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The Military Balance 1968

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THE MILITARY BALANCE 1968

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1968

   The Military Balance 1967
   The Military Balance 1969

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Foreword
Communist Powers:
  Warsaw Pact - Варшавский Договор: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, Soviet Union - Советский Союз
  China - Китай: China
  Cuba, Mongolia, North Korea, North Vietnam
Western alliances: Treaties
   NATO - НАТО: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, USA
   CENTO: Iran, Pakistan
   SEATO: Australia, New Zealand, Philippine, Thailand
   Protocol States: Cambodia, Laos, South Vietnam
   US mutual defence treaties: Japan, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan.
Non-Aligned Countries:
   Europe: Austria, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
   Middle East: Iraq, Israel, Jordan , Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAR
   Asia: Burma, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore.
   Africa: Algeria, Morocco.
Tables
Appendix: Vietnam War / Война во Вьетнаме, Nigerian civil war / Гражданская война в Нигерии.

FOREWORD

   This is the tenth of the Institute's annual estimates of the nature and size of the military forces of the principal powers. It covers the Communist powers, those countries which have mutual defence treaties with the United States (excluding Latin America), and a number of non-aligned countries. Countries appearing for the first time in this edition include Algeria, Austria, Burma, Finland, and Morocco. South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia, omitted last year, are included again.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in many cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information, and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking material.
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia, or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Naval strengths are those of active fleets and ships in commission only, except where otherwise stated. Vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are the latest available and are exclusive of military aid.
   National currency figures have been converted into dollars at the prevailing rates, as reported to the International Monetary Fund. In the case of some East European countries and Asian countries which are not members of the IMF, defence expenditure totals have been converted at the rates drawn up by Professor Benoit and Dr Lubell (see footnote to Table 4 on page 56). The conversion rates listed in each country section are those used in this document as specified above, and may not always be aplicable to commercial transactions.
   A table showing the average strength of military units, and a glossary listing the abbreviations used in The Military Balance,will be found overleaf. The term 'combat aircraft', as used in the text, comprises bombers, fighter-bombers, interceptors, reconnaissance, light-strike, counter-insurgency, and armed trainer aircraft, but not other categories of military aircraft.
   This document examines the military and diplomatic situation as it existed in July 1968. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1968 have been included, except where explicitly stated. The material in this document should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the nature of the balance of strategic power: it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability, efficiency, etc., on either side. It may, however, be found useful in the context of discussions on strategy and disarmament. The Military Balance is now complemented by another annual publication,
   Strategic Survey, published each spring, which reviews developments in strategic policy, doctrine, and weapons for the preceding calendar year in the major countries and most significant areas of world tension.
   September 1968
  
   Вступление
   Это десятый выпуск ежегодных оценок Института характера и численности Вооруженных сил основных держав. Он охватывает коммунистические державы, те страны, которые имеют договоры о взаимной обороне с Соединенными Штатами (за исключением Латинской Америки), и ряд неприсоединившихся стран. Впервые в этом издании представлены Алжир, Австрия, Бирма, Финляндия и Марокко. Южная Африка, Швеция, Швейцария и Югославия, опущенные в прошлом году, снова включены.
   Институт несет полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Правительства стремились к сотрудничеству и во многих случаях получали его. Не все страны сотрудничали в передаче информации, и поэтому некоторые данные оценочные. Институт в значительной степени благодарит своих членов и консультантов, которые оказывали помощь в сборе и проверке материалов.
   Приводятся данные о численности личного состава регулярных сил, хотя в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, приводится информация о численности воинских контингентов, ополченцев или резервных сил. Для военно-морских силы приводится численность активных флотов и кораблей в строю, если не указано иное. Исключены суда водоизмещением менее 100 тонн стандартного водоизмещения. Данные по оборонным бюджетам являются самыми последними и не включают военную помощь.
   Как сообщалось Международному Валютному Фонду, показатели в национальной валюте были пересчитаны в доллары по преобладающим курсам. В случае некоторых восточноевропейских и азиатских стран, не являющихся членами МВФ, итоговые данные по оборонным расходам были пересчитаны по ставкам, установленным профессором Бенуа и д-ром Любелем (см. сноску к таблице 4 на стр. 56). Коэффициенты пересчета, указанные в каждом разделе страны, используются в настоящем документе, как указано выше, и не всегда применимы к коммерческим операциям.
   На оборотной стороне размещена таблица, отражающая среднюю численность воинских частей, и глоссарий с перечислением сокращений, используемых в военном балансе. Термин "боевые самолеты", используемый в тексте, включает бомбардировщики, истребители-бомбардировщики, перехватчики, разведчики, легкие штурмовики, контрповстанческие и вооруженные учебно-тренировочные самолеты, но не другие категории военных самолетов.
   В настоящем документе рассматривается военно-дипломатическая ситуация в июле 1968 года. Никаких прогнозов уровней силы или оружия за пределами 1968 не включены, за исключением тех, где явно не указано. Материал данного документа не следует рассматривать как исчерпывающее руководство по характеру баланс стратегических сил: они не отражают факторов географии, уязвимости, эффективности и т.д., с обеих сторон. Вместе с тем он может оказаться полезным в контексте обсуждения стратегии и разоружения. Военный баланс теперь дополняется еще одним ежегодным изданием, Стратегический обзор, публикуемый каждую весну, в котором рассматриваются события в области стратегической политики, доктрины и вооружений за предыдущий календарный год в основных странах и наиболее важных областях мировой напряженности.
   Сентября 1968 года

