Темежников Евгений Александрович: другие произведения.

The Military Balance 1967

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THE MILITARY BALANCE 1967

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1967

   The Military Balance 1966
   The Military Balance 1968

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Foreword
Communist Powers:
  Warsaw Pact - Варшавский Договор: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, Soviet Union - Советский Союз
  China - Китай, Cuba, Mongolia, North Korea, North Vietnam
Western alliances: Treaties
   NATO - НАТО: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, USA
   CENTO: Iran, Pakistan
   SEATO: Australia, New Zealand, Philippine, Thailand
   Protocol States: Cambodia, Laos, South Vietnam
   US mutual defence treaties: Japan, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan
Non-Aligned Countries:
   Middle East: Iraq, Israel, Jordan , Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAR
   Asia: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore
Tables
Appendix:
   Vietnam War / Война во Вьетнаме, Arab-Israili war / Арабо-Израильская война, Yemen civil war / Гражданская война в Йемене,
   Nigerian civil war / Гражданская война в Нигерии, Event

FOREWORD

   This is the ninth of the Institute's annual estimates of the nature and size of the military forces of the principal powers. It covers the Communist powers, those countries which have mutual defence treaties with the United States (excluding Latin America), and a number of non-aligned countries in the Middle East and Asia. So that the Middle East could be treated in some detail, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia have been omitted from this edition. No significant change in the defence establishment of these four countries has taken place in the past year. It is hoped to include them in future editions.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in many cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information, and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking material.
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia, or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Naval strengths are those of active fleets and ships in commission only, except where otherwise stated. Vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are the latest available and are exclusive of military aid.
   A table showing the average strength of military units, and a glossary listing the abbreviations used in The Military Balance, will be found on the next page. The term 'combat aircraft', as used in the text, is considered to include bombers, fighter-bombers, interceptors, reconnaissance, light-strike, counter-insurgency, and armed trainer aircraft, but not other categories of military aircraft.
   This document examines the military and diplomatic situation as it existed in July 1967, and reflects the changes that will, on present indications, occur during the ensuing year. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1968 have been included, except where explicitly stated.
   The material in this document should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the nature of the balance of strategic power: it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability, efficiency, etc., on either side. It may, however, be found useful in the context of discussions on strategy and disarmament. The Military Balance is now complemented by another annual publication, Strategic Survey, published each spring, which reviews developments in strategic policy, doctrine, and weapons in the major countries for the preceding calendar year.
   September 1967
  

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

   Это девятый из ежегодных выпусков Института о характере и размере вооруженных сил главных держав. Он охватывает коммунистические державы, те страны, которые имеют договоры о взаимной защите с Соединенными Штатами (за исключением Латинской Америки) и ряд неприсоединившихся стран на Ближнем Востоке и в Азии. Чтобы можно было лучше показать некоторые детали на Ближнем Востоке, Южная Африка, Швеция, Швейцария и Югославия были исключены из этого издания. В прошлом году существенных изменений в вооруженных силах этих четырех стран не произошло. Будем надеяться включить их в будущие издания.
   Институт берет на себя полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Сотрудничество правительств было запрошено и во многих случаях получено. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают в области предоставления информации, и некоторые цифры были оцененочные. Институт выражает благодарность ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые помогали в сборе и проверке материалов.
   Данные о численности личного состава касаются регулярных сил, однако в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, указана численность полувоенных сил, ополченцев или резервных сил. Силами военно-морского флота являются силы только активного флота, за исключением случаев, когда указано иное. Были исключены суда с нормальным водоизмещением менее 100 тонн. Цифры для бюджетов обороны являются последними доступными и не включают военную помощь.
   Приведена таблица, показывающая среднюю численность воинских частей и глоссарий, в котором перечислены аббревиатуры, используемые в "Военном балансе". Термин "боевой самолет", используемый в тексте, считается включающим бомбардировщики, истребители-бомбардировщики, перехватчики, разведчики, легкие штурмовики, противо-повстанческие и вооруженные учебные самолёты, но не другие категории военных самолетов.
   В документе рассматривается военная и дипломатическая ситуация, как она существовала в июле 1967 года, и отражает изменения, которые по настоящим показаниям произойдут в течение следующего года. Никакие прогнозы уровней силы или оружия после 1968 года не включены, за исключением случаев, когда это прямо указано.
   Материал в этом документе не следует рассматривать как всеобъемлющее руководство по характеру баланса стратегической силы: он не отражает фактов географии, уязвимости, эффективности и т.д. с обеих сторон. Однако он может быть полезен в контексте обсуждений по стратегии и разоружению. Военный баланс теперь дополняется очередной ежегодной публикацией "Стратегическое исследование", которая публикуется каждую весну, которая рассматривает события в стратегической политике, доктрине и вооружении в основных странах за предыдущий календарный год.
   Сентябрь 1967 г.
  
    []
   NOTE. The above figures refer to the basic war establishments of the formation in question. They should be treated as very approximate, since most military organization is flexible and units may be reinforced or run down for particular operations. Divisional strengths refer to combat units only and do not include support units or rear services outside the divisional structure. A dash indicates that the formation in question is not normally operated by that country.
   Warsaw Pact forces not included above have similar unit strengths to those of the Soviet Union. NATO forces not included in the table have similar totals to those of Germany. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have tended to follow American military organization, while Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Singapore generally follow British practice.
   a. Army divisions only; a Marine Corps division has over 20,000 men.
   b. Strength of a regiment, which is the equivalent formation in the Soviet and the Chinese command structures.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ. Вышеуказанные цифры относятся к основным военным учреждениям рассматриваемого формирования. Их следует рассматривать как очень приблизительные, поскольку большинство военных организаций являются гибкими, а подразделения могут быть усилены или сокращены для конкретных операций. Силы дивизии относятся только к боевым единицам и не включают вспомогательные подразделения или тыловые службы за пределами дивизионной структуры. Тире указывает, что данная формация обычно не используется этой страной.
   Силы Варшавского договора, не включенные в таблицу, аналогичны силы войскам Советского Союза. Силы НАТО, не включенные в таблицу, аналогичны Германии. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань имеют тенденцию следовать за американской военной организацией, в то время как Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия и Сингапур обычно следуют британской практике.
   a. Армейская дивизия; дивизия морской пехоты насчитывает более 20 000 человек.
   b. Силы полка, эквивалентная формация в советских и китайских структурах.
  
   ABBREVIATIONS
   ABM - Anti-ballistic missile.
   ANZUS - Australia, New Zealand, and United States Security Treaty.
   ASW - Anti-submarine warfare.
   BMD - Ballistic missile defence.
   GNP - Gross national product.
   GSFG - Group of Soviet Forces in Germany.
   ICBM - Inter-continental ballistic missile.
   IRBM - Intermediate-range ballistic missile.
   MR - Military Region (China).
   MRBM - Medium-range ballistic missile.
   MTB - Motor torpedo boat.
   PLA-People's Liberation Army (China).
   PVO - Air Defence Command (USSR).
   SAM - Surface-to-air missile.
   SP - Self-propelled.
   UNFICYP- United Nations Force in Cyprus.
   n.a. - Not available.
   Million -000,000.
   Billion - 000,000,000.
  

PART I. THE COMMUNIST POWERS

  

THE WARSAW PACT NATIONS

   The Warsaw Pact is a multilateral military alliance formed by a 'Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance, and Co-operation', which was signed in Warsaw on 14 May 1955 by the Governments of the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania. Albania, although still nominally a member of the Pact, broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1961 and has not taken part in Pact activities in recent years. Mongolia, China, North Korea, and North Vietnam have all sent observers to past meetings of the Pact, but are not members of it.
   In addition to the Warsaw Treaty, the Soviet Union had concluded bilateral mutual aid treaties with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania before 1950, and signed a similar treaty with East Germany in 1964. All signatories to the Warsaw Treaty, with the exception of Albania, also have bilateral treaties with each other. The Soviet Union concluded status-of-forces agreements with Poland, East Germany, Rumania, and Hungary between December 1956 and May 1957; all these remain in effect except the one with Rumania, which lapsed in June 1958, when Soviet troops left Rumania.
   The Warsaw Treaty Organization consists of two main bodies, the Political Consultative Committee and the High Command of United Armed Forces, both of which have their offices in Moscow. The Political Committee consists of the First Secretaries of the Communist Party, Heads of Government, and the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the member-countries. It was intended to meet twice a year, but in fact only eight meetings had been held up to July 1966. The Committee has established a Joint Secretariat, consisting of a specially appointed official from each country, and a Permanent Commission, whose task is to make recommendations on general questions of foreign policy for members of the Pact. Both these bodies are located in Moscow, with a majority of Russian officials. The Soviet Head of the Joint Secretariat is, for example, also Chief of Staff of the High Command.
   The High Command has supreme authority over such military forces as are assigned to it by the member-states. According to the treaty, the Command is directed 'to strengthen the defensive capability of the Warsaw Pact, to prepare military plans in case of war, and to decide on the deployment of troops'. The High Command consists of a Commander-in Chief, who has the eight Defence Ministers or national Commanders-in-Chief as his deputies, and a Staff which includes permanent representatives of the general staffs of the member countries. The posts of Commander-in-Chief and Chief of Staff of the High Command have always been held by Soviet officers. The first post is held by the principal deputy to the Soviet Minister of Defence, and the second carries with it, ex officio, the post of a Deputy Chief of the Soviet General Staff.
   The bulk of the ground forces of the Warsaw Pact is provided by the Soviet Union. They include the Northern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Legnica in Poland; the Southern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Tokol, near Budapest; and the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG), with headquarters at Wiinsdorf, near East Berlin. The six operational divisions of the East German Army appear to be under the operational command of GSFG. There is no evidence to show whether any divisions from other countries are specifically assigned to the High Command, although it is probable that the bulk of the Warsaw Pact armies would be at its disposal in the event of war.
   Soviet tactical air forces include at least one air army (about 900 tactical aircraft), stationed in East Germany. The air forces of the other active Pact members, which consist partly of fighter-interceptors and partly of ground-support aircraft but do not include any medium- or long-range bombers, would be under the High Command in the event of war. There is an air defence and warning system centralized in Moscow and commanded by the C-in-C of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Soviet MRBMs and other strategic weapons are based in the Soviet Union and remain under Soviet control.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВАРШАВСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Варшавский договор представляет собой многосторонний военный союз, образованный "Договором о дружбе, взаимной помощи и сотрудничестве", который был подписан в Варшаве 14 мая 1955 года правительствами Советского Союза, Албании, Болгарии, Чехословакии, Восточной Германии , Венгрии, Польши и Румынии. Албания, хотя и по-прежнему номинально являлась членом Пакта, в 1961 году прекратила дипломатические отношения с Советским Союзом и в последние годы не участвовала в деятельности Договора. Монголия, Китай, Северная Корея и Северный Вьетнам все отправляли наблюдателей на прошлые встречи Договора, но не являются его членами.
   В дополнение к Варшавскому договору Советский Союз заключил двусторонние соглашения о взаимопомощи с Болгарией, Чехословакией, Венгрией, Польшей и Румынией до 1950 года и подписал аналогичный договор с Восточной Германией в 1964 году. Все стороны, подписавшие Варшавский договор, кроме Албании, также имеют двусторонние договоры друг с другом. Советский Союз заключил соглашения о статусе сил с Польшей, Восточной Германией, Румынией и Венгрией в период с декабря 1956 года по май 1957 года, все это остается в силе, за исключением разве что с Румынией, которое закончилось в июне 1958 года, когда советские войска покинули Румынию.
   Организация Варшавского договора состоит из двух основных органов: Политического консультативного комитета и Главного командования объединенных вооруженных сил, оба из которых имеют свои представительства в Москве. Политический комитет состоит из первых секретарей Коммунистической партии, глав правительств и министров иностранных дел и обороны стран-членов. Предполагалось, что он собирается проводить совещания два раза в год, но на самом деле за июль 1966 года было проведено всего восемь совещаний. Комитет учредил Объединенный секретариат, состоящий из специально назначенного должностного лица от каждой страны и Постоянной комиссии, задачей которого является выносить рекомендации по общим вопросам внешней политики для членов Договора. Оба этих органа находятся в Москве, причем большинство в них российские чиновники. Советский глава Объединенного секретариата, например, также является начальником штаба Верховного командования.
   Высшее командование обладает высшей властью над такими вооруженными силами, которые назначаются ему государствами-членами. Согласно договору, командование направлено "на укрепление обороноспособности Варшавского договора, подготовку военных планов в случае войны и принятие решения о развертывании войск". Высшее командование состоит из главнокомандующего, в состав которого входят восемь министров обороны или национальных главнокомандующих в качестве его заместителей, а также Штаб, в состав которого входят постоянные представители генеральных штабов стран-членов. Должностные обязанности главнокомандующего и начальника штаба Верховного командования всегда проводились советскими офицерами. Первый пост занимает главный заместитель министра обороны СССР, а второй, должность заместителя начальника Генерального штаба СССР.
   Основная часть сухопутных войск Варшавского договора предоставляется Советским Союзом. Они включают Северную группу войск, штаб-квартира в Легнице в Польше; Южную группу войск, со штаб-квартирой в Токоле, недалеко от Будапешта; и Группу советских войск в Германии (ГСВГ) со штаб-квартирой в Винсдорфе, недалеко от Берлина. Похоже, что 6 дивизий Восточногерманской армии находятся под оперативным командованием ГСВГ. Нет никаких доказательств того, что какие-либо дивизии других стран специально подчинены Верховному командованию, хотя, вероятно, основная часть армий Варшавского Договора будет в его распоряжении в случае войны.
   Советские тактические воздушные силы включают, по крайней мере, одну воздушную армию (около 900 тактических самолетов), дислоцированную в Восточной Германии. Военно-воздушные силы других активных членов Договора, которые состоят частично из истребителей-перехватчиков и частично из ударных самолетов, но не включают в бомбардировщиков средней и большой дальности, будут находиться под командованием Верховного главнокомандующего в случае войны. В Москве имеется централизованная система противовоздушной обороны и предупреждения, которой командует командующий советских сил противовоздушной обороны. Советские БРСД и другое стратегическое оружие базируются в Советском Союзе и остаются под советским контролем.
  
   ALBANIA
   (*Albania does not collaborate in any way with the other members of the Warsaw Pact, to which she still nominally adheres.)
Population: 2,000,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special units, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 38,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 272 million new leks ($68,500,000).
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   6 infantry brigades.
   About 50 tanks, mostly T-34s.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   4 submarines.
   8 minesweepers.
   17 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; 60 combat aircraft. There are 10 aircraft in an Albanian combat squadron.
   6 air defence squadrons with MiG-15s, MiG-17s, and MiG-19s.
   About 20 transports, including An-2 and Il-14, and Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-military forces 12,500.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,400,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Navy and Air Force, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 154,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 264 million leva ($228,000,000).
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   12 divisions: 4 tank and 8 motorized rifle.
   Over 2,500 tanks, mainly T-54s, with some T-34s and T-55s.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   About 1,200 artillery pieces.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   2 submarines.
   10 coastal escorts.
   20 minesweepers.
   40 other vessels.
   A small Danube flotilla.
Air Force Total strength: 22,000; 250 combat aircraft. There are 10-12 aircraft in a Warsaw Pact combat squadron.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s and MiG-21s.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17Cs.
   6 ground-support squadrons with MiG-17s.
   20 transport aircraft, including Il-12 and Il-14, and some 20 Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces 20,000, including border troops.
   A People's Militia of 150,000.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,500,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 225,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 12,373 million crowns ($1,452,000,000).
Army Total strength: 175,000.
   14 divisions: 4 tank and 10 motorized rifle.
   1 airborne brigade.
   There are 3,200 tanks, mostly T-55s.
   The Army is now at about 70 per cent of full strength.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   About 2,000 artillery pieces.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Air Force Total strength: 50,000; 600 combat aircraft.
   300 MiG-17, MiG-19, and MiG-20 interceptors.
   300 MiG-15, MiG-17, and Su-7 Fitter ground support aircraft.
   50 Il-14 and Il-18 transport aircraft and about
   100 helicopters.
   Over 300 training aircraft, including 150 L-29 Mayas.
Para-military forces 40,000, including border troops.
  
   EAST GERMANY
Population: 17,200,000.
Military service: Army, 18 months; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Total regular forces: 127,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 3,600 million Ostmarks ($1,063,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   6 divisions: 2 tank and 4 motorized rifle.
   About 1,800 tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s, with some T-34s.
   Some 850 artillery pieces, including 122mm and 152mm and about 450 anti-aircraft guns.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   20 coastal escorts.
   50 coastal minesweepers.
   8 missile patrol boats.
   60 other vessels.
   6 landing craft.
1 marine brigade.
A small number of Hound helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 300 combat aircraft.
   12 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   12 ground-support and reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17s.
   20 transport aircraft, including An-2 and Il-14.
   40 Hare and Hound helicopters.
An anti-aircraft division of 9,000 is included in this Command.
Para-military forces 70,000 security and border troops, including a separate Border Command.
   The Betriebskampfgruppen, an armed workers' organization, number over 250,000.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,300,000.
Military service: 3 years maximum.
Total regular forces: 102,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 5,444 million forints ($313,000,000).
Army Total strength: 95,000.
   6 divisions: 1 tank and 5 motorized rifle.
   About 700 tanks, mainly T-55s with some T-54s.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy There is a Danube flotilla of 15 patrol vessels and a training ship.
Air Force Total strength: 7,000; 140 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber squadron with Il-28s.
   9 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   6 ground-support and reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17s.
   10 An-2 and Il-14 transport aircraft.
   About 10 Hare and Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces 35,000 security troops and border guards, plus a workers' militia of over 100,000.
  
   POLAND
Population: 32,000,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special services, 3 years; internal security forces, 27 months.
Total regular forces: 270,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 26,450 million zloty ($1,662,000,000).
Army Total strength: 185,000:
   5 armoured divisions.
   9 motorized divisions.
   1 airborne division. .
   1 amphibious assault division.
   These divisions are normally at 70% of full strength.
   3,000 tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s.
   Some surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   10 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   20 minesweepers.
   85 other ships.
50 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17s.
Air Force Total strength: 70,000; 820 combat aircraft.
   (*There are 10-12 aircraft in most Polish combat squadrons, except for the bomber squadrons, which have 8-10)
   6 light bomber squadrons with Il-28s.
   48 interceptor squadrons with PZL-15s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   18 ground-support and reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17s and Su-7s.
   About 40 transport aircraft, including An-2s, Il-12s, and Il-14s, and 40 helicopters, including Hares and Hounds.
   About 300 training aircraft, including Gavrons and Wilgas.
Para-military forces 45,000 security and border troops,
   including the armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force, who are now integrated with the regular forces.
  
   ROUMANIA
Population: 19,500,000.
Military service: Army, 1 year; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Total regular forces: 173,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 5 billion lei ($530,000,000).
Army Total strength: 150,000.
   9 divisions: 2 tank and 7 motorized rifle.
   Some independent mountain units.
   1,200 T-34, T-54, and T-55 tanks.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   5 coastal escorts.
   30 minesweepers.
   15 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 240 combat aircraft.
   9 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s and MiG-21s.
   9 interceptor squadrons with MiG-15s and MiG-17s.
   About 10 transports including I1-12 and I1-14.
   10 Hound helicopters.
   About 150 training aircraft, including Yak-18 and L-29 Delfins.
Para-military forces 50,000, including border defence troops.
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 234,500,000.
Basic military service: Army, 2-3 years; Air Force, 3 years; and Navy, 4 years.
Defence budget 1967: 14,500 million roubles ($16,000,000,000).
   This is a 7.5% increase on the 1966 figure, and as a proportion of the total state budget, of which it forms 13.2%, it is 0.4% higher than in 1966. This figure represents the declared defence vote, and does not include space research costs, costs of nuclear warheads, or research-and-development expenditure on advanced weapons systems which may now account for as much as the whole declared defence budget. At the official exchange rate, the defence budget would be approximately $16.000.000.000. If considered to include items related to defence but not in the declared defence budget, total Soviet military expenditure is probably nearer $30-35,000,000,000 a year.
Total regular forces are estimated at 3.220.000 men. In addition, the para-military forces, including the security and border troops of the Ministry of the Interior, have about 250,000 men.
  
   Strategic Rocket Forces
   Operational Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) now total around 450-75, an increase of about 50 per cent on the 1966 figure.
   Newer systems are deployed in individual sites which are hardened and widely separated, and it is thought that these are capable of faster reaction than earlier systems. At the present rate of construction and installation, the total number of ICBMs deployed may have reached 550 by mid-1968.
   A large three-stage rocket has been displayed in Moscow on several occasions since 1965; the Russians claim that it has a global and orbital bombardment capability. Whether this particular system has been tested remains unknown; however, a high-ranking Soviet officer stated in November 1965 that 'other' orbital rockets also were under development, suggesting that the Russians have a continuing interest in systems with extended ranges.
   The chief protection for ICBM launchers is the hardening and separation of launch silos. However, a limited Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system, based on the Galosh anti-missile missile, is being deployed around Moscow, and another system, the so-called 'Tallin Line', which may be an advanced surface-to-air missile system, is in course of installation along the eastern Baltic coast as far as Leningrad.
   The Tallin Line may have some ABM capability, and it is probable that its radars extend the coverage provided by the early-warning system of the Moscow ABM defences, whether or not the Tallin Line missile's are themselves ABM. The number of Medium-Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBMs) and Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBMs) appears to have levelled off at between 700 and 750. These can cover most strategic and semi-tactical targets, such as airfields in Western Europe, Japan, and probably China. The operational MRBM, Sandal, is a single-stage missile with a range of about 1,100 statute miles and with limited launch mobility. The IRBM, Skean, is also a single-stage missile with storable liquid fuels. It has a range of more than 2.000 miles. Both systems are deployed near the western, southern, and eastern borders of the USSR, the majority being situated in the western region.
   The operational personnel of the Strategic Rocket Forces, under the command of Marshal Krylov, now totals about 250.000.
  
   Air Defence
   The Air Defence Command (PVO) is a separate command of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to air missile units, using an early-warning system based on radar, and fighter-interceptor squadrons for identification and possible interception of hostile targets. Total personnel in the PVO numbers about 500,000, of which ground elements account for 250,000. PVO units are normally subordinate to the local Army commanders, and the PVO's area of responsibility extends over the whole Warsaw Pact area. Air defence weapons now in service include:
   (1) Anti-aircraft artillery. 23mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm, and 130mm guns, and ZSU-57-2 twin-barrelled guns on tank chassis.
   Guns over 57mm may be phased out in favour of surface-to-air missiles.
   (2) Surface-to-air missiles.
   Guideline: A two stage boosted anti-aircraft missile with an impact range of about 31 statute miles, and effective to a height of between 1,000 and 80,000 ft.
   Griffon: A two-stage boosted missile now used in the anti-aircraft role. Its impact range is greater than that of Guideline, and its altitude capability somewhat greater. It was probably for this missile that the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Air Defence has claimed a nuclear capability.
   Ganef: A mobile anti-aircraft missile with solid-fuel boosters. These are twin-mounted on tracked carriers and may have been assigned to ground forces in the field.
   Goa:A two-stage missile, possibly intended to replace Guideline. Only limited operational deployment is thought to have taken place.
   Galosh: A multi-stage, solid-fuel anti-ballistic missile missile, now deployed in limited numbers around Moscow. It is believed to have a range of several hundred miles and to carry a nuclear warhead in the 1-2 megaton range. It is therefore suitable for interception at high altitude and for area defence. This feature and the nature of the radars associated with it suggest that its function is the defence of the north-western USSR, which contains a high proportion of Soviet industrial capacity and many of its major cities. As at present deployed, it provides a limited defence against Minuteman firings from North America or Polaris missiles from the Arctic Ocean. Reports of ABM and radar-site construction in southern USSR and in the Ural Mountains would be consistent with extension of the system to provide some degree of all round protection, especially against Polaris from the Mediterranean, or missiles from China, but such reports are as yet unconfirmed from official sources.
   (3) Fighters. There are probably about 3,700 PVO fighters in service, the majority of which are MiG-17 Fresco and MiG-19 Farmer. Newer aircraft include the Su-9 Fishpot and the Yak-28 Firebar,which have a maximum speed of the order of 1,200 mph and operational ceilings of about 60,000 ft.
  
