒí - ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒæƒîƒð. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒåƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî. 16 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1876 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒƒæƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÓ 4-ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒéƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî 'ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ'. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ 'ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ'. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÙƒîƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç.
   ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒßƒàƒãƒÝƒÚƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒéƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒñƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒä, ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÚƒÔƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÞ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒñƒëƒÚƒÞ - ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ, ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß, ƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒNoƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒå ƒàƒß ƒáƒâƒÚƒàƒÒƒâƒ×ƒÝ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒå ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒà ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒíƒáƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒíƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå, ƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒçƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒÕƒñ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒð ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑƒêƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒàƒëƒÚ.
   ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÓƒãƒáƒíƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð ƒêƒä'. ƒ÷ƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ ƒØƒÖ: ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ 'ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒç'. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓ 1923 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå 74 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ 10 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒåƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ 5-6 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒ¢ƒàƒ×ƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓ 1923 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ (ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ), ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒßƒÜƒå, ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖƒéƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒàƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒä. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒå. ƒ´ƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒÁ-ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒåƒØƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒà ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒÑƒäƒî?'. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒÕƒÖ.
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑƒâƒð ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒãƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ-ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒå, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒãƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒÑƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ. ƒ¢ƒàƒ×ƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒáƒåƒãƒäƒñ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà: ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒßƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÑƒñ ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÑ.
   ƒ÷ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 1874 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ. ƒ® ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (1874 -1942). ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÚƒÝƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒÑƒç ƒå ƒƒæƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒÚ ƒÓ 1876 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ 'ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ'. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒí ƒÓƒà ƒ·ƒâƒÑƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ® ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÖ: 'ƒ? 5 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒâƒÚƒÜ, ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒã ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝ, ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß 'ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝ 50 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒí'. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒãƒÜƒàƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒí. ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒåƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ 3 ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ - ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ.
   ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ: ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ 2 ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒÖƒß. 'ƒ?ƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ' - ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒà ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝ.
   ƒ? 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÜƒåƒð ƒÑƒâƒäƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÓƒêƒåƒð ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒÓƒàƒÙƒÕƒñ.
  
  
  
   ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒñ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒå ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒáƒàƒÙƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ. ƒ®ƒä ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒÑ: ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÖƒè ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÖƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒß.
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÓ 1893 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ 19-ƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒß ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÑ, ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ? ƒRƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑƒç ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÓ 1894 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒí. ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÞ.
   ƒ? ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜƒÖ ƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒƒƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ (1898 ƒÔƒâ.), ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ (1900-1985) ƒÚ ƒƒÝƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒä (1902-1924).
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒí 29.04.1905 ƒÔ. 17-ƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒñƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒîƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒîƒð ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ (1887-1973).
   ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà 'ƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâ' ƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× 'ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâ', ƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒäƒî ƒã ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ.
   ƒ? 1905 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒÖƒßƒèƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ 7-ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒéƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÔƒàƒâƒñƒéƒåƒð ƒãƒíƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÜƒå. ƒRƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ-ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ... ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒà, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒèƒå, ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒð: ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä. ƒÁ ƒÓƒ×ƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ - ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒÔƒåƒä, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒßƒ×ƒÜ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒíƒÛ ƒãƒßƒÖƒÔƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ'. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä - ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒÀƒÝƒÚƒð (1907-1988), ƒƒÝƒÖƒßƒå (1909-1992), ƒªƒâƒÑƒÚƒÕƒå (1911-1996) - (ƒÞƒàƒð ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå, ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒÑ (1913-1999), ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒå (1915-1933) ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ (1917-1965).
   ƒ? 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç' ƒÙƒÑ 1907 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒà ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÖ:
   'ƒƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ, ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒªƒàƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞƒàƒÞ, ƒƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒàƒÞ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: (...) ƒàƒä 19 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒå ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒå ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒà-ƒåƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ'.
   'ƒ÷ƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒã 26 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1907 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ'.
   ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝ 'ƒáƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ' ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒàƒÞ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ! ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒã 1902 ƒáƒà 1910-ƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒßƒàƒÜƒåƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÙƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒƒâƒÑƒßƒèƒÑ ƒªƒàƒãƒÚƒæƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒºƒÞƒåƒâƒÝƒà - ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÚƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1916 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒß ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ¥ƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒÚ, ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ. (ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà).
   ƒªƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?.ƒ?.: '(...) ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒåƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÛƒéƒÚƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒáƒîƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ, ƒßƒÖƒÜƒåƒâƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ. ƒ·ƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß. (...) ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒâƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÓƒíƒêƒÑƒÝ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÑ (ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ). ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒå ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÖƒÙƒßƒà, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒåƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå), ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒéƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÛƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒÑƒØƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ 1920-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ (...), ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒéƒÑƒß. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒáƒà ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒð. (...) ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒèƒÖ (ƒÓƒÖƒãƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒéƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ), ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÜƒåƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ'.
   ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí' ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒéƒäƒÚ 100 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ ƒÓ 1916 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ - ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ. ƒƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒéƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÚ ƒáƒàƒâƒíƒÓƒí ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒßƒÖ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî'. ƒªƒÕƒÖƒÚ ƒïƒãƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑƒç ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ¿ƒãƒÖƒâƒí ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒÞƒå, ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä ƒ²ƒ³ƒ¥ƒ²ƒ+ ƒÚ 20-ƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí.
   ƒ¥ƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒ¯ƒ¿ƒ+(ƒÑ) ƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒæƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒãƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÛ. ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒñƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑ, ƒä.ƒÖ. ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒæƒàƒâƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ. (ƒNoƒÑƒÜƒàƒß, ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí). ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒàƒßƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ² ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒãƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒåƒÔƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒí (30-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ). ƒ´ƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒß ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒïƒâƒÙƒÑƒè-ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒãƒã ƒÓƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒàƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒÚ ƒÚ 'ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒÑƒãƒã', ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒî ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÖƒæƒàƒâƒÞ 90-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒæƒÝƒñƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÙƒâƒíƒÓƒÑ.
  
   CƒàƒðƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒäƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒå 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî', ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÖƒ× ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒåƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒä ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒð ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî'
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/ ƒã 04 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 2009 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ,
  ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâ - ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒêƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒßƒñ, ƒÖƒ× ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ
  
  
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ - ƒæƒâƒÑƒÔƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ƒÙƒÑ 4 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒà ƒÞƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ.
   ƒ?ƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒãƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ? 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒà 206 ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒÓ 1918 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - 26. ƒ+ƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒå ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí: ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà-ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ, ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒàƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒð. ƒ¡ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒà-ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ.
   ƒ³ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ 1 ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÜƒÑ, ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒè - ƒÓ ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒÖ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ - 4 ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÜƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ - 6 ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒè.
   27 ƒßƒàƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒà-ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒRƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒí ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒßƒà ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒéƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒïƒãƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒßƒäƒâƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒç, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒáƒåƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ 15 ƒæƒÖƒÓƒâƒÑƒÝƒñ 1918 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒàƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒãƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ: 'ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÑ', 'ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÑƒä', 'ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ', 'ƒªƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒñ'. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒç ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒä.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒã 14 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒÑƒñ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÚ', ƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ 'ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ'. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí. ƒ? ?4 ƒÙƒÑ 18 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÒƒâƒÚƒÜƒÖ 'ƒªƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ' ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà: 'ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÚ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒãƒÖƒÓƒÕƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÓƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÚ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒãƒñƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÞ.
   ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ 1926 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒå. ƒƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒå ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒãƒåƒÕƒà-ƒãƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒä ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒìƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒÞƒíƒç ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒç. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî - ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒñƒäƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ... ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ?ƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒß, ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒÜƒÖ.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ, ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒí, ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒáƒÝƒàƒëƒÑƒÕƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒ+ƒàƒéƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ 'ƒ²ƒàƒãƒÔƒàƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒÑ'.
   ƒ¡ ƒÓ 1929 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒå ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ÷ƒÓƒÑƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒªƒâƒäƒíƒê, ƒã ƒÕƒÓƒåƒÞƒñ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒéƒ×ƒÞ, ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ÷ƒÓƒÑƒä (ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒ´ƒðƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ) ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒÑ 1351 'ƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ' ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ 5838 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒßƒäƒàƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ´ƒåƒÔƒåƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒƒƒÚƒãƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (1903-1944 ƒÔƒÔ.). ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä - ƒÝƒðƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒÚ. ƒRƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒàƒÔƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒÑƒç ƒðƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒå ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒàƒäƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ², ƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒç. ƒ®ƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒÁƒÞƒÑƒÝ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ 'ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒîƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÙƒíƒâƒîƒÜƒÚ'. ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒÚƒØƒÖƒß. ƒ?ƒãƒñ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒåƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÚƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ. ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒåƒÔƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒå.
   ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒäƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒß. ƒ®ƒß ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÔƒÚƒÕƒâƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÖƒÜƒä(ƒÖ). ƒ³ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒàƒÛ ƒàƒä ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÔƒÚƒÕƒâƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÖƒÜƒä(ƒÑ) ƒàƒß ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ·ƒÑƒÒƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ.
   ƒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒƒßƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ.
   ƒªƒâƒÑƒÚƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ.
   ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÀƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖ. ƒÀƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÑƒÜƒåƒêƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ.
   ƒ? ƒ÷ƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒºƒåƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ. ƒ? 1933 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ 18-ƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒéƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒÕƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒÞ: 'ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕ'. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒçƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÒ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒãƒä.
   ƒƒ 1939 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ·ƒÑƒÒƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ, ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÜ ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒã ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒã-ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÞƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ.
   ƒªƒÙ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà!
   ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒßƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç, ƒàƒß ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ 1942 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒßƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒ?ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒåƒØƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ... ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒà ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÛ, ƒáƒÑƒáƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÛ! ƒ+ƒÑƒáƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÞƒí ƒàƒÒƒñƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî... ƒ®ƒß ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖ...'. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒä, ƒØƒåƒâƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÞƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ - ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÖ, ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒðƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒðƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒßƒà ƒÝƒðƒÒƒñƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒð.
   ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒƒƒÝƒÚƒÞ - ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ - ƒÚƒÙ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç. ƒÁ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÝƒð ƒÖƒÔƒà. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒìƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ - ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒî ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒãƒàƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒñƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ.
   ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÖƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒà ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÖ. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒàƒÜ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç - ƒƒƒÝƒÚƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒðƒØƒàƒÓ - ƒÓ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒðƒéƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ 1970 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒåƒÓƒÙƒàƒâ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒä ƒÖƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ) ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒåƒÙƒàƒâ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒå ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÜƒãƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ (ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒà) ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ - ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ®. ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑ
   ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒªƒƒƒªƒ¯. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ - ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒªƒàƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒãƒÞ.ƒ¡ƒ¯ƒªƒƒƒªƒƒ?) ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ (ƒÔƒâƒÖƒé.'ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÞƒíƒÛ'). ƒ? ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒñƒç ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒà ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÚƒëƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà 'ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ'. 'ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒî ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ 'ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ-ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒàƒÜ', ƒÑ ƒçƒÓƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÚƒñƒÜƒå - 'ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ-ƒÓƒàƒÚƒß'. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ, ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÜ, - ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ 'ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒäƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð' ('ƒ³ƒáƒàƒâ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒ³ƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð'), ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÚ ƒÓ XVI ƒÓ. ƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒáƒåƒÝƒñƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑƒç ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ. ƒ-ƒåƒÒƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÚƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒèƒÖƒß ƒÚƒÙ 'ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ' ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà' (ƒ?ƒâƒåƒêƒÜƒà, ƒRƒÖƒÕƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÓ. ƒ³.22-23).
   ƒ? ƒÕ.ƒƒƒåƒâƒîƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒªƒÔƒßƒÑƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒ-ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß ƒã ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒÖƒÞ (ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒî 1719 ƒÔ.). ƒ? 1822 ƒÔ. ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÕ. ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÑƒâƒÑƒéƒÖ; ƒÓ ƒ+ƒíƒêƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÝƒÕƒÑƒäƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒíƒêƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâ-ƒßƒÖ (ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî - 39 ƒéƒÖƒÝ.), ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒ´ƒåƒÔƒåƒÝƒíƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâ-ƒßƒÑƒç, ƒÓ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒÖ (ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî; ƒ´ 1974).*
  ______________________
  *ƒ¯ƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒñƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒ®ƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒí ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ:
  http://www.okorneva.ru/print.php?main=dictionary_of_Ural_family_names&id=100030&top=100004
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÚƒèƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒà ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒíƒç, ƒàƒßƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒåƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒßƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒè. ƒ®ƒßƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒà 2 ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí (ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÛ)
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  
   ƒ¯ƒíƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 50-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·III ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ (ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒãƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚ), ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ 1759 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒðƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ* (ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ - ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ) ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒà ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ? ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒÕƒÑƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ: 'ƒªƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕ'. ƒªƒÙ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî: ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒäƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ), ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ), ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà.
  ____________________
  *ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒðƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ: ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ-ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÑƒëƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÚƒêƒåƒä ƒãƒÝƒÚƒäƒßƒà.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ ƒÓ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ 37 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ¡ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒç ƒã ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ 1795 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒñƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî: ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ - ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒåƒä ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ+ƒÑƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒÖƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒå. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓƒí, ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ 1782 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÕ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒÖƒØƒåƒäƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå 1779 - 1781 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ (ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ) ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ). ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒß, ƒàƒäƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓ ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒàƒâƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒå ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ:
  1. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ - 69 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  2. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ - 58 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  3. ƒ?ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ - 74 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  4. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ - 49 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  5. ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ - 32 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  6. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ - 69 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  7. ƒ?ƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒîƒñ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒàƒÜƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÑ - 62 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  8. ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 53 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ´ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 64 - ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  9. ƒ¡ƒâƒÖƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒàƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 49 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  10. ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒ´ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß - 84 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  11. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒß - 32 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  12. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ - 46 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  13. ƒƒÚƒâƒã ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒªƒàƒßƒÚƒß - 56 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  14. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒß ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç - 70 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÙƒñƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒƒæƒÚƒÞ ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ 46 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  15. ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß - 34 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  16. ƒƒƒÚƒáƒâƒÚƒñƒß ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß - 66 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  17. ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒ¢ƒâƒåƒãƒñƒßƒÚƒß - 58 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  18. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß - 66 ƒÝƒÖƒä
  19. ƒ?ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÚƒÝƒà ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓ - 75 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  20. ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒ´ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß - 78 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  21. ƒ³ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß - 84 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  22. ƒ+ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒß ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÞƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ - 54 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  23. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß - 54 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  24. ƒ+ƒÑƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 60 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  25. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒß - 62 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  26. ƒƒƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒRƒàƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒRƒàƒêƒßƒÚƒß - 29 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  27. ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç - 56 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  28. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç - 54 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  29. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç - 44 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  30. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ - 56 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  31 ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 49 (?) ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  32. ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ - 62 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  33. ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒá ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ - 71 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  34. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ - 34 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ
  35. ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ - 34 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  36. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ - 47 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  37. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç - 54 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ? ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ: 'ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) - ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, 1,5 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒí ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 50 - ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒéƒîƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒí ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà (ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒî), ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒàƒäƒèƒí - ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã) ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒåƒâ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒà ƒÜƒåƒâƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÒ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê' ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒä. ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
   ƒ®ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí (ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒà ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ). ƒ? 1744 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç: 'ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 75 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ 37 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒã 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ 18 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ 4 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ 8 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå...'. ƒ÷ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒáƒåƒãƒäƒñ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ 5-ƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒñƒß. ƒ¿ƒäƒàƒä ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒñƒß (ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒÚƒÛ) ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä - ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒÚ, ƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒÖƒÛ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÚ ƒÓ 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ.
   ƒ? 1795 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ? ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒã ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒßƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà 109 ƒÕƒåƒê ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 111 ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 28.
   ƒ? 1811 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä 221 'ƒÕƒåƒêƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ'.
   ƒ? 1816 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - 122 'ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ' ƒÚ 141 'ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ'.
   ƒ? 1834 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - 169 'ƒÕƒåƒê ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ' ƒÚ 192 'ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ'.
   ƒ? 1850 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå - 193 'ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ' ƒÚ 193 'ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ'.
   ƒ? 1868 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ? ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒÓ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÖ.
   'ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒñƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ 570 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ 231 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà 239. ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ 81, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒè ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒíƒç - 2, ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒíƒç 3, ƒáƒÚƒäƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ 1. ƒÁƒâƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ - ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ. ƒ+ƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñƒÞ: ƒÞƒÖƒëƒÑƒß ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 219 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 226 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ¯ƒÚƒØƒßƒÚƒç ƒéƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒÖ, 7 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÚƒç ƒØƒÖƒß ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 4 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 6 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà-ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒßƒàƒÛ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ®ƒäƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒÚƒØƒßƒÚƒç ƒéƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ - 5 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÚƒç ƒØƒÖƒß ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 6 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ - 1 ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ, 1 ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒè, 1 ƒáƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒä.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð: ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑƒäƒíƒç - 84 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 89 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 22 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 23 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 7 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 22 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÕƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ·ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒíƒç ƒã 18 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 22 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÓƒÚƒè ƒã 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä - 19 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒƒƒâƒåƒÔƒÝƒíƒç ƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒä ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 4 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒà 18 ƒÝƒÖƒä - 87ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒÕƒà 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä - 84 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒð: ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 222 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 231 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 9 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 8 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ.
   ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒà: ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ - 259, ƒÒƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ - 47, ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓ - 181, ƒàƒÓƒÖƒè ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒíƒç - 335, ƒÜƒàƒÙ - 4, ƒãƒÓƒÚƒßƒÖƒÛ - 14. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒåƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ - 102 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÜƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒà ƒãƒÖƒßƒÑ 78 ƒãƒäƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ, ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒãƒÖƒßƒÑ - 11700 ƒáƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒàƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒNoƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒß ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÖƒñƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒà ƒã ƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒßƒà
   ƒ+ƒåƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒå
  ƒ²ƒØƒÚ ¨ù 2 8 - -
  ƒÁƒâƒÚƒèƒí 31 ¨ö 285 1/2 1074 50 20 ƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí 266 2870 6941 905 384 ƒâ.
  ƒÁƒéƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ 3 39 1/2 184 - -
  ƒ-ƒîƒßƒå 7 ¨ö . 38 1/2 - 31 1/2 10ƒâ. 35ƒÜ.
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒáƒÝƒÚ 2 3/4 31 1/4 93 ƒÚ 30ƒæ. 3 1/2 2ƒâ. 20ƒÜ.
  ƒ®ƒÓƒãƒÑ 118 1/2 1992 58 1/2 30 9ƒâ.
  
  ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ:
  ƒÑ) ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒð - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒºƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒð ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ 10 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒð ƒàƒä 2 ƒÕƒà 3 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕ ƒâƒíƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ - ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ. ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒð 20 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒð 5 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒãƒåƒçƒå ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒð 4 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚ, ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒð 2 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÚ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâ ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒâƒåƒßƒä ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÙƒÖƒÞƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒà 4 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒßƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒíƒÛ ƒã ƒÔƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒàƒéƒÓƒàƒð;
  ƒÒ) ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí - ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒä ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒä ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒà 60 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒ?ƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒÑƒñ - ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒä ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒáƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒå. ƒ¥ƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒãƒñƒä ƒàƒä 9 ƒÕƒà 15 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒãƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ;
  ƒÓ) ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ 3 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒãƒÝƒÖƒáƒíƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÝƒÚƒçƒàƒâƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒð ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 10 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 12 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒåƒÕƒåƒêƒîƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÜƒÚƒç ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÞƒÑƒäƒÚƒÙƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÝƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒéƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒÜƒàƒð ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒð ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 1 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒñƒéƒÜƒàƒð ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 3 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 2 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
  ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒçƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒÑ: ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒêƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà - 1990 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà - 200 ƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒÓƒÚƒäƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÜ 1356 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ÷ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒÚ: ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔ - 85, ƒãƒÑƒßƒÖƒÛ - 84, ƒãƒÑƒÒƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ - 85, ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒß - 207. ƒ? ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒÒƒíƒÜƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑƒêƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒãƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒàƒä 30 ƒÕƒà 40 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒÓƒíƒÔƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒñƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ - ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒàƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒî ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒç: ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒÔ) ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒñƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ 11/4 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí 2 ƒáƒåƒÕƒÑ 15 ƒæƒåƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒà 56 1/2 ƒáƒåƒÕ. ƒ?ƒíƒÒƒÚƒäƒà ƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ: ƒñƒâƒÚƒèƒí - 2 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí - 2 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒàƒÓƒãƒÑ - 11/2 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÝƒîƒßƒå - 7 1/4 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒáƒÝƒñ - 1/4 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ³ƒìƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒÜƒàƒÒƒíƒÝƒÜƒàƒð ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí 3 ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÞƒå 60 ƒâƒåƒÒ. ƒRƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ: ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒð 60 ƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒð 40 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî.
  ƒÕ) ƒ-ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒãƒÖƒßƒà ƒÜƒàƒãƒñƒä ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÚƒë, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒáƒà ƒàƒáƒåƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒêƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒð 60 ƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒð 40 ƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  ƒÖ) ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒä ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒß ƒáƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ - 22, ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓ - 18, ƒàƒÓƒÖƒè - 24. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒà ƒå ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ 8 ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà.
   ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÓƒßƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒî, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒà ƒã 12 ƒáƒà 15 ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 1868 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒñ. ƒ³ƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒ ƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÓ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒð ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒð. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒî ƒ. ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒð ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒÝƒÚ: ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒî ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒí. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒî (ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒàƒâƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑ)'.
   ƒ? 1877 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ 89 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, 463 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 229 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 234 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1889 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ - 87 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, 699 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 343 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 356 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒà 2 ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÚ 6 ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒè ƒàƒÒ 1 ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1901 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 110 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, 607 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒà 2 ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒç ƒÚ 2 ƒÓƒÖƒäƒâƒñƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒàƒÒ 1 ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ.
   ƒ? 1916 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 151 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ, 769 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ - 367 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - 402 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒªƒÙ ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ - ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ. ƒ³ƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒàƒÕƒñƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ 140 ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ, 744 ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒàƒÒƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ.
   1926 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒå. ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ 1926 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ 103 ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒã ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ 461 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç 201 ƒÞƒåƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ 260 ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒêƒÑƒñ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒæƒÖƒÝƒîƒÕƒêƒÖƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÑ, ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒæƒàƒß - ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà.
   ƒ³ ƒÞƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ 1943 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒî ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒåƒÝ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒÓ 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÖƒ× ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒäƒÖƒç ƒáƒàƒâ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒà ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ.
   ƒ¡ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä. ƒƒØƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒà, ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒåƒð ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒðƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒã ƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ, ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒðƒä ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒª ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÑƒä ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒÑƒñƒß. ƒ¡ ƒÔƒÚƒÞƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒä ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒñ:
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒßƒî,
  ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî.
  ƒ® ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ,
  ƒª ƒáƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒåƒä ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒáƒÖƒÓ:
  ƒRƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒèƒí,
  ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒèƒí,
  ƒ¡ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÞƒí ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒèƒí,
  ƒ?ƒåƒÝƒñƒÛ ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÛ, ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒí.
  ƒ´ƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÛ, ƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒêƒåƒÞƒÚƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒíƒê,
  ƒ´ƒà ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÝƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒä ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê.
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÙ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒåƒáƒÑƒÕƒàƒÜ, ƒåƒäƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒáƒÖƒÓ.
  ƒ´ƒí ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ,
  ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÞƒÚƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ, ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒêƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî,
  ƒ¯ƒà ƒÚ ƒàƒß, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒä,
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒçƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒâƒðƒÞƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖƒä.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒáƒÖƒÓ.
  ƒ? ƒáƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ,
  ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒáƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒå ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒßƒÑƒã ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒåƒãƒßƒåƒäƒî,
  ƒNoƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒß ƒäƒí ƒÓƒÙƒÔƒÝƒñƒßƒåƒäƒî.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒáƒÖƒÓ.
   ƒƒ× ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒé, ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ - ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÝƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒáƒâƒàƒÖƒÜƒä ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ ƒ÷ƒãƒÞƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ), 2003 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ: ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ: ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒñƒßƒÚƒãƒä ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÖƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒãƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒî ƒÖƒØƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒ×ƒä...
  