   ABBREVIATIONS
ABM - Anti-ballistic missile / Противобаллистическая ракета
ANZUS -Australia, New Zealand, and the United States Defence Pact / АНЗЮС.
ASW - Anti-submarine warfare / Противолодочная оборона.
BMD - Ballistic missile defence / Противоракетная оборона.
DOSAAF - Part-time military training organization (USSR) / ДОССАФ.
FOBS - Fractional orbital bombardment system / Орбитальная бомбардировочная система.
GNP - Gross national product / Валовый национальный продукт.
GSFG - Group of Soviet Forces in Germany / Группа Советских войск в Германии.
ICBM - Inter-continental ballistic missile / Межконтинентальная баллистическая ракета.
IRBM - Intermediate-range ballistic missile / Баллистическая ракета промежуточной дальности.
LPH - Helicopter Landing Platform / Десантный вертолетоносец.
MIRV - Multiple individually-targeted re-entry vehicle / Разделяющаяся ГЧ индивидуального наведения..
MRBM - Medium-range ballistic missile / Баллистическая ракета средней дальности.
MTB - Motor torpedo boat / Торпедный катер.
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization / НАТО.
NORAD - North American Air Defence / ПВО Северо-Американского континента.
PLA - People's Liberation Army (China) / НОАК - Народно-освободительная армия Китая.
PVO - Air Defence Command (USSR) - ПВО страны.
RCT - Regimental combat team / Полковая боевая группа.
SAM - Surface-to-air missile / ЗУР - Зенитная управляемая ракета.
SAS - Special Air Service / Авиация специального назначения.
SEATO - South-East Asia Treaty Organization / СЕАТО.
SHAPE - Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe / Верховный штаб союзных сил в Европе.
SP - Self-propelled / Самоходный.
UNFICYP - United Nations Force in Cyprus / Войска ООН на Кипре.
$ - American dollars / Американский доллар.
Million -000,000.
Billion-000,000,000.
  
    []
   NOTES. The above figures refer to the basic war establishments of the formation in question. They should be treated as very approximate, since most military organization is flexible and units may be reinforced or run down for particular operations. Divisional strengths refer to combat units only and do not include support units or rear services outside the divisional structure. A dash indicates that the formation in question is not normally operated by that country.
   Warsaw Pact forces not included above have similar unit strengths to those of the Soviet Union. NATO forces not included in the table have similar totals to those of Germany. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have tended to follow American military organization, while Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Singapore generally follow British practice.
   a Army divisions only; a Marine Corps division has over 20,000men.
   b Strength of a regiment, which is the equivalent formation in the Soviet and the Chinese command structures.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ. Приведенные выше цифры относятся к основным военным учреждениям рассматриваемых формирований. Их следует рассматривать как весьма приблизительные, поскольку большинство военных организаций являются гибкими и подразделения могут быть усилены или ослаблены для проведения конкретных операций. Силы дивизий относятся только к боевым единицам и не включают подразделения поддержки или тыловые службы вне дивизионной структуры. Тире указывает на то, что данная формация обычно не управляется этой страной.
   Силы Варшавского договора, не включенные в таблицу, аналогичны силы войскам Советского Союза.. Силы НАТО, не включенные в таблицу, имеют общие показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, следуют американской военной организации, в то время как Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия и Сингапур в целом следуют британской практике.
   a. Армейская дивизия; дивизия морской пехоты насчитывает более 20 000 человек.
   b. Силы полка, эквивалентная формация в советских и китайских структурах.
  