   Army The total size of the Soviet Army (including the ground elements of the Air Defence Command) is now estimated at 2.000,000 men. It is thought to be organized in about 140 divisions. There are three degrees of combat-readiness in the Soviet Army, and probably less than half the 140 divisions are at or near full combat-strength. The remainder could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total are at the lowest degree of readiness and would require major reinforcement. The location ot divisional headquarters is roughly as follows: 26 divisions in Central and Eastern Europe (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, 4 in Hungary); 60 divisions in European USSR (i.e., west of the Ural Mountains and north of the Caucasus); 10 divisions in central USSR (i.e., between the Ural Mountains and Lake Baikal); 30 divisions in southern USSR (Caucasus and Soviet Central Asia); and 15 divisions in the Soviet Far East (i.e., east of Lake Baikal).
   The 26 divisions outside the USSR are maintained at or near combat-strength, as are at least 10 of those in the Far East. The other 5 divisions in the Far East are probably in the second category of readiness: below combat strength, but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war. The 60 divisions in European USSR include most of the remaining combat ready divisions. The 10 divisions in central USSR would mostly require major reinforcement, as would 10 of the 30 divisions in southern USSR.
   By types of divisions, the distribution is roughly as follows:
   (1) Motorized rifle divisions (10,500 men and 190 medium tanks at full strength): about 86.
   (2) Tank divisions (9,000 men and 350 medium and heavy tanks at full strength): about 43.
   (3) Airborne divisions (7,000 men and 40 self-propelled guns at full strength): about 7.
   (4) Mountain divisions (6,000 men at full strength): about 3.
   10 of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 4 in the Far East, 2 in Hungary, and 1 in Poland. It has been estimated that the force of 26 divisions in Central Europe could be increased to 70 within a month if mobilization and movement were unimpeded by interdiction bombing.
   The airborne forces total some 50,000 men, organized in about 7 divisions.
   The transport fleet could lift three of these divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   Use of the large An-22 transport for air-landing of airborne troops, including tactical missiles of the Frog type and mobile Ganef air defence missiles, was demonstrated at the July 1967 air show in Moscow.
   There are also about 3,000 Soviet military personnel in Cuba. These are mainly instructors and advisers, but include some coastal defence missile units.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army still envisage a major offensive role for it in future war and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale advance at high speed. Infantry formations contain covered Armoured Personnel Carriers, which would enable them to advance across radio-active terrain. But in the past year or two, increasing emphasis has been given to preparing the Soviet theatre forces in both a conventional and a nuclear environment, suggesting Soviet adoption of a doctrine along the lines of NATO's 'flexible response'.
   Tactical nuclear missile units are now organic to Soviet formations whether inside or outside the Soviet Union, and the conventional firepower of a Soviet division is as great as that of most divisions in NATO. The Soviet Army is also well-equipped for offensive and defensive chemical warfare. Its equipment includes:
   (1) Tanks. Tanks in service with armoured formations include the
   T-62 medium tank with a 115mm gun, the
   T-54/55 medium tank with a 100mm gun, the
   T-10 heavy tank with a 122mm gun, and the
   PT-76 amphibious reconnaissance tank. The
   T-34 medium tank is now obsolete.
   Most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infrared night-fighting equipment.
   (2) Artillery. The main types are 85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm, and 203mm.
   Lorry-mounted multi-barrelled rocket launchers play an important part in Soviet artillery operations.
   The main specialized anti-tank weapons are the 57mm guns and the Snapper, Sagger, and Swatter missiles.
   Self-propelled assault guns are becoming obsolete except in airborne divisions.
   The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including surface-to-air missiles.
   (3) Missiles. Tactical missiles in use by the ground forces include those of the Frog and Scud series, which are carried on modified tank chassis and wheeled launchers, and have ranges of up to 150 miles according to the type of warhead carried (high-explosive, chemical, or nuclear).
   There is also a larger cruise missile, Shaddock, with a range of up to 300 miles.
  
   Navy The strength of the Soviet Navy and Naval Air Force is 465,000 men.
   In total tonnage, it is the second biggest navy in the world, and its main strength lies in the submarine fleet.
   A high proportion of the fleet is kept in commission.
   There are indications that the Naval Air Force and the missile-bearing, submarines have an increasingly important role in Soviet strategy.
   (1) Submarines: There are how some 330 conventionally powered and 50 nuclear-powered submarines.
   (Nuclear submarine production appears to be at the rate of at least five, a year.)
   About 10 of the nuclear and 30 of the conventional submarines can fire ballistic missiles and carry an average of three missiles each;
   about 20 of the nuclear and 24 of the conventionally powered submarines are equipped with cruise missiles which have ranges of about 300 miles; they are thought to carry an average of four missiles each. The remainder are training vessels or attack submarines equipped with torpedoes.
   The four submarine fleets are distributed roughly as follows:
   70 in the Baltic Fleet, 170 in the Arctic, 40 in the Black Sea, and about 100 in the Far East.
   The missile-carrying submarines are mostly divided between the Arctic and the Far East Fleets.
   (2) Sea-to-ground missiles. The Soviets have successfully developed submerged firing of the Serb missile, which has been shown in Moscow
   parades. It is probably being gradually introduced into service, but its range may not be much greater than 650 miles.
   (3) Tactical missiles. Some ships and submarines are known to be fitted with cruise missiles which are intended primarily for antiship use.
   However, these might also be used against shore targets and, in the case of submarines, would be fired from the surface and from fairly long range.
   (4) Naval Air Force. There are no aircraft carriers in the Soviet Navy.
   The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 500 bomber and 370 other aircraft.
   Most of the bombers are based near the north-western and Black Sea coasts of the Soviet Union. They comprise:
   (a) The Tu-16 Badger with air-to-surface missiles. The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Blinder has begun.
   (b) A variant of the Tu-95~ Sear for naval reconnaissance missions.
   (c) A small number of Il-28 Beagles, some with torpedoes.
   (d) In the ASW role, Madge flying boats and Hound helicopters are used. Madge will shortly be replaced by the turbo-prop flying boat Mail.
   (e) Miscellaneous transport aircraft.
   (5) Surface ships. The surface ships of the Soviet Navy consist of the following:
   4 Kynda-class cruisers and one Kresta-class cruiser with surface-to-surface cruise and surface to-air guided missiles.
   12 Sverdlov-class cruisers (one with surface-to-air missiles).
   6 other cruisers (of which three are used for training purposes).
   10 Krupny-class destroyers with surface-to-surface cruise missiles.
   6 Kildin-class destroyers with surface-to-surface guided missiles.
   9 Kashin-class guided-missile anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers.
   30 Kotlin-class anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers (of which one or two carry surface-to-air guided missiles).
   50 Skory-class anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers.
   92 other ocean-going escort ships.
   270 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   150 ocean-going minesweepers.
   170 coastal minesweepers.
   50 Osa- and 50 Komar-class patrol boats with short-range Styx cruise missiles.
   400 fast patrol boats.
   200 landing ships and landing craft.
   1,000 auxiliaries and support ships.
   Some minesweepers and adapted trawlers are used for electronic intelligence.
   Almost all submarines and large surface vessels are equipped for minelaying.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   Recent Soviet comment has indicated a renewed interest in amphibious forces.
   There is a small Marine Corps of perhaps 6,000 men, units of which are stationed with all four' fleets.
   The deployment, in June 1967, of additional Soviet naval units to the Mediterranean included some new vessels with capabilities for
   amphibious landing of tanks.
  
Air Force
   Soviet air forces include five main categories; there is no Air Force operational command.
   The five categories are as follows:
   (1) the Long Range Air Force (long- and medium-range strategic bombers);
   (2) the Tactical (or frontline) Air Force, which includes fighters and light bombers;
   (3) the air element of the Air Defence Command (fighter-interceptors);
   (4) the Naval Air Force (entirely land-based); and
   (5) the Air Transport Force (including an independent force for the airborne divisions).
   There are about 10,250 combat aircraft in all, and the total personnel strength of the five categories listed above is about 505,000.
   (1) The Long-Range Air Force. This is grouped in three main areas: western USSR, the Central Ukraine, and the Far East: in addition it has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic. Its numbers of inter-continental bombers - estimated by Mr McNamara at 155 aircraft are less than a third those of the Strategic Air Command's B-52 force; but there is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatre. Aircraft include:
   (a) About 110 four-jet Bisons (M-4) and about 90 four-turbo-prop Bears (Tu-95).
   Some 50 out of the total are used in the tanker role. It is believed that half of the Bears can carry a large-winged air-to-surface missile.
   (b) About 800 twin-jet medium bombers, Badgers (Tu-16), and Blinders (Tu-22).
   The Blinder, which has a supersonic capability, is expected to replace the Badger at the rate of one Blinder for each three Badgers.
   A development of Blinder with an air-to-surface missile may also be introduced.
   (2) Tactical Air Force. The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has remained fairly constant for the last seven years.
   Altogether there are at present nearly 4,000 aircraft.
   These include light bombers, ground-attack and interceptor fighters, transport aircraft, helicopters, and reconnaissance units.
   The aircraft in service still contain a significant proportion of obsolescent types such as the MiG-15 Fagot, MiG-17 Fresco, MiG-19Farmer, and I1-28 Beagle.
   The most notable new aircraft are the ground-attack Fitter (Su-7), the interceptor-fighter Fishbed(MiG-21), the supersonic light bomber Brewer (gradually replacing the Beagle), and the twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft Mangrove.
   Several new fighter and fighter-bomber types, including a variable-wing aircraft resembling the American F-111, were displayed at the Moscow air show in July 1967, but they are not believed to be in service.
   (3) Fighter-interceptor units and the (4) Naval Air Force. These are dealt with under Air Defence and Navy, respectively (see above).
   (5) Air Transport Force.
   About 1,500 short- and medium-range transport aircraft, including twinengined Il-14s and An-24s, and four-engined An-12s and Il-18s.
   Another 2,000 civil airliners belonging to Aeroflot, some of which could be adapted to military use in time of war; these include about 150 long-range aircraft of the Tu-104, Tu-114, Tu-124, and Tu-134 classes.
   Helicopters in use with the ground forces include the troop-carrying Hooks, the heavy load-carrier Harke, and the smaller Hares and Hounds.
   The total helicopter inventory is probably around 1,500.
  
   Para-military forces The security and border troops number some 250,000.
   There are also perhaps about 1.5 million DOSAAF members who participate actively in such activities as athletics, shooting, and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular.
  
   СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ
Населения: 234,500,000.
Военная служба: армия, 2-3 года; ВВС - 3 года, флот-4 года.
Оборонный бюджет 1967: 14,500 млн. рублей ($16,000,000,000).
   Это на 7,5% больше, чем в 1966 году, и в процентном отношении к общему объему государственного бюджета, который составляет 13,2%, он на 0,4% выше, чем в 1966 году. Эта цифра отражает объявленные оборонные расходы и не включает расходы на космические исследования, на ядерные боеголовки или на исследования и разработки передовых систем вооружений, которые в настоящее время могут составлять столько же, сколько и весь заявленный оборонный бюджет. По официальному курсу, бюджет обороны составит примерно $16.000.000.000. Если учесть статьи, связанные с обороной, но не включенные в объявленный оборонный бюджет, то общие советские военные расходы, вероятно, составят около $30-35 000 000 в год.
   Общая численность регулярных сил оценивается в 3.220.000 человек. Кроме того, в воинских контингентах, включая силы безопасности и пограничные войска Министерства внутренних дел, насчитывается около 250 000 человек.
  
   Ракетные Войска Стратегического Назначения
   Развернутых межконтинентальных баллистических ракет (МБР) сейчас насчитывается около 450-475, увеличение примерно 50% от 1966 года.
   Более новые системы развернуты в отдельных ПУ, которые упрочнены и широко разнесены, и считается, что они способны к более быстрой реакции, чем более ранние системы. При нынешних темпах строительства и установки общее число развернутых МБР к середине 1968 года, возможно, достигло 550.
   С 1965 года в Москве несколько раз демонстрировалась крупная трехступенчатая ракета, российская сторона утверждает, что она обладает глобальной и орбитальной бомбардировочной способностью. Была ли испытана именно эта система, остается неизвестным; однако высокопоставленный советский офицер заявил в ноябре 1965 года, что "другие" орбитальные ракеты также находятся в стадии разработки, предполагая, что русские по-прежнему заинтересованы в системах с расширенной дальностью.
   Главная защита пусковых установок МБР заключается в упрочнении и разделении пусковых шахт. Тем не менее, ограниченная система противоракетной обороны (ПРО), основанная на противоракете Galosh, развертывается вокруг Москвы, а другая система, так называемая "линия Таллина", которая может быть передовой зенитной ракетной системой, находится в процессе развертывания вдоль восточного Балтийского побережья вплоть до Ленинграда.
   Линия Таллина может иметь потенциал ПРО, и вполне вероятно, что ее радары расширяют охват, обеспечиваемый системой раннего предупреждения противоракетной обороны Москвы, независимо от того, являются ли сами ракеты линии Таллина ПРО или нет. Численность БРСД похоже, стабилизировалась на уровне между 700 и 750. Они могут поражать большинство стратегических и тактических целей, таких как аэродромы в Западной Европе, Японии и, возможно, Китае. БРСД Sandal (Р-12 -ЕТ), является одноступенчатой ракетой с дальностью около 1100 миль и с ограниченной подвижностью. БРПД Skean (Р-14 -ЕТ), тоже одноступенчатая ракеты с хранимым жидким топливом. Она имеет дальность более 2000 миль. Обе системы развернуты вблизи западной, южной и восточной границ СССР, большинство из которых расположено в западном регионе.
   Личный состав Ракетных войск стратегического назначения под командованием Маршала Крылова в настоящее время насчитывает около 250 тысяч человек.
  
   Войска Противовоздушной Обороны
   Командование ПВО - отдельное командование зенитно-артиллерийских и зенитно-ракетных подразделений, использующее систему раннего предупреждения на базе РЛС, и эскадрильи истребителей-перехватчиков для обнаружения и возможного перехвата враждебных целей. Общая численность персонала ПВО составляет около 500 000 человек, из которых 250 000-наземные элементы. Подразделения ПВО обычно подчиняются командирам местной армии, а зона ответственности ПВО распространяется на всю территорию Варшавского договора. В настоящее время на вооружении ПВО:
   (1) Зенитная артиллерия. 23 мм, 57мм, 85мм, 100мм и 130мм орудий и ЗСУ-57-2 двуствольные орудия на шасси танка.
   Пушки калибра более 57мм могут быть сокращены за счет ракеты поверхность-воздух.
   (2) Ракеты класса земля-воздух.
   Guideline (С-75 -ЕТ): 2-ступенчатая большая зенитная ракета с дальностью около 31 мили и высотой от 1000 до 80 000 футов.
   Griffon (Даль, на вооружение не принята, но показывалась на парадах -ЕТ): 2-ступенчатая ракета в настоящее время используется в противовоздушной роли. Дальность и высота больше у Guideline. Вероятно, именно об этой ракете главнокомандующий противовоздушной обороны СССР заявил, как об имеющей ядерный потенциал.
   Ganef (Круг -ЕТ): мобильная зенитная ракета с твердотопливными ускорителями. Они установлены на гусеничных транспортерах и, возможно, были назначены сухопутным войскам в полевых условиях.
   Goa (С-125 -ЕТ): двухступенчатая ракета, возможно, предназначенная для замены направляющей. Предполагается, что имело место лишь ограниченное оперативное развертывание.
   Galosh (А-35 -ЕТ): многоступенчатая твердотопливная противоракета, которая в настоящее время развернута в ограниченном количестве вокруг Москвы. Считается, что она имеет дальность в несколько сотен миль несет ядерную боеголовку в диапазоне 1-2 мегатонны. Поэтому она подходит для перехвата на большой высоте и для обороны района. Эта особенность и характер радиолокаторов, связанных с ней, позволяют предположить, что ее функцией является оборона Северо-Западного СССР, на который приходится большая доля советского промышленного потенциала и многих его крупных городов. В настоящее время она обеспечивает ограниченную защиту от ракет Minuteman из Северной Америки или ракет Polaris из Северного Ледовитого океана. Сообщения о строительстве ПРО и радиолокационной станции на юге СССР и в Уральских горах соответствовали бы расширению системы для обеспечения некоторой степени защиты, особенно от Polaris со стороны Средиземного моря, или от ракет из Китая, но такие сообщения пока не подтверждены из официальных источников.
   (3) Истребители. На вооружении, вероятно, находится около 3700 истребителей ПВО, большинство из которых МиГ-17 Fresco и МиГ-19 Farmer. Новые самолеты включают Су-9 Fishpot и Як-28П Firebar, которые имеют максимальную скорость порядка 1200 миль в час и эксплуатационные потолки около 60 000 футов.
  
   Армия
   Общая численность советской армии (включая сухопутные части командования ПВО) в настоящее время оценивается в 2 000 000 человек. Считается, что она имеет 140 дивизий. В Советской армии существует три степени боевой готовности, и, вероятно, менее половины из 140 дивизий имеют полную боевую мощь или близки к ней. Остальная часть может быть доведена до готовности в короткие сроки, хотя около четверти от общего числа находятся в самой низкой степени готовности и потребуют значительного усиления. Расположение дивизий выглядит примерно следующим образом: 26 дивизий в Центральной и Восточной Европе (20 в Восточной Германии, 2 в Польше, 4 в Венгрии); 60 дивизий в европейской части СССР (т. е. к западу от Уральских гор и на Северном Кавказе); 10 дивизий в центральной части СССР (т. е., между Уральскими горами и озером Байкал); 30 дивизий на юге СССР (Кавказ и советская Средняя Азия); и 15 дивизий на советском Дальнем Востоке (т. е. к востоку от озера Байкал).
   26 дивизий за пределами СССР, как и по меньшей мере 10 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке, находятся в полном боевом составе или близко к нему. Другие 5 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке, наверное, во второй категории готовности: ниже полной, но не требующих капитального усиления в случае войны. В 60 дивизий в европейской части СССР большинство так же в готовности. 10 дивизий в Центральной части, как и 10 из 30 дивизий в Южной части СССР, в основном требовали бы значительного усиления.
   По типам делений распределение выглядит примерно следующим образом:
   (1) мотострелковые дивизии (10 500 человек и 190 средних танков в полном составе): около 86.
   (2) танковые дивизии (9000 человек и 350 средних и тяжелых танков в полном составе): около 43.
   (3) Воздушно-десантные дивизии (7000 человек и 40 самоходных орудий в полном составе): около 7.
   (4) горные дивизии (6000 человек в полном составе): около 3.
   10 танковых дивизий находятся в Восточной Германии, 4 на Дальнем Востоке, 2 в Венгрии и 1 в Польше. Согласно оценкам, силы 26 дивизий в Центральной Европе могут быть увеличены до 70 в течение месяца, если мобилизации и передвижению не будут препятствовать бомбардировки.
   ВДВ всего около 50 000 человек, сведенных в 7 дивизий.
   Транспортная авиация могла бы одновременно перебрасывать 3 из них со средсвами поддержки на короткие или средние расстояния.
   На авиасалоне в Москве в июле 1967 года было продемонстрировано использование крупного транспорта Ан-22 для десантирования Воздушно-десантных войск, в том числе тактических ракет типа Frog и мобильных ракет ПВО Ganef (Луна и Круг -ЕТ)
   На Кубе насчитывается около 3000 советских военнослужащих. В основном это инструкторы и советники, но есть и некоторые подразделения береговой обороны.
   Военные доктрины Советской Армии по-прежнему предусматривают для нее важную наступательную роль в будущей войне и, соответственно, делают упор на подготовку к крупномасштабному наступлению с высокой скоростью. Пехотные формирования имеют крытые бронетранспортеры, что позволит им продвигаться по радиоактивной местности. Но в последние год или два все больше внимания уделялось подготовке советских сил как в обычной, так и в ядерной войне, что предполагает советское принятие доктрины в стиле "гибкого реагирования" НАТО.
   Тактические ядерные ракетные подразделения теперь органичны для советских формирований как внутри, так и за пределами Советского Союза, а обычная огневая мощь советской дивизии так же велика, как и у большинства дивизий в НАТО. Советская армия также хорошо оснащена для ведения наступательной и оборонительной химической войны. Её оснащение включает:
   (1) Танки. На вооружении бронетанковых войск состоят
   Средний танк Т-62 со 115-мм пушкой,
   Средний танк Т-54/55 со 100мм пушкой,
   Т-10 тяжелый танк с 122мм пушкой,
   ПТ-76 амфибийный разведывательный танк.
   Средний танк Т-34 устарел.
   Большинство советских танков оборудованы для переправы вброд по дну, а многие имеют инфракрасные приборы.
   (2) Артиллерия. Основные калибры 85мм, 100мм, 122мм, 130мм, 152мм и 203мм.
   Многоствольные ракетные установки на грузовиках играют важную роль в советских артиллерийских операциях.
   Основным специализированным противотанковым оружием являются 57-мм пушки и Snapper, Sagger, и Swatter ракеты (ШмельМалютка и Фаланга -ЕТ).
   Самоходные штурмовые орудия устарели, разве что кроме тех, что в Воздушно-десантных дивизиях.
   Советская армия также имеет сильную ПВО, включая зенитные ракеты.
   (3) Ракеты. Тактические ракеты, используемые сухопутными войсками, включают ракеты серии Frog и Scud (Луна и Р-11/Р-17 -ЕТ), которые перевозятся на модифицированных танковых шасси и колесных пусковых установках и имеют дальность до 150 миль в зависимости от типа боеголовки (фугасная, химическая или ядерная).
   Существует также большая крылатая ракета, Shaddock (ФКР-2 -ЕТ), с дальностью до 300 миль.
  
   Военно-Морской флот. Численность советского Военно-Морского Флота и морской авиации 465,000 человек.
   В общем тоннаже это второй по величине флот в мире, и его главная сила заключается в подводном флоте.
   Большая часть флота находится в эксплуатации.
   Есть признаки того, что морская авиация и, подводные ракетоносцы играют все более важную роль в советской стратегии.
   (1) Подводные лодки: Имеется 330 дизельных и 50 атомных подводных лодок.
   (Производство атомных подводных лодок в числе не менее пяти, в год.)
   Около 10 атомных и 30 обычных подводных лодок могут стрелять баллистическими ракетами и несут в среднем по три ракеты на каждой;
   около 20 атомных и 24 дизельных подводных лодок оснащены крылатыми ракетами, дальность которых составляет около 300 миль; носить в среднем четыре ракеты в каждой. Остальные учебные или ударные подводные лодки, оснащенные торпедами.
   Подводные лодки распределены примерно следующим образом:
   70 в Балтийском, 170 на Северном, 40 на Черноморском и около 100 на Тихоокеанском флоте.
   Ракетоносцы в основном разделены между Северным и Тихоокеанским флотами.
   (2) Ракеты класса "море-земля". Советы успешно освоили подводный старт ракеты Serb (Р-21 -ЕТ), которая была показана в Москве на параде. Они, вероятно, постепенно вводятся в эксплуатацию, но их дальность может быть не намного больше 650 миль.
   (3) Тактические ракеты. Известно, что некоторые корабли и подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами, предназначенными в основном для противокорабельного применения.
   Однако они могут также использоваться против береговых целей и, в случае подводных лодок, будут пускаться с поверхности и с довольно большой дальности.
   (4) Морская авиация. ВМФ СССР нет авианосцев.
   Авиация берегового базирования насчитывает около 500 бомбардировщиков и 370 других самолетов.
   Большинство бомбардировщиков базируются вблизи северо-западного и Черноморского побережий Советского Союза. Они включают:
   (а) Ту-16 Badger с ракетами воздух-поверхность. Началась частичная замена этого самолета на Blinder (Ту-22 -ЕТ).
   (b) Ту-95 Bear модифицированные для военно-морских разведывательных миссий.
   (c) Небольшое число Ил-28 Beagle с торпедами.
   (d) В качестве противолодочных используются летающие лодки Madge и вертолеты Hound. (Бе-6 и Ми-4ПЛ -ЕТ). Madge может быть заменены на турбовинтовые Mail (Бе-12 -ЕТ).
   (e) Различные транспортные самолеты.
   (5) Надводные корабли. Надводные корабли ВМФ СССР включают:
   4 Kynda и 1 Kresta (пр.58 и 1134 -ЕТ) крейсера с крылатыми ракетами поверхность-поверхность и ракетами поверхность-воздух.
   12 крейсеров Свердлов (один с ракетами класса поверхность-воздух).
   6 других крейсеров (из которых три используются в учебных целях).
   10 Krupny (пр.57 -ЕТ) эсминцев с крылатыми ракетами поверхности-поверхность.
   6 Kildin(пр.56М -ЕТ) эсминцев с ракетами поверхность-поверхность.
   9 Kashi (пр.61 -ЕТ) противолодочных эсминцев с ЗРК.
   30 Kotlin (пр.56 -ЕТ) противолодочных эсминцев (один или два из которых с ЗРК).
   50 Skory (пр.30бис -ЕТ) эсминцев.
   92 других морских эскортных кораблей.
   270 прибрежных эскортных кораблей и охотников подводных лодок.
   150 океанских тральщиков.
   170 прибрежных тральщиков.
   50 Osa и 50 и Komar (пр.206 и 205Р -ЕТ) патрульных катеров с крылатыми ракетами малой дальности Styx (П-15 -ЕТ).
   400 быстроходных патрульных катеров.
   200 десантных кораблей и десантных кораблей.
   1000 вспомогательных и вспомогательных кораблей.
   Некоторые минные тральщики и адаптированные траулеры используются для целей электронной разведки.
   Почти все подводные лодки и крупные надводные суда оборудованы для постановки мин.
   Часть эсминцев и небольших судов не может быть полностью укомплектована.
   Недавний советский комментарий указывает на возобновление интереса к десантным силам.
   Имеются небольшие силы морской пехоты 6000 человек, части которых размещены на всех четырех флотах.
   Развертывание в июне 1967 года дополнительных советских военно-морских подразделений в Средиземном море включало несколько новых танко-десантных судов.
  