  
  ƒ³ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ: ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ: ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ: ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ. 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ, 40-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¢ƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒÑƒâƒÞƒàƒßƒÚƒãƒä, ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒé ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ:
  1. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ (ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ®ƒ®), ƒæ. 173, ƒàƒá. 11, ƒÕ. 63 ƒ¡.
  2. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß 1999 ƒÔ., ƒä. 5, ƒãƒäƒâ. 205-206.
  3. ƒ²ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ¥ƒ¡, ƒæ. 614, ƒàƒá. 1, ƒÕ. 73, ƒÝ. 437 ƒàƒÒ.
  4. ƒ¸ƒ?ƒªƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ. ƒƒàƒßƒÕ ƒª-138, ƒàƒá. 2, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà 73, ƒÝ. 527 ƒàƒÒ.
  5. ƒ¸ƒ?ƒªƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ'. ƒ. ƒª-138, ƒàƒá. 2, ƒÕ.126, ƒÝ. 350.
  6. ƒ¸ƒ?ƒªƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ'. ƒ. ƒª-138, ƒàƒá. 2, ƒÕ. 380, ƒÝ. 203.
  7. ƒ¸ƒ?ƒªƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ'. ƒ. ƒª-138, ƒàƒá. 2, ƒÕ. 496, ƒÝ. 323.
  8. ƒ¸ƒ?ƒªƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢ 'ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ'. ƒ. ƒª-138, ƒàƒá. 2, ƒÕ. 682, ƒÝ. 353.
  9. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ¡ƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒäƒàƒÞ 6 ƒÙƒÑ 1868 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  10. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÜƒÖ, ƒÔƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ, ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒïƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä, ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ, 1877 ƒÔ. ƒ´ƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓ. ƒªƒÓ. ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒRƒÚƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑƒÔƒà, ƒãƒäƒâ. 100.
  11. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒÜƒÖ, ƒÔƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ, ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒïƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä, ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ, 1877 ƒÔ. ƒ´ƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓ. ƒªƒÓ. ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒRƒÚƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒèƒÜƒÑƒÔƒà, ƒãƒäƒâ. ƒ³ƒ³ƒ·I.
  12. ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒäƒÖƒä ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ, 1901 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ´ƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒãƒäƒâ. 123.
  13. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒªƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, 1916 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ´ƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ 'ƒ+ƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà', ƒãƒäƒâ. 19.
  14. ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ®. ƒ¡ƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒðƒâƒà. 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒãƒäƒâ. 19.
  15. ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ´ƒàƒÞ 15. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ, ƒãƒäƒâ. 36.
  
  'ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå'
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒñ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒñ
  ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå,
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÞƒÑƒßƒéƒØƒåƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒß, ƒÓƒãƒÑƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ,
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÖ.
  
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ,
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒÕ.
  ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ,
  ƒ´ƒÓƒàƒñ ƒñ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒå ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  
  ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ, ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒàƒð
  ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ,
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ
  ƒºƒåƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒà, ƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñ:
  
  'ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒäƒí, ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ, ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒêƒîƒãƒñ,
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÞƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒêƒî ƒÜƒàƒßƒñ,
  ƒ´ƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ -
  ƒ¥ƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ'.
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÖ
  ƒ? ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÒƒåƒâƒÝƒÚƒÓƒåƒð ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝ ƒÜƒàƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÓƒà
  ƒª ƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ.
  
  ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå,
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÞƒÑƒßƒéƒØƒåƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ.
  ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒß, ƒÓƒãƒÑƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ,
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒà ƒÒƒÝƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÖ.
  
   ƒ¿ƒäƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒð ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð ƒñ ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ³ƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒÛ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ - ƒàƒä ƒÓƒÖƒãƒ×ƒÝƒíƒç ƒÕƒà ƒäƒâƒÑƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç. ƒƒ× ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà - ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ, ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÑƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ-ƒÝƒÚƒÒƒà ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ®ƒäƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ?'. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒå ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ... ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ? ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒä ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒñ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ - ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒÔƒÑƒÖƒä ƒïƒäƒå ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî.
   ƒ³ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÑƒäƒî 'ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ' ƒÙƒÑ 1866, 1891, 1901, 1916 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒñ. ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒ×ƒç ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñƒç ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç 'ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ...'. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒïƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä, ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜ. ƒ+ƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî, ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒÔ. ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒí (ƒ²ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ¥ƒ®) ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒåƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÙƒÑ 1750-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå. ƒªƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÛ.
   ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÞƒí ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒã 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà? ƒ÷ƒØƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ... ƒ´ƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒî ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒã ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒ÷ƒÛ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÚƒëƒÖ. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç-ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒñƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÚƒëƒÖƒÓƒÑ. ƒª ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä, ƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒñƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒàƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ.
   ƒ? ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç 1782 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ¡ƒÞƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ (ƒ¡ƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ). ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒñ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒðƒëƒÑƒñƒãƒñ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑ 3-ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ƒÞƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓƒí - ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÑƒñ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.
   ƒ?ƒàƒáƒâƒàƒã ƒáƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒíƒÞ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ). ƒRƒí ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒáƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒå, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒð.
   ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓ 'ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ' ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà.
   ƒ¡ ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒñ 'ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå' - ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÑƒÕ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒñƒÖƒä ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð ƒÀƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ'ƒÖƒâƒÒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒí ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí...
   ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒàƒæƒÚƒÝƒîƒÞ ƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒ?ƒí ƒãƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð.
  
  
  ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ¡.ƒ?. ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...'
  
   ƒ³ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà: ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ¡.ƒ?. ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...'. ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡.ƒ?. ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒðƒä ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒð 'ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒå'
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒñƒÛ ƒêƒâƒÚƒæƒä ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒàƒÞ (ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒß ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä 14 ƒÜƒÖƒÔƒÝƒÖƒÞ) ƒÓ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ ƒáƒâƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒßƒàƒãƒÜƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒäƒí ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÖ, ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒà?
  
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ? 47 (282) ƒàƒä 24 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ,
  ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÑƒñ ƒÓ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ
  ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí: ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  
  
   'ƒƒƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÚƒÜ
   ƒ? ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖ?
   ƒƒƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ,
   ƒNoƒßƒÑƒäƒî ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÒƒí ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ'.
   ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  
   ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒëƒÑƒñ, ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã ƒÚ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒà 90-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ.
   ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ 80 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 100 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒí, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñƒãƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒÖ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒåƒð ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒå ƒÚƒÙ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ: 'ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ) - ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, 1,5 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒí ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 50-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒéƒîƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒí ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà (ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒî), ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒàƒäƒèƒí - ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà (ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã) ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒåƒâ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒà ƒÜƒåƒâƒÚƒèƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒÓƒÙƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÓƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÒ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ - ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÓƒêƒÖƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê. ƒ?ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒðƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí (ƒã. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç (ƒã. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒëƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒã. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí (ƒã. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒí (ƒã. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒí (ƒÕ. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ). ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒ·Iƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒ¥ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÚƒß, ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ, ƒRƒàƒÜƒÖƒÖƒÓ '.
   ƒƒãƒäƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà, ƒãƒàƒÓƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã. ƒ´ƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒàƒä ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒÚƒéƒÚƒñ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒÖƒÞƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒå ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ¥ƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒî, ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà-ƒßƒÚƒÒƒåƒÕƒî ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒÜƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒí ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ.
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒÚ ƒãƒíƒÔƒâƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒåƒð ƒâƒàƒÝƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒáƒàƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚƒÜƒÚ: ƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒñƒÜƒÚ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒí, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒÚ ƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒáƒà-ƒáƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒå ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒð. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒäƒÚ ƒã ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒíƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒîƒÖ ƒïƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒÕƒÝƒÖƒØƒÚƒä ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ: ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒä.ƒÕ. ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÝƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚƒÞƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÑ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒáƒà ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚƒç ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÞƒíƒãƒÝ: ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒàƒä ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñƒç ƒãƒäƒÚƒçƒÚƒÛƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÚ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ? ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒç ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒí, ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚ ƒä. ƒÕ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒà ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒ·VII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒå. ƒªƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒ-ƒîƒÓƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÓ 1680/1684 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒî ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ (ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí): 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒàƒßƒÜƒà ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ, ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒêƒßƒÖ /ƒÓƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒç/, ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒêƒßƒð ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒàƒÖ ƒØ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå ƒRƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÜƒÖ ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ¡ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒà 186 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒªƒÙ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒäƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒªƒÓƒÑƒêƒÜƒà 9 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÁƒÜƒåƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ 4 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÚƒÜƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå' . ƒ? ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÚƒãƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒïƒäƒà 1677/1678 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. 'ƒª ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒå ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑƒç 25 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ 28 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÜƒå ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒå ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒñƒä ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒÖ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒî ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÑƒÝƒäƒíƒß ƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒàƒð. ƒ¡ ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒäƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒÝƒÚƒêƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒí ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒÞ ƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒêƒßƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒî ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒå ƒáƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒå ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒØƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÜƒå ƒÓƒßƒàƒÓƒî ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒà ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒî' . ƒ? ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒÖƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ.
   ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒåƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ 1710 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒç ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ: 'ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ 60 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒãƒíƒß ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÚƒñ 35 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒÝƒÑ 10 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß 10 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 35 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒîƒñ 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ 9 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÑƒâƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒßƒÑ 2 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ 5 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä' .
   ƒªƒÙ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ: 'ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 48 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒÑ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒã 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ 14 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ 13 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÚƒñ 9 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒîƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒã ƒƒƒåƒßƒÔƒåƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒíƒéƒÑƒÔ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä'.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÞ 1719 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÖ . ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ, ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒÙ 7-ƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒÖƒ× ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒáƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒá ƒƒƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒß ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 80 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒà 25 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß 23 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒí ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒß ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 45 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ 18 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒß 8 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ´ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒÛ 5 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ 2 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÑƒâƒÜƒà 10 ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒî. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒƒƒàƒÙƒîƒÞƒÑ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒáƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÔƒàƒêƒÖƒÓ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ 15 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ?ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÚƒÝƒà ƒRƒÖƒâƒÜƒåƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓ 82 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒªƒÝƒîƒÚƒß ƒãƒíƒß ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ 47 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒà 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ 10 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâ 4 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒä ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒß 55 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 25 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß 20 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒØƒÖ 20 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒƒâƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ 55 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ 28 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒåƒÞƒÖƒß, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 22 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÑƒåƒÞ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ 71 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 35 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒãƒàƒß 4 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒßƒåƒÜ ƒ´ƒÚƒä 15 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØ ƒ¯ƒÑƒåƒÞƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÞƒÑƒç ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒƒÖƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ 32 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒç 42 ƒÝƒÖƒä'.
   ƒ? ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ, ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒã ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 27 ƒÝƒÖƒä'.
   ƒ¡ ƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí 1778 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà (ƒßƒíƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ). ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ, 27 ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ: ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ (ƒ?ƒðƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ), ƒRƒàƒÜƒÖƒÖƒÓ, ƒRƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß, ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒß, ƒªƒàƒßƒÚƒß, ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç, ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒ¢ƒâƒåƒãƒñƒßƒÚƒß, ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒ¡ƒÞƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒRƒàƒêƒßƒÚƒß, ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç, ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ, ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 49 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÜƒÚƒñ (ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÖƒâƒîƒñƒß) ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 32 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒàƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä ƒÓ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒÚƒç ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒç.
   ƒ³ƒåƒÕƒñ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒå ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç, ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 70 ƒÝƒÖƒä (ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒà 1710 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ), ƒÑ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒî 1710 ƒÚƒÝƒÚ 1719 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ, ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ 1719 ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒÖ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒßƒÖƒä, ƒßƒÖƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ·VIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒåƒâƒÖƒéƒîƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã-ƒ÷ƒÛ. ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí: ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî, ƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÔƒâƒåƒáƒáƒí, ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒåƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒåƒÞ, ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ.
   ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÝƒîƒÙƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ³ƒâƒÖƒäƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ. ƒRƒí ƒÓƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ 1988 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒñƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÔƒÑƒÒƒÑƒâƒÚƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ? ƒRƒåƒâƒÑƒÓƒîƒÚ, ƒáƒà ƒãƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒã ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÚƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒßƒåƒÚƒÝ ƒ¯ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒéƒÚƒß, ƒãƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒáƒÑ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒ´ƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒªƒÖƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒêƒÚƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒÖ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ: 'ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí, ƒáƒàƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÙƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒãƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒð, ƒèƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒð ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒäƒÖƒÜƒäƒåƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒí. ƒ³ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒèƒÑƒñ, ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒß, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒíƒêƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÖƒØƒÖ ƒƒÓƒâƒàƒáƒí ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÙƒÚƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒÔƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ, ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒêƒîƒãƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒã ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒí ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒðƒÔƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒå ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒêƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒêƒÑƒðƒëƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒåƒáƒàƒÝ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÚ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÑ - ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒÜƒà, ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÖƒä ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒßƒÚ'.
   ƒªƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒäƒëƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒî ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒàƒãƒñƒëƒÚƒç ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ, ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ, ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒàƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒðƒä. ƒ¡ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑƒç.
   ƒ® ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑƒç, ƒÞƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒÒƒàƒâƒÜƒå ƒáƒà ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ 1719 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ:
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒƒƒÚƒãƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒƒÝƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ 3 ƒÝƒÖƒä' ;
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ 45 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒà 9 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ³ƒÚƒÕƒàƒâ 7 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 5 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ 2 ƒÝƒÖƒä' ;
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ¯ƒÖƒéƒåƒßƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÑ: '... ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 50 ƒÝƒÖƒä', ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒØƒÖ: 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 57 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 5 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ 3 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå...' ;
  
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒƒâƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß 13 ƒÝƒÖƒä' ;
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÒƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ?ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒ³ƒÚƒÕƒàƒâ ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒàƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒâƒäƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÛ 4 ƒÝƒÖƒä...' ;
   ƒRƒí ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒð ƒã ƒèƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒí, ƒßƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒäƒâƒíƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÖƒ×: '...ƒéƒîƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒí ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà (ƒßƒÑ ƒâ. ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒî), ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ...'. ƒ? ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç 1710 ƒÚ 1719 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒà ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒåƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ 1744 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî: '...ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 75 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ 37 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒã 30 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ 18 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓ 4, ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ 8, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒáƒàƒÝƒå ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå' . ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒàƒä ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒí ƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã. ƒ? ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒç, ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒíƒç, ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒ³ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒíƒç - ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê.
   ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞ 1702 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå: 'ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒçƒâƒàƒÞƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒáƒÑƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÜ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÛ. ƒ÷ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒà' . ƒ? ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ 1702 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÖƒéƒåƒßƒÑƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç: 'ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒÑ' . ƒ³ƒÓƒñƒÙƒî ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÓƒåƒÞƒñ ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ.
   ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒñ ƒã ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒÚ, ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒã ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒàƒÒƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒàƒß ƒÕƒÑƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒß 1753-ƒÞ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒßƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒã ƒÓƒíƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒí ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ¡ƒÓƒâƒÑƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ: '... ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒã ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ ...' .
   ƒ¿ƒäƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî, ƒÓ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕ ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒÜƒäƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ®ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ
  ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî', ? 2 (234)
  ƒàƒä 24 ƒ¯ƒ®ƒÁƒ¢ƒ²ƒÁ 2009 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà-ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ, ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ, ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒÜ, ƒàƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒß, ƒßƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒà ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒä ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒäƒÖƒç ƒßƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒç ƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒñƒç, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÚƒÞ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒåƒÒƒÚƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí.
   ƒ® ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÓ ƒäƒÖ ƒäƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒØƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ' ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ: 'ƒ³ƒÑƒÞ ƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒå ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî. ƒºƒ×ƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒßƒÑƒÕƒèƒÑƒäƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒà ƒåƒäƒâƒàƒÞ ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒÒƒå, ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÚƒçƒÝƒà. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒÓƒÑƒäƒÑƒÔƒàƒð ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒð. ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒØƒåƒäƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒí ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒâƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒáƒí. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒí ƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ? ƒäƒàƒÝƒáƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî: '...ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÑƒâƒí, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒÚ'. 22 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒâƒåƒÜ ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒäƒà ƒñƒãƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÚƒðƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒåƒäƒâƒà. ƒƒƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ? ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ? ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝ. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ. ƒ? ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒªƒç ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà, ƒÓ ƒÜƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒå. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà - ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÑ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒáƒâƒíƒÔƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒä ƒÓƒíƒáƒâƒíƒÔƒßƒåƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒåƒÕƒÑƒéƒßƒà ƒÚ, ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÚƒéƒÑƒÝ. ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÕƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÜ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ®ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÓ ƒÜƒâƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ, ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒåƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒåƒÒƒÚƒäƒí ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖ, ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒ×ƒâƒäƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒçƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ. ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÙ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒãƒäƒßƒåƒÝ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒå ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒî. ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÔƒâƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ, ƒÑ ƒäƒàƒä, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ. ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒíƒç ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒå, ƒÙƒÑƒâƒñƒØƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÚƒßƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒç. ƒ³ƒäƒàƒßƒí, ƒÜƒâƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒí - ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒãƒÝƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÔƒåƒÝ, ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ× ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒÚƒäƒíƒç. ƒªƒç ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî 21. ƒª ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒã ƒÓƒÚƒßƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒã ƒèƒÖƒáƒîƒð ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ. ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒí. ƒ®ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÓ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒçƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÖƒè ƒåƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒ×ƒÝ. ƒ?ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒå ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ. ƒª ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒß 22 ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒÓƒÑƒâƒÕƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ, ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒà, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒå ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ'.
   ƒª ƒÒƒåƒÜƒÓƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßo ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒäƒÖƒç ƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒäƒÚƒñƒç, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒèƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒß ƒáƒà ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒð ƒƒƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÜƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÕƒèƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒßƒÑƒã 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒÁ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÕƒå ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒßƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒâƒíƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ: '15 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒà ƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒð ƒƒƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÜƒÑ. ƒª ƒã 16 ƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒñ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒå ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÓ ƒàƒâƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒïƒãƒÜƒÑƒÕƒâƒàƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒêƒäƒÑƒÒƒÖ ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÜƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÚƒðƒÝƒÖ 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒêƒäƒÑƒÒ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒÖ ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ´ƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒñ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ³ƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒïƒêƒÖƒÝƒàƒß, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÑƒâƒÞƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ, ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒª ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒß ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒð ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÑƒâƒÞƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒÚ ƒàƒæƒÚƒèƒÖƒâ, ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒå ƒãƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒïƒêƒÖƒÝƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ: 'ƒªƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖ!'. ƒª ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒàƒäƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ 15 - 20 ƒàƒä ƒïƒêƒÖƒÝƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒà ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒàƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÝƒá. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
   ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒåƒð ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒð ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒð, ƒãƒÖƒÞƒî ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒà, ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÑƒâƒÞƒÖƒÛƒèƒÖƒÓ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ. ƒ¢ƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ, ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒà ƒãƒÚƒÝ, ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒî. ƒ®ƒß ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒÖ 100 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒàƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒÛƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÝƒáƒàƒÞ. ƒ®, ƒåƒØƒÑƒã! ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒàƒÔ ƒáƒíƒÝƒî, ƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒç, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒåƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÝƒÚƒèƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÙ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑ, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÓ ƒäƒâƒåƒáƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒïƒêƒÖƒÝƒàƒß ƒßƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÜ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒÖƒãƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒäƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑƒç, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒçƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÝƒðƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÓƒèƒí, ƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒåƒÕƒå, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒãƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒÜ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî ƒà ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒêƒÚƒç. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒ×ƒß, ƒßƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ. ƒ¢ƒåƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒå ƒãƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑ, ƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÚƒãƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒß. ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒêƒÚƒÞ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒã, ƒãƒâƒÑƒØƒÑƒñƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒñƒÕƒÑƒç ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ'.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ® ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà
  ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒàƒÒ ƒàƒäƒèƒÖ
  ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ
  
  
  ƒ® ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ
  ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ: ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒßƒñ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß, ƒàƒß ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒà ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒÑ. ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒç ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà, ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝ: 'ƒ¡ ƒÓƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒàƒß ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒÖƒäƒãƒñ?'.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÜƒà. ƒªƒç ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ¢ƒÝƒÚƒÙƒî'. ƒ? ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝ, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÚ, ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÖƒâƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒæƒàƒßƒÕ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒÝƒå ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒí ƒåƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 20 ƒÜƒÞ... ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ. ƒªƒÙ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ: ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ... ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒç ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒî.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒí, ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒƒƒâƒåƒáƒßƒíƒÖ (ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ) ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà. ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒðƒä ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÞ...
  ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒÒƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ
  ƒ¿ƒäƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒñ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒä ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒê ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒå ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÖƒÛ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒñƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ. ƒª ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒñƒäƒî, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒÚ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ - ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð.
  ƒ®ƒÒ ƒàƒäƒèƒÖ
  ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒÓ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒð ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ 'ƒ¥ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ', ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒ-ƒÑƒÓƒâ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ. 'ƒ¥ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ' ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒèƒí, ƒÚƒßƒÔƒåƒêƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÞƒíƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÑƒÙƒèƒí. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÝƒÝƒÖƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÑƒß ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒÚ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÚƒð, ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâ ƒÚƒç ƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÝƒÝƒÖƒâƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÖƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒáƒÑƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒç ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒíƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑ - ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ® ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÖ
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒ×ƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØ) - ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒïƒäƒÚ 12 ƒäƒíƒãƒñƒé ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒß, ƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÑƒßƒí ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒáƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÝƒî. ƒª ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 100 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ! ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒÙ ƒàƒß ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä, ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà... ƒ? ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ* ƒØƒÚƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒªƒç ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒéƒÚƒÖ, ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâ ƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ... ƒÁ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÒƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒÕ ƒÜƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ - ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÒƒí ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî ƒå ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ³.ƒ?.: 'ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝ'.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ:
   ƒ? ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒ-.ƒ¡. ƒ¡ƒãƒäƒÑƒæƒîƒÖƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ 'ƒ³ƒåƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛƒßƒà', ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ:
  'ƒ³ 1744 ƒãƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒêƒÝƒà ƒÜ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒÓƒâƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒå'.
  ƒ+ƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒ×ƒÓƒÜƒå ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ. ƒ÷ ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 3 ƒäƒíƒãƒñƒé ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒß ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÙƒå ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÑƒßƒí, ƒä.ƒÜ. ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒè ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒà 30 ƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒä. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒæƒÚƒÙƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒàƒÜƒàƒáƒÑƒäƒî.
   ƒ? XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ :ƒ³ƒÚƒÞƒàƒß ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒÖƒÖƒÓƒí, ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒÕƒñƒÖƒÓƒí.
  ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÜ ƒÙƒÑ 1811 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÑƒãƒÖƒãƒãƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒNoƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ - ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒä 16 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ 2012 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ).
   ƒƒƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒí ƒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒÚƒÙ ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒÚƒÙ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÑƒðƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓ 1817 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?. ƒNoƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒæƒÚƒÜƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒªƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒñƒç 1817 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒå ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒéƒîƒñ ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑ ƒãƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒåƒÔƒÑƒéƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ 1774 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒã 1774 ƒáƒà 1817 ƒÔƒÔ. (ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒëƒÚƒÜƒÖ ƒ?. ƒNoƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒàƒä 15 ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒñ 2012 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÖ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ).
  
  
  ƒ® ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒâƒÖƒÙƒÜƒÖ
  ƒ²ƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒÑƒêƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÚƒç ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ÷ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒÚƒÞ. ƒNoƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒí ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒã ƒƒƒåƒÜƒåƒÖƒÞ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒÑƒêƒÑ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ 'ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒî'. ƒ÷ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ 'ƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒî' ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ¡ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒéƒÜƒà, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ 'ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ' - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒí...
  ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ:
  'ƒ·ƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒñ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒíƒçƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ-ƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒäƒÑƒáƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒå - ƒÝƒÖƒã ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÞ, ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ 'ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ'. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒÜ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÚƒç ƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒñƒÔƒàƒÕƒí'. ƒ¥ƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ.
  
  ____________________
  *ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä ƒäƒÑƒÜ: 'ƒ? ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ...ƒ? ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ'. ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒã ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÞ 'ƒÓ' ƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒáƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒñƒðƒä ƒã ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÞ 'ƒÓƒà' (ƒ?ƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ). ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒî ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒæƒàƒß, ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒà. ƒ´ƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒëƒÑƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÞƒå ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒð.
  
  
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?.ƒ¡.
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ?.ƒ¡., 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  
   ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒå ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒàƒä ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒê ƒâƒàƒÕ. ƒ³ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒí. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒåƒÔƒàƒÝ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒ×ƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒßƒ×ƒÜ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒí.
   ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓ ƒ¡.ƒ+., ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ, ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒè ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÖ. ƒƒëƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒí.
   ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒå. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ: ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÛ, ƒƒƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒàƒß, ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß - ƒßƒÑƒê ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ. ƒ÷ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒâƒäƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÛ, ƒ¥ƒÑƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß - ƒßƒÑƒê ƒÕƒÖƒÕ.
  ƒ÷ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ, ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß (1889 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè. ƒ÷ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒç (1912-1946), ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ (1924-2006), ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ(1932 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) ƒÚ ƒñ - ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ (1934 ƒÔ.ƒâ.).
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  1920 ƒÔ. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒæƒÚƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ (1849 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) - ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (1889 - 1973) - ƒàƒäƒÖƒè,
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ (1891 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) - ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî
   ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ - ƒ³ƒäƒâƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ (1891 ƒÔ.ƒâ.). ƒ+ƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ 64 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÑ, ƒÚƒÙ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒåƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî 4 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒí ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒß: ƒåƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒå ƒÓ 1909 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ 1920! ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒ×ƒß 'ƒRƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒð ƒÙƒÑ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒäƒî 4-ƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ' ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒíƒÓ ƒÚƒÙ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒRƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒî ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã.
   ƒ?1921 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒêƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒà.
   ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒàƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ. ƒƒ 1930 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà... ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒäƒåƒä ƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÑ - ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒà. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒç ƒÜƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒØƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç - ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒêƒÑƒçƒäƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒÝƒîƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ - ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ 1941 ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð ƒñ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ? ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà: ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÑƒØƒÚ.
   ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ 15 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí 1945 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒñƒáƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí, ƒàƒäƒèƒå ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒå.
  