PART I. THE COMMUNIST POWERS

  

THE WARSAW PACT NATIONS

   The Warsaw Pact is a multilateral military alliance formed by a 'Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance, and Co-operation', which was signed in Warsaw on 14 May 1955 by the Governments of the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania. Albania, although still nominally a member of the Pact, has no diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and has not taken part in Pact activities in recent years. Mongolia, China, North Korea, and North Vietnam have all sent observers to past meetings of the Pact, but are not members of it.
   In addition to the Warsaw Treaty, the Soviet Union had concluded bilateral mutual aid treaties with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania before 1950, and signed a similar treaty with East Germany in 1964. AH signatories to the Warsaw Treaty, with the exception of Albania, also have bilateral treaties with each other and these have been recently renewed. The Soviet Union concluded status-of-forces agreements with Poland, East Germany, Rumania, and Hungary between December 1956 and May 1957; all these remain in effect except the one with Rumania which lapsed in June 1958 when Soviet troops left Rumania.
   The Warsaw Treaty Organization consists of two main bodies, the Political Consultative Committee and the High Command of United Armed Forces, both of which have their offices in Moscow. The Political Consultative Committee consists of the First Secretaries of the Communist Party, Heads of Government, and the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the member-countries. It was intended to meet twice a year, but in fact only nine meetings had been held up to July 1968. The Committee has established a Joint Secretariat, consisting of a specially appointed official from each country, and a Permanent Commission, whose task is to make recommendations on general questions of foreign policy for members of the Pact. Both these bodies are located in Moscow, with a majority of Russian officials. The Soviet Head of the Joint Secretariat is, for example, also Chief of Staff of the High Command.
   The High Command has supreme authority over such military forces as are assigned to it by the member-states. According to the treaty, the Command is directed 'to strengthen the defensive capability of the Warsaw Pact, to prepare military plans in case of war and to decide on the deployment of troops'. The Command consists of a Commander-in-Chief, who has the eight Defence Ministers or national Commanders-inChief as his deputies, and a Staff which includes permanent representatives of the general staffs of the member-countries. The posts of Commander-in-Chief and Chief of Staff of the High Command have always been held by Soviet officers.
   The bulk of the ground forces of the Warsaw Pact is provided by the Soviet Union. These consist of the Northern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Legnica in Poland; the Southern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Tokol, near Budapest; and the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG), with headquarters at Wiinsdorf, near East Berlin.*
   * And since August 1968, an undetermined number of troops in Czechoslovakia.
   The six operational divisions of the East German Army appear to be under the operational command of GSFG. These forces total 32 divisions, of which 15 are tank divisions. Most East European countries have displayed short-range surface-to-surface missile launchers, but there is no evidence that nuclear warheads for these missiles have been supplied.
   Soviet tactical air forces include at least one air army (about 900 tactical aircraft), stationed in East Germany. The air forces of the other active Pact members, which consist partly of fighter-interceptors and partly of ground-support aircraft but do not include any medium- or long-range bombers, would be under the High Command in the event of war. There is an air defence and warning system centralized in Moscow and commanded by the C-in-C of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Soviet MRBMs and other strategic weapons are based in the Soviet Union and remain under Soviet control.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВАРШАВСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Варшавский договор - это многосторонний военный союз, образованный на основе "Договора о дружбе, взаимной помощи и кооперации", который был подписан в Варшаве 14 мая 1955 года правительствами Советского Союза, Албании, Болгарии, Чехословакии, ГДР, Венгрии, Польши и Румынии. Албания, хотя и является номинальным членом пакта, не имеет дипломатических отношений с Советским Союзом и в последние годы не принимала участия в его деятельности. Монголия, Китай, Северная Корея и Северный Вьетнам направили наблюдателей на прошлые заседания пакта, но не являются его членами.
   В дополнение к Варшавскому договору Советский Союз заключил двусторонние договоры о взаимной помощи с Болгарией, Чехословакией, Венгрией, Польшей и Румынией до 1950 года и подписал аналогичный договор с Восточной Германией в 1964 году. Страны, подписавшие Варшавский договор, за исключением Албании, также имеют двусторонние договоры друг с другом, и они были недавно возобновлены. Советский Союз заключил соглашения о статусе сил с Польшей, ГДР, Румынией и Венгрией в период с декабря 1956 года по май 1957 года; все они остаются в силе, за исключением Румынии, которая закончилась в июне 1958 года, когда советские войска покинули Румынию.
   Организация Варшавского Договора состоит из двух основных органов - политического консультативного комитета и высшего командования Объединенных Вооруженных Сил, оба из которых имеют свои представительства в Москве. В состав политического консультативного комитета входят первые секретари Коммунистической партии, главы правительств, а также министры иностранных дел и обороны стран-членов. Предполагалось, что он будет собираться два раза в год, однако фактически до июля 1968 года было проведено лишь девять заседаний. Комитет учредил совместный Секретариат, состоящий из специально назначенного должностного лица от каждой страны, и постоянную комиссию, задача которой состоит в вынесении рекомендаций по общим вопросам внешней политики для членов пакта. Оба эти органа находятся в Москве, где большинство российских чиновников. Советский руководитель Объединенного Секретариата, например, также является начальником штаба высшего командования.
   Верховное Командование обладает верховной властью над такими вооруженными силами, которые ему поручены государствами-членами. Согласно договору, командование направлено "на укрепление обороноспособности Варшавского договора, подготовку военных планов на случай войны и принятие решения о размещении войск". Командование состоит из главнокомандующего, заместителями которого являются восемь министров обороны или национальных командиров, а также штаба, в состав которого входят постоянные представители генеральных штабов государств-членов. Должности главнокомандующего и начальника штаба Верховного Главнокомандования всегда занимали советские офицеры.
   Основную часть сухопутных войск Варшавского договора обеспечивает Советский Союз. Они состоят из Северной группы войск, со штаб-квартирой в городе Легница в Польше, Южной группой войск со штаб-квартирой в Токоле, недалеко от Будапешта, и группа советских войск в Германии (ГСВГ), со штаб-квартирой в Вюнсдорфе, возле Восточного Берлина.*
   (*А с августа 1968 года - неопределенная численность войск в Чехословакии.)
   Шесть дивизий восточногерманской армии под оперативным командованием ГСВГ. Эти силы насчитывают 32 дивизии, из которых 15 - танковые. В большинстве восточноевропейских стран имеются пусковые установки ракет малой дальности "земля-земля", но нет никаких доказательств того, что ядерные боеголовки для этих ракет были поставлены.
   Советские тактические ВВС включают в себя как минимум одну воздушную армию (около 900 тактических самолетов), дислоцированную в ГДР. Военно-воздушные силы других активных членов пакта, которые состоят частично из истребителей-перехватчиков и частично из самолетов наземной поддержки, но не включают бомбардировщиков средней или большой дальности, будут находиться под высшим командованием в случае войны. В Москве централизована система противовоздушной обороны и предупреждения, которой командует командующий советских войск ПВО. Советский БРСД и другие стратегические вооружения в СССР и остаются под советским контролем.
  