Военно-Воздушные Силы
   Советские ВВС включают пять основных категорий, оперативного командования ВВС нет.
   Эти пять категорий являются следующими:
   (1) Авиация дальнего действия (дальние и средние стратегические бомбардировщики);
   (2) Тактические (или фронтовые) ВВС, в состав которых входят истребители и легкие бомбардировщики;
   (3) Воздушный элемент командования ПВО (истребители-перехватчики);
   4) Морская авиация (полностью наземные); и
   (5) Военно-транспортная авиация (включая независимые силы для Воздушно-десантных дивизий).
   Имеется около 10,250 боевых самолетов, а общая численность персонала пяти категорий, перечисленных выше примерно 505,000.
   (1) Дальняя Авиация. Сгруппировано по трем основным направлениям: западная часть СССР, Центральная Украина и Дальний Восток: кроме того, он имеет пункты подскока и рассредоточения в Арктике. Численность межконтинентальных бомбардировщиков, - подсчитал г-н Макнамара 155 самолетов - это менее трети сил B-52 Стратегического Авиационного Командования; но есть еще очень сильная группа средних бомбардировщиков для действий на Евразийском театре. Самолеты включают:
   а) около 110 четырехдвигательных Bisons (М-4) и около 90 четырехдвигательных Bears (Ту-95).
   Около 50 из общего числа используются в роли танкеров. Считается, что половина Bears могут нести большие крылатые ракеты воздух-поверхность.
   b) около 800 двухдвигательных средних бомбардировщиков, Badgers (Ту-16) и Blinders (Ту-22).
   Blinders, который имеет сверхзвуковую скорость, как ожидается, заменит Badger в количестве один Blinder каждые три Badger.
   Также может быть внедрена разработка Blinder с ракетой класса "воздух-поверхность".
   (2) Фронтовая авиация. В течение последних семи лет численность советских тактических ВВС оставалась практически неизменной.
   Всего в настоящее время насчитывается около 4000 самолетов.
   Это легкие бомбардировщики, истребители-перехватчики, транспортные самолеты, вертолеты, разведывательные.
   На вооружении до сих пор содержится значительная доля устаревших типов, таких как МиГ-15 Fagot, МиГ-17 Fresco, МиГ-19 Farmer, и Ил-28 Beagle.
   Наиболее заметными новыми самолетами являются штурмовик (Су-7), истребитель-перехватчик Fishbed (МиГ-21), сверхзвуковой легкий бомбардировщик Brewer (Як-28Б -ЕТ) (постепенно заменяющий Beagle) и двухдвигательный разведывательный самолет Mangrove (Як-25РВ).
   В июле 1967 года на московском авиасалоне было представлено несколько новых типов истребителей и истребителей-бомбардировщиков, в том числе самолет с изменяемым крылом, напоминающий американский F-111, но они, как полагают, не находятся на вооружении.
   (3) истребители-перехватчики и (4) морская авиация рассматриваются соответственно в разделах противовоздушной обороны и Военно-Морского Флота (см. выше).
   5) Военно-транспортная авиация.
   Около 1500 транспортных самолетов малой и средней дальности, включая двухдвигательные Ил-14 и Ан-24, а также четырехдвигательные Ан-12 и Ил-18.
   Еще 2000 гражданских лайнеров, принадлежащих "Аэрофлоту", часть из которых может быть адаптирована для военного применения в военное время, это около 150 дальних самолетов типов Ту-104, Ту-114, Ту-124, Ту-134.
   Вертолеты в использовании с наземными войсками относятся, предоставляющие Hook, тяжелый груз-перевозчик Harke, и мелкие Hares и Hounds (Ми-6, Ми-10, Ми-1 и Ми-4 -ЕТ).
   Общее число вертолетов, вероятно, составляет около 1500.
  
   Полу-военные силы Численность внутренних и пограничных войск составляет около 250 000 человек.
   Кроме того, около 1,5 миллиона членов ДОСААФ принимают активное участие в таких видах деятельности, как легкая атлетика, стрельба и парашютный спорт, однако подготовка резервистов и курсы повышения квалификации представляются случайными и нерегулярными.
  

CHINA

   The Chinese armed forces have lost more than they have gained in the two-year-long, domestic power struggle. As a result of Mao Tse-tung's destruction of the Party apparatus and Red Guard interference with the working of the administrative structure, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) remains the only organized body in the country capable of transmitting and implementing the orders of the Maoist group in Peking. The PLA is now to be found at all key points in the political and economic structure of China, providing the nuclei for the few Provincial Revolutionary Committees actually established, virtual martial law where these do not exist, and leadership and working groups in thousands of factories where management and production have been disrupted.
   All this has meant a considerable growth of military influence (or, at least, of the political arm within the military establishment, as distinct from the 'professional' military), as has the choice of Defence Minister Lin Piao as Mao's heir apparent. It has nevertheless led to over-extension of military effort, interference with training schedules, and a probable reduction in combat-effectiveness.
   Mao's purge of his political opponents has also been extended to include many General Staff officers. The Air Force has been particularly affected in this respect, only its Commander, one Deputy Commander, and the First Political Commissar having escaped unscathed. In the 13 Military Regions (MRs), five Commanders (those of the Inner Mongolian, Peking, Foochow, Wuhan, and Chengtu MRs) and 9 First Political Commissars (those of the Inner Mongolian, Peking, Foochow, Chengtu, Tsinan, Canton, Wuhan [twice], and Kunming MRs) have been dismissed, and further turmoil is taking place. Despite the political unrest, the Chinese advanced-weapons programme has made steady progress. Since the autumn of 1966, a further three nuclear tests have been carried out (October and December 1966, and June 1967), culminating in China's first test of a thermonuclear device on 17 June. This is little less than two and a half years since the first Chinese atomic test in late 1964, and testifies to the skill of Chinese nuclear physicists and engineers. Earlier tests had used U-235 as the fissile material, indicating that the Lanchow gaseous diffusion plant was in operation and that the Chinese were progressing towards thermonuclear weapons. Estimates of the yield of the June test put it at between two and seven megatons. A small stockpile of atomic weapons must already exist (perhaps 30 bombs of up to 200 kilotons), but there has so far been no indication of the series of tests at similar yields which, in the case of other nuclear programmes, has always been the prelude to the achievement of an operational system.
   All indications are that China intends to base her delivery system on missiles. The Chinese Government claimed that the October 1966 nuclear test was carried out by means of a guided missile. It is not clear whether this was Chinesebuilt (possibly of 400-mile range), or whether it was an earlier Soviet one supplied to China before 1960. In the light of past experience, it would be unwise to disbelieve the Chinese claim. Mr McNamara, in his defence statement of January 1967, said that it was unlikely that the Chinese could deploy an operational number of ICBMs before the mid-1970s. Missile telemetry and guidance will prove major obstacles to overcome, and testing over ocean ranges will be necessary before ICBMs can become operational. There is no evidence that Cnina has accompanied her political campaign against the Soviet Union with a military build-up along the Sino-Soviet border, although policing operations have doubtless been intensified by both sides. While no further incidents have been reported on the Sino-Mongolian border, sharpened Chinese political attacks on Mongolia reflect her disapproval of the growth of Soviet influence since the Soviet-Mongolian defence treaty of 1966.

КИТАЙ

   Китайские вооруженные силы потеряли больше, чем они получили в двухлетней внутренней борьбе за власть. В результате уничтожения Мао Цзэдуном партийного аппарата и вмешательства Красной Гвардии в работу административной структуры Народно-освободительная армия (НОАК) остается единственным организованным органом в стране, способным передавать и выполнять приказы маоистской группы в Пекине. В настоящее время НОАК находится во всех ключевых точках политической и экономической структуры Китая, обеспечивая ядрами фактически созданные провинциальные революционные комитеты, фактически военное положение там, где его нет, а также руководство и рабочие группы на тысячах фабрик, где управление и производство были нарушены.
   Все это означало значительный рост влияния военных (или, по крайней мере, политического влияния военного истеблишмента, в отличие от "профессиональных" военных), а также очевидный выбор министра обороны Линь Бяо в качестве наследника Мао. Тем не менее это привело к чрезмерному распылению военных усилий, нарушению графика подготовки и вероятному снижению боевой эффективности.
   Чистка Мао своих политических оппонентов также была распространена на многих офицеров Генерального штаба. ВВС особенно пострадали в этом отношении, только его командир, заместитель командира, и первым политработник вырвались невредимыми. В 13 военных округах, 5 их командиров (Внутренней Монголии, Пекинском, Фушоуском, Уханьском, и Чентуском ВО) и 9 первых политических комиссаров (Внутренней Монголии, Пекинском, Фушоуском, Чентуском, Цзинаньском, Гуанчжоуском, Уханьском [дважды], и Куньминском ВО) были уволены, и дальнейшие чистки продолжаются. Несмотря на политические волнения, китайская программа передовых вооружений добилась устойчивого прогресса. С осени 1966 года были проведены еще три ядерных испытания (октябрь и декабрь 1966 года и июнь 1967 года), кульминацией которых стало первое испытание термоядерного устройства в Китае 17 июня. Это немногим менее двух с половиной лет с момента первого китайского атомного испытания в конце 1964 года и это свидетельствует о мастерстве китайских физиков-ядерщиков и инженеров. В ходе предыдущих испытаний в качестве расщепляющегося материала использовался U-235, что свидетельствует о том, что Ланьчжоуская газодиффузионная установка функционирует и что китайцы продвигаются к созданию термоядерного оружия. Оценки мощности испытания июня между 2 и 7 мегатонн. Небольшие запасы атомного оружия уже должны существовать (возможно, 30 бомб до 200 килотоннн), однако до сих пор нет никаких указаний на серию испытаний с аналогичными мощностями, которые в случае других ядерных программ всегда были прелюдией к созданию действующихй систем.
   Все указывает на то, что Китай намерен основывать свою систему доставки на ракетах. Китайское правительство утверждало, что в октябре 1966 года ядерное испытание было проведено с помощью управляемой ракеты. Неясно, было ли это китайское изделие (возможно, 400-мильной дальности), или это было более раннее советское, поставленное в Китай до 1960 года. В свете прошлого опыта было бы неразумно не верить китайским притязаниям. Г-н Макнамара в своем заявлении в январе 1967 года заявил, что маловероятно, что китайцы смогут развернуть оперативное число МБР до середины 1970-х годов. Ракетные системы телеметрии и навигации окажется серьезных препятствием, и испытания над океаном необходимо чтобы МБР могла функционировать. Нет никаких свидетельств того, что Китай сопровождал свою политическую кампанию против Советского Союза наращиванием военной мощи вдоль китайско-советской границы, хотя операции полиции, несомненно, активизировались обеими сторонами. Хотя о дальнейших инцидентах на китайско-монгольской границе не сообщалось, обострившиеся политические атаки Китая на Монголию отражают ее неодобрение роста советского влияния со времени заключения советско-монгольского оборонного договора 1966 года.
  
Population: 780,000,000 (approx.).*
   (*Based on a US Bureau of the Census estimate of 760,000,000 for January 1966, and assuming an annual increase of about 14,000,000.)
Selective military service: Army, 4-5 years; Air Force, 5 years; and Navy, 5-6 years.
Total regular forces: 2,700,000 (including railway engineer troops).
Defence expenditure: It is impossible to estimate China's defence expenditure; if one accepts the American view that China is spending about 10 per cent of her gross national product on defence (including defence R&D), then the State Department's calculation of the GNP for 1965 at $74 billion (in dollar purchasing power), allowing for the economic disruption of the past year, would give a defence expenditure figure of about $7.5 billion today (again in dollar purchasing power). At the official exchange rate, this gives a figure of 18.5 billion yuan, as compared with 5.8 billion yuan devoted to defence in the budget of 1960, the most recent to be published.
  
Army Total strength: 2,500,000 (including railway engineer troops).
   The ground forces of the People's Liberation Army consist of about 120 line divisions (i.e., infantry, cavalry, armoured and airborne) and
   supporting arms and services.
   The latter theoretically include 20 artillery divisions, but these are normally split into regiments, which are assigned one to each infantry division.
   The 120 line divisions include 111 infantry, 4 armoured, 3 cavalry, and 2 airborne divisions.
   There are normally 12,000 men in a Chinese infantry division, and rather fewer in armoured and artillery divisions.
   The armoured, cavalry, and airborne divisions are probably split up into independent regiments, which are assigned to different sectors.
   The supporting arms and services include the 20 artillery divisions and 5 anti-tank artillery regiments, 66 engineering regiments,
   34 motor transport regiments, 2 signal regiments, and 11 divisions of railway engineers (who, in the PLA, are uniformed troops).
   There are also some desert cavalry and mountain units.
   Heavy equipment consists of items supplied earlier by the Soviet Union, such as artillery up to 152 and 203mm and the JS-2 heavy tank.
   Medium armour consists of the T-34 tank and the T-54 tank, which is produced in China under the description T-59.
   Some 80 or more T-59s have been exported to Pakistan.
   Heavy field engineering equipment and heavy and self propelled artillery, as well as motor transport, are all in short supply,
   while radar and electronic communications equipment is generally less sophisticated than modern Western or Soviet types.
   The ground forces are adequately equipped with a range of infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles,
   and light and medium artillery, all of which are produced in China.
   The Chinese airlift capability is probably limited to a few battalions.
DEPLOUMENT. China is divided into 13 Military Regions, of which 3 on the northern and western borders - Inner Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet -
   preserve a certain amount of autonomy in relation to the military authorities, and take their orders directly from the Central Government in Peking.
   The military commander of each region also commands the regular air and naval forces assigned to it, together with the civilian militia.
   The Military Regions are in turn divided into Military Districts, with usually two or three Military Districts to a Military Region.
   It is believed that basically one Field Army is assigned to each Military District, giving a total of about 30 Field Armies.
   Thus the Field Army generally consists of three infantry divisions, three artillery regiments, and in some cases an armoured or cavalry regiment.
   (Since there are not more than four full-scale armoured divisions in the PLA, one or two are probably kept in the Peking and Manchuria Regions
   for display purposes.) On the basis of the above organization, and allowing for the fact that divisions may be transferred at one time or another
   to areas of particular tension, the geographical distribution of the line divisions appears to be as follows:
   Tibet (Direct Control MR): 4 divisions.*
   Sinkiang (Direct Control MR): 5 divisions.*
   Inner Mongolia (Direct Control MR): 5 divisions.*
   (*There are in addition two or three divisions of border troops in each of these Military Regions.)
   Manchuria and Peking (Shenyang and Peking MRs): 28 divisions.
   Along the coastal belt from Shantung to Hong Kong (Tsinan, Nanking, and Foochow MRs), i.e. mainly deployed against invasion from Taiwan: 28 divisions.
   Along the axis of the Canton-Wuhan railway (Canton and Wuhan MRs), i.e. in reserve against invasion from Taiwan: 26 divisions.
   On Hainan Island (under Canton MR): 4 divisions.
   Western China (Lanchow MR): 10 divisions.
   Szechwan and Yunnan (Chengtu and Kunming MRs): 10 divisions.
   Deployed in North Vietnam are two engineer and two anti-aircraft artillery divisions, amounting to about 40,000 men.
   These are not included in the above totals.
Navy Total strength: 136,000 (including 15,000 Naval Air Force). The ships of the fleet are as follows:
   4 destroyers.
   5 destroyer escorts.
   11 frigate escorts.
   1 G-class submarine.
   23 W-class submarines.
   7 other submarines (ex-Soviet).
   18 minesweepers.
   35 patrol vessels.
   2 missile patrol boats.
   150 motor torpedo boats.
   50 gunboats (including river gunboats).
   60 landing ships/landing craft.
   20 other vessels.
   The Chinese Navy is divided into three fleets, the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet, and the South Sea Fleet.
   Deployment of ships among these is thought to be as follows:
   North Sea Fleet. 210 vessels; 60,000 tons.
   It is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 landing craft squadron, 1 submarine squadron, and 2 motor torpedo boat squadrons, plus minesweeper
   and auxiliary vessel units. The main bases are at Tsingtao and Lushun.
   Units are deployed along the coast from the mouth of the YaJu river in the north to Lien Yuen Kang in the south.
   East Sea Fleet. 600 vessels; 180,000 tons.
   This constitutes the major strength of the Chinese Navy in surface ships and is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 submarine squadron,
   2 landing ship squadrons, 2 minesweeper squadrons, and 1 squadron of auxiliary vessels.
   Bases are at Shanghai and Chou Shan. It is deployed along the coast from Lien Yuen Kang in the north to Chao An Wan in the south.
   South Sea Fleet. 260 vessels; 55,000 tons.
   It is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 landing craft squadron, 1 minesweeper squadron, and a small submarine squadron.
   Bases are at Canton and Tsamkong. It is deployed from Chao An Wan in the north to Hainan Island in the south.
There are about 500 shore-based naval aircraft, including up to
   150 Il-28 torpedo-carrying jet light bombers and
   substantial numbers of MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   These fighters, though under Navy Command, are fully integrated into the air defence system of China.
Air Force Total strength: 100,000; 2,500 aircraft.
   There are up to 12 Tu-4 medium bombers (a copy of the B-29), and about 150 Il-28 light bombers.
   The remaining aircraft are chiefly early model MiG-15s and MiG-17s, with a lesser number of MiG-19s and MiG-21s.
   There is a small air transport fleet, which includes some Il-18s and Mi-4 helicopters.
   This fleet could be supplemented by aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau, numbering about 350.
   The serviceability of some aircraft types may be affected by shortage of spare parts.
   There is an air defence system, which was initially developed to defend the eastern seaboard of China and which is now being gradually expanded.
   It is based on radar and interceptor aircraft, including some MiG-21s.
Para-military forces Security and border troops number about 300,000.
   The border troops include 17 infantry divisions and 21 independent regiments permanently stationed in the frontier areas, in addition to the 'line'
   divisions already there.
   There is also a People's Armed Police Force, and a civilian militia claimed by the Chinese authorities to be 200 million strong.
  

OTHER COUNTRIES

   CUBA
Population: 7,750,000.
Military service: 2 to 3 years.
Total armed forces: 121,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 213 million pesos ($250,000,000 approx.).
Army Total strength: 90,000.
   9 infantry brigades (nominal divisions).
   2 motorized brigades.
   1 artillery brigade.
   200 JS-2, T-34, and T-54 tanks.
   Su-100 assault guns and BTR-60 armoured personnel carriers.
   Frog short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
   20 battalions SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   3 frigates.
   15 coastal escorts.
   2 patrol escorts.
   12 fast patrol missile boats (ex-Soviet Komar type).
   24 motor torpedo boats (ex-Soviet P-4/6 type).
Some Mi-4 Hound helicopters for ASW duties.
Some short-range cruise missiles are regularly paraded in Havana, and are probably for coastal defence.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 200 combat aircraft.
   45 MiG-21 jet interceptors.
   12 MiG-19 jet interceptors.
   22 MiG-17 jetfighter-bombers.
   50 MiG-15 jet interceptors.
   About 70 transport aircraft, mostly Il-14 and Il-18, and about 24 Mi-4 troop-carrying helicopters.
   60 T-28, T-33, and MiG-15 trainers.
Para-military forces There is a well-trained militia of about 200,000 men and women.
Soviet forces in Cuba The Soviet forces in Cuba, now mainly instructors and advisers, are believed to have been reduced to below 3,000 men.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,120,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 17,500.
Defence expenditure 1965: 60 million tugriks (815,000,000).
Army Total strength: 17,000.
   1 infantry division (a second is being formed).
   A few T-34 medium tanks.
   All light arms and equipment have been supplied from the USSR.
Air Force Total strength: 500 men; 6 combat aircraft.
   Operates primarily in support of the Army, and employs a large number of Soviet technical advisers.
   6 MiG-15 fighter-bombers.
   20 An-2, Il-12, Li-2, and Po-2 transports.
   Yak-11, Yak-18, and UT-2 trainers.
Para-military forces Security police: about 15,000.
  
  NORTH KOREA
Population: 12,500,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 368,000.
Defence expenditure 1967: approx. 1,182 million won ($460,000,000).
Army Total strength: 340,000.
   18 infantry divisions.
   About 500 Soviet medium tanks and 450 armoured vehicles.
   Some 3,000 artillery pieces above 80mm.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Reserve units total a further 110,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   2 submarines (ex-Soviet).
   2 coastal escorts.
   10 minesweepers.
   80 small patrol craft (including 21 MTBs).
Air Force Total strength: 20,000 men; 460 combat aircraft.
   40 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   25 MiG-21 jet interceptors.
   400 MiG-15 and MiG-17 jet fighter-bombers.
   An-2 and Li-2 transports, with a few Mi-4 helicopters.
   Yak-9, Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15, and Il-28 trainers.
Para-military forces Total strength: 25,000.
   There is also a large civilian militia with some military training.
  
  NORTH VIETNAM
Population: 17,500,000.
Military service: 3 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 418,000.
Defence budget: approx. $500,000,000 equivalent.
Army Total strength: 410,000 (including at least 55,000 serving in South Vietnam).
   13 infantry divisions with Chinese or Soviet bloc light arms.*
   (*North Vietnamese divisions consist of 3 infantry regiments and 1 support regiment,
   of some 2,700 men each; divisional strength varies between 10,000 and 12,000)
   About 100 miscellaneous armoured vehicles, including a few T-34 medium tanks and PT-76 reconnaissance tanks.
   About 6,000 anti-aircraft guns, including 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, and 100mm. About half of these are radar-controlled.
   In addition, there are some thousands of air defence machine guns.
   Some 50 surface-to-air missile sites for SA-2 Guidelinemissiles; there are usually 4-6 launchers to each site.
Navy Total strength: 3,500.
   3 coastal escorts (ex-Soviet).
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   4 ex-Chinese fast patrol boats (104 tons).
   22 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (67 tons).
   9 ex-Soviet P-4 motor torpedo boats (25 tons).
   A number of small auxiliary patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 4,500; 118 combat aircraft.
   8 Il-28 light bombers.
   20 MiG-21 interceptors.
   90 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   50 transport aircraft, including An-2, An-24, Il-14, and Li-2.
   6 Mi-6 Hook and 20 Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
   There is a Soviet aid and training mission of about 1,000 men.
Para-military forces There is a regionally organized armed militia of about 500,000.
   The Frontier and Coastal Security troops and the People's Armed Security Force total another 20,000.
  

PART II. THE WESTERN ALLIANCES

THE TREATIES

   In the decade between 1949 and 1959, the Western powers entered into a wide range of formal security treaties in response to what was seen as a world-wide military threat from the Communist powers. All of these remain in effect, though their importance to some governments has diminished as fear of Communist aggression has receded. The most important Western powers are signatories to the North Atlantic Treaty, which unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to maintain their armed forces, to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all. If such an armed attack occurs, each of them promises to take forthwith 'such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   Britain, France, the Benelux countries, Italy, and Germany have, in addition, commitments under the revised Brussels Treaty of 1954 to give one another 'all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' if they are the subject of 'armed aggression in Europe'. The United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand agreed in the Manila Treaty of 1954 to set up the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of attack on a party to the Treaty. Under the Baghdad Pact of 1955, the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) was established. Since the withdrawal of Iraq, this has included Britain, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. The United States is associated.
   The United States has mutual defence undertakings with Australia and New Zealand in the ANZUS Pact, and bilateral treaties with Spain, Iran, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. The term 'non-alignment' has generally been used to describe the foreign policy of those countries which are not parties to one of these treaties. The United States is also linked to 19 Latin American republics by the Rio Pact of 1947, which makes provision for collective military action in the event of an armed attack on the Americas.
   Britain has commitments to assist in the defence of Malta, to consult and co-operate in the defence of Cyprus, to aid Libya if she is engaged in conflict, to give such assistance as may be needed for the defence of Malaysia and Singapore, and to support South Arabia, Bahrein, Qatar, Muscat and Oman, the Trucial States, and Kuwait if they should be subject to external attack.
   France has responsibilities towards the countries of the Organisation Commune Africaine et Malgache, which includes all the African members of the former French Community except Mali.
  