  
  
  
  
  1912 ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒâƒÑ. ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒß ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒRƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒäƒî 4 ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ - ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡.ƒ³.
   ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  1940 ƒÔ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÕƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ - ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒí ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒí.
   ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÚ - ƒÕƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒ×ƒãƒäƒâƒí ƒ³ƒäƒâƒåƒßƒÚƒßƒí
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ? ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒàƒÒƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒÚƒÞ. '2-ƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ' ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÑ, ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒ×, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '2-ƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ' ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒéƒÖ, ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà.
  
  
  
  
  
  1946 ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ '2-ƒñ ƒ+ƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒÜƒÑ'. ƒ³ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒä ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ?.ƒ¡.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ? 1946 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ, ƒñ ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒÖ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí.
   ƒ³ ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒáƒåƒäƒî. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî 15 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ: ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí, ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÖƒâƒÒƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒçƒàƒâƒàƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÖ. ƒ+ƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒ×ƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒâƒãƒí ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓ. ƒÁ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒçƒåƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÛ. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ¯ƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒä? ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒå?'. (ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒáƒà ƒÓƒíƒÙƒàƒÓƒå ƒã ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ). ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒØƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒñ ƒÓƒíƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒñ - ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî!
  
   ƒ? 1953 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚƒÕƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒÞƒÚƒð, ƒÚ ƒñ, ƒâƒÖƒêƒÚƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒã ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒÞƒÚƒð ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ
  ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ: ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß.
   ƒ? 1956 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒÚƒæƒÚƒÜƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà-ƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÑƒØƒßƒíƒÛ
  ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ? 198 ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ? 1957 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒÜ 'ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ-ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß' ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÕƒÑƒß, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜ, ƒãƒä. ƒ®ƒñƒê, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜ - ƒãƒä. ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÑ.
   ƒ? 1959 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà: 'ƒRƒ´ƒ³ ƒâƒÑƒãƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒå, ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÛ, ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ
  ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ!'. ƒ³ 1959 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒ? 1960 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ (1936 ƒÔ.ƒâ.). ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒªƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ (1961 ƒÔ.ƒâ.), ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß (1963 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) ƒÚ
   ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒñƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ (1967 ƒÔ.ƒâ.).
   ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒÞ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ.
  
  
  2005 ƒÔ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí: ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé
  
  
   ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒã ƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒîƒð. ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ! ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒîƒÖƒÓ!
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî... ƒ¡ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÝƒî ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒåƒãƒäƒí. ƒ¡ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒîƒÚƒßƒíƒÖ ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¡ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒíƒÛ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé? ƒ?ƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÜƒÝƒðƒé ƒå ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ´ƒàƒØƒÖ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒê...
   ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ, ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÚƒÞƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒä ƒßƒÑƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ... ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÓƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒàƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÑƒä ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÚƒçƒÚ:
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ...
   ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒßƒà, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ
   ƒª ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒáƒÑƒêƒèƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞ.
   ƒ¥ƒàƒñƒâƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒÖƒãƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒÒƒÚƒßƒÖƒäƒÑƒç, ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒà ƒâƒÖƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ:
  'ƒ³ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÖ!'.
  ƒª ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà:
   ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒêƒåƒÞƒßƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÚƒçƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà.
   ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÖƒØƒÜƒÚ-ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÚ,
   ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒàƒØƒÜƒÚ...
   ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒàƒÛ-ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒð,
   ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒÞƒí ƒÔƒåƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÑ, ƒã ƒäƒàƒÒƒàƒð...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒí (ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ) ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí
  ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ, 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
   ƒRƒàƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ: ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÚ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ®ƒÒ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÑƒÝ, ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð.
  ƒ÷ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß - ƒáƒâƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ÷ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ. ƒ÷ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒá - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÛ.
   ƒ÷ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâ - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè, ƒ¡ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒîƒñ, ƒ´ƒÑƒÚƒãƒÚƒñ, ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß, ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒÚ ƒ¥ƒÑƒâƒîƒñ.
   ƒ÷ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ - ƒñ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ.
  
  .
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+.ƒ¯.ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ, ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ.
   ƒ÷ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ - ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÝƒîƒñ, ƒå ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒãƒíƒß ƒ´ƒÚƒÞƒàƒæƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒå ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ - ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ³ƒàƒæƒîƒñ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ.
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒàƒéƒî ƒ®ƒÝƒñ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+.ƒ¯. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒã ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ
  
  
   ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒñ ƒÓ 1925 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒãƒÓƒàƒð, ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒå, ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð: ƒÞƒßƒÖ 2 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÝƒîƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒäƒÜƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒà ƒäƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒêƒäƒÑƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒçƒÚ ƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ÷ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒÒƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒÚ ƒàƒÜƒàƒêƒÖƒéƒÜƒà, ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒñƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÕƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒáƒâƒñƒÕƒ×ƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜ ƒãƒáƒâƒñƒÕƒ×ƒä.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒå ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà. ƒÁ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒà-ƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒà ƒÚ ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒå-ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒå ƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ®ƒäƒèƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð. ƒƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒà ƒåƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒã: ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒàƒéƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒRƒí ƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒáƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒäƒÝƒÑƒã ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÑƒßƒÔƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒîƒÞƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒ×ƒç ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÜƒÑƒç: ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒå ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÖ. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ-ƒÕƒÖ: 'ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ', ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒÝƒåƒÜƒå ƒÙƒåƒÒƒéƒÑƒäƒàƒÔƒà: ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒèƒÚƒßƒÔƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî... ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒª ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒÝƒåƒçƒå, ƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒçƒå.
  ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè - ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒé 1902 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÓ 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ - ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ 1903 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 1985 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ, ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒðƒä. ƒªƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí...
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒRƒßƒÖ 16 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ? ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ: ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒã ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÚƒç. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚƒÕƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒñƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÜƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒêƒàƒæƒ×ƒâƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒØƒ×ƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒÞƒÚƒð. ƒ¥ƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒå, ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒÞƒÚƒð. ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÚƒð ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒå. ƒªƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒéƒäƒà! ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒNoƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒåƒãƒäƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ...
  ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒNoƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß, ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒà ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒñƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÓ ƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÖ ƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒâƒØƒåƒÛƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà.
  ƒ´ƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒêƒî-ƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒå, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒåƒáƒÑƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒßƒÖƒÔ - ƒÖƒ× ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒêƒî ƒÖƒ×, ƒàƒä ƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÜ ƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒêƒî ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒêƒî... ƒ³ ƒÔƒàƒâƒí-ƒäƒà ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒêƒî, ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÚƒÝƒå ƒãƒñƒÕƒÖƒêƒî, ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒå.
  ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒÔƒåƒâƒîƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒÛƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒÑƒÞ. ƒÁ ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒçƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä:
  -ƒ+ƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒÖƒêƒî ƒäƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒäƒåƒä. ƒ´ƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà.
  -ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ?
  -ƒÁ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒßƒàƒéƒîƒð ƒÕƒà ƒåƒÙƒÜƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒØƒå. ƒ¥ƒàƒÖƒÕƒÖƒêƒî ƒÕƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒñƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒêƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒí. ƒÁ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒÕƒÑƒÞ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä.
  ƒÁ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ·ƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒî ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ³ƒÚƒÕƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÓƒíƒÓƒÑƒÛƒãƒñ'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒð, ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒèƒå ƒÓƒÙƒñƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ 'ƒ·ƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚ'.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ: ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒÕƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒðƒêƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ: ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ? ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒðƒêƒÑƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒèƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒåƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒßƒà.
  ƒºƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÜ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒØƒåƒâƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒíƒáƒâƒàƒêƒåƒãƒî ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒå ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒíƒßƒð. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ-ƒäƒà?
  ƒªƒÙ ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒêƒÝƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¯ƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒàƒÔƒå. ƒ¡ ƒåƒäƒâƒàƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒÜ ƒãƒäƒàƒÔƒå ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒñƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒî, ƒãƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÛƒãƒñ, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒåƒêƒå...'.
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒñ ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒºƒåƒÞƒÚƒçƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒØƒåƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒðƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà-ƒäƒà. ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒðƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒð: ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑƒð. ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÕƒå ƒÜ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒÖ ƒƒÖƒêƒÖ (ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒãƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ), ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÛƒÕƒå ƒÕƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå!'. ƒ¥ƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: 'ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÛƒÕƒå ƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÛƒÕƒå ƒÕƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå'.
  ƒ÷ƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒÞƒàƒéƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒí ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒNoƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒÖƒéƒÜƒå ƒå ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ. ƒª ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒå: ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒ×ƒâƒÙƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒßƒàƒçƒÑ ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ, ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒçƒÑ-ƒßƒÚƒëƒÚƒçƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ!'. ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑ: 'ƒ¯ƒå, ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ...'. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒåƒÔƒÝƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî: 'ƒ¡ ƒäƒí ƒÜƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ?'. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒä: 'ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ! ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ!'. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒÖƒëƒÚ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä: ƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒå, ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÓƒíƒÞƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒ×ƒä. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒåƒãƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ-ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒßƒàƒéƒî ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ+ƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒRƒÑƒêƒåƒçƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä: ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ'.
  ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓ 1942 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ³ ƒäƒÖƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '8-ƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ'. ƒ¥ƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑƒßƒäƒÑ ƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒðƒçƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒØƒåƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒêƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒÜƒàƒêƒÖƒÜ. ƒª ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒ×ƒä ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå ƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¥ƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒå ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒí ƒâƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ®ƒß ƒÖƒ× ƒÓ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÜƒå ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒ×ƒã, ƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒâƒÑƒéƒàƒÞ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒàƒßƒÜƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÞƒí ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒÑƒã ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÚ, ƒàƒÕƒÖƒñƒÝƒà.
  ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒñ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÕƒÖƒØƒåƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÚƒß: ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒêƒÑƒÝƒàƒÜ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÖƒä, ƒáƒâƒñƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒîƒñ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒêƒàƒÜ. ƒÁ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð: 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ?'. ƒ¡ ƒàƒß: 'ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑ! ƒ´ƒí ƒâƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ! ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒíƒß ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ!'.
  ƒ? ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒRƒí ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒãƒÜƒÚƒâƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒãƒßƒàƒáƒí ƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒä ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒå, ƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒã ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÞƒå. ƒ?ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒíƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÖƒÕƒåƒä ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒî!'. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä: 'ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑ! ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒî! ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒðƒä!'. ƒRƒí ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÖ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî...
  ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ...
  
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒí
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?.ƒR., 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒã ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÖ: ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ - ƒãƒ×ƒãƒäƒâƒí.
  
  ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè - ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÞƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒæƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÚ.
  
  
  
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒå ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒí ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà: ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ 1948 ƒÔ.ƒâ. ƒÚ ƒñ 1949 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ÷ƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒí ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ: ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ 8 ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß. ƒ? ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒ+ƒ´ƒ÷ ? 5 ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒð ƒêƒäƒåƒÜƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒÑ-ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒñƒâƒÑ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒRƒƒ (ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ). ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ (1942 ƒÔ.ƒâ.).
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ 'ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜ'. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒñƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ- ƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒåƒÒƒàƒâƒëƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ³ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒÞ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒÀƒâƒÚƒÛ 1968 ƒÔ.ƒâ., ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ 1972 ƒÔ.ƒâ. ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ 1979 ƒÔ.ƒâ.. ƒÀƒâƒÑ ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî, ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ, ƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒã ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒàƒÛ - ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   ƒ÷ ƒÀƒâƒí ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ²ƒÚƒäƒÑ 1991 ƒÔ.ƒâ. ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÝ 1995 ƒÔ.ƒâ.. ƒ÷ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒí ƒãƒíƒß ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓ 1998 ƒÔ.ƒâ. - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ.
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒí ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒí. ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒíƒÛ
  ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕ ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà
  ƒ.ƒª. ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ, 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒá ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ - ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒä. ƒ÷ ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ (1906 ƒÔ.ƒâ.), ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß (1900 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) - ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè. ƒ? 1919 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒß ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ²ƒíƒéƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒç ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÖƒÛ. ƒ?ƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå.
  ƒ÷ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 11 ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒß, ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ, ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ - ƒâƒÑƒßƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÚ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ: ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ (1927-1997), ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ (1928 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) - ƒñ, ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ (1931 ƒÔ.ƒâ.), ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ (1933 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) ƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ (1938 ƒÔ.ƒâ.).
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ? ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒRƒí ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ: ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà, ƒàƒÒƒåƒäƒî-ƒàƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒéƒÖƒÔƒà... ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒñƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ. ƒNoƒÚƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÑ 12 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1943 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí: ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒñƒÝƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÖ, ƒÙƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà, ƒáƒà ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ 3 ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚ 600 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ 800! ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒêƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÚ... ƒ·ƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ¯ƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒñƒä ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÓ ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒÕƒåƒä ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒáƒéƒåƒä...
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒâƒàƒßƒä ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒƒNoƒ® ƒÓ ƒRƒÑƒÔƒßƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒãƒÜ. ƒ³ƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ®ƒÝƒñ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒÓƒÜƒÑƒÝƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒßƒñ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒƒNoƒ®.
  ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒå, ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒí ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà: ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå 365 ƒÝƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒã ƒØƒÚƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ - ƒÓƒãƒÖ 500. ƒ·ƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒàƒÓƒàƒëƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒëƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. 40 ƒÜƒÔ ƒÞƒñƒãƒÑ ƒÚ 100 ƒñƒÚƒè ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ ƒçƒàƒêƒî ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÔƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ: ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒáƒÚƒêƒÖƒêƒî - ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÛƒÕƒÖƒêƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒâƒàƒÕ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒäƒÖƒâƒáƒÖƒÝ, ƒçƒàƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒãƒíƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒÝ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ? ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ ƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ 11 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ 40 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ...
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ, ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå ƒ¥ƒåƒßƒñ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå? ƒÁƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÞ!'. ƒÁ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ, ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒæƒÝƒñƒØƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî'. ƒªƒÙ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒå ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒå ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒí, ƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒåƒä - ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÝƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî. ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ. ƒÁ ƒÚƒç ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ. ƒRƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÝƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÚ: 'ƒRƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒäƒãƒñ'.
  ƒª ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒñƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ. ƒÁ ƒ¥ƒåƒãƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð: 'ƒRƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒÞ: ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒÖ. ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÛ?'. ƒ¨ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ. ƒ?ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒß. ƒ¥ƒåƒãƒñ ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ: 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒäƒí, ƒ¥ƒåƒãƒñ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒêƒî?'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒäƒî. ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒÞ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞ: ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒñƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÜƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒåƒãƒñ: 'ƒªƒÕƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚ'. ƒÁ: 'ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒå. ƒ³ƒäƒíƒÕƒßƒà'. ƒ¥ƒåƒãƒñ ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞƒäƒÖ, ƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÕƒå'. ƒª ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒåƒßƒñ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒä: ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒíƒß 4-ƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒä. ƒ¡ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒÖ: ƒçƒàƒÝƒÞƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÖ, ƒßƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ... ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÑƒêƒßƒà... ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒÑ, ƒåƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî... ƒNoƒÑƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
  ƒ³ ƒäƒÖƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒñ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒàƒÒƒçƒàƒØƒå - ƒÒƒàƒðƒãƒî. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒñ, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒåƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ? 1946 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÑ - ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ 5. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒÔ, ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒî. ƒ?ƒÚƒØƒå, ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒÓ 10-ƒäƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÑ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÔƒÝƒñƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜ! ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒÒƒàƒÜ ƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒêƒÚƒâƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒå ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÓƒèƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒªƒÕƒå ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÚƒØƒå ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ- ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒç ƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒä, ƒÜƒâƒÚƒéƒÚƒä: 'ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒÜ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒÝ, ƒàƒÓƒèƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ, ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒáƒÚƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒã ƒåƒêƒ×ƒÝ!..'. ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÑƒêƒßƒà! ƒÁ ƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒç ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ...
  
  
  
  ƒ? ƒðƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒñ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÜƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ+ƒà ƒßƒàƒéƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ - ƒãƒÜƒåƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒäƒÚƒçƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÑ ƒñ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒíƒÜƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒêƒåƒÞƒå ƒáƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ, ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒêƒåƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ®ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒå ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ, ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒâ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒå, ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒð.
  ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØ - ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÛ ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓ (1930-2002). ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ (1956 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ( 1959 ƒÔ.ƒâ.). ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒå-ƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÕƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒÚƒáƒÖƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒ×ƒÙ!
   ƒ÷ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒã ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÞ - ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒñ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ____________________
   *ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâ. 120 ƒàƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒíƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒßƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ ƒáƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒâƒíƒÒƒÑƒèƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒßƒÑƒâƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒð:
  ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒ?.ƒƒ. ƒƒƒÑƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ
   ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒƒƒÑƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒã ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÞ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒíƒÞ (1882-1953 ƒÔƒÔ.) ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒRƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ.
   ƒRƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒíƒÒƒå ƒÓ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒRƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÖƒÛ. ƒ-ƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒãƒÖƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒÑƒä. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÓƒíƒÕƒàƒÝƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒàƒÝƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒí. ƒ¢ƒÑƒä ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒÚƒä ƒáƒà ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ, ƒßƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒí ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÜƒâƒÑƒ×ƒÓ.
   ƒƒƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÒƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒí. ƒRƒí ƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒâ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒêƒÚƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÛƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒå ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒåƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ÷ ƒÜƒàƒßƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒí ƒãƒÝƒàƒÚ ƒäƒàƒßƒÜƒÚƒÖ. ƒ³ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒßƒå. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒå ƒÒƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ, ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÒƒâƒ×ƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒí, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒëƒÚƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒç ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒàƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒßƒàƒØƒàƒÞ. ƒºƒÚƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒëƒÖƒáƒí 3-4 ƒãƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛ ƒëƒÖƒáƒí ƒÙƒÑƒàƒãƒäƒâƒñƒÝ. ƒ¿ƒäƒÑ ƒëƒÖƒáƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒîƒ×. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒîƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒâ, ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒß ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒç. ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒäƒàƒÝƒëƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÖƒè. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÞ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ, ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒíƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒãƒáƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÕƒâƒÑƒßƒí ƒÜƒàƒâƒßƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ³ƒáƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒîƒ× ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒâƒí ƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑƒç ƒÒƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒäƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒñ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà ƒãƒâƒÑƒÙƒå ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒåƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒÕƒÜƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒñƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒñƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒñƒä ƒàƒÒƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒßƒÚƒÞ - ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒà. ƒNoƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒéƒÚƒëƒÑƒÝ ƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒëƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒîƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒà 15-20 ƒÜƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÓ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒRƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒÙƒ×ƒâƒÑƒç. ƒƒƒàƒäƒèƒí ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒñƒäƒî ƒÖƒØƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÓƒßƒà. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒØƒÕƒî ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖƒâ, ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒâƒåƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÕ - ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÖƒÕƒÖƒä, ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒÙƒ×ƒä ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒâƒà-ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÖƒÛ, ƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒí. ƒÁ ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÝ ƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒâƒíƒÒƒå ƒãƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÕƒàƒÜ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ, ƒÓƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÔƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒàƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒÝƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒâƒíƒÒƒå, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî.
   ƒ®ƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÝƒ×ƒÕ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒßƒÖƒä, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒà ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒå ƒÚ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒðƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÝƒîƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÖƒÝƒîƒ×.
   (ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. 22 ƒÞƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ 1998 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ).
  ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜ: 'ƒ¨ƒÚƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒßƒà'. ƒ²ƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÑ -
  ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí: ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒ-.ƒÀ. ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ,
  ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒR.ƒ?. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ 2008 ƒÔ.
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ
   ƒ¯.ƒ³. ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ. 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, 1956 ƒÔ. ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑƒä, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒä.
  ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒîƒð ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ, ƒãƒä. 2278 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâ.
  
  ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ (ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1959 ƒÔ. ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒã. ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ? 1976 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÞ. ƒ? 1978 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ: ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ, 1980 ƒÔ.ƒâ., ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒñ - ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÔƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ, 1984 ƒÔ.ƒâ. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  
  ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒéƒÖƒßƒÜƒà (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1955 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒ? 1973 ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒå ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒ¿ƒßƒÖƒâƒÔƒàƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÞƒÑ. ƒ? 1975 ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒéƒÖƒßƒÜƒà ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ.
  ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒñ, 1977 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒÔ. ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÖ.
  
  ƒ²ƒÖƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒªƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1958 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒ? 1982 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ²ƒÖƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒñ. ƒ? 1986 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒãƒÜ, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒƒÝƒÖƒßƒå, 1983 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1963 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒãƒä. ƒƒƒÑƒÛƒâƒÑƒßƒÜƒåƒÝƒî. ƒ?ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ (ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ) ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå.
  ƒ? 1985 ƒÔ. ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔ. ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒÖƒèƒÜ, ƒ²ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ., ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ.
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒÞ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒä.
  
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1967 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒãƒä. ƒƒƒÑƒÛƒâƒÑƒßƒÜƒåƒÝƒî. ƒ?ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ (ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ) ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÕ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒÓ 1987 ƒÔ. ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒÖƒèƒÜ ƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÖ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ.
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒÞ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒä.
  
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒåƒéƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1963 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ? 1970-ƒç ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒÖƒèƒÜ, ƒ²ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜ - 1983 ƒÔ.
  ƒ?ƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜ ƒÓ 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒàƒä ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒå, 1984 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÖ-ƒßƒÑ-ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒå.
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒåƒéƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, 1960 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ? 1970-ƒç ƒÔ.ƒÔ. ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒÖƒèƒÜ, ƒ²ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑ.
  ƒªƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÚƒãƒÑ, 1988 ƒÔ.ƒâ.
  ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖƒØƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ. ƒÔ. ƒ®ƒÒƒàƒñƒßƒî.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ.
  ƒ® ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞƒÖ. ƒ¢ƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ
  ƒ¡.ƒ².ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ, 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒ?.ƒ¡. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒð ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒªƒãƒÜƒâƒÑ' ƒÙƒÑ 1996 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÛ - ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒâƒÑƒÞ (ƒãƒÞ. ƒáƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ).
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ (ƒ¡.ƒ².): -ƒ?ƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà. ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒÓƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒàƒÛ 1,5 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒæƒåƒØƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ... ƒ®ƒÒƒëƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒäƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà 2,5 ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÑ.
  ƒ¥ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒàƒä ƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ 'ƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ' - ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÛƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒäƒáƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞ. ƒ? 'ƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ' ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ... ƒRƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒÚƒäƒí ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÔƒâƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒÚƒäƒí ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ - ƒÚƒç ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒåƒÝƒîƒÕƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ 1972-74-ƒÞ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî-ƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒ´ƒNo-ƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ*. ƒƒ× ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒäƒÑƒ×ƒä. ƒƒƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒßƒÑ ƒñƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÑƒç... ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒ× ƒâƒÓƒÑƒßƒåƒÝƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒâƒåƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ¥ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí-ƒäƒà ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒßƒàƒâƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒí ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒäƒÑƒãƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒí ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÝƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒí-ƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒåƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒñ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒí ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ? ƒƒƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÜƒå ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒƒƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒð ƒãƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒà. ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÔƒÑƒß ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝ, ƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒƒâƒíƒêƒå ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÚƒâƒäƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕ. ƒ¥ƒà 1948 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒß ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒå, ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒåƒð. ƒ¯ƒåƒØƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒå ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒâ. ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÞ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒåƒáƒàƒÝ ƒÒƒíƒÝ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒð. ƒ?ƒãƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒãƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒåƒéƒå ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒå ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒð ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ¥ƒÑ... ƒ+ƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒå ƒãƒ×ƒÝ-ƒäƒà ƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒíƒç ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ·ƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓ 15, ƒñ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¨ƒÑƒÝƒî. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒØƒÑƒÝƒî...
  
