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On using of gravity energy

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  • Аннотация:
    Mathematical proof of a way of using of gravity energy

1. On using of gravity energy

2. Gravity-heat Power System

On using of gravity energy

Mathematical proof of a way of using of gravity energy

   Author - Vladimir Sukhanov, April 2008

   Translated by Valentina Sukhanova from Russian
  

   In hydrodynamic formula of the Energy Conservation Law for constant flow of incompressible fluid (Bernoulli's principle) is all known:
  

Hro [Владимир Суханов] [Владимир Суханов]2/2 + Hro [Владимир Суханов]gh + p = constant

(1)

   where,
    [Владимир Суханов] - the fluid velocity at a point on a streamline,
  
   g - the acceleration due to gravity,
  
   h - the height of the point above a reference plane,
  
   p - the pressure at the point,
  
   Hro [Владимир Суханов] - the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.
  
   At the circulating flow of incompressible fluid with different density ?1 and ?2 Bernoulli's principle's formula takes the next view
  

Hro [Владимир Суханов]1 [Владимир Суханов]12/2 + Hro [Владимир Суханов]1gh1 + p1 = Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 [Владимир Суханов]22/2 + Hro [Владимир Суханов]2gh2 + p2

(2)

  
   Such condition does not break the first one, if threshold/race changing of the fluid density from Hro [Владимир Суханов]1 to Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 in the upper point O and back to Hro [Владимир Суханов]1 in lower point B is taken in account and also - expenditure and restores energies for such density change (see fig.).

Fig [Владимир Суханов]

Fig. Schematic drawing of a pipe line counter

   There is a closed counter of a pipe line with substance moving into it, which is in the gravity field, on the figure. The counter of the pipe line has two branches: the left one, where a gas with the density Hro [Владимир Суханов]1 and the velocity Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 moves up, and the right one, where a fluid with the density Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 and the velocity Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 moves down.
  
   For decreasing of the density from ?2 to Hro [Владимир Суханов]1, for instance, by the way of phase conversion (by evaporation of the fluid with the density Hro [Владимир Суханов]2) the energy W1 is needed. At return conversion from the gas state with the density ?1 into the fluid with the density Hro [Владимир Суханов]2 the energy W2 returns back. This is
  

W1 = W2 = W

(3)

  
   The energy W2 can be directed from the upper point O, where it was taken, to the lower point B as energy W1
  
   If the left branch of the pipe line, with the gas, and the right one, with the fluid, have equal volumes V and we multiply by the volume V both parts of the formula (2), we will get:

M1 [Владимир Суханов]12/2 + M1gh1 + p1 = M2 [Владимир Суханов]22/2 + M2gh2 + p2

(4)

  
   where,
   M1 - mass of the gas, (e.g. Hro [Владимир Суханов]V = m),
  
   M2 - mass of the fluid,
  
   h = h1 = h2 - the height of the counter of the pipe line and its branches.
  
   For slow processes, where  [Владимир Суханов]1 and  [Владимир Суханов]2 are slightly small, we shall get
  

M1gh + p1V = M2gh + p2V

(5)

  
   If it examines/considers equal volume of the gas and the fluid, mass of the gas M1 will slightly small and we might ignore it. Then next equation for the upper point O will true:

p1V = M2gDelta [Владимир Суханов]h0 + p2V = 0

(6)

  
   This is the counter height of the fluid movement into gravity field Delta [Владимир Суханов]ho=0 and p1=p2.
   For the lower point B we shall get accordingly next formula
  

p1V = M2gDelta [Владимир Суханов]hB + (p1 + Delta [Владимир Суханов]p)V = 0

(7)

  
   where Delta [Владимир Суханов]hB=h and p2=p1+Delta [Владимир Суханов]p or
  

M2gh = -Delta [Владимир Суханов]pV = A

(8)

  
   where Delta [Владимир Суханов]p is the change of pressure at the lower point B, which arises under weight of the moving fluid with density Hro [Владимир Суханов]2.
  
   Work of the gravity energy using A equal:
  

A = M2gh/2

(9)

  
   where h/2 is the mean height from which the fluid movement down.
  
   Turn to the beginning of the article. We need to spend/use/expend energy W in the lower point B for the process realization. If the work A is more than the energy W, we will have possibility to use a rest of the gravity energy P = A -W.
  