   ДОГОВОРЫ
   В течение десятилетия между 1949 и 1959 годами западные державы заключили широкий круг официальных договоров о безопасности в ответ на то, что рассматривалось как Всемирная военная угроза со стороны коммунистических держав. Все они остаются в силе, хотя их значение для некоторых правительств уменьшилось, поскольку страх перед Коммунистической агрессией отступил. Наиболее важными западными державами являются страны, подписавшие Североатлантический договор, который объединяет Западную Европу и Северную Америку в стремлении развивать свои вооруженные силы, проводить совместные консультации в случае угрозы безопасности для какого-либо одного из членов и рассматривать вооруженное нападение на одного из них как нападение на всех. Если произойдет такое вооруженное нападение, каждый из них обещает незамедлительно предпринять "такие действия, которые он сочтет необходимыми, включая применение вооруженной силы, для восстановления и поддержания безопасности в Североатлантическом регионе".
   Великобритания, Франция, страны Бенилюкса, Италия и Германия имеют, кроме того, обязательства по пересмотренному Брюссельскому договору 1954 года предоставить друг другу "всю военную и иную помощь и содействие в их власти", если они являются предметом "вооруженной агрессии в Европе". Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания, Франция, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Австралия и Новая Зеландия договорились в Манильском договоре 1954 года о создании организации Юго-Восточной Азии договора (SEATO) и "действовать для удовлетворения общей опасности" в случае нападения на участника Договора. По Багдадскому пакту 1955 года была создана Организация Центрального Договора (CENTO). С момента выхода Ирака она включало Великобританию, Турцию, Иран и Пакистан. США входят ассоциативно.
   Соединенные Штаты имеют взаимные оборонные обязательства с Австралией и Новой Зеландией в рамках пакта ANZUS, а также двусторонние договоры с Испанией, Ираном, Японией, Тайванем и Южной Кореей. Внеблоковость термин обычно используется для описания внешней политики тех стран, которые не присоединились к одному из этих договоров. США связаны также с 19 латиноамериканских республик пактом Рио 1947 года, которая предусматривает совместные военные действия в случае вооруженного нападения на Америку.
   Великобритания имеет обязательства, в обороне Мальты, консультаций и сотрудничества в деле обороны Кипра, помощи Ливии, если она участвует в конфликте, помощи, какая может потребоваться для обороны Малайзии и Сингапура и поддержки Южной Аравии, Бахрейна, Катара, Омана и Маската, ОАЭ, и Кувейт, если они подвергнутся внешнему воздействию.
   Франция несет ответственность перед странами-членами организации "Сообщество африканцев и Мальгаче", в которую входят все африканские члены бывшей французской общины, за исключением Мали.
  

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The signatories to the North Atlantic Treaty are Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic- of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and the United States. Ambassadors representing each government form the North Atlantic Council in permanent session. The Council is at present located in Paris, but will move to Brussels in October 1967. France remains a member of the Council. There is also a 14-nation Defence Planning Committee, on which France does not sit. This deals with defence planning and all other matters related to the integrated organization of the Alliance. The Secretary-General and his international staff advise on the political, financial, and economic aspects of defence planning.
   The Council's military advisers are the Military Committee, which has the direction of the NATO military commands. The Military Committee, consisting of 12 permanent military representatives of all members except for France, Iceland, and Luxembourg (France maintains a liaison staff with the Committee, and Luxembourg is represented by Belgium), is at present located in Washington, but will move to Brussels in October 1967. It has an independent Chairman and is served by an integrated, international staff.
   The major military commands of NATO are the European, with its headquarters in Belgium, and the Atlantic, with its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. There is also a third command, Allied Command, Channel. The headquarters of the European Command, -known as SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe), was moved from Roquencourt, near Paris, to Casteau, near Mons, in south-west Belgium, in March 1967. Its Commander, known as SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander, Europe), has been an American general ever since NATO was set up. The Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT), has also always been American.
   There is no allied command organization covering strategic nuclear forces, but the European and Atlantic commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System, at Omaha, Nebraska, where the integrated planning of American bomber and missile forces, both Air Force and Navy, and British bomber forces is carried out. The United States has committed a small number of Polaris submarines, and Britain her medium bomber force, to the planning control of SHAPE.
   After the meeting of NATO Defence Ministers in December 1966, the Council agreed to establish two new permanent bodies for nuclear planning, the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC) and, subordinate to it, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG). Membership in the NDAC is open to all NATO members, but France, Iceland, and Luxembourg do not take part. The NDAC is basically a meeting of Defence Ministers. The intention is to associate non-nuclear members in the nuclear affairs of the alliance. The Secretary-General of NATO is Chairman of the NDAC.
   The Nuclear Planning Group is intended to go further into the details of topics raised in the NDAC. It has seven members, all elected from among the NDAC member-countries for terms of eighteen months. The countries participating in the first term's work are Britain, Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States, with Turkey and Greece each serving half a term. Subjects now under consideration by the NPG include (1) Levels of Strategic Nuclear Forces and Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems; (2) Tactical Nuclear Weapons; and (3) Improved Relations with Host Countries where Nuclear Weapons are Stored. The NPG meets at both Ministerial and Ambassadorial level; its first Ministerial meeting was held in Washington in April 1967.
   It was also agreed at the December 1966 meeting to consider setting up a NATO-wide communications system to facilitate political consultation both in planning and at the time of any crisis. It was also approved that new ways and means should be developed for collecting, evaluating, and disseminating intelligence data throughout the NATO community.
  

1. Allied Command Europe

   The European allied command is responsible for the defence of all NATO soil in Europe (plus Turkey) apart from Britain, France, and Portugal. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain. The arrangements for the air defence of France are under negotiation. NATO responsibility for the defence of Portugal is undertaken by the Atlantic Command. Danish and Norwegian coastal waters are in the area of the European Command.
   The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR), is also Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Europe. Deputy SACEUR is a British officer, and in addition there is an Italian deputy for nuclear affairs and an American air deputy.
   According to a statement by Mr McNamara, there are 7,000 tactical nuclear warheads in the area covered by ACE, and the number of delivery vehicles (aircraft and missiles) is believed to be about 2,250, spread among a number of countries. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained in an exclusively American national chain of command. The average explosive yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads, 20 kilotons.
   Forces trained and equipped for the defence of the NATO European area are assigned to SHAPE, which has about 56 such divisions. Another 30 could be brought forward if time allowed. The command has about 4,000 tactical aircraft, based on 150 standard NATO airfields and backed up by a system of jointly financed fuel pipelines and signal communications.
   Agreement has been reached between the German and the French Governments on the status of the French forces which have remained in Germany. The subject of their co-operation with NATO forces and commands remains a matter for negotiation between NATO and the French Government, although France has agreed to participate in the improved air defence and radar system'to be built by the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE) consortium. All NATO military units and commands, including logistics units, have left French soil. Permission to fly over France is given to air forces of the members on a monthly basis.
   So far seven countries have committed one or more reinforced infantry battalions or ground support fighter squadrons to form a task force (called ACE Mobile Force) to serve under certain circumstances as a mobile reserve for NATO as a whole, with particular reference to an emergency in northern or south-eastern Europe.
   The following field commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has command of both the land forces and the air forces in the Central Europe Sector. It moved to new headquarters at Brunssum, in the Netherlands province of Limburg, on 1 April 1967, and its commander is a German general.
   The ground defences of the Central European Command consist of 24 assigned divisions provided by six countries. All assigned forces, with the exception of some Dutch and Belgian units and some logistic units, are based in Germany, and units have been gradually moved closer to the East German border over recent years.
   The tactical air forces available include about 2,500 aircraft, of which 500 or more are USAF fighter-bombers. There are also British Canberras, Canadian CF-104s, and the F-104GS of the German and other air forces. American and German forces are equipped with Sergeant and Pershing missiles at corps and army level. Honest John rockets and missile artillery are deployed for nuclear bombardment at divisional level. An integrated early-warning and airdefence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries, and northeastern France. Twenty-eight Hawk and Nike surface-to-air missile battalions have been deployed in the command.
   The command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) and Central Army Group (CENTAG). Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the- Gottingen-Liege axis. It includes the British and Benelux divisions, four of the German divisions, and the Canadian brigade. It is supported by the 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force, which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian, and German units. The American forces and seven German divisions are under the Central Army Group. The 4th Allied Tactical Air Force includes American, German, and Canadian wings.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, and the Baltic approaches. The Commander is a British general. Most of the Danish and Norwegian land, sea, and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division (stationed in Schleswig), two combat air wings, and its Baltic Fleet.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters in Naples, and the Commander is also the commander of the United States Sixth Fleet. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece, and Turkey, and for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and the Turkish territorial waters of the Black Sea. The forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece, and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other divisions from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as have the United States Sixth Fleet, which would become Striking Force South in war, and certain naval and maritime forces of Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. For geographical reasons the defence system is based on two separate regions: the Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey. There is, however, an overall air command and a single naval command (NAVSOUTH) responsible to AFSOUTH: its headquarters are in Malta, and its Commander is an Italian admiral. NAVSOUTH has taken over the responsibilities of the former Mediterranean Command (AFMED), which has been wound up.
  

2. Allied Command Atlantic

   The Atlantic Allied Command has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. In the event of war, the duties of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), who is an American admiral with a British deputy, are (a) to participate in the strategic strike, and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by hostile forces. For these purposes, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Holland, Portugal, and the United States have earmarked forces for exercises and, if need be, for war. (France no longer provides any forces, but there are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT.) SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer, including the northern North Sea.
   There are five subordinate commands: Western Atlantic Area, Eastern Atlantic Area, Iberian Atlantic Area, Striking Fleet Atlantic, and Submarine Command. The nucleus of the Striking Fleet Atlantic has been provided by the United States Second Fleet with two or three attack carriers, but this role is now being partly shared with the missile-firing submarines.
   There are about 500 escort vessels serving in the navies of the nations concerned, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW, and over 150 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The NATO powers also have about 375 long-range land-based maritime patrol planes in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near American coasts. The American Navy possesses about 800 carrier-borne specialist anti-submarine fixed wing aircraft and helicopters, of which about half can be carrier-borne at any one time.
   The overall total that could be quickly operational from all carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 350. (These estimates include units earmarked for Channel Command.)
  

3. The Channel Command

   The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this Command, as are some maritime aircraft. The Commander-in-Chief is a British admiral who also acts as the major Subordinate Commander, Eastern Atlantic Area, under SACLANT, and has his headquarters at Northwood, Middlesex. The Channel Committee, consisting of the naval chiefs-of-staff of the three countries concerned, acts as an advisory body to the Commander-in Chief.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРО-АТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Участниками Североатлантического договора являются Бельгия, Великобритания, Канада, Дания, Франция, Федеративная Республика - Германия, Греция, Исландия, Италия, Люксембург, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия, Турция и Соединенные Штаты. Послы, представляющие каждое правительство, образуют Североатлантический совет на его постоянной сессии. В настоящее время Совет находится в Париже, однако в октябре 1967 года он переедет в Брюссель. Франция остается членом Совета. Существует также 14-национальный комитет военного планирования, в которой Франция не участвует. Это касается оборонного планирования и всех других вопросов, связанных с комплексной организацией Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь и его международный персонал консультируют по политическим, финансовым и экономическим аспектам оборонного планирования.
   Военные советники Совета являются военным комитетом, который имеет руководство военного командования НАТО. Военный комитет, состоящий из 12 постоянных военных представителей всех членов, за исключением Франции, Исландии и Люксембурга (Франция поддерживает связь с комитетом, а Люксембург представлен Бельгией), в настоящее время находится в Вашингтоне, но переедет в Брюссель в октябре 1967 года. Он имеет независимого председателя и обслуживается интегрированным международным персоналом.
   Основными военными командованиями НАТО являются европейское, со штаб-квартирой в Бельгии и Атлантическое, со штаб-квартирой в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. Есть и третье командование, союзное командование Канал. Штаб Европейского командования, известный как SHAPE (Верховный штаб союзных держав в Европе), был перемещен из Рокенкура, недалеко от Парижа, в Касто, недалеко от Монса, на юго-западе Бельгии, в марте 1967 года. Ее командующий, известный как SACEUR (Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе), был американским генералом с момента создания НАТО. Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО на Атлантике (ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике), также всегда был американским.
   Нет организации Союзного Командования, охватывающей стратегические ядерные силы, но европейское и Атлантическое командования участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, штат Небраска, где осуществляется комплексное планирование американских бомбардировочных и ракетных сил, как ВВС, так и ВМС, и британских бомбардировочных сил. Соединенные Штаты Америки выделили небольшое количество подводных лодок Polaris, а Великобритания-свои средние бомбардировочные силы, под контроль SHAPE.
   После встречи министров обороны стран НАТО в декабре 1966 года Совет принял решение о создании двух новых постоянных органов по ядерному планированию-Комитета по делам ядерной обороны (NDAC) и подчиненной ему Группы ядерного планирования (NPG). Членство в NDAC открыто для всех членов НАТО, но Франция, Исландия и Люксембург не принимают участия. NDAC - это, по сути, встреча министров обороны. Намерение состоит в том, чтобы ассоциировать неядерных членов в ядерные дела Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь НАТО является председателем NDAC.
   Группа ядерного планирования намерена углубиться в детали тем, затронутых в NDAC. В ее состав входят семь членов, все они избираются из числа стран-членов NDAC на восемнадцатимесячный срок. Страны, участвующие в работе первого семестра являются Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Италия, Нидерланды, США, Турция и Греция, каждая из которых обслуживает половину срока. Темы, которые в настоящее время находятся на рассмотрении NPG, включают (1) уровни стратегических ядерных сил и систем противоракетной обороны; (2) тактическое ядерное оружие; и (3) улучшение отношений с принимающими странами, где хранится ядерное оружие. NPG проводит заседания как на уровне министров, так и на уровне послов; его первое совещание на уровне министров состоялось в Вашингтоне в апреле 1967 года.
   На совещании в декабре 1966 года было также решено рассмотреть вопрос о создании системы связи НАТО для содействия политическим консультациям как в процессе планирования, так и во время любого кризиса. Было также одобрено, что следует разработать новые пути и средства сбора, оценки и распространения разведывательных данных в рамках всего сообщества НАТО.
  

1. Союзное Командование в Европе

   Европейское командование НАТО отвечает за оборону всей территории НАТО в Европе (плюс Турция), за исключением Великобритании, Франции и Португалии. Он также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Великобритании. Об организация противовоздушной обороны Франции ведутся переговоры. Ответственность НАТО за оборону Португалии несет Атлантическое командование. Датские и норвежские прибрежные воды находятся в зоне Европейского командования.
   Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе (SACEUR) также является главнокомандующим силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе. Заместитель SACEUR - британский офицер, кроме того, есть итальянский заместитель по ядерным вопросам и американский заместитель по воздушным перевозкам.
   Согласно заявлению г-на Макнамары, в районе, охватываемом ACE, насчитывается 7000 тактических ядерных боеголовок, а количество средств доставки (самолетов и ракет), как полагают, составляет около 2250, распределенных между рядом стран. Однако сами ядерные заряды находятся в исключительно американском Национальном подчинении. В среднем мощность бомбы, складированных в Европе для использования тактической авиацией НАТО составляет около 100 килотонн, и ракетных боеголовок, 20 килотонн.
   Силы, подготовленные и оснащенные для обороны Европейского пространства НАТО, насчитывают около 56 дивизий. Еще 30 могут быть переброшены, если позволит время. Командование имеет около 4000 тактических самолетов, базирующихся на 150 стандартных аэродромах НАТО и подкрепленных системой совместно финансируемых топливопроводов и связью.
   Между германским и французским правительствами достигнута договоренность о статусе французских сил, оставшихся в Германии. Предмет их сотрудничества с силами и командованием НАТО остается предметом переговоров между НАТО и французским правительством, хотя Франция согласилась участвовать в совершенствовании системы противовоздушной обороны и радиолокации, которая будет построена консорциумом НАТО по наземной среде ПВО (NADGE). Все воинские части и командования НАТО, включая подразделения тылового обеспечения, покинули французскую территорию. Разрешение на полеты над Францией выдается военно-воздушным силам членов на ежемесячной основе.
   Семь стран выделили по одному или несколько усиленных пехотных батальонов или эскадрильи истребителей-бомбардировщиков, чтобы сформировать целевую группу (мобильные силы ACE), чтобы служить при определенных условиях в качестве мобильного резерва НАТО в целом, и в частности к аварийной ситуации в северной или Юго-Восточной Европе.
   В подчинении командования ОВС НАТО в Европе находятся следующие полевые командования:
   (a) Союзные силы в Центральной Европе (AFCENT) командует как сухопутными, так и военно-воздушными силами в центральноевропейском секторе. 1 апреля 1967 года она переехала в новую штаб-квартиру в Брунсуме, нидерландская провинция Лимбург, командующим которой является немецкий генерал.
   Наземная оборона Центральноевропейского командования состоит из 24 дивизий, предоставленных шестью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских и бельгийских подразделений и некоторых подразделений тылового обеспечения, базируются в Германии, и в последние годы подразделения постепенно перемещаются ближе к восточногерманской границе.
   Тактические военно-воздушные силы включают в себя около 2500 самолетов, из которых 500 или более истребителей-бомбардировщиков ВВС США. Есть также Британские Canberra, канадские CF-104, и F-104G немецких и других военно-воздушных сил. Американские и немецкие войска оснащены ракетами Sergeant и Pershing на уровне корпуса и армии. Ракеты Honest John и артиллерия развернуты для ядерных ударов на дивизионном уровне. Комплексная система раннего предупреждения и обеспечения безопасности полетов была разработана для Великобритании, Западной Германии, стран Бенилюкс и северо-восточной Франции. В составе командования развернуты 28 зенитно-ракетных батальонов Hawk и Nike.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную группу армий (NORTHAG) и Центральную группу армий (CENTAG). Северная группа армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Геттинген-Льеж. Она включает в себя британские и Бенилюкса дивизии, четыре немецкие дивизии и канадскую бригаду. Она поддерживается 2-ми союзными тактическими ВВС, которые состоят из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Американские войска и семь немецких дивизий находятся в центральной группе армий. 4-е союзные тактические ВВС включает в себя американские, немецкие и канадские крылья.
   (б) Союзные силы в Северной Европе (AFNORTH) имеет штаб-квартиру в Кользас в Норвегии, и несет ответственность за оборону Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна, и Балтийских продходов. Командующим британский генерал. Большая часть сухопутных, морских и тактических военно-воздушных сил Дании и Норвегии предназначена для этого, и большая часть их активных резервов закреплена за ним. Германия назначила одну дивизию (дислоцированную в Шлезвиге), два боевых воздушных крыла и свой Балтийский флот.
   (c) Союзные силы в Южной Европе (AFSOUTH) имеют штаб-квартиру в Неаполе, а командующий также является командующим 6-м флотом Соединенных Штатов. Он отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции, а также за охрану коммуникаций в Средиземном море и турецких территориальных водах Черного моря. В ее состав входят 14 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие подразделения из этих трех стран были выделены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот Соединенных Штатов, который станет ударной силой на юге в войне, и некоторые военно-морские силы Греции, Италии, Турции и Соединенного Королевства. По географическим причинам система обороны базируется на двух отдельных регионах: Южном, включающем Италию и подходы к ней, и Юго-Восточном, включающем Грецию и Турцию. Существует, однако, общее воздушное командование и единое военно-морское командование (NAVSOUTH), ответственное за AFSOUTH: его штаб-квартира находится на Мальте, а его командующий - итальянский адмирал. NAVSOUTH взяло на себя функции бывшего командования Средиземноморья (AFMED), которое было упразднено.
  

2. Союзное Командование на Атлантике

   Штаб Атлантического командования союзников находится в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. В случае войны в обязанности верховного главнокомандующего ОВС НАТО на Атлантике (SACLANT), который является американским адмиралом с британским заместителем, входит (а) участие в стратегическом ударе и (b) защита морских коммуникаций от нападения враждебных сил. Для этих целей Великобритания, Канада, Дания, Голландия, Португалия и Соединенные Штаты выделили войска для учений и, если потребуется, для войны. (Франция не предоставляет каких-либо сил, но есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике). SACLANT отвечает за Североатлантический регион к северу от Тропика Рака, включая северную часть Северного моря.
   Есть пять подчиненных командований: Западной Атлантики, Восточной Атлантики, Иберийской Атлантики, ударный флот Атлантики и подводное командование. Ядро ударного флота Атлантики было 2-м флотом Соединенных Штатов с двумя или тремя ударными авианосцами, но эта роль в настоящее время частично разделяется с ракетными подводными лодками.
   В военно-морских флотах соответствующих стран насчитывается около 500 эскортных кораблей, значительная часть которых полностью или частично предназначена для ведения противолодочной войны. Большинство военно-морских сил НАТО оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы главным образом для борьбы с ПЛ, и более 150 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. Кроме того, державы НАТО имеют в своем распоряжении около 375 морских патрульных самолетов большой дальности наземного базирования, подавляющее большинство из которых базируется на американском побережье или вблизи него. Американский военно-морской флот обладает около 800 палубных специализированных противолодочных самолетов и вертолетов, из которых около половины могут действовать в любое время.
   Общее число, которое может быть быстро введена в эксплуатацию всеми авианосцами и на базах Атлантического океана, вероятно, составляет около 350. (Эти оценки включают подразделения, предназначенные для командования каналом.)
  

3. Союзное Командование Канала

   Роль командования Канала в военное время заключается в осуществлении контроля над проливом Ла-Манш и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из малых военных кораблей Бельгии, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства предназначены для этого командования, как и некоторые морские самолеты и вертолеты. Главнокомандующий - британский адмирал, который также действует в качестве главного подчиненного командующего Восточноатлантической областью под командованием SACLANT и имеет свою штаб-квартиру в Нортвуде, Миддлсекс. Комитет канала, состоящий из начальников штабов ВМС трех соответствующих стран, действует в качестве консультативного органа при Главнокомандующем.
  