  ƒ® ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ. ƒ? 30-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ: ƒÞƒí ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ - ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè - ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒî - ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÞƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 1936 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå. ƒRƒßƒÖ 2 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà...
  ƒ? 1936 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ, ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒèƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÝ. ƒƒÔƒà ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ 58-ƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒð. ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ 1,5 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒä ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒã ƒÔƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒåƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ... ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒàƒäƒèƒå ƒã ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒäƒî.
  ____________________
  *ƒ?ƒ´ƒNo-ƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ - ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ (ƒ?ƒ´ƒNo).
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒß ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ - ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒ×ƒÙ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒå ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒãƒáƒÖƒÝ: ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî.
   ƒ³ 1941 ƒáƒà 1945 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒâƒàƒßƒäƒÖ. ƒ? 1943 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒî: ƒàƒß ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒíƒÝ, ƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà 2 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÞƒÑƒäƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ²ƒÚƒÔƒÖ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÞƒå, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒå, ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ. ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ: ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒâƒñƒÕƒÜƒÑ 'ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî 5-7 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ' ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒã ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ. ƒƒ× ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÖƒÞƒàƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒáƒà ƒÚƒßƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '8-ƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ' ƒÞƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒð 1945 ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ? 1945 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî... ƒ³ ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà 2 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ: ƒã 1947 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒã 13-ƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '8-ƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ' ƒãƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒàƒÕ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒàƒæƒàƒâƒÞƒÝƒñƒäƒî-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒã 14-ƒäƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒä...
  ƒ? ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒíƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ 45-50. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî: ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ...
  ƒ¯.ƒ-.: -ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä 'ƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ 2 ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ'?
  ƒ¡.ƒ².: - ƒ®ƒÒƒíƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑ 2 ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÜƒåƒçƒßƒñ ƒã ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒßƒÑƒäƒÑ. ƒƒƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî... ƒ²ƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÖƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà...
  ƒ¯.ƒ-.: -ƒ¡ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä 'ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ'?
  ƒ¡.ƒ².: -ƒ¥ƒ×ƒâƒß ƒã ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒåƒÒƒÚƒßƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà 7 ƒãƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ (ƒáƒÝƒåƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ) ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà 30 ƒßƒÑ 30 ƒãƒÞ ƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒÕƒàƒØƒÕƒî ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä, ƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒÝƒÖƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒßƒÕƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÜƒßƒåƒä, ƒÑ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÒƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒà.
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ 'ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ'. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâ. ƒ³ƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚ , ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒñƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒç. ƒ?ƒÖƒÜƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ 100. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒNoƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒåƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà: ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒâƒÑƒÒƒñƒä ƒã ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒåƒçƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒåƒÒƒàƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä, ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒñƒä ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒêƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ - ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ×! ƒ¡ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÓƒßƒåƒð ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒÓƒÖƒÙƒåƒä...
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ-ƒÖƒã ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒî... ƒ¢ƒÖƒãƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒà-ƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÚ 'ƒåƒãƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî' ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ 4 ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒàƒÞ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç, ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒî, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒãƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ - ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒ?ƒÕƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ 50-ƒç ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒà ƒåƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ. ƒ³ƒäƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ: ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÑ ƒäƒåƒä ƒßƒÑƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä... ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒí. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒå, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖƒÔƒéƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ´ƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒRƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÑƒäƒàƒâ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒå ƒàƒä ƒRƒ´ƒ³ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒå ƒàƒä ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÑ. ƒ? ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒîƒÔƒÑƒÞƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒÖ. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒåƒÔƒàƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒåƒÔƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ 50-ƒíƒç ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒéƒî ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒíƒêƒå ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒî...
  ƒ¿ƒç, ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÖ ƒãƒíƒäƒßƒà ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒÓƒáƒâƒàƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒâƒÚ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒíƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒàƒßƒíƒêƒÜƒÑ... ƒ-ƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ. ƒ-ƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒî-ƒäƒà - ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒÚƒÜ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒí, ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ-ƒÖƒã ƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝ. ƒ®ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒÑ...
  ƒƒ ƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒßƒà. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒãƒäƒðƒÞƒÑƒç ƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒáƒàƒÔƒÑƒç ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒî ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ - ƒÓ ƒãƒåƒßƒÕƒåƒÜƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÖ. ƒ·ƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒçƒÑƒç ƒÚƒÙƒà ƒÝƒîƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒäƒñƒßƒåƒäƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒñƒãƒàƒÞ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒßƒíƒç ƒêƒäƒÑƒßƒÑƒç. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÔƒÑƒç - ƒàƒÒƒåƒäƒÜƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÒƒåƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒØƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ, ƒã ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒÙƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒ×ƒÔƒäƒÖƒÞ. ƒ¿ƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒëƒÑƒÝƒà ƒàƒä ƒâƒàƒãƒí ƒÚ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÚ!
  ƒNoƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒêƒåƒÒƒàƒÜ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒåƒáƒÑƒäƒî... ƒƒƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒéƒÖ, ƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÒƒÝƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÚ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒà ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÝƒ×ƒÔƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ
  
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ-ƒäƒà ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ... ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí, ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÝƒÖƒä 65 ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒð ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒáƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ. ƒ®ƒß ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒßƒðƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒÑƒÔƒàƒßƒÖƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒß ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝ. ƒ¥ƒà 1948 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒß ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÓ ƒêƒÑƒçƒäƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒßƒñƒÝ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒíƒãƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒä ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî! ƒƒƒäƒà ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝ: 'ƒ®ƒß ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ', ƒÑ ƒÜƒäƒà: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒÖƒâ!'. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒíƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ 1948 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝ. ƒ®ƒß ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒãƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝ. ƒRƒàƒÔƒåƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒÑƒêƒßƒñ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒåƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒÚƒäƒî-ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÚ ƒå ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¥ƒÑ... ƒ¥ƒàƒÞ-ƒäƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝ... ƒ+ƒàƒÕ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒØƒÕƒÚƒÜ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÜƒÓƒàƒÙƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÞƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä...
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  
  ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒäƒåƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÒƒàƒÓƒëƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ: ƒáƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä, ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒØƒÚƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÑ... ƒ¡ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖƒãƒñ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒäƒàƒÒ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÚ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ-ƒÖƒä ƒÓ 12-13. ƒ÷ƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒäƒÑƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒí ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ-ƒäƒà 'ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ' ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒäƒÖ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ¡ ƒÚƒç-ƒäƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ 25-30 ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà...
  ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒå ƒåƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ... ƒ÷ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä: ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒêƒÚƒÒƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ÷ƒØƒÑƒã ƒéƒäƒà. ƒ¡ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒä. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒî? ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒðƒä ƒÝƒÚ?
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 90-ƒíƒç ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒî... ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒëƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒâƒÑƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒª ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒí, ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÚ ƒæƒÑƒÒƒâƒÚƒÜƒÚ... ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ? ƒ¯ƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÓ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖƒÔƒà? ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒØƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒÝƒàƒÕƒí.
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ ƒßƒÑƒê ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ.
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ... ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒáƒàƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒäƒî - ƒïƒäƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒ ƒáƒÖƒéƒî!... ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒî? ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒßƒà ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒà. ƒ²ƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÚ 5-10 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÛƒäƒÚ - ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÞƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã, ƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒÚ-ƒÜƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒØƒÚ? ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒåƒä. ƒƒƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî-ƒäƒà - ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒßƒÖƒêƒî: ƒÜƒàƒãƒñƒä-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÚƒðƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓ ƒàƒÜƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒÖ...
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒð... ƒ¢ƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÝƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒß ƒå ƒ²ƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ¥ƒåƒêƒÑ-ƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÚƒä...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ¡.ƒ². ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, 2006 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
  
  ƒ³ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒäƒî? ƒ³ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÞƒí ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ× 'ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒñ'. ƒ? 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒåƒØƒÖ 91 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (1852-1959). ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (1918-1992), ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ-ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒïƒäƒà ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß) 16 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÞ. ƒ³ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒñ ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒî ƒßƒÑƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÛ: ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ... ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ 36 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ-ƒåƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ.
   ƒª ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒÕƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà, ƒÚ ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ, ƒÚ ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ... ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒÝƒÑƒß ƒáƒà ƒãƒÕƒÑƒéƒÖ: ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÝƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÕƒÑƒäƒî, ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÜ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒåƒâƒÚƒÝ, ƒäƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒëƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÕƒÑƒéƒÚ. ƒ?ƒãƒ× ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî. ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒ×ƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒã ƒÕƒåƒØƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒç ƒÜƒàƒßƒãƒÖƒâƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÒƒÑƒßƒàƒÜ, ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒÝƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ?ƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒåƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå, ƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒÞƒßƒå.
  ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒí ƒãƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÑƒÞƒÒƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒåƒäƒâƒàƒÞ ƒãƒáƒÝƒð, ƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒã ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒå ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ.
  ƒRƒí ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ: ƒñ, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ - ƒïƒäƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒƒ× ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒð-ƒäƒà ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÞƒÑƒéƒÖƒçƒàƒÛ. ƒ®ƒß ƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒçƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒß - ƒäƒàƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ, ƒáƒàƒßƒñƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÛ. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒí ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ!'. ƒ´ƒ×ƒäƒÜƒå ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒã ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒäƒ×ƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ '8-ƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ'. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒ ƒáƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÓ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒð. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÖƒÕƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÑƒãƒàƒÜ-ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ! ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒêƒåƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÒƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑƒñ.
   ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒñ, ƒã ƒçƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ. 'ƒƒƒàƒßƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÜƒå ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒä, ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒñƒëƒåƒð ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒå ƒÓƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒä'. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÖƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒß ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî! ƒ¿ƒäƒå ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒå ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ!'.
   ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ, ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (1892 - 1975) - ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ - ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒßƒàƒçƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒÖ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ 'ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ' ƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÚƒßƒÑƒéƒÖ. ƒª ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÚƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒéƒÚƒä. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ: 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî!'. ƒRƒàƒÝƒéƒÚƒä. 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ!'. ƒRƒàƒÝƒéƒÚƒä. ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÚƒä ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÚƒÕƒÖ (ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒÚ): 'ƒ-ƒ×ƒÝƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÑ! ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ!'. ƒ-ƒ×ƒÝƒîƒÜƒÑ (ƒïƒäƒà ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÑƒñ) ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä, ƒßƒÑƒêƒå ƒØƒÖ ƒéƒÑƒêƒÜƒå ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒä: 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒñ ƒäƒåƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒãƒäƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒêƒî?'.
   - 'ƒ¥ƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ!'.
  ƒRƒí ƒÓƒàƒä ƒã ƒ³ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî? 'ƒ¯ƒå-ƒÜƒà, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒâƒÕƒí ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ!'. ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÚƒÒƒà!'. ƒ¡ ƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒáƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒØ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚ!'. ƒª ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ... ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ...
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÚƒäƒî-ƒäƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒëƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî. 'ƒ¡ ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ? ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî?'.
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ. ƒƒëƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒå. ƒNoƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÓƒíƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÔƒÕƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒà ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒäƒî (ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒà ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ), ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÜ ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒßƒÑƒê ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒÚƒãƒä ƒñƒâƒíƒÛ. ƒ+ƒêƒÖƒßƒà ƒã ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒÔƒâƒ×ƒÒ ƒÚ ƒåƒßƒ×ƒã. ƒ¡ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒâƒíƒÒƒí ƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÛ-ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒÒƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒâƒàƒÔ ƒÚƒãƒáƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒåƒä ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒñƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä. ƒ÷ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒáƒÚƒâƒàƒÔ ƒÚ ƒâƒåƒÜƒå ƒäƒñƒßƒÖƒä: 'ƒ¥ƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ-ƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒÑ-ƒäƒà!'. ƒ¡ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒà ƒâƒåƒÜƒÖ: 'ƒªƒÕƒÚ ƒàƒäƒãƒðƒÕƒÑ! ƒ´ƒí ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒà ƒåƒäƒÑƒëƒÚƒÝ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒÚƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒäƒñƒßƒÖƒêƒîƒãƒñ?'. ƒ¥ƒÑ... ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî.
  ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÞ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒàƒäƒîƒñ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒÞƒí ƒã ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ - ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ. ƒª ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç, ƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒí: ƒïƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÜƒà, ƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÔ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÖƒÖ... ƒ¢ƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ-ƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒãƒä, ƒäƒà ƒáƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒåƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÑƒãƒä... ƒƒêƒî, ƒÕƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÑƒØ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒåƒÒƒÑƒç ƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒáƒÚƒä. ƒ¡ ƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒäƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒáƒ×ƒêƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒÜƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒåƒêƒÚƒä ƒÚƒç, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒíƒêƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ÷ƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒð ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà: 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒñ ƒçƒàƒéƒå ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÒƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒÖƒáƒ×ƒêƒÖƒéƒÖƒÜ!'. ƒ¡ ƒàƒßƒÑ: 'ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒí ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒêƒî!..'.
   ƒ? 1948 ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ (1894 - 1979). ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ-ƒäƒà ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ... ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒÙƒÑ ƒÑƒâƒÒƒåƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒê ƒðƒØƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÑƒâƒÒƒåƒÙƒí. ƒ®ƒß ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒåƒð ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ: 'ƒƒêƒîƒäƒÖ, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒéƒàƒêƒÜƒÚ!'. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÔƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ: 'ƒ¯ƒå, ƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒí? ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒî-ƒäƒà?'. - 'ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒÖƒÕƒñƒä ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒçƒàƒéƒåƒä!'.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒäƒî, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÑ ƒäƒà ƒÒƒí ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒNoƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÖƒÞƒå ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÕƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒß ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒƒå! ƒª ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒäƒãƒñ!'.
   ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒå ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒØƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ. ƒ¡ ƒàƒß, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒç ƒÔƒâƒåƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒãƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒåƒÞƒíƒÜƒßƒåƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒêƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ ƒã ƒÞƒåƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒå, ƒßƒÑƒÜƒâƒíƒÝ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒ×ƒÙ, ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÞ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒêƒàƒéƒÖƒÜ. ƒ¡ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒØ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ¿ƒäƒàƒä ƒÞƒÖƒêƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒãƒáƒÑƒã. ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÒ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒß, ƒäƒÑƒÜ, ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí...'.
  ƒºƒåƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒíƒç, ƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä: ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒå ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒà ƒâƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒÚƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ-ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒâƒÑƒãƒí ƒå ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒí, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒáƒÑƒÝƒàƒÜ. ƒ¡ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒ×-ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒîƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒêƒÞƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒñƒëƒÚƒÖ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒäƒÖ: ƒå ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒÖƒãƒäƒî!..'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä:
  -ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒí , ƒ¯ƒðƒâƒÜƒÑ, ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒÕƒÑ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã? ƒ¥ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ! ƒªƒÕƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚ ƒå ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå ƒÕƒÑ ƒæƒåƒæƒÑƒÛƒÜƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚ...
   ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒØƒÚƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ:
  -ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÜƒÑ! ƒ¥ƒÑƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå ƒÕƒÑ ƒæƒåƒæƒÑƒÛƒÜƒå!
  -ƒNoƒÑƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ?
  -ƒÁ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒáƒàƒÛƒÕƒå!
  ƒRƒí ƒãƒÞƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ? 1949 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒñ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå. ƒ? 1948 ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒã 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒÑ 1942 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒã, 'ƒàƒãƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒç' - ƒäƒà, ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÑ ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒß ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ 4 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ, ƒñ - 16-ƒÔƒà. ƒ¯ƒÑƒã ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÙƒñƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ! ƒÁ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ...
   ƒ´ƒâƒÚ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå. ƒ¥ƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÚ-ƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒÚƒÖ. ƒªƒÕƒ×ƒêƒî, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒÑƒÓƒÚƒëƒÑ! ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÑƒáƒàƒÔƒÚ 'ƒãƒÝƒÚƒáƒíƒêƒÚ'. ƒªƒç ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒßƒÑƒê ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÖƒè ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÞƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÝ. ƒ¡ ƒå ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí, ƒãƒÑƒáƒàƒÔ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒâƒÜƒÑƒç ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÝƒåƒØƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒßƒÖƒÖ...
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒñƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒÚƒáƒÖƒÕƒí. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒÚƒáƒÖƒÕ. ƒ¥ƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒÞƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ! ƒ¢ƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒÞƒí! ƒª ƒÜƒÑƒÜ? ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÕƒå, ƒÑ ƒ¯ƒðƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒä? ƒRƒí ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ...
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒî ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓ ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ. ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÞ 10 ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓ. ƒ¡ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ: ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ 10-ƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ. ƒ? 10-ƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒÖ ƒå ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå: 'ƒ®ƒÒƒñƒÙƒåƒðƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ'. ƒÁ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ: ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒí ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒØƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒåƒä ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒÁ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒâƒÑƒéƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒÑƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒå.
  ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒÑƒâƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒéƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒÖƒéƒî, ƒßƒÑƒäƒÑƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÓƒíƒÞƒíƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÝƒí, ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒáƒñƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒä (ƒñ ƒÓ ƒçƒÚƒâƒåƒâƒÔƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ) ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒÑƒÝƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒàƒßƒÑƒç, ƒÚ ƒÜ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓƒâƒÑƒéƒÑ ƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ... ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ×... ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ®ƒÛ, ƒ?ƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÕƒÚ, ƒÝƒÚƒêƒî ƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒÜƒå ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî!'. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ: 'ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒè ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ!'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ? ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÙƒåƒÒƒàƒÓƒâƒÑƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà: ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒåƒâƒãƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÚƒáƒÖƒßƒÕƒÚƒñ - 14 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞ - 16, ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÞ - 18.
  ƒ¡ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ. 38 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÖƒëƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒð. ƒ¥ƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî, ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ¡ ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî? ƒ? ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà ƒØƒÖ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÖƒÙƒÕƒñƒäƒãƒñ...
  ƒNoƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ³ƒíƒß ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß - ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒãƒßƒàƒçƒÑ - ƒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ¡ƒæƒàƒßƒîƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ - ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑ...
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ -
  ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒñƒñ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  
  ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÔ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, 2006 ƒÔ.
  
  ƒ? 1913 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå 30 ƒãƒÖƒßƒäƒñƒÒƒâƒñ ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒíƒç ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒí, ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒí, ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒÓƒÚ ƒÚ ƒ³ƒàƒæƒîƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒí ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÚ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒÛ.
  ƒ® ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÜƒÖ. ƒ? ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÞƒÚƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ? ƒêƒÜƒàƒÝƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ: ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒàƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ-ƒÚƒÜƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÖ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒã ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî.
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ, ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  ƒ? 15 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒð ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓ 17 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒãƒàƒÔƒÝƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒíƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÓƒèƒÑ - ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 34 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒàƒéƒÜƒå, ƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒØƒÚƒÓ ƒÕƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒåƒØƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒâƒÞƒÚƒð, ƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒå, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ - ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒ¡ƒêƒå.
  ƒ?ƒàƒÕƒí ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑƒç: ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒñ, ƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒáƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÛƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒæƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÕƒå ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒå ƒéƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒêƒÜƒå!'.
  ƒ³ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒÕƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÕƒäƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ: 'ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒÞ!'. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÕƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÞƒåƒØ, ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒÖ. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒßƒðƒçƒàƒÞ. ƒ²ƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÝƒ×ƒÔƒÜƒÚƒç: ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒàƒéƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒ? 1946 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ. ƒRƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå, ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒã ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒäƒíƒâƒîƒÞƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚ. ƒ³ƒßƒàƒçƒÑ ƒƒƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä ƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒà, ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÞƒå ƒå ƒßƒÖƒ× ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî.
  ƒ? 1962 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒã ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒå.
  ƒ?1964 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒß ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé.
  ƒ³ƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚƒëƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒâƒñƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÜƒÝƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒåƒçƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî...
  ƒ? 1975 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ. ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ
  