   This process was intuitively described by me in my book "Inventive Creation" (Изобретательское Творчество ISBN 5-94990-002-2, pp118, 2003) and in Russian and English versions of the journal "New Energy Technologies" ISSN 1684-7288 Contents N 5 & 6 of 2003.
   http://www.faraday.ru/content14.html
  
   Full English version is available in Internet archive
   http://web.archive.org/web/20060505010305/http://inventcreat.com/invent/gen.html
  
   There was considered the example with water and water steam as a work fluid. In that example the work A was more than the energy W, when the height of fluid movement down of the water h equalled 25,000 metres. It is technologically impossible. But if it is taken as a work substance heavy inert gas, for instance, Xenon, the height h will be decreased by 2 - 3 orders. And it is not limit too.
  
  
   Fore history
  
   Firstly this method, which was described by me through my own intuition without mathematical proof, I tried to patent in the USSA in 1982. The application on the invention under the number 3453603/06 was refused.
   That method was registered in the Russian Federation at VNTIC (Всероссийский научно-технический информационный центр) on 25th December 2000 by number 72200000049. http://www.vntic.org.ru/ And then it was published in bulletin of VNTIC "Ideas, Hypotheses, Solutions" N1, 2001.

Author - Vladimir Sukhanov, April 2008


For example

Copyright - Vladimir Sukhanov 2000, 2003

Russian

Author - Vladimir Sukhanov
Translation - Dina S. Kurenkova and Valentina N. Sukhanov

Gravity-heat Power System

Natural hydrologic cycle is a widely recognized phenomenon. Water evaporates from the ground and water reservoir surfaces, generally, due to the Sun heat, then moves to the superstructure atmospheric layers where it is condensed, and precipitates onto the ground surface, but on higher levels compared with evaporation surfaces. In this process water is also purified and desalted. From the higher levels water flows to its main evaporation points, forming streams like brooks and rivers where water power plants could be established. Flowing to the lower surface layers with lower potential energy, water in the Earth's gravitational field performs work that can be utilized.

Natural hydrologic cycle principle is used in the gravity-heat power system (USA patent No. 3953971, International class. F03G7/04 of May 4, 1976).

In this system the temperature difference between ground surface layers (the mountain foot and its top) is used to produce electric power and obtain fresh water. The temperature difference does not change much with change of height, and the system effectiveness is quite moderate, which can be named as its drawback.

The system utilizes free environmental energy. Its efficiency (converted to the process maintaining energy) tends to infinity.

The author proposes a new gravity-heat power system that can substitute modern heat power plants. It contains all installation components as per USA patent No. 3953971 except for the heat exchanger on the ground surface whose functions are performed by a conventional steam boiler.

Gravity energy component G in the proposed system:

G = Xm T g H ,

where

This formula does not allow for vapor density of operating fluid.

The vapor density is insignificant as compared with the operating fluid density.

Energy P, required to maintain operation:

P = Xm T q ,
where q - specific fluid vaporization energy

Efficiency K - of the system should not be lower than 80%

K = (G - P)/P
For that
XmT(gH - q)/XmTq Bol [Владимир Суханов] 0,8
or
H Bol [Владимир Суханов]1,8 q/g
For temperature T = 280 degree Celsius bensol (atmospheric pressure) has specific vaporization energy q = 115 x 103(J/kg)

Here is H Bol [Владимир Суханов] 21 kilometers and K will be less than 80% of heat which will be lost in too long pipelines.

For mercury q = 285 x 103(J/kg). It has density many more than the water. Therefore H Bol [Владимир Суханов] 3,9 kilometers is realiztic height. In that case we can use a mountain slope or a barrel of mine.

For water at preasure 225,2 kg/cm3 and T = 374 degree Celsius has next vaporization energy q = 113 x 103(J/kg) and H Bol [Владимир Суханов] 21 kilometers.

To obtain efficiency that equals 120% the following is required:

H = 2,2q/g

Or H = 25,4 kilometers.

Construction of such towers is too complicated for modern technology. Therefore, a stratospheric balloon that is linked to the ground surface by a flexible twin-core hose rope may be used. One core is designed to send down fluid and the other to send up vapor. Flowing down to the ground surface through the hose, the fluid will generate fluid column pressure. The fluid will cross water-turbine generator cascades, after each of which the fluid pressure will decrease and the fluid will continue its way down.