NATIONAL FORCES

   BELGIUM
Population: 9,530,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 102,000.
Defence budget 1967: 22,700 million Belgian francs ($451,000,000).
Army Total strength: 76,400.
   2 mechanized divisions.
   2 reserve divisions.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   M-24, M-26, M-41, and M-47 tanks.
   Entac and SS-11 anti-tank missiles.
   Leopard tanks are to be bought from Germany.
   Honest John rockets, and 105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   2 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   The mechanized divisions and one battalion of the paracommando regiment are assigned to NATO; the reserve divisions are earmarked for NATO.
Navy Total strength: 4,700.
   7 fleet minesweepers.
   2 coastal escorts.
   22 coastal minesweepers.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   6 other vessels.
   2 S-58 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 20,900; 140 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   There are 20-25 aircraft in a Belgian combat squadron.
   50 C-47, C-54, and C-119 transport aircraft.
   2 wings Nike-Ajax surface-to-aix missiles.
   All squadrons, including the Nike wings are assigned to NATO, except the transport wing, which is under national command.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 55,350,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 429,300 (inc. forces enlisted outside Britain).
Defence budget 1967-68: £2,205 million ($6,171,000,000).
Army Total strength: 215,000 (including 24,000 enlisted outside Britain).
   The Army is organized into 14 infantry brigades, amounting to some 60 battalions.
   There is also the Brigade of Gurkhas, consisting of 8 infantry battalions.
   There are 3 parachute battalions, 21 tank and armoured car regiments, 30 artillery regiments, and an engineer and a signal regiment.
   The British Army of the Rhine, based in Germany, has a current strength of 52,000.
   It is organized into 3 divisions, each of 2 brigades (2 of the 6 are armoured).
   It is planned to withdraw one of the infantry brigades, together with support units, at the beginning of 1968.
   About 18 battalions are normally maintained in the United Kingdom garrison, in addition to 2 infantry brigades and a parachute brigade
   in the Strategic Reserve.
   The present strength in Aden is two brigades, and there is a battalion group in the Persian Gulf.
   In the Far East area (including Hong Kong) there are 11 battalions, including the 8 Gurkha battalions.
   There are 2 battalions in Cyprus (including 1,000 men with the United Nations forces).
   Other garrisons include a brigade in Berlin, 2 battalions in Malta, 1 battalion in Gibraltar, and small garrisons in Libya and British Honduras.
   The Chieftain medium tank with a 120mm gun has begun to replace the Centurion in some of the armoured units in Germany.
   Tactical nuclear artillery available to BAOR includes three regiments with Honest John and some 203mm howitzers.
   The 105mm SP Abbot and the American 155mm and 175mm heavy self-propelled guns have replaced
   all the 25 pounders and 5.5 inch guns previously in service.
   There is an Army headquarters and a Gurkha infantry brigade in Singapore, an infantry brigade in Hong Kong, an infantry battalion in Brunei,
   and an infantry battalion with the Commonwealth Brigade in Malacca.
   In addition, there is a Marine Commando brigade based in Singapore.
   The Army Volunteer Reserve, which came into operation on 1 April 1967, numbers approximately 80,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 94,300.
   The strength of the operational fleet during 1967 was as follows:
   3 aircraft carriers.
   2 commando ships.
   2 assault ships.
   6 guided-missile destroyers.
   14 other destroyers.
   22 ASW frigates.
   29 other escort vessels.
   3 nuclear-powered fleet submarines.
   33 other submarines.
   54 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   120 support ships.
   The first 2 fleet ballistic missile submarines have been launched but will not enter service until the spring of 1968; there will be 4 in all,
   each will be nuclear-powered and will carry 16 Polaris missiles.
   A 4 nuclear fleet submarine is being constructed.
   Ships in reserve, or undergoing repairs and conversion, include
   2 aircraft carriers, 3 cruisers, 22 escort vessels, 11 conventional submarines, and 31 coastal minesweepers.
The Fleet Air Arm has a nuclear and conventional strike capacity with about 80 Buccaneer Mark 1 and 2 light jet bombers.
   The Sea Vixen all-weather fighter is equipped with the Red Top air-to-air guided missile.
   The commando ships carry Marines in Wessex and Whirlwind helicopters. Wessex and Wasp helicopters are used for anti-submarine operations.
The Royal Marines total about 9,000 men, and provide 5 Commandos of 800 men each. 3 of these are currently stationed out of Britain.
   There are 8,052 men in the naval and marine reserves.
Air Force Total strength: 120,000; 600 combat aircraft.
   The Air Force is organized as follows:
(1) Bomber Command* provides a medium bombing force designed for strategic nuclear strikes and conventional bombing.
   Its nucleus consists of about 80 Victor 2 and Vulcan 2 jet bombers, which can carry either nuclear or conventional bombs or
   the Blue Steel air-tosurface nuclear missile.
   Some Victor 2 aircraft are used for strategic reconnaissance, and a number of Victor Is have been converted into tanker aircraft.
   30 Canberra PR-7s are also used for photo-reconnaissance. All Bomber Command's strategic bombers are assigned to NATO.
(2) Fighter Command* is equipped with about 100 Lightning interceptors and is also assigned to NATO.
   The Lightning is equipped either with Firestreak or with the more advanced Red Top air-to-air missile.
   The Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales has been in operation since the beginning of 1964,
   and has direct links with NORAD in Colorado Springs as well as British defence headquarters.
   Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missile squadrons are operational in Singapore and the United Kingdom.
(*From April 1968, Bomber and Fighter Commands will merge into the new Strike Command.)
(3) Coastal Command has about 80 Shackleton long-range reconnaissance and anti-submarine aircraft.
   The HS-801 Nimrod (derived from the Comet 4C) will probably enter service in 1969.
(4) Transport Command t has 10 Belfast, 20 Britannia, 5 Comet, and 14 VC-10 aircraft for long-range airlift.
   Medium-range transports include 55 Argosies, and the first turbo-prop C-130 Hercules will begin to replace the piston engined
   Hastings and Beverleys in early 1968. 66 Hercules have been ordered in all. The delivery of 30 short-range Andovers is now complete.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Belvederes, Whirlwinds, and Wessex Mark 2s.
   Two ground-attack squadrons of Hunter Mark 9 are included in the Command.
(5) RAF Germany, whose present strength is 8,700 men, is equipped with
   70 Canberra strike and reconnaissance aircraft (the strike squadrons have both nuclear and conventional roles),
   36 Hunter ground-attack and reconnaissance aircraft, and 40 Lightning interceptors.
   The Hunters will eventually be replaced with a mixed force of F-4 Phantoms and P-1127 Harriers.
(6) Near East Air Force in Cyprus includes about 50 Canberra bombers (with nuclear capacity) and one squadron of Lightning interceptors.
   Some Canberra and Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta.
   Middle East Air Force in Aden has Shackleton and Hunter ground-attack aircraft.
   Far East Air Force includes Canberra, Hunter, Javelin, and Shackleton combat aircraft; Beverley, Argosy, Andover, Hastings, and Valetta transports;
   Whirlwind and Sycamore helicopters; and light aircraft such as Pioneers and Twin Pioneers.
(7) There are 11 squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, whose chief role is ground defence of airfields.
   The Tigercat surface-to-air missile system is shortly to enter service with these units. The RAF reserves total approximately 1,000 men.
  
   CANADA
Population: 20,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 103,000.
Defence budget 1967-68: 1,688 million Canadian dollars ($US 1,568,000,000).
Army Total strength: 42,000.
   In Canada: 3 infantry brigade groups, 1 of which is earmarked for deployment in Europe under NATO.
   1 of the 2 other brigades at present contributes to North American ground defence.
   In Europe:
   1 mechanized infantry brigade group of 6,000 men, with 60 Centurion tanks, 300 M-113 armoured personnel carriers, and 105mm SP howitzers.
   880 men in UNFICYP (Cyprus).
Army reserves number 27,000.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   1 light aircraft carrier.
   23 ASW destroyer escorts.
   5 ocean escorts (frigates).
   3 submarines (including one British under Canadian operational control).
   2 support ships.
A squadron of Tracker aircraft and some Sea King helicopters are carried on the aircraft carrier,
   and helicopters are carried on some of the destroyer escorts.
Naval reserves total about 2,000 men and women.
Air Force Total strength: 44,000; 225 combat aircraft. There are 18 aircraft to a Canadian combat squadron.
In Europe: Six strike-reconnaissance squadrons equipped with CF-104Starfighters.
North American Air Defence: 3 squadrons of CF-101B Voodoo interceptors and 2 squadrons of Bomarc B surface-to-air missiles.
Coastal aircraft: 3 squadrons with CL-28 Argus and 2 squadrons with P-2 Neptunes.
   4 transport squadrons with the C-130 Hercules, CC-109 Cosmopolitan, DHC-4 Caribou, CL-44 Yukon, and DHC-4 Buffalo aircraft.
Air Force reserves: 750 men.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,800,000.
Military service: 12-14 months.
Total armed forces: 45,500.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 2,171,308,000 Danish kroner ($304,000,000).
Army Total strength: 28,000.
   2 infantry brigades.
   2 armoured infantry battalions with Centurion tanks.
   2 artillery battalions (with the Honest John and 203mm howitzer).
   3 infantry brigades and 3 armoured battalions to be formed from reservists within 72 hours.
   Local defence reservist units form 15 infantry battalions and 15 artillery batteries.
A volunteer Home Guard of 55,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,200.
   4 submarines.
   2 destroyer escorts.
   4 corvettes.
   4 coastal escorts.
   8 minelayers.
   12 minesweepers.
   16 fast patrol boats.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   10 landing craft.
   27 other ships.
Volunteer Naval Home Guard: 3,500.
Air Force Total active strength: 10,300; 100 combat aircraft. (*There are 16 aircraft in a Danish combat squadron.)
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100 D/F.*
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with Hunters.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   1 transport squadron with C-47 and C-54.
   1 air-sea rescue squadron with S-61 helicopters.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules batteries located around Copenhagen.
   4 semi-mobile Hawk batteries to supplement the Nike batteries.
A volunteer Air Force Home Guard of 10,500.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 49,750,000.
Military service: 18 months (selective).
Total armed forces: 520,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 23,888 million francs ($4,879,000,000).
Army Total strength: 340,000.
   5 divisions stationed in Europe. These include
   1 mechanized and 1 armoured division in Germany, 1 independent brigade in West Berlin, and
   2 mechanized and one air-transportable division in France.
   The air-transportable division combines parachute troops with an amphibious group and supporting arms, and makes up the permanent element
   of a strategic reserve (force intervention).
   In the armoured and mechanized divisions, the AMX-30 battle tank has begun to replace the M-47 Patton, while the AMX-13 tank
   and the EBR heavy and AML light armoured cars are being rearmed with a 90mm gun.
   The artillery has self-propelled AMX 105mm and 155mm howitzers and 30mm anti-aircraft twins.
   SS-11 and Entac anti-tank missiles are widely used.
   Combat troops stationed overseas number about 15,000, including 2 regiments at Mers-el-Kebir (Algeria) and 3 regiments in other African
   states, 2 regiments in French Somaliland, 1 regiment in the Caribbean, and 2 battalions in the Pacific territories.
   There are in addition 3,000 French officers and NCOs serving either on secondment or on contract with the armed forces of independent African countries.
   The remaining troops are stationed in metropolitan France for local defence (defense operationelle du territoire).
   Their peacetime strength is 6 brigades, including 1 mountain brigade.
Mobilization would add 1 Alpine and 5 territorial brigades, and 100 infantry regiments and supporting units.
Navy Total strength: 72,000 (including Naval Air Force).
   The fleet is deployed with the Mediterranean squadron at Toulon, the Atlantic squadron at Brest, and the Amphibious Force at Lorient.
   2 22,000-ton aircraft carriers.
   1 14,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   1 10,000-ton helicopter carrier.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   1 destroyer leader.
   18 destroyers (4 with Tartar missiles).
   29 destroyer escorts.
   21 submarines.
   15 coastal escorts.
   110 fleet and coastal minesweepers.
   9 landing ships.
   10 landing craft.
   128 other ships.
A Marine Commando of 800 men.
   3 Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines are scheduled for completion by 1972.
   An experimental FBMS is now being used in tests.
The Naval Air Force, consisting of 12,000 men and about 275 aircraft, includes:
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with Etendard IVM. *
   (*There are normally 12 aircraft in a French combat squadron, except for reconnaissance squadrons, which have 18.)
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Etendard IVP.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-8E Crusaders.
   3 ASW squadrons with Alize's.
   5 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Neptunes.
   1 maritime reconnaissance squadron with Br-1150 Atlantique.
   1 heavy helicopter squadron with Super Frelons.
   3 medium helicopter squadrons with S-58.
   2 light helicopter squadrons with Alouette 3s.
Air Force Total strength: 108,000; 475 combat aircraft.
(a) Strategic Air Command (FAS): 50 aircraft.
   3 mixed bomber wings, each of 3 squadrons with four Mirage IVA each, and 1 squadron with 4 C-135 tankers.
   A total of 50 Mirage IVA and 12 C-135 are operational.
   The force is adapted to low-level penetration with atomic bombs with a yield of 80-90 kilotons.
   A brigade of 25 surface-to-surface missiles, based in Haute Provence, will enter service in 1969-70.
   Construction of missile silos and an underground operations centre began in 1966.
(b) Air Defence Command (CAFDA): 145 aircraft. The various components of this command are co-ordinated by the automatic STRIDA II
   air defence system, which is being installed at HQ in Taverny and in major radar stations.
   5 interceptor squadrons with Super Mystere B-2.
   2 all-weather interceptor squadrons with Vautour II-N.
   1 interceptor squadron with Mirage IIIC.
   2 interceptor squadrons with Mystere IVA.
(c) Tactical Air Force (FATAC): 260 aircraft.
   This controls two Tactical Air Commands:
   1st CATAC, units of which are being withdrawn from Germany, and 2nd CATAC,which would eventually command the
   air component of the force d"'intervention.
   3 interceptor squadrons with Mirage IIIC.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage IIIE.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D.
   2fighter-bombersquadrons with Mystere IVA.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with Mirage IIIR.
   2 light-strike squadrons with A-1D Skyraiders.
   2 surface-to-air missile brigades with NikeAjax and Nike-Hercules missiles.
(d) COTAM (Transport Command): 150 aircraft.
   6 squadrons with ND-2501 Noratlas tactical transports.
   1 squadron with C-160 Transall tactical transports.
   1 squadron with DC-6 and Br-765 heavy transports.
   2 squadrons with C-47 Dakotas.
   The 12 C-135 tankers may also be used for troop transport (see Strategic Air Command, above).
   4 helicopter squadrons with H-34 and Alouette II.
Para-military forces and reserves
   The regular forces could be supplemented by up to 450,000 reservists in time of emergency,
   plus the Gendarmerie and the CRS (Compagnies Republicaines de Securite), who total 75,000.
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 57,500,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 460,000.
Defence budget 1967: DM 18,500 million ($4,625,000,000).
Army Total strength: 325,000 (including the Territorial Force of 20,000).
   4 armoured divisions.
   6 armoured infantry divisions.
   1 mountain division.
   1 airborne division.
   1,500 M-48A2 Patton and 800 Leopard (with 105mm guns) medium tanks.
   105mm, 155mm, 175mm, and 203mm artillery.
   Honest John and Sergeant surface-to-air missiles.
   6,000 HS-30 and M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   500 Leopard tank destroyers with 90mm guns or SS-11 missiles.
   Carl Gustav and Cobra anti-tank missiles.
   120 light aircraft, mostly Do-27.
   Bell 47, UH-1D Iroquois, and Alouette 2 helicopters.
The Territorial Force is held for rear-area duties, and is not assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 33,000.
   9 submarines.
   12 destroyers (6 on loan from USA).
   6 destroyer escorts.
   13 support ships.
   7 coastal escorts.
   55 minesweepers.
   40 fast patrol boats.
   18 landing craft.
   89 other vessels.
The Naval Air Force has 6,000 men and 125 aircraft, consisting of
   4 fighter-bomber and reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G, and
   2 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Br-1150 Atlantique.
   2 ASW squadrons with helicopters are planned.
Air Force Total strength: 102,000; 450 combat aircraft.
   (*There are up to 24 aircraft in German fighter, fighterbomber, and light-strike squadrons,
   and up to 18 aircraft in reconnaissance and transport squadrons.)
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G (some with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles).*
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with G-91.
   6 transport squadrons with Noratlas.
   6 battalions Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   9 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 battalions Pershing surface-to-surface missiles.
   The Air Force is assigned to NATO.
Para-military forces and reserves
   About 30,000 Border Police and other security forces.
   Trained reservists number about 750,000.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,700,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 24 months; Navy, 36 months.
Total armed forces: 158,000.
Defence budget 1967: 6,294 million drachmas ($208,000,000).
Army Total strength: 118,000.
   11 infantry divisions in 3 corps (4 divisions are kept close to full strength).
   1 armoured division with M-47 and M-48 Patton tanks.
   1 Commando brigade.
   (8 divisions near the northern frontier are assigned to NATO: the rest, which are located in southern Greece and Crete,
   are under national command but are earmarked for NATO.)
   2 battalions of Honest John surface-to-surface missiles.
   M-24 Chaffee light tanks.
   105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Hawk.
   Most light arms and vehicles are American.
   (About 10,000 men of the Greek Army are currently serving in Cyprus.)
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   3 submarines.
   8 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts,
   13 patrol vessels.
   5 troop transports.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   6 fast patrol boats.
   9 tank landing ships.
   6 medium landing ships.
   23 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 250 combat aircraft. (There are 18 aircraft in Greek fighter and fighter-bomber squadrons.)
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.t
   1 day-fighter squadron with F-86D.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   About 30 C-47 and C-119G transport aircraft.
   Bell-47 and H-19 helicopters.
   (7 tactical squadrons and one transport squadron are assigned to the 6th Allied Tactical Air Force; the remainder are under national command.)
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 23,000.
   National Guard (Sunday drills): 50,000.
   Trained reserves: 175,000.
  
   ITALY
Population: 53,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 24 months.
Total armed forces: 416,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Defence estimates 1967: 1,270,000 million lire ($2,075,000,000).
Army Total strength: 310,000.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 and M-60 tanks.
   5 infantry divisions.
   5 Alpine brigades of 8,000 men each.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   1 independent cavalry brigade with M-47 tanks.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 rocket brigade (including 2 Honest John battalions).
   4 surface-to-air missile battalions with Hawk.
   The 7 divisions, the 5 Alpine brigades, the rocket brigade, and the Hawk battalions are assigned to NATO;
   the 5 independent brigades remain under national command.
Navy Total strength: 40,000.
   3 guided-missile light cruisers.
   2 destroyer leaders.
   6 destroyers (including 2 guided-missile destroyers).
   11 destroyer escorts.
   7 submarines.
   26 coastal escorts.
   56 ocean and coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers.'
   14 coastal patrol boats and gunboats.
   17 transport ships.
   9 support ships.
   50 other ships.
1 marine infantry battalion.
The naval air force includes air-sea rescue units with H-19, Bell-47, and S-55 helicopters, and HU-16A Albatross.
Air Force Total strength: 66,000; 475 combat aircraft.
   (*There are up to 20 aircraft in an Italian combat squadron (gruppo); the transport squadrons have 16 aircraft each.)
(a) Assigned to Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force:
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.*
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   3 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   3 all-weather fighter squadrons with F-86K.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with F-104G.
   2 transport squadrons with C-119.
   3 wings with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
(b) Under national command:
   1 light-strike and reconnaissance squadron with G-91.
   1 transport squadron with C-45, C-47, Convair 440, and DC-6.
   3 anti-submarine squadrons with a total of 40 S-2A Trackers.
Para-military forces
   The Carabinieri Corps (mainly security, Frontier Guard, and military police duties): 80,000.
   Other security forces number a further 30,000.
   Trained reservists total about 600,000.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 335,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 800.
Defence estimates 1967: 208 million Belgian francs ($4,100,000).
Army Total strength: 800.
   A light infantry battalion is being formed.
   An artillery battalion of 450 men has been attached to the American 8th Infantry Division, with headquarters at Bad Kreuznach, West Germany.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 12,500,000.
Military service: Army, 16-18 months; Navy and Air Force, 21-24 months.
Total armed forces: 130,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 2,993 million guilders ($816,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   2 mechanized divisions and some corps troops (assigned to NATO).
   600 Centurion medium tanks (some with reserve units).
   AMX 105mm tank destroyers.
   AMX, M-113, and DAF-YP-408 armoured personnel carriers.
   Carl Gustavanti-tank missiles.
   105mm, 155mm, and 175mm SP artillery.
   203mm nuclear howitzers and Honest John launchers.
Army Reserves: 1 infantry division, 1 independent infantry brigade, and the remaining corps troops, including a 2nd independent infantry brigade,
   to be formed by call-up of reservists, are earmarked for assignment to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 21,000, including 3,000 marines and 2,100 naval air force.
   1 16,000-ton ASW carrier.
   2 cruisers (one fitted with guided missiles).
   1 fast combat support ship.
   6 submarines.
   12 ASW destroyers.
   4 frigates.
   17 coastal escorts.
   46 coastal minesweepers.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   11 support ships.
   1 landing craft.
   18 other vessels.
The naval air force consists of
   4 ASW and reconnaissance squadrons equipped with P-2H Neptunes and S-2A Trackers,
   2 helicopter squadrons with SH-19 and SH-34 (squadrons for the aircraft carriers are included in these figures), and
   2 training squadrons.
Air Force Total strength: 24,000; 144 combat aircraft. (*There are 18 aircraft to a Netherlands combat squadron.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.*
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 day-fighter squadron with Hunter.
   1 fighter squadron (USAF under Dutch Command) with F-102.
   7 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Nike Hercules.
   11 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Hawk.
   1 transport squadron with Friendships.
   3 observation and communication squadrons of light aircraft and Alouette III helicopters (under operational command of Army).
   With the exception of the transport squadron, the Air Force is assigned to NATO.
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,790,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 35,000.
Defence budget 1967: 2,168 million Norwegian kroner ($303,000,000).
Army Total strength: 18,000.
   The army is organized into 5 regional commands, comprising all ground forces.
   The regional commands are again divided into a number of ground defence districts.
   Major units are mainly organized in Regimental Combat Teams (RCT).
   Peacetime establishment includes a brigade group with M-48 tanks, stationed in Arctic Norway, a number of independent battalions, and supporting
   elements as well as training units.
   Mobilization would produce 11 Regimental Combat Teams plus supporting units. This force would total 75,000.
   The 3 battalions of Honest John surface-to-surface missiles have been disbanded.
Navy Total strength: 8,000, including 650 coastal artillery.
   3 frigates.
   12 submarines.
   1 minelayer.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   4 coastal escorts.
   5 auxiliaries.
   About 30 fast patrol boats of less than 100 tons.
A number of coastal artillery battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 110 combat aircraft. (*There are 16-18 aircraft in a Norwegian combat squadron.)
   1 interceptor squadron with F-104G.*
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   2 maritime patrol squadrons with HU-16 Albatross.
   1 transport squadron with C-119 and C-47.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules sites are located around Oslo (without nuclear warheads).
Para-military forces There is a Home Guard with local defence responsibilities, totalling about 70,000 men.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,300,000.
Military service: Army, 18-24 months; Air Force, 18 months; and Navy, 48 months.
Total armed forces: 148,500 (excluding African troops). About 500,000 trained reservists could be mobilized in an emergency.
Defence estimates 1967: 7,963 million escudos ($274,000,000).
Army Total strength: 120,000.
   Elements of 2 infantry divisions are stationed in metropolitan Portugal.
   1 of these divisions, which has some M-47 tanks and is earmarked to NATO, may be only 50 per cent up to strength.
   The other division, reserved for joint Iberian defence, is even lower in'numbers.
   The remaining troops (including about 20 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese provinces in. Africa.
   About 50,000, including locally enlisted troops, are in Angola, 30,000 in Mozambique, and 20,000 in Portuguese Guinea.
Navy Total strength: 15,000, including 500 marines.
   1 destroyer.
   10 frigates (including one ASW frigate).
   3 submarines.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   14 patrol vessels.
   10 patrol launches.
   4 landing craft.
   12 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 13,500; 140 combat aircraft. (*There are 18-20 aircraft in a Portuguese combat squadron.)
   20 B-26 piston-engined light bombers.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-86F Sabre.*
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84G Thunderjet.
   2 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   1 ASW reconnaissance squadron with P-2 Neptune.
   1 transport group with Noratlas, C-47, C-54, and DC-6.
   Only the Neptune squadron is NATO-assigned.
   There is a paratroop regiment of 3,000, which comes under Air Force command; 1 battalion is serving in each of the three African provinces.
   Many of the combat squadrons are also currently serving in Africa.
Para-military forces National Republican Guard: 15,000.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 32,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 480,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68:3,926 million Turkish lire ($439,000,000).
Army Total strength: 390,000.
   1 armoured division with M-47 and M-48 tanks.
   13 infantry divisions, one of which is mechanized.
   3 armoured brigades with M-47 tanks.
   3 armoured cavalry regiments.
   3 independent infantry brigades.
   2 parachute battalions.
   M-24 light tanks and M-36 tank destroyers.
   Honest John surface-to-surface missiles.
   105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   Apart from some fortress regiments and territorial defence units, all Turkish Army formations are assigned to NATO.
Trained Army reservists number 500,000.
Navy Total strength: 37,000.
   8 destroyers.
   10 submarines.
   15 coastal escorts.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   6 coastal minelayers.
   9 support ships.
   14 other ships.
Naval reserves: 70,000.
Air Force Total strength: 53,000; 450 combat aircraft. (*There are up to 20 aircraft in a Turkish combat squadron.)
   8 interceptor squadrons with F-86D/E/K.*
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A and F-100.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F and F-84R.
   4 transport squadrons (C-47, C-54, and C-130).
   2 battalions Nike anti-aircraft missiles (6 batteries).
   The Turkish Air Force, including the Nike batteries, is NATO-assigned.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 63,000.
   National Guard: 20,000.
  
   UNITED STATES
Population: 198,500,000.
Military service: selective service for two years.
Total armed forces: 3,400,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: $73,100,000,000 (of which $22,000,000,000 is directly attributable to operations in Vietnam).
  
Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The strategic offensive and defensive deployment of American forces has two major objectives:
   (1) the deterrence of deliberate nuclear attack upon the United States and her allies by maintaining the ability to inflict an unacceptable degree of
   damage upon any single aggressor, or combination of aggressors, at any time during the course of a strategic nuclear exchange;
   (2) in the event of global war, the limiting of damage to the population and industrial capacity of the United States.
   Extensive provision has been made for the control of these forces in the event of heavy nuclear attack on the United States.
   As far as the air defence component of 'damage limitation' is concerned, the American Government has again decided not to procure and deploy
   the Nike-X anti-ballistic-missile defence system for the time being.
   Various alternative postures for a BMD system are being considered in relation to their cost.
   The investment costs for a BMD system to protect a small number of cities against an attack from the Soviet Union are currently estimated at just
   over $10,000,000,000.
1. Strategic Offensive Forces,
LAND-BASED MISSILES:
   At present, 750 Minuteman 1 and 250 Minuteman 2 solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) are operational.
   The Minuteman 2 is gradually replacing the Minuteman 1, and eventually all 6 strategic missile wings will be equipped with the later missile.
   An improved version, the Minuteman 3, is being developed.
   54 launchers (six squadrons of 9 missiles each) of the Titan 2 liquid-fuelled ICBM remain in service.
   These have greater range and payload than Minuteman 2.
SEABORNE MISSILES:
   The Navy now has in commission 41 nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, each of which carries 16 Polaris missiles.
   32 of these submarines are normally deployed at any one time. 25 in the Atlantic Arctic-Mediterranean area, and 7 in the Pacific.
   Of the total 41, 13 are equipped with the A-2 missile (1,500-mile range) and the remainder with the A-3 (2.500-mile range).
   It has now been decided to start production of the Poseidon missile, which will have nearly twice the payload of the A-3 missile and will eventually
   replace all the Polaris missiles.
BOMBERS: The Strategic Air Command (SAC) has at present about 620 bombers.
   These include about 540 B-52s with the AGM-28B Hound Dog air-to-surface cruise missile and the Quail decoy.
   The Hound Dog has a range of up to 700 miles and carries a thermonuclear warhead.
   B-52s have also been used for heavy conventional bombing in Vietnam.
   There are two wings of B-58 Hustler medium bombers with a total of about 75 aircraft.
   The B-47s have been phased out of the strategic nuclear role.
   Some have been converted to the photo-electronic reconnaissance (RB-47K) or weather reconnaissance (WB-47) roles.
   It is planned to procure 210 FB-111A supersonic bombers for entry into service in 1969-71.
   There are about 600 KC-135 tankers in SAC.
   A wing of 16 SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft has been formed.
   It is claimed that this aircraft can attain speeds of more than Mach 3 and altitudes greater than 80,000 ft.
  