  
  ƒßƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÖ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒå ƒàƒÕƒßƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒã ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒçƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÜƒÓƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒâƒå ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà...
  ƒ? 1979 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÑ. ƒ³ƒ×ƒãƒäƒâƒí ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚ. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÓƒÖƒè, ƒÜƒåƒâ ƒÚ ƒÔƒåƒãƒÖƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÖƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒâƒåƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒØƒÜƒÖ.
  ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÛ (1965 ƒÔ.ƒâ.), ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÓƒíƒâƒàƒã ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒã ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒÛ. ƒ? ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝ, ƒÑ ƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ- ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒñ ƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒÑ.
  ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒÚ ƒÓ 1989 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒÕƒÓƒàƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒå.
  ƒ?1991 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒëƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒå, ƒäƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ: 'ƒ´ƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒÙƒÕƒÖƒãƒî. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒåƒÞƒâƒå, ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÛ!'. ƒ? 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà: 'ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÖƒÕƒå? ƒƒƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒßƒå? ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒëƒÑƒä, ƒÑ ƒàƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑƒØƒÚƒäƒà...'.
  ƒ? 1992 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒ× ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒƒ× ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà 1995 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞƒÚ.... ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÙƒâƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ...
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ
  ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  ƒ¡.ƒª. ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ (1852-1959) - 106 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  
  ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒîƒñ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ (1875? - 1960) - 91 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (1885-1984) - 99 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒæƒîƒñ ƒƒƒâƒíƒãƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ (1900-1990) - 90 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  
  ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ (1899-1993) - 94 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜ) - 104 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ.
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒØƒÚƒÓ. (1924 ƒÔƒâ.). ƒƒÞƒå ƒÓ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ 91 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ XVII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒR.ƒ?., 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  ƒ'ƒÑƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ 1904-1974, ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒäƒîƒ×: ƒàƒçƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒâƒíƒÒƒÑƒÜ, ƒáƒÑƒãƒÖƒéƒßƒÚƒÜ, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ ƒïƒÝƒÚƒäƒí: ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒªƒÓƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒƒƒåƒÝƒîƒÒƒÑƒèƒÜƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà (ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ) - ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç, ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒáƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒäƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒîƒÒƒí, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒÓ 1925-26 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ ƒÚƒÞ. '8-ƒÔƒà ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÞ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà, ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÕƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÖƒëƒ×, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ, ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒäƒÖƒçƒßƒÚƒÜƒå ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒñƒç ƒÒƒàƒ×ƒÓ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒàƒÒƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒäƒâƒåƒáƒí ƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒéƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÓƒíƒäƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒéƒåƒß.
  ƒªƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ (ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÜ) ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒßƒíƒç ƒâƒàƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÑƒê ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒàƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ. ƒ+ƒà ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÞ 1782 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒß ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒâƒÑƒãƒä - 62 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ®ƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒ·ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÞƒáƒÚƒñ, ƒ?ƒåƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒÚƒâƒîƒñƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒäƒâƒ×ƒç ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ - ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí. ƒ? ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÖ ƒàƒä 1810 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà 3 ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒ·ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÞƒáƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ (ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ), ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ - ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒñ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ), ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ - ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ - ƒ·ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÞƒáƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ 1744-1822. ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒð ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ ƒÓ XVIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ: 'ƒ?ƒðƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒì'. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÕ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÖƒÛ - ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÒƒåƒÜƒÓƒå 'ƒå'. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà - ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒÖƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑ (ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ) - ƒ¥ƒÚƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ:
  -- 24 ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÞ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ: ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒáƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒß, 19 ƒÝƒÖƒä.
  ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒàƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒáƒÚƒñ - ƒÚƒÙ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒèƒÖƒÓ, ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÙ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ). ƒƒÕƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒß, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒç ƒàƒÒƒíƒéƒÑƒÖƒÓ (ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÕƒÓƒåƒÞƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÝƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒÑƒÞ, ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÒƒÑƒç ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ), ƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒí (ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ) ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ-ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ, ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒäƒÖƒãƒßƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî.
  ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒØƒÚƒäƒàƒéƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒå, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà (ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÝƒà) ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ: ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ (ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ), ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ, ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒÚ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ: ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ, ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ, ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒà ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ 'ƒ+ƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑ 1924-1928 ƒÔƒÔ.', ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ. ƒ+ƒâƒà ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒÚ ƒåƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ 9 ƒÞƒÑƒñ 1882 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî - ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒãƒã, ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÛ. ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà: ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒñƒÝ ƒàƒÙƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒñƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒâƒØƒÚ, ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí, ƒàƒÓƒãƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒçƒÑ, ƒÝƒîƒßƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒáƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒæƒÖƒÝƒñ; ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÖƒâƒáƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒã, ƒáƒÝƒåƒÔƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒß (ƒáƒà ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ), ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÜƒàƒäƒÑ.
  ƒ? 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒå ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ - 2 ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒí, 2 ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒä, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒã ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ-ƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ 20-ƒç ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ 30-ƒç ƒàƒäƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒåƒð ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî, ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî. ƒ-ƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒî ƒã ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒíƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒàƒÔƒå, ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÚƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÚ ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒáƒÑƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒäƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ - ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ - ƒØƒÚƒÓ. ƒƒÞƒå ƒÓ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ 91 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒã ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ. ƒ®ƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒâƒàƒßƒä, ƒßƒà ƒïƒêƒÖƒÝƒàƒß ƒÒƒàƒÞƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒßƒäƒåƒÙƒÚƒÝƒà, ƒáƒàƒÓƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒåƒð ƒâƒåƒÜƒå. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒàƒãƒî. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒïƒâƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒ¡ƒêƒàƒÛ, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒàƒÒƒßƒåƒð ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ, ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ - ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà - ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÑƒâƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒðƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒÀƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ (ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒÙƒíƒÜƒå).
  ƒ®ƒäƒÞƒÖƒéƒå ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ - ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒßƒÑ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒß ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÓƒãƒð ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒÓƒÚƒßƒ×ƒß ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒáƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒåƒÜƒâƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÖƒêƒàƒÜ ƒÞƒåƒÜƒÚ (ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒÖƒâƒîƒ×ƒÙƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒÜ ƒáƒàƒÕƒßƒñƒäƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒí). ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒß ƒàƒäƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒáƒà ƒãƒåƒäƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ, ƒÙƒÑ ƒéƒåƒØƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒÖƒç. ƒ? ƒäƒðƒâƒîƒÞƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÖƒß ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒÚ ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒÒƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒç ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ - ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ - ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒƒÑƒÚƒßƒå 21 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1941 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÑ 7 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 1941 ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÖƒ× ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓ ƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒå, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒâƒÖ ? 302 ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒ?ƒâƒàƒãƒã-ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒß-ƒ²ƒÚƒÔƒÖƒâƒÖƒè. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒƒÑƒñ ƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒßƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÛ - ƒã ƒ¡ƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒÚƒßƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...'. ƒRƒÑƒäƒî ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖ. ƒÁ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒƒÑƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒÓ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒÚƒéƒÜƒÖ. ƒƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ: ƒàƒä ƒäƒÖƒáƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÚ ƒàƒäƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÔƒÝƒñ. ƒNoƒÚƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÜƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒã ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÜ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÞƒàƒÙƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÙƒí ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒà ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒâƒí, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒáƒÑƒâ ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒ×ƒêƒî - ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒêƒî ƒÓƒÖƒãƒî ƒÞƒàƒÜƒâƒíƒÛ. ƒ²ƒÖƒÒƒñƒäƒßƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒåƒÕƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒÑƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÖ. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ÷ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒí ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒí ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒí, ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¯ƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ - ƒÖƒ× ƒÕƒàƒéƒî, ƒãƒíƒß, ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒÑƒßƒí - ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÖ ƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒåƒêƒÖƒÕƒêƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ, ƒñ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒ³ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ - ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ). ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒÓ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî 93 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒ×ƒä ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒå ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ´ƒðƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ.
  -ƒƒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâ? - ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒñ.
  -ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ - ƒÓƒíƒãƒàƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒâƒíƒØƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒíƒÛ, - ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ,- ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÚƒÛ, ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÞƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒâ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÚ.
  -ƒ¡ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒâƒíƒØƒÚƒÛ? - ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð ƒñ ƒà ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÞ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÖ.
  ƒ÷ƒãƒÞƒÖƒçƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî: 'ƒ´ƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÖƒÕƒíƒÞ, ƒã ƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ'.
  ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÓƒÑƒØƒÕƒí, ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ 10 ƒÝƒÖƒä - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ (ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒƒƒàƒãƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ). ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒã ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ - ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ - ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒí, ƒƒÓƒÔƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒí, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí. ƒƒëƒ× ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒãƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒßƒÑ - ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒãƒÞƒåƒÔƒÝƒÑƒñ. ƒƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒñƒÝƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÝƒîƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒà ƒâƒåƒÜƒå. ƒRƒñƒÝƒÜƒÑ - ƒÞƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒâƒ×ƒç ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒã ƒÙƒåƒÒƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒãƒà ƒã ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒî. ƒ? ƒÞƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÞ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒñƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒâƒåƒÜƒÑƒÓ, ƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÝƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÖ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒáƒÑƒÝƒîƒèƒÑ, ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒñƒÝƒà ƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒÝƒàƒÜƒäƒñ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒå ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒäƒàƒÓ-ƒÓƒâƒÑƒéƒÖƒÛ, ƒâƒåƒÜƒå, ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒÝƒàƒÜƒäƒñ, ƒÑƒÞƒáƒåƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ® ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒâƒåƒÜƒå ƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒáƒíƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒçƒÚƒâƒåƒâƒÔ. 'ƒ¨ƒÚƒÙƒßƒî-ƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒð ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒàƒäƒßƒñƒäƒî!'- ƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ. ƒª ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒåƒä ƒãƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒêƒî? ƒƒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÚ! ƒ¯ƒà ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ´ƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒêƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÕƒàƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒãƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒä, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÜƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒÝƒîƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ. ƒ³ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒð, ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÚƒØƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒÔƒâƒåƒÕƒÚ, ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒáƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ? ƒãƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒß ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒåƒÔƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒÑ, ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑ - ƒÓƒíƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒÜ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒâƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî. ƒ-ƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ 'ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÞƒéƒÚƒÜ' (ƒáƒâƒÚƒáƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚ ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ), ' ƒçƒåƒÕƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒî', 'ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒéƒîƒð ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒî'. ƒ¿ƒäƒà, ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒàƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç-ƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ-ƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒÔƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà 'ƒãƒÜƒÓƒàƒÙƒî ƒàƒãƒÚƒßƒå', 'ƒãƒÜƒÓƒàƒÙƒî ƒçƒàƒÞƒåƒä' (ƒÙƒßƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒâƒÚƒäƒåƒÑƒÝƒí).
   ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒåƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒå ƒÓ 1922 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 9 ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖƒÓ. ƒ? 1929-30 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÔƒàƒßƒñƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒí. ƒNoƒÑƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒÕƒÑƒØƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑƒäƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒØƒÜƒå ƒÕƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒåƒØƒÜƒå. ƒ÷ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ, ƒÕƒÓƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒí. ƒºƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒÖ. ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÞ. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒäƒÖƒñ ƒã ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒáƒßƒåƒÝƒÑ, ƒÓ 1934 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒä, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒí. ƒNoƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒßƒíƒÞ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒâƒÒƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒñƒÙƒÚ ƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒáƒÑƒñ ƒäƒ×ƒÝƒàƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒã ƒÒƒÖƒÝƒîƒÞƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ. ƒ?ƒíƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå. ƒ'ƒÖƒÞƒñƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒåƒêƒå ƒãƒÚƒÞƒÓƒàƒÝ ƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒí. ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒ×ƒÝƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÝƒÖƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÑƒñ, ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒåƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒí.
   ƒ? ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒãƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 250 ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç. ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÕƒà 1958 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ, 20 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒàƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒÖ. ƒ?ƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒí? ƒ?ƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒåƒäƒâƒÑ, ƒÚƒÕƒäƒÚ 12 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒÜƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒî 40 ƒãƒàƒäƒàƒÜ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒí, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÙƒÑƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÕƒÖƒßƒî. ƒNoƒÑƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 12 ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒÜ 9 ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒÑ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒñƒä ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã, ƒÚ ƒßƒàƒðƒä, ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒðƒä ƒãƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒäƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒâƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒßƒàƒÔƒÚ, ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÚƒä, ƒçƒàƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ 93 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÓ ƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí - ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒð - ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒàƒéƒîƒð. ƒ¥ƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà.
  -ƒ?ƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒêƒî ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒè, - ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ. - ƒ¡ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒäƒî - ƒÚ ƒäƒàƒä ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒåƒÜƒä ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒêƒî. ƒ¯ƒÚƒëƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒÓƒêƒÚƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒêƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÜƒàƒÞ - ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒ×ƒØƒßƒíƒç ƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí - ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕ ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí 14 ƒÑƒáƒâƒÖƒÝƒñ 1945 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒºƒäƒÖƒäƒäƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÜƒÑ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ. ƒRƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒåƒÞƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÝƒñƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒãƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ. ƒ? ƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒåƒÔƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒåƒÔƒàƒÝ ƒÜƒÚƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒêƒÜƒå. ƒ÷ ƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒäƒâƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà, ƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒî ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒâƒñƒãƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒäƒî...
  ƒƒƒâƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ - ƒƒÓƒÔƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒÑ. ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 25 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒƒ×, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒÚƒßƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...', ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒ¡ƒêƒå.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓ 2007 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒÞƒñƒÔƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÝƒ×ƒäƒÖ
  
  
  
  ƒRƒåƒØ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒÞƒÚƒÚ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà. ƒ®ƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒâƒñƒÕƒÜƒÖ, ƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒß. ƒ? ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒã ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒåƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒäƒñƒØƒ×ƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÑƒãƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒäƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒñ. ƒRƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÖƒÛ, ƒãƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒäƒäƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒêƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒàƒãƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ, ƒßƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÞƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒí (ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒ¡ƒêƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ - ƒãƒàƒäƒßƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓ). ƒ? ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒíƒÝƒÑ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒêƒÝƒÑ - ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà. ƒRƒÑƒäƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒå ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒí. ƒ?ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒ÷ƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒRƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒÚ, ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒã ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÞ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒî ƒÓƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä!' ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒåƒç...
  ƒƒëƒ× ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÕ - ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒNoƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ - ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÞ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒÞ 1872 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé 1876 ƒÔ. ƒâ. ƒ? 'ƒ+ƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑ 1924-28 ƒÔƒÔ.' ƒáƒâƒà ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà: 'ƒ´ƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒíƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ - 7 ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒÓƒâƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒ¡ƒÔƒÑƒáƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ: ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ 1903 ƒÔ. ƒâ., ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß 1906 ƒÔ. ƒâ., ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ 1909 ƒÔ.ƒâ., ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ 1914 ƒÔ.ƒâ.'. ƒ? ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÛ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒàƒäƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä. ƒ÷ƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒÓ 19 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒàƒä ƒäƒÚƒæƒÑ. ƒ®ƒä ƒäƒÚƒæƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒRƒÑƒÓƒâƒÑ, ƒßƒà ƒÓ 1928 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒÓ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒÚ ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ - ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå. ƒ®ƒÒƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒ´ƒNo, ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒ´ƒNo (ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕ, ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚ). ƒRƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒàƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑƒäƒî, ƒáƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÓƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝ, ƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß - ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÚƒÛ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒáƒíƒäƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÚ ƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÞ. ƒ÷ƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒæƒàƒäƒà: ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÕƒñƒÕƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒß ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚƒé ƒÚ ƒÕƒñƒÕƒîƒÜƒÑ ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé (ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒå ƒÕƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ), ƒãƒäƒàƒñƒä ƒå 'ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ', ƒÜƒåƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÞ. ƒRƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒí ' ƒÜƒâƒåƒäƒàƒÛ' ƒáƒà ƒäƒÖƒÞ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑƒÞ (ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒð, ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí 60-ƒÖ). ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒãƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÔƒàƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ. ƒRƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒå ƒ´ƒ×ƒÞƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã 2,5 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÞƒå ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒäƒå ƒÓƒãƒñƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒàƒÜ, ƒçƒàƒéƒå ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî: ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒØƒÖ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒí. ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç, ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÛƒßƒíƒÞ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÞ.
  ƒÁ ƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÑ ƒ´ƒ×ƒÞƒÑ ƒÚƒÔƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒå ƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒÜƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÜ ƒäƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒå ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒåƒð-ƒäƒà ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒàƒØƒÚƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒà 'ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÝ' ƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒñƒÙƒíƒÜƒàƒÞ: 'ƒ+ƒÝƒåƒÔ! ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒáƒÑƒêƒÖƒä ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð! ƒ¯ƒñƒÞ-ƒßƒñƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒä!'. ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒà, ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒ´ƒ?, ƒßƒà ƒâƒÖƒÒƒÖƒßƒàƒÜ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒã ƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒïƒäƒå ƒäƒÖƒÞƒå...
  ƒÁ ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒð ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒå ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒð, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒÕƒÚƒß ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒ÷ƒ¡ƒNoƒÚƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÕƒà ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÛƒßƒåƒð ƒÓƒÖƒâƒçƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ¢ƒÝƒÚƒØƒÖ ƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒáƒâƒÚƒàƒÒƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒØƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒßƒåƒð. ƒ¥ƒÝƒñ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒàƒäƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖƒß, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒÔƒâƒÚƒÒƒí, ƒáƒà ƒñƒÔƒàƒÕƒí. ƒ÷ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÜƒå ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑ. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒçƒÑƒßƒÚƒÙƒÞ, ƒéƒÚƒßƒÚƒÝ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÓƒÑƒÝ. ƒºƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒØƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä: 'ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒå ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒñƒç. ƒ? ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÑ. 'ƒ³ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒÒƒíƒêƒÖƒÜ?'- ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ ƒÕƒñƒÕƒñ ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑ. 'ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒãƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒ×ƒÒƒíƒêƒÖƒÜ-ƒäƒà!'*- ƒÔƒàƒâƒÕƒà ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÚƒâƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒàƒä ƒØƒÖƒßƒí, ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ 46 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÞ ƒƒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕƒå ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ 49 ƒÝƒÖƒä, 1953 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  ________________________
  *ƒ³ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒ×ƒÒƒíƒêƒÖƒÜ - ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒÜ ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒíƒê.
  
   ƒÁ ƒã ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒã ƒáƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒçƒàƒéƒå ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÚƒÙƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÜƒÝƒàƒß ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒãƒíƒßƒå ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒå ƒƒÖƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÖ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÖ, ƒàƒÒƒâƒÖƒäƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒñƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒí ƒÙƒÑ ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒåƒð ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒå ƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ 'ƒäƒñƒÔƒÝƒà'.
  ƒÁ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒð ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒí ƒƒÖƒêƒÚ: 'ƒªƒÕƒå ƒñ ƒáƒà ƒåƒÝƒÚƒèƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒÕƒâƒåƒÔ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒð: ƒãƒàƒÔƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÜ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒåƒÞƒÑƒð: ƒÕƒÑ ƒéƒäƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒñ! ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒàƒÔƒßƒåƒãƒî, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒáƒñƒäƒî ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÜ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒßƒåƒÝƒà'. ƒ¿ƒäƒàƒä ƒßƒÖƒÕƒåƒÔ - ƒãƒáƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒâƒðƒéƒÜƒàƒÞ - ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒà, ƒàƒß ƒãƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒß ƒã ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒäƒñƒØƒ×ƒÝƒíƒÞ ƒæƒÚƒÙƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒàƒÞ. ƒ? ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒƒÖƒêƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒâƒÖ, ƒÙƒÑ ƒÒƒåƒÝƒÜƒå ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒéƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒî ƒÔƒâƒåƒÙƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÚ ƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ. ƒ²ƒàƒãƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒØƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒå ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒƒçƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒãƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÖ, ƒåƒÓƒñƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒÝƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒØƒÚƒÔƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÒƒâƒàƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒå ƒáƒåƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒí.
  ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒí ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒí - ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒä, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ ƒïƒÝƒÚƒäƒí. ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà. ƒ¿ƒäƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÑƒñ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒå ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÖƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒäƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÜƒÚƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒäƒâƒÑƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ? ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒñƒãƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà - ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒÓƒßƒåƒéƒÜƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÚƒæƒàƒâƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒàƒß ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒä ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒå ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒå ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒå.
  ƒ+ƒÚƒÞƒàƒÜƒÑƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ - ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒÝƒà ƒÔƒâƒñƒÙƒßƒàƒÖ. ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒå - ƒêƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒî, ƒÝƒÖƒäƒñƒä ƒàƒéƒ×ƒãƒÜƒÚ, ƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒêƒîƒãƒñ. ƒ³ƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒß ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÚƒàƒÒƒëƒÑƒÝ ƒÜ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒãƒÝƒå, ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒÙƒàƒâƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ³ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝ, ƒßƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÓƒ×ƒÝ ƒåƒéƒ×ƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒàƒÒƒàƒÙƒÑƒÞ ƒã ƒêƒÖƒâƒãƒäƒîƒð, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒßƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ 20-ƒç ƒÔƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒãƒà ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒ×ƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒÝƒãƒñ ƒã ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÖƒçƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒî. ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒíƒßƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÞ, ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ. ƒ?ƒíƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒã ƒáƒàƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ-ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ (ƒƒƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî). ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÜƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÖ (ƒäƒÑƒÞ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà). ƒ¯ƒÖƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÝƒàƒØƒÚƒÝ ƒÚƒÞ ƒÖƒçƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒÛƒÔƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÔƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÜƒÖƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒêƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒ×ƒØƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ, ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚ - ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ, ƒã ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç, ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒñƒñ ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÝƒÑƒÞ, ƒÕƒàƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒêƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚ. ƒRƒàƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒƒÖƒêƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÛ. ƒ?ƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒÛƒÔƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒã ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒçƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÑƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒñƒÔƒÜƒà ƒãƒáƒâƒåƒØƒÚƒßƒÚƒÝƒÑ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒƒÖƒêƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî 'ƒåƒÒƒ×ƒÔƒàƒÞ' ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ, ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÖƒè ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒÑƒâƒÑƒÜƒÑ. ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒã ƒåƒÙƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒå ƒáƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ. ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè ƒÙƒÑƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒãƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒéƒåƒäƒî ƒàƒÜƒâƒÖƒá ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÓ ƒäƒÑƒÛƒÔƒÖ ƒãƒíƒß ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒåƒäƒî. ƒƒÖƒêƒå ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒñƒßƒÓƒÑƒâƒÖ 1927 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ´ƒÑƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÑ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒîƒñ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒäƒà ƒÝƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒå (ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä ƒáƒà-ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒÞƒå, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒàƒñƒäƒßƒÖƒÖ ƒÚ ƒäƒà, ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÖ), ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒÓƒáƒÝƒàƒäƒî ƒÕƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒêƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÛ.
  ƒƒÖƒêƒå ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒðƒä ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÜƒâƒàƒÞƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒàƒäƒÜƒåƒð. ƒÁ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÖ ƒƒÖƒêƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒåƒØƒÖ 54 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒí ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒãƒî ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒàƒéƒàƒÜ ƒÜ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ, ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÑƒñ, ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ-ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒÖƒÛƒêƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒÑ ƒƒÖƒêƒÑ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒå: 'ƒ?ƒå-ƒÕƒÑ-ƒÓƒå ƒÓƒàƒÝƒéƒàƒÜ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒâƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒéƒàƒÜ, ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒéƒàƒÜ, ƒàƒäƒÕƒÑƒÛ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜ, ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå!'. ƒ+ƒàƒÞƒßƒð ƒáƒà ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒÖ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÖƒ× ƒÙƒíƒÒƒàƒÜ: 'ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒå ƒÒƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÑ, ƒäƒâƒÑƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒêƒêƒÖƒßƒÑ', 'ƒ¡ ƒäƒÑƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒß-ƒàƒä ƒßƒÑƒê, ƒàƒß ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒßƒÖƒÔ ƒÕƒÑƒãƒä'... ƒ³ƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð ƒå ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒßƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒÚƒä ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒéƒÜƒå ƒïƒäƒÚƒç ƒÙƒíƒÒƒàƒÜ. ƒƒëƒ× ƒÖƒ× ƒÜƒàƒÝƒíƒÒƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ: 'ƒNoƒíƒÒƒÑƒð-ƒáƒàƒÙƒíƒÒƒÑƒð, ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒåƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÙƒÑ ƒâƒíƒÒƒàƒð, ƒÞƒÑƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒíƒäƒî, ƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÕƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒâƒåƒÒƒÚƒäƒî', 'ƒ¡ƒÛ, ƒÕƒå-ƒÕƒå-ƒÕƒå-ƒÕƒå-ƒÕƒå-ƒÕƒå, ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒâƒñƒÝ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ ƒÕƒåƒÔƒå, ƒêƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝ, ƒêƒÑƒâƒÚƒÝ, ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒêƒ×ƒÝ, ƒãƒÑƒÞ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÝ ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ'...
  ƒ+ƒâƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒß ƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç: ƒãƒàƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÚ (ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ) ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ (ƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ - ƒ³ƒÚƒÞƒÑƒçƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ), ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà. ƒ÷ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ - ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒRƒÑƒÔƒßƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ³ ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà, ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÝƒÜƒå ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÛ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî: ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÚ ƒƒÓƒÕƒàƒÜƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒÙƒâƒÖƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí 19 ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ... ƒ÷ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç. ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒñ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÔƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒäƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ 'ƒåƒÒƒ×ƒÔƒàƒÞ', ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà. ƒƒ× ƒãƒíƒß ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ, ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒÖƒÖ 1904 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒ×ƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒåƒáƒÖƒè, ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒäƒÚƒÓ ƒÓ ƒßƒ×ƒÞ ƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÚƒßƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ, ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒä ƒäƒÚƒæƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒàƒéƒî ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ (1912 ƒÔ.ƒâ.) ƒÕƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà XXI ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ (ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 2001 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå), ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒñƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒå ƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒç, ƒáƒà ƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÚƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ. ƒ÷ ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒ¿ƒÝƒîƒÓƒÚƒâƒí ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒí, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒà ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒñƒäƒî ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒàƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒåƒØƒÖ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕ, ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒåƒÕƒÖƒÖƒä ƒßƒÚƒÓƒÑ. ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ (ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒñ ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒñ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ. ƒNoƒßƒÑƒð ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÚ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒÑ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ - ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒƒÓƒÔƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ. ƒƒƒÑƒäƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÖ. ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓ ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÖ. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÞƒåƒØ ƒ¡ƒÝƒ×ƒêƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒÖƒÞ - ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒîƒ×ƒÓƒëƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒáƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒÚ, ƒãƒÜƒåƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÖ ƒäƒâƒñƒáƒÜƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒàƒÜƒåƒáƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖ ƒ?ƒÝƒñƒÕƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒàƒéƒî ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÑ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ, ƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒà. ƒƒÑƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÖƒÛ, ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒÖƒä, ƒéƒäƒà, ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒà ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ (ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒàƒÔƒà), ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÜ ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ. ƒ? ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒåƒðƒäƒßƒà, ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒçƒÝƒÑƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒèƒÖ - ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒÜƒàƒÞƒßƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒèƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒäƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒà ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç - ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÚƒãƒÜƒÖ ƒÚ ƒNoƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒÜƒÖ, ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒáƒÝƒÖƒÞƒñƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç 4-ƒç ƒÚ 2-ƒç ƒÝƒÖƒä, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕ ƒÚƒç ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÚƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÚƒÝ-ƒÚƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒÓƒÕƒàƒÝƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒáƒÖƒâƒ×ƒÜ. ƒ¨ƒ×ƒãƒäƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒéƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÚ. ƒ³ƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒãƒî ƒÚƒÞ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ XIX ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÖ - ƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí ƒÓ ƒäƒ×ƒáƒÝƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒâƒå ƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÖƒÞƒÚ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒáƒàƒâƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÓ ƒçƒàƒÝƒëƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒâƒåƒÒƒÑƒêƒÜƒÑƒç ƒáƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒà, ƒÜƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒåƒÔƒå ƒÔƒàƒßƒñƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒí (ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÓƒÑ). ƒ³ƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã ƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÖ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÝƒÖ ƒåƒãƒÑƒÕƒîƒÒƒí ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÔƒàƒßƒñƒðƒä ƒÞƒñƒé. ƒ¥ƒÑƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒÔ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒñ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒåƒçƒÑƒÒƒàƒÓ.
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖƒä ƒÓ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒÞƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÚƒÔƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒí ƒÚ ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÓƒí ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒíƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÓ ƒñƒëƒÚƒÜƒÑƒç, ƒâƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒãƒÜƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒÚƒãƒÜ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒð. ƒ¯ƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒä ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒÕƒÑ: ƒáƒà ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÙƒÑƒáƒâƒàƒãƒå ƒßƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒà ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖ, ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒƒÖƒêƒÚ, ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞƒãƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒÔƒÚƒÒ 6-ƒÔƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 1941-ƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒ´ƒâƒÖƒçƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, 371-ƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒâƒàƒäƒÑ. ƒ¨ƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÖ, ƒÔƒÑƒâƒÞƒàƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒØƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí, ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒñƒÝƒÑƒãƒî, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒÓ '8-ƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ', ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒßƒîƒêƒÖ - 'ƒßƒÑ ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ'.
   ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒßƒà ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒà ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒÑ ƒÒƒÑƒÒƒí ƒƒÖƒêƒÚ - ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ, ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒß ƒã 1942 ƒáƒà 1946 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÓ 46-ƒÞ - ƒã ƒÒƒÖƒßƒÕƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒèƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒã ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒí ƒÚƒÙƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒíƒÛ, ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒãƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖ, ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒâƒåƒØƒå. ƒƒƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒåƒð ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒå: 'ƒ+ƒàƒÛƒÕƒÖƒêƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ?' - ƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝ. ƒ?ƒÖƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒä ƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒéƒÖƒâ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒà ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒNoƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒå ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒàƒéƒî ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ, ƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒñ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒß, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒä ƒã ƒãƒÑƒÒƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒæƒàƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ.
  ƒƒëƒ× ƒßƒÖƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (ƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ) ƒÚ ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé (ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ XVIII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ) - ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒèƒí ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÖ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ. ƒ+ƒ×ƒäƒâ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé - ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒÜ ƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒÑ ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒ+ƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÖƒÚ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒí ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒí ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒîƒñ ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ - ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒ¡ƒæƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒâƒá. ƒª ƒéƒÖƒâƒÖƒÙ ƒÕƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒRƒÑƒäƒÓƒÖƒÛ, ƒƒƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒàƒß, ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâ (ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒà XIX ƒÓ.) - ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒñƒä ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí.
   3 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒ¡ƒÕƒÞƒÚƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒâƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒí ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒàƒÓ ƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒå ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒå ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝƒå ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒå - ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒßƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒêƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÒƒâƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÕƒÚƒâƒå ƒáƒà ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒå ƒÒƒàƒÖƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÖƒãƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒß - ƒÓ 1944 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒÞƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ' ƒNoƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÑƒÔƒå' ƒÚ ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒßƒÑ 'ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÓƒÖƒÙƒÕƒí'. ƒ? ƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒÔ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà: ' ƒ? ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒàƒÖƒÓƒíƒç ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒâƒîƒÒƒÖ ƒã ƒßƒÖƒÞƒÖƒèƒÜƒà-ƒæƒÑƒêƒÚƒãƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒÓƒÑƒäƒéƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒâƒåƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÙ ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒâƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒä. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒãƒäƒâƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒàƒÖƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒßƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÚƒÔƒÑƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒä. ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÞ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒä ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒÞƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÓ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒàƒßƒäƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÓƒÙƒÓƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒàƒäƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒêƒÚƒß ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÞƒÒƒÑƒÙƒí ƒæƒâƒàƒßƒäƒÑ'.
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒã ƒÜƒàƒßƒèƒÑ XVII ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒÑ 1924-28 ƒÔƒÔ.
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÑ ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒÕƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒîƒð ƒƒÑƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà.
  