There is an alternative. To make the tower several times lower the evaporation (at the tower foot) and condensation (at the tower/mountain top) should be phased (in the form of cascade) at various pressure values and with utilization of the same heat energy. For this purpose a heat carrier is used that will transfer heat from the tower (mountain) top to its foot. This operation will enable the tower height segmentation into H/n sections where n is the number of grades in a cascade.

Cascade structure is shown in Fig. 1

Gravity Power Station [Владимир Суханов]

Fig. 1
Cascade

where
  1. ground surface,
  2. tower component or the smoke-stack of the steam boiler,
  3. steam boiler,
  4. steam pipe,
  5. heat exchanger and condenser,
  6. pressure pipeline,
  7. water-turbine generator,
  8. heat exchanger and evaporator,
  9. circulation pump,
  10. pipeline of the heat carrier circulation.

The cascade works next way. Work fluid evaporates in steam boilder 3 at that heat energy for efficient support of the cascade expenses. The steam from steam boilder 3 lifts by steam pipe 4 on tower height 2 and condeses in heat exchanger 5. Condensant in pipeline 6 makes push of fluid pillar, under act of which work fluid does through water-turbine generator 7 and make work for getting energy. Then the fluid comes into heat exchanger and evaporator 8. At that heat energy, which was taken at stream condense into fluid in heat exchanger 5, together with heat carrier comes to heat exchanger 8 for evaporation the fluid in it. From the heat exchanger 8 steam comes into pipeline 4 and then all cycle repeats.

Circulate of heat carrier through pipeline 10 realizes the pumps 9.

From one step to other presure of condense and evaporation of the fluid decreases. That gives decrease of work temperature from step to step and use the heat energy from steam boiler 3 repeated. Limit of the cascade length is heat lost in pipelines, in steam pipe and equipments of the cascade and also quality of heater exchangers (temperature differential on which they can work).

Cascade (operating fluid, water) with 500 meters of height can contain several dozens of grades (50 and more). In this case the cascade efficiency may approach 120%.

Decreasing the tower height to 500 meters (for water) will allow for utilization of conventional water-turbine generators and standard equipment.

In the proposed cascade the heat energy is required to maintain the cascade working capacity when Earth's gravitational field energy is utilized. In the author's opinion there are still other ways to use gravitation.

The system scale is its main drawback. Therefore, partial utilization of the proposed principle may seem more attractive. The proposed engineering solution was simple.

In a thermal power station the condenser is installed on the top of the tower (mountain). After the condenser the water lift in the water tower finished at the steam boiler pressure pipe (omitting the pump that was no longer necessary). Energy required for pressure pipe operation was saved. In other words, the water tower was utilizing the Earth's gravitation at the conventional juncture of vapor condensation in the steam plant.

Such proposal was made on June 17, 1982 in the patent application USSR N3453603/06, (101161) ICI: F22D11/00, F01K13/00, F01K17/04 (Fig. 2). However, the utilization of free and environmentally friendly gravity energy did not arouse interest even on the part of patent experts.

The invention belongs to enegetic field, namely, to equipment of heat station.

Subject of the invention is to increase coefficient of officiency of electro-station. That subject is reached next way. In known heat-electro-station, which has steam generator contested with pipeline and condensator, it is offered the condensator to place on hill, for example, on dam of hydro-electro-station (HES). Hydro-electro-station is shown in Fig 2.

Gravity Power Station [Владимир Суханов]

Fig. 2
System

where


    1 - steam generator,
    2 - turbo-generator,
    3 - steam pipe of high preasure,
    4 - condensator,
    5 - heat isolated staem pipe of low presuare,
Condensator 4 is located on hill 6 in the water stream 7 for colling pipeline 8.

The Hydro-electro-station works next way. Steam of high presure from steam generator 1 comes in turbo-generator 2 from which pressed steam lifts through pipeline 5 to condensator 4. There the steam condensates and amass in low part of the condensator 4. The condensator 4 makes presure of fluid pillar in steam generator 1, which agrees with his work pressure, by means of pipeline 8.

Useing the suggested invention lets us to make heat-electro-station in which pump for give the water in steam generator will be expeled. Economy effect will be got for economy of energy, which is needed for work pumps at give the water in steam generator.


The author - Suhanov Vladimir Nikolaevich

It was registered in VNTIC the 01 of december 2000 by N 72200000039.

The article was published in the book "Inventive Creation" in Russian in 2003.

Published by Faraday Lab. Magazine "New Energy Technologies" No 5-6, 2003. ISSN 1684-7288.

Copyright - Vladimir Sukhanov 2000, 2003


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