2. Strategic Defensive Forces.
   The North American Air Defence Command (NORAD), which has its headquarters at Colorado Springs, Colorado, is a joint Canadian-American organization.
   The American forces under NORAD are known as the Air Defence Command (ADC) and number approximately 85,000 men.
   There are 30 interceptor squadrons in ADC, including the following:
   12 squadrons F-106A Delta Dart,
   14 squadrons F-101B Voodoo,
   2 squadrons F-102A Delta Dagger, and
   2 squadrons F-104A Starfighters.
   Air-to-air missiles used by these aircraft include Sidewinder, Falcon, and Genie.
   The regular units of Continental Air Defence Command are supplemented by 22 interceptor squadrons of the Air National Guard,
   which include among their aircraft F-89J Scorpions, F-100 Supersabres, and F-102A Delta Daggers.
   This gives a total number of interceptor aircraft in NORAD (including Canadian units) of 1,350.
   The surface-to-air missile force consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk, and Bomarc.
   There are 16 battalions of Nike-Hercules and 2 battalions of Hawk missiles still in service; both these systems are operated by the Army elements of ADC.
   The present number of long range surface-to-air Bomarc missiles is 188, deployed in six squadrons.
   These are all Bomarc B, with a range of 440 miles and a ceiling of 100,000 ft, and are mostly stationed in the north-eastern states.
   Ground defence against bomber or missile attack is supported by a chain of radar and tracking stations, including the
   Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS), with stations in Alaska, Greenland, and England;
   the Pinetree line; and 'over-the-horizon' radar sites.
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in North American air space is co-ordinated by the SemiAutomatic Ground Environment System (SAGE),
   organized into 12 sectors. 11 of the sectors are being combined with Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIQ stations.
   Improvements are being carried out to the 3 existing BMEWS stations, and some of the air-defence radar stations now on the East,
   West, and Gulf Coasts of the United States are being adapted for detection of submarinelaunched missiles.
  
Army Total strength: 1,470,000.
   The ground forces are organized into
   17 operational divisions,
   38 surface-to-surface missile battalions,
   7 Special Forces Groups,
   5 armoured cavalry regiments,
   10 independent infantry and airborne brigades, and some
   200 independent aviation units.
   The Army operates about 9,500 aircraft and helicopters.
   It is planned to create a second airmobile division following the successful performance of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) in Vietnam.
   One of the existing airborne divisions will probably be chosen for conversion to this function.
   American ground forces, including the four divisions of the Marine Corps, were deployed as follows in July 1967:
Continental United States.
   Strategic reserve: 2nd Marine Division, 5th Marine Division, 82nd Airborne Division, 101st Airborne Division (less one brigade),
   2 independent infantry brigades, and 1 armoured cavalry regiment.
   For reinforcing the 7th Army in Europe: 1st Armoured Division and 2nd Armoured Division.
   Training division for units being sent to Vietnam: 5th Mechanized Division.
Panama Canal Zone. 193rd Infantry Brigade.
South Korea. 2nd Infantry Division, 7th Infantry Division, and 4th Missile Command.
Hawaii/Okinawa. 11th Infantry Brigade.
South Vietnam. 1st Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division, 9th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile),
   1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Division, 196th and 199th Light Infantry Brigades, lst/101 and 173rd Airborne Brigades, and
   11th Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
Germany.
   5th Corps: 3rd Armoured Division, 3rd Mechanized Division, 8th Mechanized Division, and 14th Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   7th Corps: 4th Armoured Division, 24th Mechanized Division, and 2nd and 3rd Armoured Cavalry Regiments.
   In West Berlin: One infantry brigade.
Forces in Germany (7th Army). The 7th Army is equipped with the M-60 tank, some of which have been fitted with the Shillelagh guided
   anti-tank missile, and includes 3 battalions (12 launchers) of solid-fuel Pershing nuclear missiles.
   Self-propelled medium artillery includes the M-107 175mm gun and the M-110 203mm howitzer.
   The Lance guided missile, with a range of 30 miles, is now being procured to replace the unguided Honest John and Little John and some artillery.
   The 7th Army is also equipped with Sergeant surface-tosurface nuclear bombardment weapons with a maximum range of 75 miles,
   and, in the shortrange category, Lacrosse rockets.
   The main anti-aircraft missiles are Nike-Hercules and Hawk.
Forces in Vietnam. The total of American land forces in Vietnam (including units of the Marine Corps) in July 1967 was 385,000;
   these included either the whole or elements of the 7 divisions listed above, and also individual detachments, including special aviation battalions
   on which the US command has placed great emphasis. (See also 'The Vietnam War' on p.49.)
Army Reserves. In May 1967, Mr McNamara announced still further reductions and consolidation in the reserve army.
   It is now proposed that the Army National Guard should consist of 400,000 men but that it should be capable, in about 5 weeks from mobilization,
   of deploying 8 division forces, 18 separate brigades, and some smaller units to round out regular Army formations.
   3 of the divisions and 6 of the brigades will form a Select Reserve and will be capable of more rapid mobilization.
   The current strength of the Army National Guard is about 418,000.
   The former Army Reserves, now totalling 260,000, will be used as a reinforcement pool.
Navy Total strength: 750,000.
   The total number of commissioned ships is about 940.
   The General Purpose Forces navy consists of approximately 900 ships, of which 478 are warships.
   The fleets are the 1st in the Eastern Pacific, the 2nd in the Atlantic, the 6th in the Mediterranean, and the 7th in the Western Pacific.
   The main units of the active fleets are:
(1) 15 attack carriers: 1 nuclear-powered (USS Enterprise), 7 Forrestal-class, 2 Midwayclass, and 5 Oriskany-class.
   The attack carriers no longer have a strategic nuclear mission, and lighter attack aircraft, such as the
   A-4 Skyhawk, A-6A Intruder, and A-7A Corsair, are being used in place of the A-3 Skywarriors and A-5 Vigilantes.
   Air defence is provided by F-4B Phantoms, except in the Oriskany class, which retain the F-8E Crusaders.
   The attack carrier aircraft number 12 wings, with about 85 aircraft to each wing.
(2) 8 anti-submarine carriers, all Essex-class. They are equipped with S-2E long-range search aircraft and SH-3A helicopters,
   and have A-4C Skyhawks for air defence; each carries about 50 aircraft and helicopters.
(3) 105 submarines (excluding Polaris vessels), of which 32 are nuclear-powered attack submarines.
(4) 325 escort ships for anti-submarine warfare and fleet air defence. These include the following ships:
   12 guided-missile cruisers.
   2 gun cruisers.
   29 guided-missile frigates.
   3 gun frigates.
   27 guided-missile destroyers.
   173 gun/ASW destroyers.
   6 radar-picket destroyers.
   17 radar-picket escorts.
   56 other escorts.
   Guided missile ships are armed with Tartar, Talos, and Terrier surface-to-air missiles, and Asroc and Subroc anti-submarine missiles.
(5) 157 amphibious assault ships, including 7 assault carriers (LPH); 64 ocean minesweepers;
   18 coastal minesweepers; and 185 logistic and operational support ships.
   There are over 400 escorts and 15 cruisers in reserve.
   The active fleet and reserves also include over 1,000 service, patrol, and other craft.
(6) There are 30 squadrons of shore-based ASW patrol aircraft.
   They are mostly equipped with P-2 Neptunes and P-3A Orions.
   Air units in the naval reserve include 19 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft and four squadrons of helicopters.
   The number of aircraft in the active inventory of the Navy is estimated at 8,500.
Marine Corps. Total strength: 280,000.
   In early 1967, the Marine Corps consisted of 4 Marine divisions and three air wings.
   The 4th Marine division, which was activated from the reserve in the autumn of 1966, does not appear to have its associated wing of attack
   and interceptor aircraft.
   A Marine division is about 20,000 strong, and includes a tank battalion with M-48 and M-103 tanks and a battalion of 24 Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   Other tactical artillery with the divisions includes 105mm, 115mm, and 155mm howitzers.
   The 3 Marine air wings have about 1,200 combat and support aircraft.
   In the 15 fighter squadrons, the F-4 Phantom, armed with Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles, is replacing the F-8 Crusader.
The air wings comprise
   12 attack squadrons, with the A-7A Corsair replacing the A-4 Skyhawk, and
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with the RF-4B Phantom replacing the RF-8A Crusader. There are
   3 squadrons of C-130 Hercules assault transports,
   2 squadrons of CH-37C and CH-53A heavy helicopters, and
   14 squadrons of UH-34D and CH-46A medium helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 900,000 (including Air Force personnel serving in
Strategic Air Command and Air Defence Command; for the organization of strategic and air defence forces, see above).
The General Purpose Forces of the Air Force consist of the Tactical Air Command, the Military Airlift Command, and
   some interceptor squadrons assigned to American air forces in Europe and the Pacific. The present strength of
Tactical Air Command is 75,000 men and .about 2,700 aircraft.
   It controls most squadrons deployed in Europe and the Pacific, and in all it comprises the following units:
   88 tactical fighter squadrons with F-100, F-105, and F-4D;
   20 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with RF-101, RB-66, and RF-4C;
   32 assault airlift squadrons with C-7A Caribou and C-130 Hercules; and
   16 air commando squadrons with A-1E, B-26K, F-5, C-123, and AC-47 aircraft.
US Air Forces Europe (USAFE), which controls the
   3rd Air Force in England, the
   16th Air Force in Spain, the
   17th Air Force in West Germany, and a Logistics Group in Turkey, has about 700 tactical aircraft and includes
   19 tactical fighter squadrons and
   6 tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
   The Mace tactical missile is being phased out as its 'quick reaction alert' role is taken over by the Pershing surface-to-surface missile.
   The tactical fighters include F-100 Supersabre and F-4 Phantom, and the reconnaissance aircraft are RF-101 Voodoo and RF-4.
   There are some F-102 squadrons for air defence in Germany and the Netherlands.
   Of the 6 reconnaissance squadrons formerly at bases in eastern France,
   3 have moved to England, and the remainder have returned to the USA or have been disbanded.
   Transport and logistic bases formerly in France have been moved to England and Germany.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), with headquarters in Hawaii, controls the
   5th Air Force, with bases in Japan, Korea, and Okinawa; the
   13th Air Force, with headquarters in the Philippines; and the
   17th Air Force, which is the air component of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV).
   The 5th Air Force operates squadrons of F-4, F-105, F-100, RF-101, and F-102 fighters;
   the 13th Air Force, with similar aircraft, is responsible for the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, plus all joint planning responsibilities under SEATO.
   The 7th Air Force, with about 55,000 men in South Vietnam, consists of light bomber, tactical fighter, reconnaissance, and assault airlift squadrons.
   It also co-ordinates the operations of the Vietnamese Air Force (see below).
   The approximate strength of the 7th Air Force is
   20 B-57 light bombers,
   350 F-100 and F-4C fighter-bombers,
   40 RF-101 and RB-57 reconnaissance aircraft,
   100 A-1E, AC-47, F-5, and C-123 counter-insurgency aircraft,
   80 C-7A and C-130 assault airlift aircraft, and a large number of observation and liaison aircraft and helicopters.
   About 70 F-4C and 100 F-105 fighter-bombers, as well as 40 RF-101 and RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft, fly from 13th Air Force bases in Thailand.
The Military Airlift Command (MAC) numbers 72,000 men and operates about 1,200 aircraft in 56 squadrons.
   These include 192 C-124 Globemasters, 39 C-133 Cargomasters, 30 C-135 Stratolifters, and 200 C-141 Starlifters for long-distance transport.
   A total of 224 C-141 have been ordered.
   All transports formerly operated by the Army (mainly Caribous) have been handed over to Air Force command.
The Air National Guard General Purpose Forces have approximately 1,750 aircraft in
   22 fighter-interceptor squadrons,
   23 tactical fighter squadrons,
   12 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   4 air commando squadrons,
   5 tanker squadrons, and
   25 air transport squadrons, mostly with the older type transports.
   The strength of the Guard is 82,700 men.
There is also an Air Force Reserve of 53,400 men, of whom about 50,000 have paid drill status, i.e. are attached to specific units.
   The Air Force Reserve numbers 42 squadrons, of which 21 have C-119 Boxcar and 16 have C-124 Globemaster transports.
   There are approximately 14,250 aircraft and helicopters in the active inventory of the US Air Force.
  

CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) are Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The United States is an associated member and is represented on the Council of Military Deputies and on the Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees. CENTO does not have an international command structure, nor are forces allocated to it. Air striking power is, however, supplied by Britain, with Canberra bombers based on Cyprus, and by the United States with the Sixth Fleet. The treaty is explicitly intended to provide a framework for collective action in the event of a threat from a Communist power, but not in the case of friction between memberstates and non-Communist powers.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Иран, Пакистан, Турция и Соединенное Королевство. Соединенные Штаты являются ассоциированным членом и представлены в Совете военных депутатов и в экономических комитетах и комитетах по борьбе с подрывной деятельностью. CENTO не имеет международных структур, ни сил, выделенных ему. Авиационная ударная мощь, однако, осуществляется Великобританией, бомбардировщиками Canberra с баз Кипра и Соединенными Штатами с 6-м флотом. Договор призван обеспечить основу для коллективных действий в случае возникновения угрозы от коммунистической власти, но не в случае трений между государствами и некоммунистических силы.
  
   IRAN
Population: 25,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 180,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 36,000 million rials ($480,000,000).
Army Total strength: 164,000.
   7 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   M-24 and M-47 tanks.
   1 battalion Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 army headquarters and most of the combat troops are stationed in northern Iran.
   Under an agreement announced in February 1967, the Soviet Union will supply about $110 million worth of armoured troop carriers, military trucks,
   and anti-aircraft guns, starting in late 1967.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   1 escort destroyer.
   3 patrol frigates.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   3 landing craft.
   6 other ships.
   24 patrol vessels less than 100 tons.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000; 166 combat aircraft.
   (*There are 25 aircraft in an Iranian combat squadron, except for the reconnaissance squadron, which has 16.)
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-86F.*
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5.
   1 tactical reconnaissance squadron with RT-33A.
   Transport aircraft include 12 C-45s, 10 C-47s, 8 C-130Bs, and 6 Beavers.
   A helicopter squadron includes Huskies and Whirlwinds.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 25,000 men.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 120,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 323,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 2,180 million rupees ($457,000,000).
Army Total strength: 300,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   4 armoured brigades with M-4 Sherman, M-47 Patton, M-48 Patton, and Chinese T-59 tanks.
   13 infantry divisions based on 32 brigades.
   Some of the infantry divisions have reconnaissance regiments with M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Bulldog light tanks.
   About 900 125mm, 150mm, and 175mm guns.
   There are Cobra anti-tank missiles in service.
   An air defence brigade with anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 9,000.
   1 submarine.
   2 large destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 ASW frigates.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 fast patrol boats.
   3 support ships.
There is a coastguard force of 1,500 men.
Naval aircraft include Albatross and some UH-19 helicopters for air-sea rescue.
Air Force Total strength: 14,000; 240 combat aircraft.
   (*There are 18-20 aircraft in a Pakistan fighter squadron, and 8-10 aircraft in the bomber and reconnaissance squadrons.)
   2 light bomber squadrons with B-57B jets (20 aircraft).*
   1 light bomber squadron with Il-28 jet bombers (8 aircraft).
   2 tactical reconnaissance units with RT-33A and RB-57.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104A Starfighters (20 aircraft).
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-86F Sabres (100 aircraft).
   4 fighter squadrons with MiG-19 Farmers (80 aircraft).
   2 transport squadrons with C-47, Bristol Mark 21/31, and C-130B Hercules.
   70 T-6, T-33, and T-37B trainers.
   A few Alouette 3 helicopters.
   25 Mirage IIIE jet interceptors are on order.
Air Force reserves number 2,500.
Para-military forces Total strength: 80,000.
  
  

SOUTH-EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of SEATO are Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. These countries are committed to build up collective economic and military strength and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member or against the 'protocol states' of Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam. The treaty area is the South-West Pacific theatre south of. 20R30'N. There is no central command structure, and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised by the Seventh Fleet, based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces in Guam, Okinawa, Vietnam, and Thailand. The 28th Commonwealth Brigade (consisting of British, Australian, and New Zealand forces), plus supporting air units, is based in Malaysia. Commonwealth naval forces, which would operate in support of the treaty powers in the event of war, are based in Singapore, which is also the headquarters of the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve. France maintains no forces in the area. Although the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Thailand have sent troops to South Vietnam, this has not been done under SEATO.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ДОГОВОРА ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

   Членами SEATO являются Австралия, Великобритания, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд и Соединенные Штаты. Эти страны полны решимости наращивать коллективную экономическую и военную мощь и консультироваться с целью совместных оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против члена или против "протокольных государств" Лаоса, Камбоджи и Южного Вьетнама. Договорная зона - театр юго-западной части Тихого океана к югу. 20R30'N. Отсутствует центральная командная структура, а силы остаются под национальным управлением. Американскую поддержку договорным державам оказывают 7-й флот, базирующийся на Тайване и Филиппинах, и американские военно-воздушные и сухопутные силы на Гуаме, Окинаве, Вьетнаме и Таиланде. 28-я бригада Содружества (состоящая из британских, австралийских и новозеландских сил), а также вспомогательные воздушные подразделения базируются в Малайзии. Военно-морские силы Содружества, которые будут действовать в поддержку договорных держав в случае войны, базируются на Сингапур, который также является штаб-квартирой стратегического резерва Содружества. Франция не имеет сил в этом районе. Хотя Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Филиппины и Таиланд направили войска в Южный Вьетнам, это было сделано не под руководством СЕАТО.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 11,675,000.
Two years selective military service.
Total armed forces: 80,300.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 1,118 million Australian dollars (51,378,000,000).
Army
Total strength: 43,300.
   8 infantry battalions, including 1 battalion group in Malaysia and 3 battalion groups in Vietnam.
   1 tank regiment with Centurions.
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
The Citizen Military Force of 35,000 (not included in the above total) is found from reservists and is intended to form
   20 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services, plus 2 Commandos.
Navy Total strength: 16,500.
   1 light fleet carrier (used for ASW).
   1 submarine.
   5 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   18 support ships.
   1 fast troop transport.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with Sea Venoms.
   1 ASW squadron with Gannets.
   1 helicopter squadron with Wessex Mark 31s.
Air Force Total strength: 20,500; 200 combat aircraft.
   40 Canberra light bombers.
   80 Mirage III-O jet fighters (with Matra air-toair missiles).
   60 Australian Sabre fighters.
   14 P-2E Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   50 transport aircraft (25 C-130 Hercules and 25 CV-2B Caribou).
   2 helicopter squadrons with UH-1B Iroquois.
   1 surface-to-air missile squadron with Bloodhound Mark 1.
There is a Citizen Air Force (reservists) of 1,000 men.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,700,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service for the Army).
Total armed forces: 12,800.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 87,550,000 New Zealand dollars ($122,000,000).
Army Total strength: 5,600.
   1 infantry battalion in Malaysia.
   An artillery battery and an infantry company in Vietnam.
   Regular troops form the nucleus of a Combat Brigade Group, a Logistic Support Force, a Combat Reserve Group, and a Static Support Force.
   These units would be formed by the mobilization of territorials.
There are 11,300 in the Territorial Army.
Navy Total strength: 2,900.
   1 general purpose frigate.
   4 ASW frigates.
   4 escort minesweepers.
   1 patrol vessel.
   2 support ships.
3,400 naval reservists.
Air Force Total strength: 4,300; 37 combat aircraft.
   12 Canberra light bombers.
   20 Vampire fighter-bombers.
   5 P-3 Orion maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   30 transport aircraft (C-130 Hercules, C-47, and Bristols).
   1 transport squadron and the light bomber squadron are deployed in Singapore.
   5 Iroquois and 6 Sioux helicopters.
  
   PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Population: 32,000,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 30,000.
Defence budget 1967-68: 415 million pesos ($104,000,000).
Army Total strength: 17,000.
   1 combat infantry division.
   4 training divisions.
   M-24 and M-41 tanks.
   There is a reserve of 205,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 5,000.
   2 command ships.
   12 escort patrol vessels.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   18 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 landing ships.
   6 support ships.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000; 64 combat aircraft.
   14 F-86D all-weather fighters.
   30 F-86F day-fighters.
   20 F-5A tactical fighters.
   Transport, observation, air-sea rescue, and training units.
Para-military forces Philippine Constabulary of 17,000.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 32,850,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 126,330.
Defence expenditure 1967-68: 2,618 million baht ($125,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   3 infantry divisions (including 3 tank battalions).
   1 regimental combat team.
   Armoured cars and light tanks.
Navy Total strength: 21,330 (including a Marine brigade of 3,330).
   4 ASW frigates.
   1 anti-aircraft frigate.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 armoured gunboats.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   18 patrol vessels.
   6 landing ships.
   2 landing craft.
   2 small patrol boats.
   17 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 125 combat aircraft.
   45 F-86F fighter-bombers.
   15 F-84G day-fighters.
   6 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 65 T-6 and T-28 light-strike aircraft.
   150 transport aircraft, including C-45, C-47, C-54, and C-123B.
Para-military forces Volunteer Defence Corps: 25,000. Border Police: 7,000.
  

THE PROTOCOL STATES

   CAMBODIA
Population: 6,300,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 37,850.
Defence expenditure: approx. equivalent $50,000,000.
Army Total strength: 34,000.
   30 infantry battalions.
   8 commando battalions.
   1 armoured reconnaissance regiment.
   2 parachute battalions.
   AMX-13 tanks and 105mm howitzers.
   Medium and light anti-aircraft guns and field guns have been supplied by both China and the USSR.
Navy Total strength: 1,350 (including 150 marines).
   2 patrol vessels.
   1 support gunboat.
   2 tank landing craft.
   4 utility landing craft.
   6 torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 smaller vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 2,500; 40 combat aircraft.
   12 MiG-17 jet fighters.
   10 A-1 Skyraider light bombers.
   15 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   4 Magister jet trainers.
   12 C-47 and about 15 other miscellaneous transports.
   Morane Saulnier trainers and about 6 helicopters.
Para-military forces Armed police and forces of the Home Guard type number about 45,000 men.
  
   LAOS
Population: 2,600,000.
Military service: conscription.
Total armed forces: about 80,000.
Defence expenditure 1967: 9,120 million kips ($38,000,000).
1. Royal Lao Forces Total strength: 75,000.
Army About 65,000 men. There are also about 8,000 neutralist troops not yet fully integrated.
   24 infantry battalions and 6paratroop battalions, organized in 10 mobile groups.
   About 40 static infantry battalions.
   12 artillery batteries (gun or heavy mortar).
   Light arms and equipment are American.
Navy About 500 men.
   4 river squadrons, with small gunboats and landing craft.
Air Force About 1,500 men and 50 combat aircraft.
   50 T-28D light-strike aircraft.
   Beaver liaison aircraft and C-47 transports.
   Some commercial transport planes are available.
2. Pathet-Lao Forces Total strength: about 30,000 (including dissident neutralists).
   These are believed to be supported by 15,000-20,000 regular North Vietnamese troops operating in the northern provinces and in the eastern area
   of the southern provinces. They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin, but no troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
  
   SOUTH VIETNAM
Population: 16,125,000.
Military service: minimum 3 years.
Total armed forces: 325,000 (regular); 320,000 (para-military).
Defence expenditure 1967: equivalent $193,000,000.*
Army Total strength: 285,000 (regular forces).
   10 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   3 independent infantry regiments.
   7 Marine battalions.
   20 Ranger battalions.
   2 Special Forces Groups.
   (There are normally 3 regiments to a Vietnamese infantry division, and 4 battalions to a regiment.
   A Ranger battalion may be attached at divisional level.
   There are thus about 170 infantry battalions in the Vietnamese regular army, but many units are below establishment;
   the average actual strength of a battalion is 400, and of a regiment 1,200, against authorized strengths of 715 and 3,000 respectively.)
   10 tank squadrons with M-41 and AMX-13 light tanks.
   3 armoured car squadrons with V-100 Commandos.
   24 squadrons of M-113 armoured carriers.
   Most light arms and equipment is American.
Navy Total strength: 24,000 (including marines and junk-force personnel).
   9 coastal escorts.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
   This figure takes into account the devaluation of June 1966.
   17 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   22 motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   7 other ships.
   There is a force of about 500 motorized junks for coastal defence.
   There is a Marine brigade of 7 battalions (5 infantry, 1 artillery, and 1 support), which comes under Army command.
Air Force Total strength: 16,000; 150 combat aircraft.
   4 B-57 light bombers.
   105 A-1E Skyraider light bombers.
   20 F-5 tactical fighters.
   Some RC-47 reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 75 C-47, Skywagon, and Beaver transports.
   80 CH-34 Choctaw helicopters.
Para-military forces Regional Forces: 140,000.
   Organized into 750 rifle companies and at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces: 150,000.
   About 4,000 platoons, with light arms, acting as a militia.
   Civilian Irregular Defence Groups: 30,000.
   Civil Police: 45,000.
   These have light arms, and there are some special units with armoured vehicles and helicopters for internal security duties.
  