  
  
  ƒ¥ƒÓƒàƒðƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒñ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí: ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé, ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒ×ƒß ƒ-ƒåƒÜƒÚƒé, ƒ²ƒàƒÞƒÑƒß ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé. 1960-ƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒí: ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÚƒÝ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒÚ ƒƒÖƒàƒÜƒäƒÚƒãƒäƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒßƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒÕƒÚƒñ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒéƒÑ ƒNoƒÑƒçƒÑƒâ ƒÚ ƒ¥ƒÖƒßƒÚƒã. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒ¡ƒßƒßƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, 2015 ƒÔ. ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà.
  
  
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒàƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ) ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒâƒÔƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ¥ƒÑƒäƒÑ, ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà.
  
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒã ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒ?.ƒª.
  
  ƒ÷ƒÓƒÑƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ!
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÞƒÑƒäƒâƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÝ 'ƒ¡ƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒàƒÜ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÞƒÖƒãƒä ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒÚ' ƒáƒà ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒßƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑ 1917 ƒÔƒàƒÕ. ƒ³ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒå ƒáƒà ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒÞ ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒÑ. ƒ?ƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÑƒç ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑƒðƒëƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî - ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒãƒãƒí.
  ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ - 16.(ƒNoƒÕƒÖƒãƒî ƒÚ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÖ - ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒç ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓ. ƒ?.ƒª. ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ).
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà - 99.
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ - 486.
  ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒà - 51.
  ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâ) - 1.
  ƒ¨.ƒÕ. ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÜƒÑ - 5.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ - 212.
  ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà - 114.
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà - 140.
  ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ.
  
  ƒ³ ƒåƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÑ. 2015 ƒÔƒàƒÕ.
  
  
  
  ƒªƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒî-ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕ ƒáƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒ×ƒÝƒÜƒÑ ƒ´ƒÑƒâƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ - ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÞƒÚƒâ ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒé. ƒƒƒàƒãƒäƒåƒÝƒîƒäƒÑƒßƒä ƒáƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/ . ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâ ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒÚƒç ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔ ƒÚ ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒáƒà ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  
  
  
  ƒ¯ƒÖƒÝƒîƒÙƒñ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒà ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒÔƒÑƒÙƒÖƒäƒí 'ƒ³ƒàƒðƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒî' ƒàƒä 28 ƒÚƒðƒÝƒñ 2012 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ,
  ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÛ ƒÓ ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ
  ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  
   ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ 'ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒå ƒâƒÖƒéƒÜƒÚ', ƒñ ƒáƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒãƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ-ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒßƒäƒÝƒÚƒÓƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒîƒÞƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒïƒäƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ. ƒ?ƒãƒð ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒñ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÖ. ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕ, ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ:
  
  ƒ-ƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ
  
   'ƒ¿ƒäƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒñ ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ. ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÑ ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÖ.
   ƒƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ, ƒßƒå ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ, ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÚƒâƒÑƒÝ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒàƒÒƒåƒÙƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÚ, ƒäƒà ƒãƒíƒß ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÙƒÚƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒã ƒÚ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒñƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÝƒàƒÒ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒÚƒñƒßƒÜƒàƒÛ-ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÛ.*
   ƒ?ƒàƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒØƒÕƒí ƒãƒíƒß ƒãƒÑƒØƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒå, ƒÜƒÝƒÑƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒå ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒíƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒà ƒÕƒÓƒàƒâƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒâƒÖƒÒƒ×ƒßƒàƒÜ, ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒÚƒä: 'ƒ´ƒí ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒå-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÒƒâƒÑƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÛ: ƒäƒí ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒíƒÛ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒêƒî, ƒñ ƒäƒÖƒÒƒñ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒå'.
   ƒRƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ ƒàƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ: 'ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒÑ ƒÞƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÑ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÝƒñƒä ƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒå'. ƒ³ƒãƒÑƒÕƒÚƒÝ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒáƒâƒñƒÔ ƒÝƒàƒêƒÑƒÕƒî.
   ƒ¡ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä, ƒïƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÑ...'.
  ________________________
  *ƒƒƒÚƒÁƒßƒÜƒÑ - 1) ƒÑƒßƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒÜƒÑ, ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒàƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒãƒÚƒßƒí ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒàƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÙƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒâƒî ƒäƒÖƒâƒÞƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ ƒÚ ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÛƒÕƒÖƒßƒà: http://www.reznoe.ru/dictionaryterm59.php
  2) ƒÜƒÚƒñƒßƒÜƒÑ - ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒñƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒäƒàƒÜ, ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒëƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒÑ ƒáƒà ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÙƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ ƒéƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒâƒäƒîƒð (ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ). ƒNoƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒßƒà ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒãƒîƒÖƒÛ ƒ¥ƒÞƒÚƒäƒâƒÚƒÖƒÓƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ, ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ.
  
  
  
   ƒRƒàƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÙƒîƒñ-ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒí ƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒåƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ 2011 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå ƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒåƒð ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒð ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒåƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ-ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒãƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÖ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒ¡ƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒí. ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ - ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒàƒâ ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒí ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒí ƒÚ ƒæƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒÝƒàƒâƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒåƒßƒÚƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒäƒÖƒäƒÑ, ƒÕƒàƒÜƒäƒàƒâ ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒßƒÑƒåƒÜ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕƒÑ ƒà ƒÜƒÚƒñƒßƒÜƒÖ-ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒÒƒåƒÜƒÓƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ ƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒä ƒÞƒßƒàƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ. ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÖƒßƒÕƒí ƒà ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÖ:
  
   'ƒ? ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒÖ-ƒÕƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒÒƒíƒéƒÑƒÛ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒä.ƒÖ. ƒÝƒÚƒêƒÑƒäƒî ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ-ƒÕƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒäƒî. ƒ³ ƒáƒàƒÞƒàƒëƒîƒð ƒßƒÖƒçƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒÜƒÚƒñƒßƒÜƒÚ-ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒÚ - ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒàƒÞ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒàƒä ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒÝƒÖƒãƒå, ƒÑ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒéƒ×ƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒÞƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒØƒéƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒÜƒà ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ, ƒåƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒÓ ƒàƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒàƒß ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒïƒäƒàƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒåƒÒƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ ƒÚ ƒãƒáƒâƒñƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒØƒÖƒßƒå ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚƒÝ, ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ... ƒ¨ƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÒƒìƒñƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè, ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÔƒâƒàƒÒ, ƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÓ-ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ - ƒØƒÚƒÓƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÓ ƒåƒã ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒÖƒä.
   ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒäƒÜƒà ƒÝƒÚ, ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕ ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÖƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð. ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒà ƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒí, ƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÖƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒñƒäƒî - ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒßƒÚ ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒßƒíƒêƒÜƒÑ...
   - ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒè, ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒà, ƒßƒÖƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒð ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒñƒäƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒÞ? - ƒãƒáƒâƒÑƒêƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑ-ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ.
   - ƒ¯ƒÑ ƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒÓ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ* ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒØƒÕƒå ƒãƒäƒÖƒß ƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒíƒáƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒãƒíƒäƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒå ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒäƒÖƒáƒÝƒÑ.
  ____________
   * ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ - ƒãƒÑƒâƒÑƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒéƒÑ; ƒãƒÑƒÞƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒÚƒâƒáƒÚƒé - ƒïƒäƒà ƒÔƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒáƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒêƒÑƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒã ƒâƒåƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ, ƒÓƒíƒãƒåƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒàƒÝƒßƒèƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÖƒßƒÑƒÕƒ×ƒØƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚ ƒçƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÝƒîƒñ.
  
  ƒ¡ ƒÞƒÖƒØ ƒãƒàƒÝƒàƒÞƒí ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒîƒÖƒÓ ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒáƒàƒáƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî, ƒäƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÙƒÖƒâƒßƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒÝƒÚ... ƒ÷ƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒàƒÛ. ƒ³ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒñ ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑ. ƒ´ƒí ƒãƒäƒÖƒßƒí ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÖƒâƒÚ, ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒßƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÞƒåƒãƒàƒâƒÑ ƒàƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ.
   ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÚ ƒãƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÝ ƒÞƒåƒØƒÚƒÜ. ƒ?ƒãƒÜƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÙƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÖƒÝƒà ƒáƒàƒÝƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒå ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒàƒãƒñ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÞƒåƒÕƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑ, ƒØƒÚƒÓƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒå ƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒÞƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÜƒÖ.
   ƒNoƒÑƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÙƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒÞ ƒåƒÞƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒêƒ×ƒÝ ƒÕƒà ƒïƒäƒàƒÔƒà ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒß, ƒáƒâƒÚƒêƒÝƒÚ ƒÜ ƒßƒÖƒÞƒå ƒÕƒàƒÞƒàƒÛ, ƒã ƒàƒÒƒíƒãƒÜƒàƒÞ. ƒ?ƒÝƒñƒÕƒñƒä, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒÖƒéƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒñƒçƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜ ƒÝƒÖƒØƒÚƒä - ƒØƒÚƒÓ-ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ!!! ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒåƒëƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÕƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒäƒî, ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÑƒÞ ƒïƒäƒà - ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÕƒàƒçƒÑƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî, ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑƒÕƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà... ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒîƒñƒßƒÚƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒñ, ƒçƒåƒÕƒà-ƒÒƒÖƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÕƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÕƒà ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒåƒâƒàƒØƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒä ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÕƒÑ.
   ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ, ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒíƒÛ ƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä ƒÞƒåƒÕƒâƒàƒÔƒà ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒãƒáƒÑƒã ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ. ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒßƒÑ ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÚ ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî, ƒÑ ƒßƒÑƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä, ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒà ƒßƒÚƒç ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒà ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒÞƒíƒç ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒñƒç...'.
   ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒïƒäƒå ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ ƒ+ƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒå ƒãƒÝƒåƒêƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒåƒâƒÑƒêƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒáƒÚƒßƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÝƒÚ... ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝ ƒáƒâƒà ƒÝƒàƒÒƒÑƒßƒÜƒå ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒßƒÑƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÑƒß ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒà ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÖ ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà, ƒßƒà ƒàƒß ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒê, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒèƒÖƒÓ.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒäƒÙƒíƒÓ ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñ
  ƒ®ƒä ƒ¥ƒíƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ´ƒÑƒÚƒãƒí ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒí,
   ƒÔ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒêƒÚƒçƒÑ ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒßƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜ, 21 ƒÕƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÒƒâƒñ 2015, 21:50. ƒ®ƒäƒÙƒíƒÓ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÖƒß ƒáƒà ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÖ:
   'ƒNoƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÛƒäƒÖ ,ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ!
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒè, ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒÕƒà ƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒîƒðƒäƒÖƒâƒÑ. ƒ®ƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑ,ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒÚƒØƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒåƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ.ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒí ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÙƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒÕƒí ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒëƒÖƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒí, ƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒèƒÚƒÛ,ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖ- ƒÚ ƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒäƒà-ƒÒƒí ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÑƒä ƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒèƒÖƒÝƒÚ: ƒåƒÒƒÖƒÕƒÚƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÞ ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒäƒí, ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒíƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ,ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒäƒàƒñƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒÑƒâƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒÑ ƒÓƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ - ƒƒƒ+ƒ³ƒ³.
   ƒ÷ƒÕƒÚƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÖ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÞƒåƒßƒÚƒãƒäƒí ƒåƒÞƒåƒÕƒâƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒäƒî ƒäƒÑƒÜƒåƒð ƒÞƒàƒëƒßƒåƒð ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒå ƒÚ ƒïƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÚƒÜƒå, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒä ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒéƒÖƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒäƒî ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒàƒëƒÑƒÕƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÑƒðƒä ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒåƒä, ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒÞƒí ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒãƒßƒàƒãƒßƒà ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒéƒ×ƒä ƒäƒàƒÔƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒÚƒÞƒÚ 'ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÕƒÚƒäƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ'. ƒ+ƒàƒéƒÖƒÞƒå ƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒàƒÒ ƒïƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÚƒêƒå? ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå,ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒäƒÖƒç ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒí ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÓƒíƒäƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒàƒÕ: ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒéƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒãƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒàƒãƒÝƒÑƒßƒí ƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÓƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí ƒÓ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ. ƒ³ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÙƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒïƒäƒà ƒäƒÖƒßƒÕƒÖƒßƒèƒÚƒàƒÙƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÒƒàƒâ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÕƒî ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒØƒÖ ƒÚ ƒäƒÖ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒÓƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÚƒÝ ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒçƒàƒÙ, ƒÜƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÑƒÝ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÞƒÜƒÑƒç ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒÚƒÙƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒçƒàƒÙƒñƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒª ƒÚƒç ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒà. ƒ¥ƒÑ, ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÕ ƒßƒÑƒØƒÚƒÞƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÕƒàƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒà. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒàƒßƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÒƒÖƒØƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒÓ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕ, ƒÜƒàƒâƒÞƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒå. ƒª ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒîƒêƒÖ, ƒéƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÖ. ƒRƒÖƒßƒñ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒäƒâƒàƒßƒåƒÝƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒà ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÖ, ƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÖƒÛƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà ƒÑƒÔƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒàƒÞ (ƒâƒÖƒéƒî ƒÚƒÕƒ×ƒä ƒà ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ. ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ). ƒª ƒæƒàƒäƒà ƒÓƒàƒãƒçƒÚƒäƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ! ƒƒ ƒãƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒñ ƒáƒÝƒàƒçƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑƒð ƒã ƒïƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒßƒàƒÞ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒàƒßƒÚ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒäƒà ƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ-ƒäƒà 'ƒåƒÝƒÖƒäƒÑƒðƒä',ƒäƒà ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒà ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒå ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒåƒð. ƒ¢ƒàƒðƒãƒî ƒÓƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒäƒî ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝ.ƒ´ƒÖƒÞ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ,ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî.
   ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒíƒéƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÒƒåƒÞƒÑƒØƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒâƒåƒáƒåƒÝƒ×ƒÙƒßƒàƒÛ, ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒáƒà ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒÚ. ƒ+ƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒî - ƒêƒäƒåƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÚƒâƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ. ƒª ƒàƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒãƒáƒàƒãƒàƒÒƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒàƒÞƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒñƒäƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ+ƒàƒïƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÙƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒåƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝ. ƒ¥ƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒí - ƒïƒäƒà ƒßƒÑƒÚƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÔƒà. ƒ·ƒàƒäƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒç ƒÓƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒéƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÜƒÚ.
   ƒRƒßƒÖ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒßƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒñ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒãƒäƒâƒí - ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒÚ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà. ƒƒƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒñ ƒÖƒ× ƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒð, ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒáƒà ƒãƒÓƒÖƒØƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒáƒâƒàƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÖƒä ƒÝƒÖƒÔƒéƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒÖƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÜ. ƒƒƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒñ ƒÖƒ× ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒÙƒÑƒãƒÝƒåƒØƒÚƒÓƒÑƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑ.
   ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ! ƒ÷ ƒßƒÑƒã ƒã ƒÓƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒßƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒÝƒÖƒä 10-11. ƒ¯ƒà ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÖƒÔƒà ƒÓ ƒãƒåƒÕƒîƒÒƒÑƒç. ƒÁ ƒäƒàƒØƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒêƒÝƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒåƒØ ƒáƒàƒÙƒÕƒßƒà - ƒÓ 28 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ¥ƒàƒéƒî ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒÑ ƒÓ 32, ƒãƒíƒßƒÑ - ƒÓ 40. ƒ?ƒí ƒÚƒëƒÚƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÚ ƒå ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ - ƒáƒàƒçƒàƒØƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ.
   ƒRƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè 1902 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝ ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒß ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒÕƒàƒÛ ƒƒØƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÓ 1938 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒå (ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒèƒí ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÛ ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÑƒÛ ƒã ƒÖƒ× ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ), ƒßƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÓƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒÖ ƒã ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒÔƒÑƒÝƒãƒñ ƒØƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒéƒÑƒÛƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒíƒäƒÜƒÑƒÞ, ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒÓƒàƒâƒ×ƒß ƒÜ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒå. ƒ¯ƒà ƒäƒåƒä ƒãƒÝƒåƒéƒÚƒÝƒãƒñ ƒ¢ƒÖƒâƒÚƒñ, ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒƒØƒàƒÓƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒáƒåƒãƒäƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç. ƒNoƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒñ ƒàƒäƒèƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÜƒàƒßƒæƒÚƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒß, ƒÕƒÓƒàƒÖ ƒãƒíƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒÛ-ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒÙƒÔƒßƒÑƒßƒí ƒÓƒßƒÚƒÜƒåƒÕƒÑ, ƒÙƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒç ƒÚƒÙƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÝƒÚ, ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒßƒàƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒãƒÑƒâƒÑƒðƒêƒÜƒÑƒÞ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÒƒÑƒéƒîƒÚƒÞ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÜƒÑƒÞ. ƒ¨ƒÖƒßƒÑ - ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒçƒâƒåƒáƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖƒßƒëƒÚƒßƒÑ - ƒàƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒåƒÙƒÜƒå ƒäƒñƒØƒ×ƒÝƒíƒç ƒéƒåƒÔƒåƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒéƒåƒêƒÖƒÜ ƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÕƒàƒâƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî... ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÛƒãƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ 8-ƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒÖƒ× ƒãƒáƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒåƒÞƒÖƒâƒÝƒÑ ƒàƒä ƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒàƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ®ƒäƒèƒÑ, ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÑƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ. ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÕƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÚƒð, ƒä.ƒÜ. ƒÓƒßƒåƒäƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒàƒäƒÒƒÚƒäƒí. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÝƒÑƒéƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒÖƒßƒãƒÑƒèƒÚƒñ. ƒ¥ƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÓƒâƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜ ƒåƒéƒ×ƒÒƒÖ. ƒ?ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝ ƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒß. ƒ®ƒÒƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒíƒãƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒåƒéƒÖƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ®ƒÕƒÚƒß ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝ ƒàƒæƒÚƒèƒÖƒâƒàƒÞ, ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ - ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒåƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ ƒßƒÑ ƒêƒÑƒçƒäƒÖ. ƒ³ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒàƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè ƒãƒàƒÙƒÕƒÑƒÝ ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒåƒð ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒð, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÛ ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒäƒâƒàƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒ÷ƒÞƒÖƒâ ƒàƒäƒÖƒè, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà 10 ƒÝƒÖƒä. ƒ?ƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒà ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒêƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ, ƒñ ƒåƒÙƒßƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒÙ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓ ƒÞƒÑƒÞƒí ƒÚ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÙƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒäƒèƒÑ. ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÓ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÛ, ƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑƒãƒî ƒßƒÑƒÛƒäƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒÜƒåƒÞƒÖƒßƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒáƒàƒÕƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒñƒÞ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒÜƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒç ƒãƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÓ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒÖƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÑ ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒàƒß ƒÒƒíƒÝ ƒÓƒàƒãƒÖƒÞƒî ƒÞƒÖƒãƒñƒèƒÖƒÓ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ - ƒßƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒà, ƒÚƒÒƒà, ƒáƒà ƒÚƒç ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒð, ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÙƒÑƒæƒÚƒÜƒãƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒãƒÑƒÞƒàƒÔƒà ƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑ ƒÑƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒÑ. ƒÁ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒáƒíƒäƒÜƒÚ ƒÜ ƒâƒàƒÙƒíƒãƒÜƒå, ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒÜƒà, ƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒãƒ× ƒäƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒãƒàƒàƒÒƒëƒÚƒÝƒÚ: '... ƒÓƒÓƒÚƒÕƒå ƒàƒÜƒàƒßƒéƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ 50-ƒÝƒÖƒäƒßƒÖƒÔƒà ƒãƒâƒàƒÜƒÑ ƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒàƒÓ , ƒÚƒç ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒÚ'. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓƒí ƒà ƒÓƒíƒãƒíƒÝƒÜƒÖ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒåƒßƒÚƒéƒäƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒí.
   ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ! ƒ?ƒãƒÖƒç ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔ, ƒßƒÖƒåƒäƒàƒÞƒÚƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒäƒâƒåƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ. ƒª ƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒÚƒØƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖƒãƒî, ƒÖƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒéƒäƒà-ƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒÓƒíƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒáƒàƒÜƒÑƒØƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒâƒâƒÖƒÜƒäƒßƒíƒÞ. ƒ+ƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÚƒÞƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒåƒÞƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒÓƒíƒâƒÑƒÙƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒàƒÜƒàƒÚƒä ƒÚ ƒàƒä ƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒÓƒÑƒã, ƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒåƒð ƒÚ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒÚƒÞƒéƒÚƒÓƒåƒð ƒÜ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒÞ, ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒéƒî.
   ƒ? ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒÞ, ƒÒƒåƒâƒð ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÓƒíƒÙƒÓƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒí ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖ. ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÚƒÙ ƒßƒÚƒç - ƒéƒäƒàƒÒƒí ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒêƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞ, ƒßƒà ƒÚ ƒÖƒëƒ× ƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÜƒÑƒÞƒßƒÖƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒÖ ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ². ƒ-ƒÚƒéƒßƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛƒßƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒÚƒÕƒßƒà, ƒÚƒÒƒà ƒÓƒí ƒã ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒØƒÚƒÓƒíƒÖ, ƒäƒâƒÖƒáƒÖƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒêƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒî ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒäƒÖƒç, ƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒñ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒð ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÚƒç ƒÓƒâƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒÖ ƒÕƒåƒÞƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒñ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒî ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒÜƒÝƒðƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÞƒñƒÔƒÜƒÚƒç ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÑƒç ƒÚ ƒã ƒÒƒåƒäƒÖƒâƒÒƒâƒàƒÕƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒÚƒÙ ƒéƒ×ƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÜƒâƒí. ƒ? ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÞƒîƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓƒí ƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒíƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒÖ ƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒç ƒÓƒÑƒêƒÚƒç ƒÔƒÖƒâƒàƒÖƒÓ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÞƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ-ƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒçƒàƒéƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒäƒÑƒß ƒàƒâƒåƒëƒÚƒç: 'ƒ¯ƒÚƒÙƒÑƒÒƒåƒÕƒÚƒÞ, ƒßƒÚƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒÞ', 'ƒ®ƒäƒÕƒÑƒÛƒäƒÖ ƒÕƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒå ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒå'. ƒÁ ƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒáƒàƒÞƒßƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÞƒàƒ× ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒçƒàƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒÔƒÑƒâƒÑƒßƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒå, ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ, ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒßƒàƒáƒÝƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒàƒäƒÕƒíƒç ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒàƒéƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒÑ ƒÓƒÙƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñƒç ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒâƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒïƒäƒà ƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒßƒÑ. ƒ®ƒßƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒÕƒÖƒñƒÝƒÚƒãƒî, ƒéƒäƒà ƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒäƒÚ, ƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒåƒÜƒÚ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖ ƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒåƒä ƒÜƒàƒÞƒå-ƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒÝƒåƒÔƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑ ƒÜƒåƒãƒàƒÜ ƒçƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÑ. ƒ¡ ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒä ƒØƒÚƒäƒî ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒâƒÖƒÕƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç'.
  