US MUTUAL DEFENCE TREATIES

   JAPAN
Population: 99,500,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 246,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 380,900 million yen ($1,058,000,000).
Army Total strength: 171,500.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 mechanized division.
   1 airborne brigade.
   Artillery, engineer, and signal brigades.
   380 M-4, M-24, M-41, and type 61 tanks.
   Artillery up to 203mm guns.
   2 surface-to-air missile battalions with Hawk.
   150 aircraft and 130 helicopters.
   Reserves: 24,000.
Navy Total strength: 35,000.
   22 destroyers (1 with Tartar surface-to-air missiles).
   17 frigates and other escorts.
   7 submarines.
   20 coastal escorts.
   10 motor torpedo boats.
   42 minesweepers and minelayers.
   52 landing craft and landing ships.
   39 other ships.
   The naval air component has about 190 aircraft, including 55 Trackers, 60 Neptunes, and 50 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 39,500; 570 combat aircraft.
   200 F-104J interceptors.
   90 F-86D interceptors.
   265 F-86F day-fighters.
   15 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   50 transport aircraft, mostly C-46.
   30 H-19, H-21, and S-62 helicopters.
   420 training aircraft, including T-1, T-6, T-34, and F-104DJ.
   2 Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile groups (72 launchers).
  
   SOUTH KOREA
Population: 29,000,000
Military service: 2-3 years.
Total armed forces: 612,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 48,000 million won ($180,000,000).
Army Total strength: 540,000 (including 46,000 in South Vietnam).
   18 front-line infantry divisions.
   10 tank battalions with M-47 and M-48 Pattons.
   40 artillery battalions.
   10 reserve infantry divisions.
   Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 infantry divisions and engineer units are in South Vietnam.
   About 10,000 Koreans are serving with the American Army in Korea.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   1 destroyer.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   4 frigates.
   15 coastal escorts.
   3 fast transports.
   11 coastal minesweepers.
   8 tank landing ships.
   12 medium landing ships.
   12 other ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 30,000.
   1 newly-formed division, plus a brigade serving in South Vietnam.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 200 combat aircraft.
   30 F-5 tactical fighters.
   60 F-86D all-weather interceptors (some with Sidewinder missiles).
   100 F-86F righter-bombers.
   10 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   C-46 and Aero Commander transport aircraft with a few Chickasaw helicopters.
   T-28 and T-33 trainers.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 31,700,000. ;
Military service: Army, 16 months; Navy, 24 months; and Air Force, 18 months.
Total armed forces: 275,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 34,902 million pesetas (5583,000,000).
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   4 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division with M-47 tanks.
   1 mountain division.
   10 independent infantry brigades.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   1 high mountain brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 airborne brigade.
   About 15,000 soldiers, including elements of 3 divisions, are serving in Spanish Africa, and a further 7,000 in the Canary Islands.
Navy Total strength: 40,000, including marines.
   1 light aircraft carrier (loaned by USA).
   1 cruiser.
   4 submarines.
   7 ASW destroyers.
   10 ASW fast frigates.
   8 anti-aircraft frigates.
   4 corvettes.
   6 frigate minelayers.
   13 fleet minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   2 coastal escorts.
   9 landing ships.
   29 other ships.
A Marine Corps of 9,750 men.
3 flights of ASW helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 35,000; 270 combat aircraft.
   75 F-86F interceptors.
   25 F-104G interceptors.
   70 F-5A/B tactical fighters.
   75 F-86 fighter-bombers.
   25 armed T-6 trainers.
   About 200 transport aircraft, including C-47,
   C-54, and Spanish-built Alcotans, Halcons, and Azors.
   250 training aircraft, including T-6, T-33, and TF-104G.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 12,900,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 547,000.
Defence expenditure: approx. equivalent $300,000,000.
Army Total strength: 400,000 (including 80,000 on Quemoy and Matsu).
   15 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions.
   2 armoured cavalry regiments.
   6 light divisions.
   4 Special Forces Groups.
   1 parachute brigade.
   M-24, M-41, and M-48 tanks.
   Honest John rockets.
   2 battalions Hawk missiles.
Navy Total strength: 35,000.
   5 destroyers.
   6 frigates.
   27 coastal escorts.
   7 fast transports.
   6 fleet minesweepers.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   27 tank landing ships.
   18 medium landing ships.
   38 landing craft.
   38 patrol vessels (less than 100 tons).
Marine Corps Total strength: 27,000.
   1 Marine division.
   1 Marine brigade.
   2 amphibious battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 85,000; 435 combat aircraft.
   45 F-100 Supersabre fighter-bombers.
   50 F-104G interceptors.
   250 F-86F interceptors.
   25 F-5A tactical fighters.
   25 F-84F day-fighters.
   40 RF-104G and RF-101 reconnaissance aircraft.
   100 C-46, C-47, C-119, and C-123 transports.
   T-6, T-33A, F-104F, and PT-17 trainers.
   There are several American Air Force formations on Taiwan, equipped with fighters and tactical missiles.
Reserves About 150,000 men.
  

PART III. NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

THE MIDDLE EAST*

   *Force levels for countries in this section are those prevailing at 30 June 1967: i.e., after the fighting of 5-10 June, and taking into consideration any arms deliveries up to the end of that month.
  
   IRAQ
Population: 8,300,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 82,000.
Defence estimates 1967: approx. 81 million Iraqi dinars ($226,000,000).
Army Total strength: 70,000.
   1 armoured division.
   4 infantry divisions.
   About 600 tanks, of which 400 are operational; mostly T-34 and T-54, with some Centurions.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   Small number of MTBs and patrol vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000; 170 combat aircraft.
   6 Tu-16 medium jet bombers.
   10 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   50 MiG-21 interceptors.
   50 Hunter Mark 9 ground-attack.
   34 MiG-17 and MiG-19 jet fighters.
   20 T-52 Jet Provost light-strike.
   9 Mi-4 and 11 Wessex helicopters.
   About 40 Soviet and British medium transports.
Para-military forces Total strength: 10,000.
   1 mechanized brigade of security troops.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 4,000,000 (as at 30 June 1967).
Military service (Jewish population only): men, 30 months; women, 20 months.
Total armed forces: 71,000 regular (can be raised to approx. 275,000 by mobilization of reserves, which is completed within 48-72 hours).
Defence budget 1967-68: 1,389 million Israeli pounds ($463,000,000).
Army Total strength: 60,000 (regular); 204,000 (reserve).
   Regular: 4 infantry brigades (approx. 4,000 men each), 1 of which is paratroop/infantry.
   There is a separate armoured command of divisional strength.
   Reserve: approx. 22 brigades, for one-third of which armour is available on mobilization.
   Armour includes 225 M-48 Patton tanks, 250 Centurion with 105mm guns, 200 T-54, 175 Super Sherman, and 140 AMX-13.
   There are about 250 self-propelled guns, including 155mm howitzers on Sherman chassis and 105mm howitzers on AMX chassis.
   Anti-tank weapons include the 106mm recoilless rifle mounted on jeeps, and SS-10 and SS-11 missiles mounted on weapons carriers.
   There are separate regional defence units which provide a permanent guard in the border regions.
   Most of these units are on a militia basis.
Navy Total strength: 3,000 (regular).
   4 submarines.
   2 destroyers.
   1 anti-aircraft frigate.
   1 coastal escort.
   2 landing craft.
   11 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   5 seaward defence vessels (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 8,000; 230 combat aircraft.
   15 Vautour light jet bombers.
   65 Mirage IIIC fighter/interceptors (some with R-530 missiles).
   25 Super Mystere fighter/interceptors.
   25 Mystere IVA fighter-bombers.
   50 Ouragan fighter-bombers.
   50 Magister jet trainers (can be used in groundstrike role).
   About 35 Noratlas and Stratocruiser transports.
   40 helicopters, including S-58, Alouettes, and Super Frelons.
   Some light aircraft, including Piper Cubs.
   About 50 launchers with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 1,200,000 (as at 30 June 1967).
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 32,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 23 million dinars ($64,000,000).
Army Total strength: 30,000.*
   1 armoured brigade.
   3 infantry brigades.
   1 Royal Guards brigade (mechanized).
   About 50 Centurion, and 50 M-48 Patton medium tanks.
   A few 155mm howitzers.
The National Guard battalions have now been integrated with the Army. Total strength: 250.
   A small number of patrol craft operating in the Dead Sea and from Aqaba.
Air Force Total strength: 1,750; no combat aircraft.
   All the Jordanian Air Force Hunters are thought to have been destroyed during the war with Israel.
   The 30 F-104 fighter-bombers, for which pilots were being trained in USA, had not been delivered by 1 July 1967.
   4 Alouette 3 and 4 Whirlwind helicopters.
   2 Heron and 2 Dove light transports.
   (*This figure represents effective army strength after the war with Israel.)
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Population: 4,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 36,000.
Defence expenditure 1967: approx. 1,286 million rials ($286,000,000).
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   About five infantry brigades.
   M-24 light tanks and Vigilant anti-tank missiles.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   Coastal patrol craft only.
   A navy is being formed around the nucleus of a coastal escort vessel purchased from the USA.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; about 20 combat aircraft.
   4 Hunter and 4 Lightning jet fighters (with British mercenary pilots).
   12 obsolescent F-86 Sabre jet fighters.
   4 C-130E and 6 C-47 medium transports.
   2 Alouette 3 helicopters.
   About 40 Hunter, Lightning, Jet Provost, and T-41A jet trainers.
   Some Thunderbird surface-to-air missiles are being installed around airfields.
Para-military forces Lightly armed tribal levies (the 'White Army') number 20,000. They are used chiefly for internal security.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 5,600,000.
Military service: 2 years (Jews are exempted).
Total armed forces: 60,500.
Defence estimates 1967: approx. 518 million Syrian pounds ($125,000,000).
Army Total strength: 50,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   2 mechanized brigades.
   5 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute battalion.
   6 artillery regiments.
   200 T-34, 150 T-54, and 50 older German tanks
   Soviet artillery up to 155mm.
   10 surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline (c. 100 launchers).
   Reserves with some military training number 40,000.
Navy Total strength: 1,500.
   2 minesweepers (ex-Soviet).
   3 coastal patrol vessels (ex-French).
   15 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons, possibly including some Komar-class with Styx short range cruise missiles).
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; about 25 combat aircraft.
   The Syrian Air Force suffered heavy casualties during June 1967.
   Some 25 combat aircraft may have survived, including MiG-15, MiG-17, and MiG-21 types.
   6 Il-14 medium transports.
   7 Mi-1 and 3 Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 8,000.
   The 'People's Army', a militia force, is claimed to be 150,000 strong.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Population: 31,000,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 180,000 (including all reservists).
Defence budget 1967-68: approx. 285 million Egyptian pounds ($655,000,000), including emergency war budget.
Army Total strength: 140,000 (including 60,000 reservists), of which about 30,000 are in the Yemen.
   2 armoured brigades.
   3 infantry divisions.
   1 parachute brigade.
   5 artillery regiments.
   10 commando battalions.
   250 T-54/55, 70 T-34, 20 JS-3, and 30 Mark 3 Centurion tanks.
   About 150 Su-100, JSU-152, and ZSU-57 self propelled guns.
   500 122mm, 155mm, and 175mm guns and lorry-mounted rocket launchers.
   Forces in the Yemen include an infantry division, the parachute brigade, and 1 armoured brigade.
   Army reserves of 60,000 have been fully mobilized.
Navy Total strength: 11,000, including coastguards.
   8 destroyers (6 ex-Soviet Skory-class and 2 ex-British Z-type).
   8 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   6 escort vessels.
   6 coastal escorts.
   12 missile patrol boats (7 Osa-class and 5 Komar-class, both with Styx short-range cruise missiles).
   10 minesweepers.
   40 motor torpedo boats (32 ex-Soviet and 8 ex-Yugoslav), less than 100 tons.
   6 medium landing craft.
   Naval reserves total about 5,000 men.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 225 combat aircraft.
   20 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   100 MiG-21 interceptors.
   45 MiG-19 all-weather fighters.
   60 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   About 40 Il-14 and An-12 medium transports.
   30 Mi-4 and Mi-6 helicopters.
   150 MiG and Yak jet trainers, some of which can be armed.
   Air defence is provided both by 37mm, 57mm, and 90mm anti-aircraft guns, and by
   120 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles deployed in 20 batteries of six launchers each.
   These missiles are supported by a radar network and by five squadrons of MiG-21 interceptors.
   Air Force reservists total 4,000.
Missile Command
   This is separate from the Army and the Air Force, and consists of about 4,000 men, including civilian technicians.
   The 100 missiles that have been built include the
   Al Zafir, which carries a 1,000-lb warhead some 235 miles, the
   Al Kahir, which carries a rather larger warhead up to 375 miles, and the
   Al Ared, which carries a one-ton scientific probe some 440 miles.
   The first two of these can be launched from mobile platforms.
   There is no evidence that the Egyptians have developed a reliable guidance system for these missiles.
   Some missiles and ancillary installations may have been destroyed by the Israeli air attack of June 1967.
  

ASIA

   INDIA
Population: 505,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 977,000.
Defence estimates 1967-68: 9,694 million rupees ($1,292,000,000).
Army Total strength: 900,000.
   1 armoured division with Centurions.
   12 infantry divisions.
   9 mountain divisions.
   1 parachute brigade.
   There is a tank regiment of Shermans with 6 of the infantry- divisions;
   6 other divisions have reconnaissance regiments with AMX-13, Stuart, or PT-76 light tanks.
   About 1,000 armoured vehicles in all, including 800 tanks.
   About 2,500 artillery pieces, mostly British 25-pounders.
   A Territorial Army of 42,000.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   2 submarines (ex-Soviet).
   2 cruisers.
   3 destroyers.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   5 escort frigates.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 landing ship.
   9 seaward defence boats.
   9 other ships.
   The naval air force includes 60 Sea Hawk attack aircraft, 12 Alize maritime patrollers, and some Alouette 3 helicopters.
   10 Sea Hawks, 4 Alizes, and 2 Alouettes can be carried on the aircraft carrier at any one time.
Air Force Total strength (regular, including all ground personnel): 60,000; 500 combat aircraft.
   45 Canberra B (1) light bombers.
   8 Canberra PR-57 reconnaissance aircraft.
   60 MiG-21 interceptors.
   150 Hunter F-56 fighter/ground-attack aircraft.
   120 Gnat Mark 1 interceptors.
   60 Mystere IV fighters.
   16 Convair B-245 maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 50 Vampire and Ouragan fighter-bombers (in reserve).
   35 C-47, 9 Super Constellation,75 C-119, 22 I1-14, 22 An-12, 30 Otter, and 18 Caribou medium transport aircraft.
   60 Mi-4, 25 Alouette 3, 20 Bell-47, and 6 S-55 helicopters.
   About 60 Auster and Krishak light observation aircraft.
   Some surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline.
   6 anti-aircraft artillery regiments.
   There is an Auxiliary Air Force of 7 squadrons, flying chiefly Harvard and Vampire trainers.
Para-military forces About 100,000 internal security troops in the border regions.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 109,000,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 352,000.
Defence estimates 1967: 20,325 million new rupiahs ($203,000,000).
Army Total strength: 290,000.
   16 infantry brigades formed from about 100 infantry battalions.
   Some specialist units have been formed such as the 1st Paracommando Brigade (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Strike chief Command) consists of approx.
   4 brigades and is based on the paratroops and such infantry battalions as may be assigned to it.
   A number of independent battalions are stationed in the more outlying areas, where their chief function is internal security and civic action.
   Some artillery, engineer, and support units.
   Approx. 4 tank battalions with either AMX-13 or Russian PT-76 light tanks, and Saladin armoured cars;
   some light reconnaissance vehicles have also been acquired from Eastern Europe.
   Various types of Soviet-bloc artillery.
   57mm Soviet anti-aircraft guns and associated radar.
   Small arms are of both Western and Soviet-bloc origin.
Navy Total strength: 40,000 (25,000 regular navy, plus naval air forces, and the 14,000-strong Marine Commando Corps).
   1 heavy cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class).
   12 submarines (ex-Soviet 'W'-class).
   7 destroyers (ex-Soviet Story-class).
   11 frigates (of which 7 ex-Soviet Riga-class).
   3 corvettes.
   12 coastal escorts.
   7 motor torpedo boats.
   6 patrol vessels.
   33 motor gunboats (including 12 Komar-class with missiles).
   21 minesweepers.
   3 submarine support ships.
   7 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   50 other vessels.
   A small naval air arm including Il-28 Beagle and Mi-4 helicopters.
   The 14,000 marines form two brigades.
Air Force Total strength: 22,000, including air defence units and 2,000 parachute troops.
   The Indonesian Air Force is organized into 5 main air areas;
   of a total strength of some 550 aircraft, comprising over 30 different types, less than 200 are available for squadron operational service.
   Over 60 MiG interceptors including 18 MiG-21s.
   25 Tu-16 medium bombers, some with air-to-surface missiles.
   18 B-25 Mitchell and B-26 Invader piston engined light bombers.
   20 F-51D Mustang light-strike aircraft.
   About 60 transport aircraft, including I1-14, C-130B, C-47, and An-12.
   About 35 Soviet and American helicopters, including some Mi-6 Hook.
   There are at least three surface-to-air missile sites, which are claimed to be equipped with Guideline missiles.
Para-military forces The police force numbers about 110,000 and includes a para-military force (Mobile Brigade), numbering approximately 20,000.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 9,400,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 33,200.
Defence budget 1967: 393 million Malaysian dollars ($128,000,000).
Army Total strength: 27,600.
   10 infantry battalions.
   4 Ranger battalions.
   2 reconnaissance regiments with Ferret armoured cars.
   2 artillery regiments with 105mm howitzers.
   Signals, engineer, and administrative units.
   These units form 5 brigade groups, 2 of which are in Borneo.
Army reserves number approximately 40,000.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   1 ASW frigate.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 tank landing craft.
   4 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   22 other patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 support ships.
Naval reserves total 200.
Air Force Total strength: 2,600; no combat aircraft.
   15 Pioneer, 8 Herald, and 3 Caribou medium transports.
   20 Alouette III and 6 S-61 helicopters.
   3 Dove and 2 Heron liaison aircraft.
Para-military forces Total strength: 23,000. 24 companies of para-military field police.
  
  SINGAPORE
Population: 2,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 2,000.
Defence estimates 1967: dollars ($25,800,000). 78.9 million straits
Army Total strength: 2,000.
   2 infantry battalions.
   Army reserves number 5,000, and would form 2 further infantry battalions and an artillery regiment.
Navy and Air Force
   For naval and air defence, Singapore relies on British naval and air units at present stationed in Singapore.
   There are 150 naval reserves based on a small training ship.
  

TABLES

   Табл.1. Сравнение стратегических сил
    []

   Табл.2. Системы доставки ядерного оружия в 1966-67
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ. Мобильная БРПД (Scrooge) и передвижная БРСД (Scamp) были показаны на московских парадах, но, как полагают, еще не находятся в эксплуатации. L = Жидкое топливо. S = Твердое топливо. SL = Хранимое жидкое топливо. T = Турбореактивный Двигатель. SLM = Ракета морского базирования. SLBM = Баллистическая ракета подводных лодок. SLCM = крылатая ракета подводных лодок. SRM = ракета малой дальности. CRM = крылатая ракета. LGM = ракета шахтного базирования. UGM = подводная ракета. MGM = мобильная ракета.
   а. СССР заявлял об этом как об орбитальном оружии, но никогда не испытывал как таковое, и такие испытания теперь были бы запрещены соглашением по Договору о космическом пространстве, которое было достигнуто между США и СССР в декабре 1966 года договор по космосу, заключенный между США и СССР в декабре 1966 года.
   b. Считается не действующим.

    []
   ASM=ракета класса "воздух-поверхность".
   a. Радиус действия максимальный без дозаправки в полете. Во многих случаях полная дальность или полная боевая нагрузка существенно уменьшают одна другую.
   b. Несоответствие между числами Маха и скоростью в миль/ч объясняется различиями в эксплуатационных высотах.

  c. Используется в китайских ВВС

   Табл.3. Военные расходы и национальные экономики
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ. Данные за 1966 год были выбраны в качестве последнего года, за который соответствующие страны располагали данными как о расходах на оборону, так и о ВНП. Цифра в скобках относится к последним запланированным оборонным расходам, т. е. за 1967 или 1967-1968 годы, если известно. ВНП для восточноевропейских стран и Китая оценивается в эквиваленте покупательной способности на Западе. Данные о расходах на оборону в этих странах (за исключением Китая) являются официально опубликованными, но были пересчитаны по обменным курсам, разработанным Бенуа и Любелем в рамках их оценки мировых расходов на оборону (см. сноску к таблице 4).
   ВНП рассчитывался по рыночным ценам на всем протяжении. Цифры расходов на оборону в этой таблице не всегда были установлены ровно.на той же основе (некоторые из них, например, могут не включать выплаты военных пенсий или расходы на создание стратегических запасов, которые включены в определение оборонных расходов НАТО).
   a. данные по этим двум странам отражают девальвацию в июне 1966 года.

   Табл.4. Функциональная разбивка оборонных расходов, 1965
    []
   ИСТОЧНИК. Эта таблица основана на работе профессора Эмиля Бенуа и д-ра Гарольда Любелла из Колумбийского университета, в частности на главе 2 "Разоружение и мировая экономическая взаимозависимость" (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967).
   В некоторых случаях оценки, сделанные Бенуа и Любеллом, были обновлены в свете более поздней информации. Большая часть данных была получена на основе опубликованных оборонных счетов соответствующих стран. В тех случаях, когда эти счета отсутствовали, производилась оценка. 1965 год является самым последним годом, за который может быть произведена оценка любых фактических расходов.
   а. Включает в себя жалование и надбавки для всего действующего военного персонала, а также расходы на питание, одежду, поездки и жилье. Не включает военные пенсионные выплаты.
   b. Включает текущие расходы на содержание всех военных объектов и оборудования и прямые расходы, связанные с военной подготовкой и операциями. Также включает оплату труда невоенного персонала, нанятого оборонными ведомствами.
   c. Включая расходы на приобретение всего военного оборудования и систем вооружений, включая компоненты, запасные части и боеприпасы, будь то из государственных или частных источников. Также включает расходы на строительство любых новых военных зданий и сооружений.
   d. Включая любые расходы, связанные с исследованиями, испытаниями и разработками, спонсируемыми военными властями, независимо от того, имеет ли это конкретные военные цели.
   e. Менее одного процента.

Appendix: Military Activity and Arms Deals Between July 1966 and July 1967

  

THE VIETNAM WAR

   Regular and irregular armed forces of eight countries (South Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States) are taking part in the fighting in South Vietnam. Four other countries (China, the Soviet Union, Laos, and Cambodia) either supply arms and equipment or allow their territories to be used to provide base facilities for the chief participants. No country involved has declared war on any other. All ground fighting has taken place within the borders of South Vietnam or in the demilitarized zone between North and South Vietnam. Bombing raids have been conducted against targets in both South and North Vietnam by the United States, and in South Vietnam by her partners.
   South Vietnam maintains .regular and paramilitary armed forces of about 645,000 men. About two-thirds of these forces are employed in a static defence role and are equipped only with light arms. The mobile striking force of the South Vietnam Army (ARVN) is confined to the Airborne Division and the Marine Brigade (about 25,000 men). American, South Korean, Australian, New Zealand, and Philippine forces operating in South Vietnam are employed both in the static defence and in the mobile retaliatory roles.
   The territory of South Vietnam is divided into four Corps areas; American and South Korean forces share this Corps organization with the ARVN. In July 1967, American ground forces in South Vietnam totalled 385,000; there were, in addition, 25,000 Navy and 55,000 Air Force personnel. It is expected that the total figure may reach, or exceed, 570,000 by the middle of 1968. There were also, in July 1967, 46,000 South Korean, 6,500 Australian, 2,500 Thai, 2,200 Philippine, and 200 New Zealand ground and support forces.
   American air strikes on North and South Vietnam have been made from aircraft carriers stationed in the South China Sea, from air bases on Guam and in Thailand, and from South Vietnam itself; the Royal Laotian Air Force has made air strikes against suspected North Vietnamese concentrations inside Laotian territory. There are 35,000 American ground and air personnel in Thailand.
   Coastal supply bases have been constructed by the Americans at Qui Nhon, Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, and Vung Tau in South Vietnam, and at Sattahip Bay in Thailand. The United States Seventh Fleet, now operating mostly off the Vietnam coast, includes some 80,000 Navy and Marine personnel, some 200 ships (including five attack carriers), and about 700 aircraft (including 250 light bombers).
   Communist regular and irregular forces in South Vietnam totalled about 295,000 in July 1967; these consisted of about 100,000 organized in nine divisions, 75,000 in smaller guerrilla units, 70,000 in logistical support units, and 50,000 in technical and political cadres. Of the 295,000, about 55,000 were North Vietnamese regular troops, the remainder having been recruited in South Vietnam. Troops and supplies from North Vietnam are brought in through parts of Laotian and Cambodian territory (the 'Ho Chi Minh Trail') and by sea, as well as directly across the 17th parallel. Communist forces maintain no air forces in the territory of South Vietnam.
   South Vietnamese regular and irregular forces have had about 60,000 fatal casualties since 1962; in the same period, over 11,000 civilians have been killed, 30,000 wounded, and 40,000 reported missing as a result of insurgent action. American and other allied forces have had over 12,000 killed and 70,000 wounded in the same period. Communist fatal casualties in South Vietnam since 1962 are estimated at about 200,000.
   The American forces have lost over 2,400 aircraft in five years as a result of military operations in Vietnam. This figure comprises 1,470 fixed-wing aircraft and 930 helicopters, and includes aircraft destroyed in accidents or by ground attacks on airfields. About 50 North Vietnamese aircraft have been lost.