  ƒ®ƒäƒÓƒÖƒä ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒäƒÙƒíƒÓ ƒ¥ƒíƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒ´.ƒR.:
  
   'ƒNoƒÕƒâƒÑƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÛƒäƒÖ, ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒñ ƒ´ƒÑƒÚƒãƒÑ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ!
   ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒà, ƒßƒÚ ƒà ƒÜƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÒƒàƒâƒÖ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ ƒå ƒßƒÑƒã ƒã ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒßƒÖ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒéƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒà ƒÞƒí ƒÙƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒÕƒàƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒßƒà ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒÚƒÜƒäƒàƒæƒàƒß ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ, ƒáƒàƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒã ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÚ ƒãƒàƒäƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒÑƒäƒî. ƒ¢ƒíƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒÚƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒíƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒçƒàƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞ ƒßƒÑƒÒƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒáƒîƒðƒäƒÖƒâƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒäƒàƒÕƒàƒÞ ƒëƒÑƒÕƒñƒëƒÖƒÔƒà ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ. ƒ®ƒß ƒáƒàƒÙƒÓƒàƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒãƒàƒçƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÞƒíƒãƒÝƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒäƒÚƒÝƒî ƒÚƒÙƒÝƒàƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒç ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ.
   ƒ÷ ƒÞƒÖƒßƒñ ƒÓ ƒäƒÚƒáƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒñƒç ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒØƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒßƒà ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÑƒðƒä ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝ, ƒñ ƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒð ƒßƒÑ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÖ, ƒÒƒÖƒÙ ƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÖƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒäƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒà ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒÓƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒà. ƒ+ƒà-ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå, ƒÓ ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒÑƒç ƒãƒÝƒíƒêƒÑƒäƒãƒñ 'ƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒÑ' ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒéƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ+ƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒå ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÕƒÑƒ×ƒÞ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒî ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÚƒÞ ƒÝƒðƒÕƒñƒÞ.
   ƒ?ƒÑƒê ƒàƒäƒÙƒíƒÓ ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒî ƒÓƒÑƒØƒÖƒß. ƒ¥ƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒàƒéƒßƒà ƒâƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒà ƒà ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ². ƒ¯ƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ, ƒÓƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒéƒäƒà ƒäƒâƒÖƒäƒîƒð ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒãƒÓƒñƒëƒ×ƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒßƒÖ, ƒÞƒÚƒâƒßƒàƒÛ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ ƒã 1945 ƒáƒà 1992 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÖƒÞ ƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÑƒäƒî ƒåƒØƒÖ ƒßƒÖ ƒÞƒí, ƒÑ ƒÕƒâƒåƒÔƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÕƒåƒä ƒßƒÑƒÞ ƒßƒÑ ƒãƒÞƒÖƒßƒå. ƒRƒí ƒØƒÖ ƒã ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÒƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÑƒéƒå ƒßƒÑƒáƒÚƒãƒÑƒäƒî ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒãƒà ƒÕƒßƒñ ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒà ƒáƒÖƒâƒÚƒàƒÕƒÑ ƒâƒÑƒãƒÜƒåƒÝƒÑƒéƒÚƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ 30 ƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒç ƒ·ƒ· ƒãƒäƒàƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒñ.
   ƒÁ - ƒÑƒÒƒãƒàƒÝƒðƒäƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÖƒßƒÖƒè ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒáƒåƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒñ ƒÚ ƒãƒéƒÚƒäƒÑƒð, ƒéƒäƒà ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ² - ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑ ƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞ ƒáƒåƒäƒ×ƒÞ - ƒÒƒåƒÕƒåƒëƒÖƒÖ. ƒƒƒÑƒáƒÚƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÞ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒÔ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒáƒâƒÚƒØƒÚƒäƒîƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒßƒÚƒÜƒäƒà ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒàƒäƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒäƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒáƒíƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒíƒáƒÑƒÝƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÕƒàƒÝƒð ƒÞƒàƒÚƒç ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÖƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒéƒÑƒÝƒÖ ƒ·ƒ· ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ.
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒÜƒàƒáƒÚƒÛ ƒÒƒíƒÝƒà ƒãƒÝƒàƒÞƒÑƒßƒà ƒÓ ƒáƒâƒàƒèƒÖƒãƒãƒÖ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÑ, ƒãƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒÜƒà ƒáƒâƒÖƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÚƒÙ-ƒÙƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒáƒâƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÞƒÑ ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ ƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÝƒðƒÕƒÖƒÛ ƒáƒâƒàƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÓ ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÞƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒÕƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÝƒÖ ƒâƒÖƒÓƒàƒÝƒðƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÓ ƒÜƒàƒßƒÖƒéƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÚƒäƒàƒÔƒÖ, ƒÒƒíƒÝƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ - ƒ³ƒ³ƒ³ƒ². ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒÜ ƒÓ ƒïƒäƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ ƒéƒåƒÓƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝ ƒÙƒÑƒëƒÚƒäƒå ƒÚ ƒáƒàƒÕƒÕƒÖƒâƒØƒÜƒå ƒÓƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÖƒÛ. ƒ¯ƒà ƒÚ ƒäƒåƒä ƒñ ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒäƒÑƒÝƒÑ ƒÒƒí ƒÚƒÕƒÖƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒî ƒÓƒãƒ×, ƒéƒäƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÙƒàƒêƒÝƒà ƒÓ 1930-92 ƒÔƒÔ. ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒÖƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÖƒäƒãƒñ. ƒ®ƒÒƒßƒàƒÓƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒàƒãƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÚƒäƒãƒñ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒèƒÑ-ƒƒÖƒßƒÚƒÜƒã ƒÚƒÙ ƒáƒÖƒáƒÝƒÑ. ƒ´ƒÑƒÜ ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙ ƒÒƒíƒÓƒÑƒÝƒà. ƒ¢ƒåƒÕƒÖƒä ƒÚ ƒãƒÖƒÛƒéƒÑƒã.
   ƒ¯ƒÑƒêƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒà ƒäƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒà ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒä ƒãƒÓƒàƒð ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒð ƒÜƒÑƒØƒÕƒíƒÛ ƒãƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÖƒè. ƒ+ƒà-ƒÞƒàƒÖƒÞƒå, ƒïƒäƒà ƒåƒäƒÓƒÖƒâƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÙƒÓƒåƒéƒÚƒä ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñƒç, ƒßƒÖ ƒãƒÞƒàƒäƒâƒñ ƒßƒÑ ƒäƒñƒÔƒàƒäƒí ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ'.
  
  
  ƒ³ƒäƒÚƒçƒàƒäƒÓƒàƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ¯.ƒ¡. ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
  
  ***
  
  ƒƒƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà ƒáƒÚƒäƒî ƒäƒåƒÔƒåƒð ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå
  ƒªƒÙ ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ:
  ƒ÷ƒãƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÑ ƒÓ ƒØƒÑƒâƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒå
   ƒª ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ, ƒÚ ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒÑ ...
  
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒáƒÚƒÓƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒãƒÝƒà ƒÒƒíƒÝƒàƒÖ:
  ƒ®ƒßƒÑ ƒàƒÕƒßƒÑ ƒäƒåƒä ƒÓƒàƒÕƒå ƒáƒîƒÖƒä,
  ƒ¡ ƒÝƒñƒÔƒåƒêƒàƒßƒàƒÜ-ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒÖƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒãƒáƒÖƒéƒÖƒß - ƒÓƒÑƒçƒäƒå ƒßƒÖ ƒßƒÖƒãƒ×ƒä.
  
  ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒÝƒàƒß ƒäƒÖƒÒƒÖ, ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒñ ƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÑƒñ,
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÒƒâƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒäƒÓƒàƒð.
  ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒÜƒàƒãƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÓƒÖƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ...
  ƒÁ ƒäƒåƒä, ƒñ ƒäƒåƒä... ƒª ƒñ ƒÓƒÑƒã ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÝƒð...
  2008 ƒÔƒàƒÕ, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒÖƒè 1 ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÝƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒÖƒä
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ²ƒÖƒèƒÖƒßƒÙƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒäƒÑ ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒí ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒ?ƒ³ƒ·ƒ¡ ƒÚƒÞ. ƒ´.ƒ³. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜ.ƒÚ.ƒß. (ƒÔ. ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß) - ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÚ ƒÀƒâƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒí
  
  ƒ²ƒÖƒèƒÖƒßƒÙƒÚƒñ
  ƒßƒÑ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒå 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...'.
   ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî
  
  ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒä ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÞ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ, ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒà ƒÖƒ× ƒÓƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒÖƒ× ƒáƒàƒáƒåƒÝƒñƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒÝƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒÙƒßƒÑƒéƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÞ ƒáƒÖƒâƒãƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒÚƒÛ, ƒÓ ƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÚƒßƒàƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÙƒÑƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒÓ ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒç ƒäƒÖƒÜƒãƒäƒÑƒç. ƒ®ƒãƒàƒÒƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒïƒäƒà ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒãƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÜ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞ, ƒÓƒíƒñƒÓƒÚƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒæƒÑƒÜƒäƒí ƒÚƒÙ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ, ƒßƒà ƒÒƒÖƒÙƒÓƒâƒÖƒÞƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒåƒêƒÖƒÕƒêƒÚƒÞ ƒÚƒÙ ƒØƒÚƒÙƒßƒÚ - ƒ¡.ƒ+. ƒ³ƒíƒéƒÖƒÓƒå, ƒ+.ƒ?. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒå, ƒ³.ƒ?. ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒå, ƒéƒîƒÚ ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒã ƒäƒâƒÖƒáƒÖƒäƒàƒÞ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒßƒßƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒßƒàƒãƒäƒîƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒåƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒðƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÖ.
  ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒàƒÕƒçƒàƒÕ ƒã ƒÖƒÔƒà ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÞƒíƒÞ ƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒÞ ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒØƒÑƒÝƒåƒÛ, ƒàƒÕƒßƒà ƒÚƒÙ ƒÔƒÝƒÑƒÓƒßƒíƒç ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒàƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓ ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒí, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÓƒÚƒÕƒÖƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒà ƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÔƒà ƒØƒÑƒßƒâƒÑ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒÖ - ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÜƒâƒíƒäƒÚƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÛ ƒ²ƒàƒÕƒÚƒßƒí. ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒàƒÒƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÓƒíƒçƒàƒÕƒñƒä ƒßƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒäƒñƒØƒÖƒßƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒßƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÓƒåƒç ƒÕƒÖƒãƒñƒäƒÚƒÝƒÖƒäƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒà ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒâƒÖƒÔƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒç ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒƒÖƒÕƒÖƒâƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ, ƒÔƒÕƒÖ ƒØƒÚƒÓƒåƒä ƒßƒÖƒâƒÑƒÓƒßƒàƒÕƒåƒêƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÔƒâƒÑƒØƒÕƒÑƒßƒÖ, ƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒÖ, ƒáƒåƒãƒäƒî ƒÚ ƒßƒÖ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ ƒáƒâƒàƒæƒÖƒãƒãƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒà, ƒã ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒàƒéƒÜƒÚ ƒÙƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒàƒãƒÓƒÑƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒä, ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒáƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒáƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÕƒèƒí, ƒáƒàƒÕƒÝƒÚƒßƒßƒåƒð ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒð ƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒí, ƒàƒáƒÚƒâƒÑƒñƒãƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒâƒàƒØƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒÝƒÚƒéƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÓƒáƒÖƒéƒÑƒäƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÑ ƒäƒÑƒÜƒØƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒàƒÓƒíƒç ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ. ƒ¡ƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒÜƒàƒÝƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒÚƒÓƒå ƒåƒÕƒÑƒÝƒàƒãƒî ƒÓƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒÓ ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒä ƒÞƒÑƒÝƒàƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÑƒÜƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒÚƒÙƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒáƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒëƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒÓ ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒâƒÖƒÓƒÚƒÙƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒãƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÜƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ 1795, 1810, 1816, 1834 ƒÚ 1850 ƒÔƒÔ., ƒéƒäƒà ƒãƒåƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒà ƒáƒàƒÓƒíƒêƒÑƒÖƒä ƒßƒÑƒåƒéƒßƒíƒÛ ƒáƒàƒäƒÖƒßƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ. ƒªƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒà ƒÚƒÝƒÝƒðƒãƒäƒâƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒà ƒÜƒÑƒâƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÚ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒ®ƒÕƒßƒÑƒÜƒà ƒâƒÑƒÒƒàƒäƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒßƒÑ ƒßƒÖƒÜƒàƒäƒàƒâƒíƒç ƒßƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ:
  1) ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ 'ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒÚ ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî' ƒÝƒåƒéƒêƒÖ ƒÙƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒÚƒäƒî ƒßƒÑ ƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒéƒÚƒãƒÝƒà: 'ƒ-ƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒãƒ×ƒÝ ƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ. ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÚƒãƒéƒÖƒÙƒßƒåƒÓƒêƒÚƒç ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒî'. ƒ? ƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÞ ƒÓƒÑƒâƒÚƒÑƒßƒäƒÖ ƒáƒàƒÕƒâƒÑƒÙƒåƒÞƒÖƒÓƒÑƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÝƒÖƒäƒàƒáƒÚƒãƒî ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒØƒÑƒßƒâ, (ƒéƒäƒà ƒÓ ƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÖƒÛ ƒãƒäƒÖƒáƒÖƒßƒÚ ƒÚ ƒãƒàƒàƒäƒÓƒÖƒäƒãƒäƒÓƒåƒÖƒä ƒÕƒÖƒÛƒãƒäƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒÚ), ƒÑ ƒßƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÜ ƒãƒàƒÒƒâƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒÑƒÞƒñƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÝƒÚƒäƒÖƒâƒÑƒäƒåƒâƒí.
  2) ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒâƒåƒÜƒäƒåƒâƒÑ ƒáƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒßƒÖƒáƒàƒßƒñƒäƒßƒÑ, ƒä.ƒÜ. ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÚƒÙƒÕƒÑƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒãƒàƒÒƒàƒÛ ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÞƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ, ƒÚƒÞƒÖƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒàƒäƒßƒàƒêƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÜ ƒÙƒÑƒñƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒäƒÖƒÞƒÖ. ƒ?ƒàƒÙƒÞƒàƒØƒßƒà, ƒßƒåƒØƒßƒà ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÚ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒåƒð ƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÜƒå, ƒàƒÒƒåƒãƒÝƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÚƒÓƒÑƒðƒëƒåƒð ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒãƒäƒî ƒáƒàƒÓƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒÑ) ƒáƒà ƒÑƒÓƒäƒàƒâƒÑƒÞ, ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÒ) ƒáƒà ƒçƒâƒàƒßƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒÚ, ƒÚƒÝƒÚ ƒÓ) ƒáƒà ƒäƒÖƒÞƒÑƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÞƒå ƒáƒâƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒáƒå, ƒßƒÑƒáƒâƒÚƒÞƒÖƒâ, 1 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝ 'ƒªƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒßƒÑƒãƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒáƒåƒßƒÜƒäƒàƒÓ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒßƒÑ', 2 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝ - 'ƒ-ƒðƒÕƒÚ ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÙƒÖƒÞƒÝƒÚ' (ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒÚƒñ), 3 ƒâƒÑƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÝ - 'ƒRƒÖƒäƒàƒÕƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ: ƒáƒàƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ, ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒí, ƒàƒáƒíƒä' ƒÚ ƒä.ƒÕ.
  ƒ? ƒèƒÖƒÝƒàƒÞ, ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ 'ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ...' ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒÖƒä ƒßƒÖƒãƒàƒÞƒßƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒßƒäƒÖƒâƒÖƒã ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒãƒáƒÖƒèƒÚƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÓ, ƒÙƒÑƒßƒÚƒÞƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒçƒãƒñ ƒÚƒÙƒåƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖƒÞ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÑ ƒÒƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÕƒÑƒâƒñ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÖƒÛ ƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÖƒÕƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒÒƒÑƒÙƒÖ ƒÞƒàƒØƒÖƒä ƒÒƒíƒäƒî ƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÑ ƒÓ ƒÜƒÑƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÔƒà ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒÑ ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒáƒàƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒåƒðƒëƒÚƒç ƒÚƒãƒãƒÝƒÖƒÕƒàƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒÛ.
  
  ƒ¥ƒàƒèƒÖƒßƒä ƒÜƒÑƒæƒÖƒÕƒâƒí ƒæƒÚƒÝƒàƒãƒàƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒÚ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒÚ
   ƒƒƒ?ƒ³ƒ·ƒ¡ ƒÚƒÞ. ƒ´.ƒ³. ƒRƒÑƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÜ.ƒÚ.ƒß. ƒ®.ƒÀ. ƒ¢ƒÑƒÒƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  
  
  
  
  ƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  ƒ¡
  ƒ¡ƒÓƒÕƒÚƒÖƒÓƒÚƒé
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ (ƒ¡ƒÞƒÒƒåƒâƒèƒàƒÓ)
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¡ƒâƒãƒÖƒßƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒáƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¡ƒãƒäƒÑƒæƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ¢
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÔƒâƒÖƒèƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒçƒÞƒÖƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒÔƒÑƒß
  ƒ¢ƒÚƒÒƒÝƒÖƒèƒÜƒàƒÛ
  ƒ¢ƒÚƒÔƒÑƒß
  ƒ¢ƒÚƒÝƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ¢ƒÚƒâƒðƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒàƒ×ƒÓ (ƒ¢ƒÑƒÖƒÓ)
  ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒ¢ƒâƒÑƒØƒÜƒà (ƒ¢ƒâƒàƒØƒÜƒà)
  ƒ¢ƒâƒåƒãƒñƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒ¢ƒåƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ¢ƒåƒâƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒÕƒðƒÜ
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒéƒåƒÜ
  ƒ?ƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÚƒêƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒðƒÜ
  ƒ?ƒÝƒåƒêƒÜƒà
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒÕƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒßƒíƒç
  ƒ?ƒâƒÚƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÒƒÖƒâ
  ƒ?ƒåƒâƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÞƒÖƒãƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¥
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÔƒÚƒß
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒî
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒÞƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¥ƒÖƒâƒðƒØƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒÚƒß
  ƒ¥ƒå ƒƒå
  ƒ¥ƒîƒñƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¥ƒíƒÞƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ
  ƒƒÓƒâƒÖƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒÝƒîƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒƒÞƒÖƒÝƒîƒñƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒâƒÞƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ-ƒRƒÚƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ¨
  ƒ¨ƒåƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒNo
  ƒNoƒÑƒÓƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒNoƒÑƒçƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒNoƒàƒäƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒNoƒåƒÒƒÑƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒª
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ, ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒªƒÓƒÚƒß, ƒªƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒªƒÓƒàƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒªƒÝƒîƒÚƒß
  ƒªƒßƒæƒÑƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒªƒàƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒƒ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÕƒàƒéƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ (ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÚƒÝƒÝƒàƒÓ)
  ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒß, ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒ×ƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒîƒéƒåƒÜ
  ƒƒƒàƒÙƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒÜ
  ƒƒƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒÕƒâƒÑƒêƒÖƒßƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒßƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß (ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒßƒíƒç)
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒƒƒàƒãƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒƒƒàƒãƒäƒÚƒß
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒèƒÖƒÓ
  ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒåƒÕƒâƒÚƒß
  ƒƒƒåƒÙƒßƒÖƒèƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒåƒÙƒîƒÞƒÚƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ
  ƒ-
  ƒ-ƒÑƒÒƒåƒäƒÚƒß
  ƒ-ƒÑƒáƒäƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà
  ƒ-ƒàƒØƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ-ƒåƒèƒåƒÜ
  ƒ-ƒðƒÒƒéƒÖƒßƒÜƒà
  ƒ-ƒñƒëƒÑƒÜ
  ƒR
  ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒíƒç
  ƒRƒÑƒÜƒãƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÖƒÓ
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒÑƒßƒÕƒðƒÜ
  ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒRƒÑƒâƒæƒÚƒèƒÚƒß
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒRƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒíƒç
  ƒRƒÑƒçƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒRƒÖƒÕƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒÓ
  ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒÖƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒRƒÚƒÜƒåƒã
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒÖƒÖƒÓ
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒß, ƒRƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒRƒàƒÝƒéƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒàƒâƒÔƒåƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒàƒâƒÖƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒRƒàƒâƒàƒÙƒàƒÓ
  ƒRƒàƒãƒÚƒß
  ƒRƒåƒçƒÚƒß
  ƒRƒàƒêƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒRƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒÙƒÑƒâƒðƒÜ
  ƒ¯ƒÑƒåƒÞƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÖƒÓƒÙƒàƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÖƒáƒÝƒðƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÖƒãƒäƒÖƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒÑƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒéƒÚƒØƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¯ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ®
  ƒ®ƒÒƒâƒÑƒÙƒèƒàƒÓ
  ƒ®ƒÓƒéƒÚƒßƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒêƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ®ƒâƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒ®ƒãƒÚƒß
  ƒ+
  ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒÑƒãƒðƒÜ
  ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒäƒåƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒÑƒßƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ+ƒÑƒâƒæƒÖƒßƒäƒîƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒÑƒçƒàƒÞƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒåƒêƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒêƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÕƒÔƒàƒâƒÒƒåƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÙƒÕƒÖƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒßƒàƒÞƒÑƒâƒ×ƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒáƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒáƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒàƒâƒäƒßƒñƒÔƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒéƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒâƒÑƒÓƒÕƒåƒçƒÚƒß
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒÜƒåƒÕƒÚƒß-ƒ?ƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒåƒÔƒÑƒéƒ×ƒÓ
  ƒ+ƒåƒêƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ²
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÚƒß
  ƒ²ƒÖƒÙƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒç
  ƒ²ƒÖƒáƒîƒÖƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒ²ƒàƒÔƒÑƒéƒ×ƒÓ
  ƒ²ƒåƒãƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ²ƒíƒØƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ²ƒíƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³
  ƒ³ƒÑƒÝƒäƒíƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒÑƒåƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÞƒÖƒÛƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ƒÖƒß ƒ¨ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÖƒß
  ƒ³ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÒƒâƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ, ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒä
  ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒß, ƒ³ƒÚƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒÝƒàƒÓƒèƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒàƒÓƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ³ƒàƒéƒÖƒßƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒáƒÚƒâƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒäƒßƒíƒç
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒÒƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒÚƒÔƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒàƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒåƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒ³ƒäƒåƒáƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒ´
  ƒ´ƒÖƒáƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ´ƒÚƒçƒàƒÞƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ´ƒàƒÝƒÜƒåƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒíƒß (ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒèƒÚƒß, ƒ´ƒâƒñƒãƒãƒÚƒß)
  ƒ´ƒåƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒåƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ÷
  ƒ÷ƒÝƒÖƒßƒêƒáƒÚƒÔƒÖƒÝƒî
  ƒ÷ƒãƒÞƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒÖƒÓ (ƒ÷ƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒèƒàƒÓ)
  ƒ÷ƒãƒäƒðƒØƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ
  ƒ÷ƒãƒîƒÓƒÚƒßƒÚƒß
  ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ
  ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓ, ƒƒ×ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒƒÚƒÝƒÚƒáƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ
  ƒƒâƒàƒÝƒàƒÓ
  ƒ·
  ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÒƒàƒÓ
  ƒ·ƒÝƒíƒÙƒàƒÓ
  ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒÒƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÓ
  ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒàƒßƒàƒãƒàƒÓ
  ƒ·ƒåƒÕƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ¸
  ƒ¸ƒÜƒÚƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¸ƒåƒáƒÖƒâ
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒÖƒéƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÓƒñƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒéƒßƒÖƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒÚƒâƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓ (ƒ?ƒðƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ, ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓ)
  ƒ?ƒåƒéƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒº
  ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÑƒÒƒåƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÑƒÓƒêƒÑƒÖƒÓ
  ƒºƒÑƒÞƒåƒâƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÑƒâƒàƒÞƒÑƒÙƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÖƒÒƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÖƒâ
  ƒºƒÚƒäƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒºƒÚƒäƒàƒÓ
  ƒºƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒß
  ƒºƒÞƒåƒâƒÝƒà
  ƒ'
  ƒ'ƒÖƒâƒÒƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓ
  ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓ, ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  ƒÁ
  ƒÁƒÜƒàƒÓƒÝƒÖƒÓ
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ?ƒÖƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÑƒÝƒæƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒßƒíƒÖ ƒãƒáƒÚƒãƒÜƒÚ
  ƒ®.ƒ¡. ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  
  ƒ¡
  ƒ¡ƒÙƒÚƒñ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ
  ƒ¡ƒÛ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ¡ƒÜƒãƒ×ƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒà), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¡ƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒí, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒçƒåƒäƒàƒâ
  ƒ¡ƒßƒÚƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ¡ƒßƒäƒàƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÑƒßƒÔƒÖƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÑƒßƒÔƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ¡ƒêƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¢
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÜƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒÝƒÑƒêƒÚƒçƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒÑƒâƒßƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÒƒÖƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÓ ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ
  ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒåƒçƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒâƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒæƒâƒÑƒÞƒÑ
  ƒ¢ƒÝƒÑƒÔƒàƒÓƒÖƒëƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÔƒàƒÝƒðƒÒƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒäƒàƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒäƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÚƒÖ ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑƒêƒÚ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒà (ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÖ, ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒàƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ 2, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒñ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ¢ƒåƒäƒíƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÑƒßƒðƒêƒÚ, ƒáƒàƒã.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒðƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà (ƒØ. ƒÕƒàƒâ. ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ)
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâ. ƒ¢ƒíƒÕƒÚƒßƒà) 1-ƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒÚƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ 2-ƒñ (ƒå ƒãƒÖƒÝƒÑ ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ (ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒðƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖƒÖ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒÜ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ (ƒ?ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒÁƒâ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒÙƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒçƒàƒäƒåƒâƒîƒÖ
  ƒ?ƒÚƒÝƒÖƒÕƒî, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÚƒÝƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÚƒêƒÖƒâƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒàƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒßƒÖƒØƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÙƒÑƒÜƒÑƒÙ
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ (ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà), ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒçƒàƒÕ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒçƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒàƒãƒîƒÞƒàƒÖ ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ, ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ (ƒÚƒÞ. 8 'ƒRƒÑƒâƒäƒÑ')
  ƒ?ƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒÕƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒñƒÙƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ, ƒãƒä.
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÔƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÑƒÝƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÞƒÑƒßƒÚƒñ, ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕ.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ?ƒÝƒåƒÒƒàƒÜƒÑƒñ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÝƒñƒÕƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒßƒÚƒéƒ×ƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒàƒçƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒàƒâƒîƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà
  ƒ?ƒâƒàƒãƒã-ƒ¢ƒàƒâƒß-ƒ²ƒÚƒÔƒÖƒâƒè, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒâƒñƒÙƒßƒåƒçƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒåƒÕƒàƒÜ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¥
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒÞƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÞƒàƒßƒÑƒãƒäƒíƒâƒî
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ¥ƒàƒÝƒÔƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ¥ƒàƒßƒÖƒèƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¥ƒâƒÖƒãƒÓƒñƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ¥ƒåƒÒƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ¥ƒåƒÕƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ
  ƒƒÓƒâƒàƒáƒÑ, ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒî ƒãƒÓƒÖƒäƒÑ
  ƒƒÜƒÑƒäƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ (ƒ³ƒÓƒÖƒâƒÕƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ)
  ƒƒßƒÚƒãƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒÝƒÚƒÙƒÑƒÓƒÖƒäƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒâƒàƒçƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒæƒÚƒÞƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒçƒåƒä.
  ƒ§
  ƒ§ƒÝƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¨
  ƒ¨. ƒÕ. ƒÒƒåƒÕƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ¨ƒÚƒâƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒNo
  ƒNoƒÑƒÒƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒæƒâƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒíƒÛ ƒÜƒàƒÞƒÒƒÚƒßƒÑƒä
  ƒNoƒÑƒßƒÑƒÞƒÑƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒNoƒÑƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ
  ƒNoƒÓƒÖƒâƒÚƒßƒàƒÔƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒNoƒÝƒÑƒäƒàƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒª
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÚƒëƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒªƒÓƒÑƒßƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒªƒãƒÖƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä
  ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒèƒÚƒñ
  ƒªƒãƒÖƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ
  ƒªƒäƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒƒ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒßƒî, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÛƒâƒÑƒßƒÜƒåƒÝƒî, ƒãƒä.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÝƒåƒÔƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ (ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÑƒÔƒÑƒß), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒî (ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒÔƒàƒâƒí)
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒƒƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà (ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒƒƒÑƒßƒÑƒêƒÚ)
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà (ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ)
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒéƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÔƒÑƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒƒƒÑƒâƒáƒÑƒäƒí, ƒÔƒàƒâƒí
  ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒäƒÑƒâƒéƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÑ, ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñ
  ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒƒƒàƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÖƒÕƒåƒä
  ƒƒƒÖƒÞƒÖƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒƒƒÚƒáƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒƒƒÚƒáƒÖƒÝƒî), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒÚƒáƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒƒƒÚƒâƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒà (ƒ?ƒàƒãƒÜƒâƒÖƒãƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ, ƒ¡ƒâƒçƒÚƒÖƒâƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà, ƒRƒÚƒäƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒîƒÖ), ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒàƒß
  ƒƒƒÚƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒÚƒãƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒƒƒÚƒãƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒÚƒäƒÑƒÛ, ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕ.
  ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ (ƒƒƒÚƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà)
  ƒƒƒÝƒàƒáƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒàƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒƒƒàƒÜƒåƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒÓƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒƒƒàƒáƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒåƒÕƒßƒÚƒÜ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝ.
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒîƒÖ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒÓƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒàƒäƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒàƒãƒåƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒƒƒàƒéƒÖƒÔƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒàƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒƒƒÑƒéƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ) ƒæƒàƒâƒáƒàƒãƒä
  ƒƒƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÙ.
  ƒƒƒàƒâƒéƒÑƒØƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒàƒäƒÝƒÑƒã, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒàƒäƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒÙƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛ
  ƒƒƒâƒÑƒãƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÕƒàƒÝ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒâƒÚƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒåƒÝƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒåƒÝƒîƒéƒÚƒÔƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒÕ
  ƒƒƒåƒáƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒƒƒåƒáƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒÒƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒß, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ)
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒÖƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒƒƒåƒâƒîƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒåƒã. ƒ?ƒÑƒâƒÝƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ)
  ƒƒƒåƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒƒåƒêƒÞƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ-
  ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒèƒà
  ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÔƒâƒÑƒÕ (ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒÖƒâƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ), ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ-ƒÖƒßƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ-ƒÖƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ (ƒ-ƒàƒÔƒàƒÓƒåƒêƒÜƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒÓƒíƒãƒÖƒÝƒàƒÜ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ-ƒåƒÙƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒR
  ƒRƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ (ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒÜƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÜƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÖ ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒàƒÖ (ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÒƒÖƒÝƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒRƒÑƒÝƒà ƒ¢ƒÖƒÝƒà), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒíƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ (ƒNoƒàƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒÑƒñ ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒàƒÕƒðƒâƒñƒÔƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒRƒÑƒÝƒà-ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒâƒÚƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ (ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÚ), ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ, (ƒRƒÑƒãƒÝƒÖƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜ, ƒãƒàƒÓƒçƒàƒÙ
  ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒRƒÑƒñƒäƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒRƒÑƒñƒÜ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÖƒçƒàƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒåƒáƒâƒÑƒÓƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒñ
  ƒRƒÖƒÙƒÖƒßƒèƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ, (ƒRƒÚƒñƒã)
  ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒRƒÚƒñƒãƒãƒÜƒÑ), ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒRƒÚƒçƒÑƒÛƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒã., ƒáƒÔƒä, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÛƒÚƒãƒáƒàƒÝƒÜƒàƒÞ
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒRƒÚƒêƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒRƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒRƒàƒÔƒÚƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÙ.
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒRƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒÓƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ
  ƒRƒàƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒRƒíƒâƒÜƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ¯
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒØƒßƒñƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 1-ƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¯ƒÚƒÜƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ 2-ƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ (ƒRƒÑƒÝƒíƒÛ ƒäƒÑƒÒƒàƒâ)
  ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒáƒÖƒãƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ¯ƒàƒÓƒàƒãƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ¯ƒàƒâƒÚƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ®
  ƒ®ƒÒƒÑƒßƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ®ƒÒƒàƒñƒßƒî, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ®ƒÙƒ×ƒâƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä
  ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ
  ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÔ (ƒàƒäƒâƒàƒÔ)
  ƒ®ƒÜƒåƒßƒ×ƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÙ.
  ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒîƒÖ ƒÓƒàƒÛƒãƒÜƒà, ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ
  ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒƒÖƒâƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒÚ ƒ´ƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒñ
  ƒ®ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒÝƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ®ƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ®ƒäƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒîƒñ
  ƒ®ƒñƒê, ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒèƒÚƒñ
  ƒ+
  ƒ+ƒÖƒáƒÖƒÝƒÚƒßƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÓƒàƒÞƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒâƒÞƒî, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒà (ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒäƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ+ƒÖƒãƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒâƒàƒáƒÑƒÓƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ. (ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒãƒäƒÑƒß)
  ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ+ƒÖƒäƒåƒçƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ+ƒÚƒéƒåƒÛƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒƒÖƒÝƒîƒêƒÑƒßƒè
  ƒ+ƒÚƒàƒßƒÖƒâ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒÝƒàƒäƒßƒÚƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ+ƒàƒÔƒàƒâƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒàƒÜƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ (ƒå ƒàƒÙ. ƒƒƒàƒéƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑƒäƒàƒÔƒà), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒÓƒíƒã. ƒÕƒÖƒâ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒàƒÝƒñƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒã. ƒÕƒÖƒâ. ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒàƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒàƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒßƒà, ƒáƒàƒã.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÓƒàƒÝƒîƒÖ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÜƒÑƒÞƒîƒÖ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒÞƒàƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒâƒÑƒÛ
  ƒ+ƒâƒÚƒåƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒÖ
  ƒ+ƒâƒàƒãƒÓƒÖƒä, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ (ƒ+ƒäƒÚƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ) ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ+ƒíƒêƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒ+ƒíƒêƒÞƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝ.
  ƒ²
  ƒ²ƒÑƒÙƒÒƒÖƒÔƒÑƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒÑƒãƒãƒàƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ, ƒàƒÙƒÖƒâƒà
  ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ²ƒÚƒØƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ²ƒàƒØƒÕƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ²ƒåƒãƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÑ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ²ƒíƒÒƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³
  ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒâƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÑƒÞƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÑƒâƒäƒÑƒãƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÑƒäƒÜƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒßƒÑƒñ ƒ¥ƒÓƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒÖƒÓƒÖƒâƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒÙƒÑƒçƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ³ƒÚƒÒƒÚƒâƒî, ƒäƒÖƒâƒâƒÚƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒñ ƒÓ ƒ²ƒàƒãƒãƒÚƒÚ
  ƒ³ƒÚƒßƒÑƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒâƒàƒÒƒàƒÔƒÑƒäƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÖ ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà, (ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒäƒãƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâƒÑƒÙƒìƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒ³ƒÝƒÑƒÕƒÜƒà-ƒƒƒÑƒâƒÑƒãƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒàƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ³ƒàƒÝƒîƒÓƒíƒéƒÖƒÔƒàƒÕƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒ³ƒàƒâƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒáƒâƒÚƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒî
  ƒ³ƒàƒãƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÓƒíƒã., ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒáƒÑƒãƒã-ƒ¥ƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒÚƒÛ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÓƒâƒàƒáƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒÓƒÖƒÕƒàƒÞƒãƒäƒÓƒà
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ (ƒ¢ƒÖƒâ. ƒ²ƒàƒëƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ. (ƒå ƒÕƒÖƒâ. ƒ²ƒÖƒéƒÜƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒà)
  ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒáƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒâƒÖƒáƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ³ƒäƒàƒÝƒÒƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ³ƒäƒâƒåƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒà, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ³ƒåƒÒƒÒƒàƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ³ƒåƒâƒäƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒƒƒåƒâƒÚƒéƒîƒñ, ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà, ƒßƒÑ ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÖ ƒRƒÚƒÑƒãƒã), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒàƒßƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ³ƒåƒçƒäƒÖƒÝƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒäƒâƒñƒÕ
  ƒ³ƒíƒéƒ×ƒÓ
  ƒ´
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒäƒÑƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒÖƒâ. (ƒ³ƒÜƒàƒÒƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ)
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒÑƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÑ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒÖƒéƒÖƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒÑƒâƒÖƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒàƒÜƒäƒàƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ´ƒÑƒÜƒäƒàƒêƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒàƒÒƒàƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÔƒåƒÒ.
  ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ´ƒâƒÑƒÓƒñƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ´ƒâƒ×ƒçƒãƒÓƒñƒäƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ´ƒâƒàƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒ´ƒåƒÔƒåƒÝƒíƒÞ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒåƒÔƒåƒÝƒíƒÞƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒ´ƒåƒÞƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ´ƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ (ƒ®ƒâƒÖƒßƒÒƒåƒâƒÔƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÚ ƒ´ƒåƒâƒÔƒÑƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ) ƒÖƒáƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒñ
  ƒ´ƒðƒÞƒÖƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ´ƒðƒÞƒÖƒßƒî, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ÷
  ƒ÷ƒÓƒÑƒä, ƒáƒàƒã. ƒ+ƒåƒßƒÜƒä ƒáƒà ƒáƒâƒÚƒÖƒÞƒå ƒãƒãƒíƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒç
  ƒ÷ƒÓƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä
  ƒ÷ƒÔƒÝƒàƒÓƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ÷ƒÛ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒ÷ƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÝƒÚƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒ÷ƒÛƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝ
  ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝ.
  ƒ÷ƒæƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ÷ƒæƒÚƒÞƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒÞƒÖƒãƒäƒßƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà
  ƒ÷ƒêƒÑƒÜƒàƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ
  ƒƒÑƒÕƒðƒêƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒÑƒÜƒÖƒÝ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒƒàƒäƒÖƒÖƒÓƒÜƒÑ, ƒáƒàƒã.
  ƒ·
  ƒ·ƒÑƒÒƒÑƒâƒàƒÓƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ·ƒàƒçƒÝƒí, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?
  ƒ?ƒÑƒëƒÖƒÓƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÒƒÑƒâƒÜƒåƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒà (ƒ?ƒÖƒãƒßƒàƒÜƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ), ƒàƒÙ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÜƒÑƒÝƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒäƒÑƒßƒÚƒèƒÑ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕ
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÕƒíƒßƒî, ƒåƒÖƒÙƒÕƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒÚƒãƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒÖƒÞƒßƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, (ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒÜƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒ?ƒÖƒâƒßƒàƒñƒâƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒî
  ƒ?ƒÚƒäƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒàƒÓƒßƒÑƒâƒçƒàƒÙ
  ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒàƒÓƒÑ (ƒ?ƒåƒÓƒÑƒêƒÖƒÓƒÑ), ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ?ƒåƒÞƒÝƒñƒèƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒãƒÝƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒÑ
  ƒº
  ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒà, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà
  ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒàƒÝƒàƒãƒäƒî
  ƒºƒÑƒÝƒÑƒÞƒàƒÓƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÕƒÚƒãƒÜƒâƒÚƒä
  ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒÜƒÑƒßƒèƒÖƒÝƒñƒâƒÚƒñ
  ƒºƒÑƒÕƒâƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒàƒÜƒâƒåƒÔ
  ƒºƒäƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒºƒåƒÞƒÚƒçƒÑ, ƒÔƒàƒâ.
  ƒ'
  ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒÜƒÑ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒáƒâƒÚƒçƒàƒÕ
  ƒ'ƒåƒéƒÑƒßƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒãƒÖƒÝƒîƒãƒàƒÓƒÖƒä
  ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ., (ƒ'ƒåƒéƒîƒÖ, ƒãƒÖƒÝƒà, ƒÔƒàƒâ.)
  ƒÀ
  ƒÀƒÒƒÑƒÝƒÕƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ, ƒÕƒÖƒâ.
  ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒÑƒñ ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÙƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÕƒàƒâƒàƒÔƒÑ
  ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒáƒàƒã.
  ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒê, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒÀƒâƒÔƒÑƒÞƒíƒêƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒâ-ƒß
  ƒÁ
  ƒÁƒÚƒÜ, ƒâƒÖƒÜƒÑ
  ƒÁƒÚƒèƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒÑƒéƒÚƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒâƒàƒÕƒàƒÜ
  ƒÁƒÞƒÑƒÝ, ƒáƒàƒÝƒåƒàƒãƒäƒâƒàƒÓ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ³ƒàƒÜƒâƒÑƒëƒÖƒßƒÚƒñ
  ƒ?ƒƒƒ÷ ƒ¯ƒ¡ ƒ²ƒ¢ - ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒßƒÑƒèƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒâƒÖƒãƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒâƒäƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒß, ƒÔ. ƒ÷ƒæƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒƒƒ÷ ƒ²ƒ¢ ƒ¸ƒ¡ƒ®ƒ®ƒ® ƒ²ƒ¢ - ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ²ƒÖƒãƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒâƒäƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒß ƒ¸ƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒàƒÒƒëƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒç ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒÖƒßƒÚƒÛ ƒ²ƒÖƒãƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒâƒäƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒß, ƒÔ. ƒ÷ƒæƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒƒƒ÷ ƒ²ƒ¢ ƒ¸ƒªƒ¡ƒ²ƒ¢. ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒÜƒÑƒÙƒ×ƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ²ƒÖƒãƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒâƒäƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒß ƒ¸ƒÖƒßƒäƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÚƒãƒäƒàƒâƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒÜƒÚƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒ²ƒÖƒãƒáƒåƒÒƒÝƒÚƒÜƒÚ ƒ¢ƒÑƒêƒÜƒàƒâƒäƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒß, ƒÔ. ƒ÷ƒæƒÑ.
  ƒ?ƒ÷ ƒ®ƒ?ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ® - ƒ?ƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒàƒÖ ƒåƒéƒâƒÖƒØƒÕƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒàƒÒƒìƒÖƒÕƒÚƒßƒ×ƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÔƒàƒãƒåƒÕƒÑƒâƒãƒäƒÓƒÖƒßƒßƒíƒÛ ƒÑƒâƒçƒÚƒÓ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ'
  ƒÀƒ÷ƒ²ƒ® ƒ¡ƒ?ƒ- - ƒÀƒØƒßƒà-ƒ÷ƒâƒÑƒÝƒîƒãƒÜƒàƒÖ ƒ²ƒÖƒÔƒÚƒàƒßƒÑƒÝƒîƒßƒàƒÖ ƒàƒäƒÕƒÖƒÝƒÖƒßƒÚƒÖ ƒ¡ƒãƒãƒàƒèƒÚƒÑƒèƒÚƒÚ ƒÔƒÖƒßƒÖƒÑƒÝƒàƒÔƒàƒÓ-ƒÝƒðƒÒƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒÖƒÛ ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜƒàƒÛ ƒàƒÒƒÝƒÑƒãƒäƒÚ, ƒÔ. ƒ?ƒÖƒÝƒñƒÒƒÚƒßƒãƒÜ
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ƒ®ƒä ƒ?ƒÑƒã ƒÒƒÖƒâƒå ƒÓƒàƒãƒáƒàƒÞƒÚƒßƒÑƒßƒîƒñ, ƒÑ ƒãƒÖƒâƒÕƒèƒÖ ƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒñƒð ƒ?ƒÑƒÞ... ƒƒƒßƒÚƒÔƒÑ-ƒãƒÒƒàƒâƒßƒÚƒÜ ƒÓ 3-ƒç ƒéƒÑƒãƒäƒñƒç
  ƒ?ƒÑƒãƒäƒî 1
  ƒ?ƒ×ƒâƒãƒäƒÜƒÑ - ƒ¡ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒãƒÑƒßƒÕƒâƒÑ ƒ-ƒÖƒàƒßƒÚƒÕƒàƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ?ƒÑƒäƒåƒäƒÚƒßƒÑ.
  ƒƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ - ƒ¯ƒÑƒäƒÑƒÝƒîƒñ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ-ƒÑƒÙƒåƒÜƒà, ƒ³ƒäƒÖƒÝƒÝƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÕƒâƒÖƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒƒàƒÜƒÚƒßƒÑ, ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ¡ƒßƒÑƒäƒàƒÝƒîƒÖƒÓƒßƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ.
  ƒ³ƒäƒÑƒâƒÚƒßƒßƒíƒÖ ƒæƒàƒäƒàƒÔƒâƒÑƒæƒÚƒÚ ƒáƒâƒÖƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒÑƒÓƒÝƒÖƒßƒí ƒÒƒíƒÓƒêƒÚƒÞƒÚ ƒØƒÚƒäƒÖƒÝƒñƒÞƒÚ ƒÕƒÖƒâƒÖƒÓƒßƒÚ ƒ³ƒåƒçƒÑƒßƒàƒÓƒà ƒÚ ƒÚƒç ƒáƒàƒäƒàƒÞƒÜƒÑƒÞƒÚ.
  ƒ¿ƒÝƒÖƒÜƒäƒâƒàƒßƒßƒÑƒñ ƒÓƒÖƒâƒãƒÚƒñ ƒÕƒÑƒßƒßƒàƒÛ ƒÜƒßƒÚƒÔƒÚ ƒßƒÑƒçƒàƒÕƒÚƒäƒãƒñ ƒÓ ƒãƒÓƒàƒÒƒàƒÕƒßƒàƒÞ ƒÕƒàƒãƒäƒåƒáƒÖ ƒÓ ƒ³ƒÖƒäƒÚ ƒÚ ƒâƒÑƒãƒáƒâƒàƒãƒäƒâƒÑƒßƒñƒÖƒäƒãƒñ ƒÒƒÖƒãƒáƒÝƒÑƒäƒßƒà ƒÕƒÝƒñ ƒÓƒãƒÖƒç ƒØƒÖƒÝƒÑƒðƒëƒÚƒç.
  E-mail: ƒ®ƒÝƒîƒÔƒÑ ƒ'ƒÖƒäƒÜƒàƒÓƒÑ
  http://www.uralgenealogy.ru/
  
  
  ƒƒƒàƒÝƒÚƒéƒÖƒãƒäƒÓƒà ƒïƒÜƒÙ. 200
  2016 ƒÔƒàƒÕ
  
 Âàøà îöåíêà:

Ïîïóëÿðíîå íà LitNet.com À.Ìèíàåâà "Àêàäåìèÿ Àëîé êîðîíû. Îáó÷åíèå"(Áîåâîå ôýíòåçè) Ë.Ìèëåíèíà "Ðåêòîð íà âûäàíüå"(Ëþáîâíîå ôýíòåçè) Å.Øòîðì "Ìîé ëó÷øèé âðàã"(Ëþáîâíîå ôýíòåçè) Ð.Ïðîêîôüåâ "Ñòåëëàð. Èíêàðíàòîð"(Áîåâàÿ ôàíòàñòèêà) Ì.Çàéöåâà "Òðîå"(Ïîñòàïîêàëèïñèñ) À.Àðäîâà "Áðàê ïî-äðàêîíüè. Íîâûé Ãîä â àêàäåìèè ìàãèè"(Ëþáîâíîå ôýíòåçè) Ï.Ðîìàí "Èñêàòåëü âåòðà"(ËèòÐÏÃ) À.Çàâàäñêàÿ "Àðõè-Vr"(Êèáåðïàíê) Ê.Ôåäîðîâ "Èìïåðñêîå íàñëåäñòâî. Çàáûòûé îñêîëîê"(Áîåâàÿ ôàíòàñòèêà) Ñ.Ðîññ "Àïãðåéä ñîçíàíèÿ"(ËèòÐÏÃ)
Ñâÿçàòüñÿ ñ ïðîãðàììèñòîì ñàéòà.

Íîâûå êíèãè àâòîðîâ ÑÈ, âûøåäøèå èç ïå÷àòè:
Ä.Èâàíîâ "Âîëåþ áîãîâ" Ñ.Áàêøååâ " æèâûõ íå îñòàâëÿòü" Â.Àëôåðîâ "Ìãëà íàä ìèðîì" Â.Íåêëþäîâ "Ñïèðàëü Ôèáîíà÷÷è.Âåêòîð ñèëû"

Êàê ïîïàñòü â ýòoò ñïèñîê
Ñàéò - "Õóäîæíèêè" .. || .. Äîñêà îá'ÿâëåíèé "Êíèãè"