ВОЙНА ВО ВЬЕТНАМЕ

   В боях в Южном Вьетнаме принимают участие регулярные и нерегулярные вооруженные силы восьми стран (Южного Вьетнама, Северного Вьетнама, Южной Кореи, Австралии, Новой Зеландии, Филиппин, Таиланда и США). Четыре другие страны (Китай, Советский Союз, Лаос и Камбоджа) либо поставляют оружие и технику, либо разрешают использовать свои территории для обеспечения основных участников базами. Ни одна страна не объявила войну другой. Все наземные бои происходили в границах Южного Вьетнама или в демилитаризованной зоне между Северным и Южным Вьетнамом. Бомбардировки ведутся по целям в Южном и Северном Вьетнаме американцами, и в Южном Вьетнаме их партнерами.
   Южный Вьетнам содержит регулярные и полувоенные вооруженные силы численностью около 645 000 человек. Около двух третей этих сил задействованы в позиционной обороне и оснащены только легкими вооружениями. Мобильные ударные силы Армии Южного Вьетнама (АРВН) ограничиваются воздушно-десантной дивизией и бригадой морской пехоты (около 25 000 человек). Американские, южно-корейские, австралийские, новозеландские и филиппинские силы, действуют в Южном Вьетнаме как в позиционной обороне и ответных наступательных действиях.
   Территория Южного Вьетнама разделена на четыре корпусных района; американские и южнокорейские войска делят эту корпусную организацию с АРВН. В июле 1967 года американские сухопутные войска в Южном Вьетнаме насчитывали 385 000 человек; кроме того, насчитывалось 25 000 военнослужащих ВМС и 55 000 военнослужащих ВВС. Ожидается, что к середине 1968 года общая цифра может достичь или превысить 570 000 человек. В июле 1967 года также насчитывалось 46 000 южнокорейских, 6500 австралийских, 2500 тайских, 2200 филиппинских и 200 новозеландских наземных войск и сил поддержки.
   Американские авиа удары по Северному и Южному Вьетнаму наносятся с авианосцев, дислоцированных в Южно-Китайском море, с авиабаз на Гуаме и в Таиланде, а также из самого Южного Вьетнама; Королевские лаосские ВВС наносят авиа удары по подозреваемым северо-вьетнамским концентрациям на Лаосской территории. В Таиланде работают 35 000 американских наземных и воздушных сотрудников.
   Прибрежные базы снабжения были построены американцами в Куинен, Нячанге, Камрани и Вунгтау в Южном Вьетнаме, а также в бухте Саттахип в Таиланде. 7-й флот Соединенных Штатов, в настоящее время действующий в основном у побережья Вьетнама, насчитывает около 80 000 человек, около 200 кораблей (включая 5 ударных авианосцев) и около 700 самолетов (включая 250 легких бомбардировщиков).
   Коммунистические регулярные и иррегулярных силы в Южном Вьетнаме насчитывают примерно 295,000 в июле 1967 года; они состояли из около 100 000 организованных в 9 дивизий, 75 000 в мелкие партизанские отряды, 70 000 в подразделения материально-технической поддержки, и 50 000 в технических и политических кадров. Из 295,000, около 55,000 были северо-вьетнамские регулярные войска, остальные были набраны в Южном Вьетнаме. Войска и припасы из Северного Вьетнама доставляются через части Лаосской и камбоджийской территории ("тропа Хошимина") и морем, а также непосредственно через 17-ю параллель. Коммунистические силы не имеют военно-воздушных сил на территории Южного Вьетнама.
   С 1962 года регулярные и нерегулярные силы Южного Вьетнама понесли потери 60 000 убитыми; за тот же период более 11 000 гражданских лиц были убиты, 30 000 ранены и 40 000 пропали без вести в результате действий повстанцев. За тот же период американские и другие союзные войска убили более 12 000 человек и ранили 70 000 человек. Число погибших коммунистов в Южном Вьетнаме с 1962 года оценивается примерно в 200 000 человек.
   Американские войска потеряли более 2400 самолетов за пять лет в результате военных действий во Вьетнаме. Эта цифра включает 1470 самолетов и 930 вертолетов, включая самолеты, уничтоженные в результате аварий или наземных нападений на аэродромы. Погибло около 50 самолетов Северного Вьетнама.

THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR

   On the morning of 5 June 1967, hostilities broke out between Israel and Egypt. The Israeli Air Force raided 19 Egyptian airfields, and Israeli ground forces began to advance against Egyptian positions in Sinai. On the same day, Israeli aircraft bombed Syrian, Jordanian, and Iraqi airfields. After Jordanian artillery had shelled Israeli territory, Israeli ground forces advanced against Jordanian positions in the Jerusalem area and the rest of the West Bank. Some Egyptian troops were fighting with the Jordanians on this front, and Iraqi bombers bombed the Netanya area of Israel. Israel claimed to have destroyed 374 Arab aircraft on 5 June.
   On 6 and 7 June, Israeli ground forces with air support continued to advance on the Sinai and West Bank fronts, and on the evening of the 7th King Hussein of Jordan accepted the Security Council's second call for a cease-fire. By the time that fighting finally ceased next day, Israeli forces were in military control of the whole of the West Bank, including the entire city of Jerusalem. On 8 June, Israeli ground forces attained complete military control of the Sinai Peninsula, destroyed the majority of Egyptian forces remaining there, and completed their occupation of the Gaza Strip. A small force had already reoccupied the Egyptian positions at Sharm-el-Sheikh on the morning of the 7th. On the evening of the 8th, the Egyptian and Syrian Governments accepted the Security Council's call for a cease-fire.
   During the three days 5-7 June, activity on the Israeli-Syrian border was mostly confined to shelling by Syrian artillery on Israeli territory. This shelling did not stop after the acceptance of the cease-fire, and Israeli ground forces with air support assaulted Syrian positions north of Lake Tiberias. When fighting came to an end on 10 June, Israeli forces had overrun the Syrian defensive positions and had advanced about 12 miles into Syria, occupying the town of Kuneitra.
   At 20 August 1967, Israeli troops still occupied all territory captured during the fighting of 5-10 June. Technically, a cease-fire still prevails on all three fronts, and Israel and the Arab countries, including Algeria, Lebanon, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the Sudan, consider themselves in a state of war. In the early days of July, there were exchanges of fire between Israeli and Egyptian forces dug in on either side of the Suez Canal, and there were also encounters between Israeli and Egyptian naval vessels.
   It is impossible to form an accurate estimate of military casualties. The Israeli authorities stated that Israel had 676 killed and 2,500 wounded. The Jordanian authorities said that Jordan had 6,094 killed or missing, 762 wounded, and 463 captured. The Egyptian newspaper Al Ahram said that Egypt lost nearly 5,000 killed. The Syrian authorities said that they had 145 killed.
   Losses in military equipment destroyed or captured during the five-day war are estimated as follows:
    []
   Light, medium, and heavy tank designations only; these include PT-76, T-34, T-54, T-55, JS-3, Centurion, Patton, Sherman, and AMX-13 tanks,
   but not 'tank destroyers' such as Su-100s or 155mm self-propelled howitzers.
   t Combat aircraft only; these include interceptor, fighter-bomber, medium bomber, light bomber, reconnaissance, and armed trainer types,
   but not transport aircraft, helicopters, or unarmed trainers.

АРАБО-ИЗРАИЛЬСКАЯ ВОЙНА

   Утром 5 июня 1967 года между Израилем и Египтом вспыхнули военные действия. Израильские ВВС совершили налет на 19 египетских аэродромов, и израильские сухопутные войска начали наступление против египетских позиций на Синае. В тот же день израильские самолеты бомбили сирийских, иорданских и иракских аэродромов. После того как Иорданская артиллерия обстреляла израильскую территорию, израильские сухопутные войска выдвинулись против иорданских позиций в районе Иерусалима и на остальной части Западного берега. Некоторые египетские войска воевали вместе с иорданцами на этом фронте, а иракские бомбардировщики бомбили район Нетании Израиля. Израиль утверждал, что 5 июня уничтожил 374 арабских самолета.
   6 и 7 июня израильские наземные силы при поддержке с воздуха продолжали наступление на Синае и западном берегах, а вечером 7-го короля Иордании Хусейна приняли второй призыв Совета Безопасности о прекращении огня. К тому времени, когда на следующий день боевые действия наконец прекратились, израильские силы установили военный контроль над всем Западным берегом, включая весь город Иерусалим. 8 июня израильские сухопутные силы установили полный военный контроль над Синайским полуостровом, уничтожили большинство оставшихся там египетских сил и завершили оккупацию сектора Газа. Утром 7-го числа небольшие силы уже заняли египетские позиции в Шарм-эш-Шейхе. Вечером 8-го числа египетское и сирийское правительства приняли призыв Совета Безопасности о прекращении огня.
   В течение трех дней 5-7 июня деятельность на израильско-сирийской границе в основном ограничивалась обстрелами сирийской артиллерией израильской территории. Этот обстрел не прекратился после принятия прекращения огня, и израильские сухопутные войска при поддержке с воздуха нанесли удары по сирийским позициям к северу от Тивериадского озера. Когда 10 июня боевые действия закончились, израильские силы захватили сирийские оборонительные позиции и продвинулись на 12 миль вглубь Сирии, оккупировав город Кунейтра.
   По состоянию на 20 августа 1967 года израильские войска по-прежнему оккупировали всю территорию, захваченную в ходе боевых действий 5-10 июня. Технически, прекращение огня все еще преобладает на всех трех фронтах, и Израиль и арабские страны, включая Алжир, Ливан, Кувейт, Саудовскую Аравию и Судан, считают себя в состоянии войны. В первые дни июля имели место перестрелки между израильскими и египетскими силами, окопавшимися по обе стороны Суэцкого канала, а также столкновения между израильскими и египетскими военно-морскими кораблями.
   Невозможно составить точную оценку военных потерь. Израильские власти заявили, что в Израиле 676 убитых и 2500 раненых. Власти Иордании заявил, что Иордания 6,094 погибли или пропали без вести, 762 ранено, и 463 попали в плен. Египетская газета Al Ahram заявила, что Египет потерял почти 5000 убитых. Сирийские * власти заявили, что они убили 145 человек.
   Потери военной техники, уничтоженной или захваченной в ходе пятидневной войны, оцениваются следующим образом: (см.табл)
    []
   * К ним относятся танки ПТ-76, Т-34, Т-54, Т-55, ИС-3, Centurion, Patton, Sherman и AMX-13, но не "истребители танков", такие как Су-100 или 155-мм самоходные гаубицы.
   t Только боевые самолеты; к ним относятся перехватчики, истребители-бомбардировщики, средние бомбардировщики, легкие бомбардировщики, разведывательные и вооруженные учебные, но не транспортные самолеты, вертолеты или невооруженные учебные.

THE YEMEN CIVIL WAR

   The civil war which broke out in September 1962 between Republican and Royalist forces in the Yemen has continued on a smaller scale in 1966 and 1967. In spite of the cease-fire agreement signed in August 1965 between President Nasser and King Faisal, Egypt and Saudi Arabia continue to support the Republican and Royalist factions respectively.
   The number of Egyptian regular troops stationed in the Yemen, approximately 70,000 in June 1966, had been reduced by the end of June 1967 to about 30,000. They were principally confined to the coastal area and the three towns of Sana'a, Taiz, and Hodeida. The Yemeni Republican Army, originally trained by Egypt, acts as a para-military force of armed police, and numbers about 12,000.
   'Regular' Royalist troops are estimated at 40,000, divided into four territorial commands. They can count on the support of up to 350,000 friendly tribesmen, although these are dispersed over wide areas. A few foreign mercenaries serve with the Royalist forces, and Saudi Arabia supplies military equipment but no troops.
   Although there has been little fighting on the ground since the cease-fire of August 1965, the Egyptian Air Force has continued bombing raids on Royalist-controlled villages. During raids in January, May, and June 1967, the Royalists claimed that poison gas was used, and representatives of the international Red Cross have agreed that there was evidence in support of some of these claims.
   Total casualties since 1962 are estimated at 5,000 Egyptians and Republicans killed and 15,000 wounded, and 10,000 Royalists killed and 30,000 wounded. In addition, casualties among the civilian population may amount to over 100,000 killed and wounded.

ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ВОЙНА В ЙЕМЕНЕ

   Гражданская война, разразившаяся в сентябре 1962 года между республиканскими и роялистскими силами в Йемене, продолжалась в меньших масштабах в 1966 и 1967 годах. Несмотря на соглашение о прекращении огня, подписанное в августе 1965 года между президентом Насером и королем Фейсалом, Египет и Саудовская Аравия продолжают поддерживать соответственно республиканскую и роялистскую фракции.
   Количество египетских регулярных войск, дислоцированных в Йемене, примерно 70000 в июне 1966 года, сократилось к концу июня 1967 года около 30 000. Они были главным образом в прибрежных районах и трех городах Сана, Таиз и Ходейда. Йеменская республиканская армия, первоначально подготовленная Египтом, действует в качестве полувоенной силы вооруженной полиции и насчитывает около 12 000 военнослужащих.
   "Регулярные" роялистские войска оцениваются в 40 000 человек, разделенных на четыре территориальных командования. Они могут рассчитывать на поддержку до 350 000 дружественных племен, хотя они разбросаны по обширным районам. Несколько иностранных наемников служат в войсках роялистов, а Саудовская Аравия поставляет военную технику, но не войска.
   Хотя после прекращения огня в августе 1965 года на суше практически не велось боевых действий, египетские ВВС продолжали бомбить деревни, контролируемые роялистами. Во время рейдов в январе, мае и июне 1967 года роялисты утверждали, что был использован ядовитый газ, и представители Международного Красного Креста согласились, что есть доказательства в поддержку некоторых из этих утверждений.
   По оценкам, с 1962 года погибло 5000 египтян и республиканцев, 15 000 ранено, 10 000 роялистов убито и 30 000 ранено. Кроме того, потери среди гражданского населения могут составлять более 100 000 убитых и раненых.

THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR

   On 7 July 1967, troops of the Nigerian Federal Army mounted an attack across the northern border of the secessionist Eastern Region (Biafra). Biafran troops are resisting this attack, and fighting was still taking place on 10 August. It is impossible to form an accurate estimate of the progress made by either side, or of the casualties incurred.
   The strength of the Federal Army is estimated at about 12,000, and of the Biafran forces at 6,000. However, not all Federal forces can be deployed in the East. Federal forces have some armoured cars and light artillery; the Biafrans mainly light arms. Air forces consisted of some transport and training aircraft with the Federal forces, and a smaller number of transports with the Biafrans.
   The Federal Navy consists of a frigate, three coastal patrol vessels, and a few motor launches. Biafra has no recognized warships.

ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ВОЙНА В НИГЕРИИ

   7 июля 1967 года войска нигерийской федеральной армии совершили нападение через северную границу сепаратистского Восточного региона (Биафра). Войска Биафре сопротивляются этой атаки, и боевые действия по-прежнему происходят на 10 августа. Невозможно составить точную оценку прогресса, достигнутого любой из сторон, или понесенных потерь.
   Численность армии оценивается примерно в 12 000, а силы Биафре в 6000. Однако, не все федеральные силы могут быть развернуты на востоке. Федеральные силы имеют несколько бронированных автомобилей и легкой артиллерии; в Биафры в основном стрелковое оружие. ВВС состояли из одних транспортных и учебно-тренировочных самолетов в федеральных силах, и меньшее число транспортных у Биафры.
   Федеральный Военно-Морской Флот состоит из фрегата, трех береговых патрульных кораблей и нескольких моторных катеров. У Биафры нет военных кораблей.
  

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OR DISTURBANCES INVOLVING MILITARY FORCE, JULY 1966-JULY 1967

   July 1966. End of military confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia.
   Continuance of patrol of the Mozambique Channel by ships of the British Navy.
   29 July-2 Aug. 1966. Mutiny in Nigerian Army deposes General Ironsi. Lt.-Col. Gowon assumes command of the Army and the Government.
   15 Aug. 1966. Two Syrian MiG aircraft shot down by Israeli aircraft in dog-fight over Lake Tiberias. Frontier incursions reported by Israel continue throughout the year.
   September 1966. Mutiny by 2,500 Katangese Gendarmes at Kisangani (Stanleyville) finally suppressed by Kinshasa government forces.
   October 1966. Failure of attempted coup by head of the Royal Laotian Air Force.
   2 Nov. 1966. Six American soldiers and one South Korean soldier killed in incident on border with North Korea. (Also recurrence of frontier incidents in summer of 1967.)
   13 Nov. 1966. Israeli forces mount an attack in battalion strength against the Jordanian village of Es Samu and destroy a large number of houses; 15 Jordanians and one Israeli killed in this action.
   December 1966. Seven Portuguese soldiers killed in fighting on border between Angola and CongoKinshasa.
   January 1967. Further exchanges of fire on Israeli-Syrian border.
   Chinese gunboats move into Macao harbour in support of Chinese Government's protests following shooting of Communist rioters in December 1966.
   Troops open fire following riots during election campaign in Nicaragua.
   13 Jan. 1967. Army takes over power in Togo in a coup d'Иtat.
   March 1967. Seven Bolivian Army soldiers killed in attack by guerrillas.
   23-30 March 1967. Military coup d'etat in Sierra Leone. Lt.-Col. Juxon-Smith becomes head of government.
   April 1967. Abortive coup by three junior officers of the Ghanaian Army causes the death of the Army Commander, General Kotoka.
   7 April 1967. Six Syrian aircraft shot down by Israeli fighters following artillery exchange on border near Lake Tiberias.
   21 April 1967. Army seizes control in Greece following a coup d'Иtat. Four portfolios in the newly formed Cabinet are given to Army officers, including the Ministries of Defence and the Interior.
   14-16 May 1967. Mobilization of armed forces in Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.
   18 May 1967. Mobilization of armed forces in Iraq and Kuwait.
   18-24 May 1967. Mobilization of Israeli armed forces. 14 persons killed by explosion of a mine at Jordanian-Syrian frontier checkpoint.
   19 May 1967. United Nations Emergency Force begins to leave Gaza Strip and Sharm-el-Sheikh.
   5 June 1967. Outbreak of Arab-Israeli War (see above).
   7 July 1967.Fighting starts in Nigerian Civil War (see above).
   6-18 July 1967.Abortive insurrection by dissident elements of the Congo-Kinshasa Army led by mercenaries. American military aircraft fly into Kinshasa in support of government operations.
   24-26 July 1967. Two paratroop brigades of American Federal troops support the civil powers during the riots in Detroit.
   30-31 July 1967.Chinese paratroops are reported to have been dropped in Wuhan following antigovernment demonstration.
   During the period covered, armed insurgency against the authorities continued in Angola, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, India, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, South Arabia, Tibet, and Venezuela. Fighting also continued on the borders of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia.

ЗНАЧИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СОБЫТИЯ ИЛИ БЕСПОРЯДКИ, СВЯЗАННЫЕ С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ ВОЕННОЙ СИЛЫ, ИЮЛЬ 1966 ГОДА-ИЮЛЬ 1967 ГОДА

   Июля 1966 года. Конец военной конфронтации между Индонезией и Малайзией.
   Продолжение патрулирования Мозамбикского канала кораблями ВМС Великобритании.
   29 Июля-2 Августа. 1966. Мятеж в нигерийской армии свергает генерала Иронси. Подполковник Говон принимает командование армией и Правительством.
   15 августа. 1966. Два сирийских самолета МиГ были сбиты израильскими самолетами в воздушном бою над Тивериадским озером. Вторжения на границу, о которых сообщает Израиль, продолжаются В течение всего года.
   Сентября 1966 года. Мятеж 2500 Катангских жандармов в Кисангани (Стэнливилль) был подавлен правительственными силами Киншасы.
   Октябрь 1966. Провал попытки государственного переворота глава Королевских Военно-Воздушных Сил Лаоса.
   2 ноября 1966. Шесть американских солдат и один южнокорейский солдат погиб в результате инцидента на границе с Северной Кореей. (Также повторение границы инциденты летом 1967 года.)
   13 ноября. 1966. Израильские силы совершают батальонное нападение на иорданскую деревню Эс-саму и разрушают большое число домов; в результате этого нападения 15 иорданцев и один израильтянин погибли.
   Декабрь 1966 года. Семь португальских солдат погибли в боях на границе между Анголой и Конго с Киншасой.
   Январь 1967. Дальнейшие перестрелки на израильско-сирийской границе.
   Китайские канонерки заходят в гавань Макао в поддержку протестов китайского правительства после расстрела коммунистических бунтовщиков в декабре 1966 года.
   Войска открывают огонь после беспорядков во время избирательной кампании в Никарагуа.
   13 января. 1967. Армия захватывает власть в того в результате государственного переворота.
   Март 1967 года. Семь солдат боливийской армии погибли в результате нападения партизан.
   23-30 марта 1967 года. Военный переворот в Сьерра-Леоне. Подполковник Джаксон-Смит становится главой правительства.
   Апрель 1967 года. Неудавшийся переворот трех младших офицеров Ганской армии стал причиной смерти командующего армией генерала Котоки.
   7 апреля 1967 года. Шесть сирийских самолетов были сбиты израильскими боевиками после артиллерийской перестрелки на границе близ Тивериадского озера.
   21 апреля 1967 года. Армия захватывает контроль в Греции после государственного переворота. Четыре портфеля во вновь сформированном кабинете отданы армейским офицерам, включая Министерства обороны и внутренних дел.
   14-16 мая 1967 года. Мобилизация вооруженных сил в Египте, Сирии и Иордании.
   Май 1967 года. Мобилизация вооруженных сил в Ираке и Кувейте.
   18-24 мая 1967 года. Мобилизация израильских вооруженных сил. 14 человек погибли в результате взрыва мины на иордано-сирийском пограничном контрольно-пропускном пункте.
   19 мая 1967 года. Чрезвычайные силы Организации Объединенных Наций начинают покидать Сектор Газа и Шарм-эш-Шейх.
   5 июня 1967 года. Начало арабо-израильской войны (см. выше).
   7 июля 1967 года. Боевые действия начинаются в нигерийской Гражданской войне (см. выше).
   6-18 июля 1967 года. Неудачное восстание диссидентских элементов Конго-Киншасской армии во главе с наемниками. Американские военные самолеты летают в Киншаса в поддержку деятельности правительства.
   24-26 июля 1967 года. Две десантные бригады американских федеральных войск поддерживают гражданские власти во время беспорядков в Детройте.
   30-31 июля 1967.Сообщается, что китайские десантники были сброшены в Ухане после антиправительственной демонстрации.
   В течение отчетного периода вооруженные мятежи против властей продолжались в Анголе, Боливии, Бирме, Индии, Колумбии, Мозамбике, Португалии, Гвинее, Южной Аравии, Тибете и Венесуэле. Боевые действия также продолжались на границах Эфиопии, Кении и Сомали.

   Основные выявленные сделки с оружием июнь 1966 - июнь 1967
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ. В этой таблице не проводится различия между коммерческими сделками с оружием и сделками, подпадающими под рубрику "военная помощь". Помимо советской помощи арабским странам и китайской помощи Пакистану, не было предпринято никаких попыток перечислить продолжающиеся поставки оружия, которые стали результатом соглашений, достигнутых до июня 1966 года.
   Не включает американскую, советскую или китайскую военную помощь Юго-Восточной Азии или советские поставки другим членам Варшавского договора.
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