   ALBANIA
Population: 2,000,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.0 billion.
Total regular forces: 38,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 304 million leks ($76,000,000). 4 leks = $1.
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   1 tank brigade.
   5 infantry brigades.
   About 100 tanks, mostly T-34s.
   A few SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile launchers.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   3 submarines.
   8 minesweepers.
   20 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; 60 combat aircraft.
   6 air defence squadrons with MiG-15s, MiG-17s, and MiG-19s.
   About 20 transports, including An-2 and Il-14, and Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-military forces 12,500.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,500,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Navy and Air Force, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $7.5 billion.
Total regular forces: 153,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 264 million leva ($228,000,000). 1.16 leva = $ 1.
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   4 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   Over 2,000 tanks, mainly T-54s, with some T-34s and T-55s.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   2 submarines.
   2 destroyer escorts.
   8 coastal escorts.
   6 inshore minesweepers.
   35 other vessels.
   A small Danube flotilla.
Air Force Total strength: 22,000; 250 combat aircraft.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s and MiG-21s.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17Cs.
   6 ground-support squadrons with MiG-17s.
   20 transport aircraft, including Il-12 and Il-14, and some 40 Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces 20,000, including border troops. A People's Militia of 150,000.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,600,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $25.5 billion.
Total regular forces: 225,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 13,000 million crowns ($1,538,000,000). 8.5 crowns = $1.
Army Total strength: 175,000.
   5 tank divisions.
   9 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne brigade.
   There are 2,700 tanks, mostly T-55s.
   The Army is now at about 70 per cent of full strength.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Air Force Total strength: 50,000; 600 combat aircraft.
   300 MiG-17, MiG-19, and MiG-21 interceptors.
   300 MiG-15, MiG-17, and Su-7 Fitter groundsupport aircraft.
   50 Il-14 and Il-18 transport aircraft, and about 100 helicopters.
   Over 300 training aircraft, including 150 L-29s.
Para-military forces 40,000, including border troops.
  
   EAST GERMANY
Population: 17,200,000.
Military service: Army, 18 months; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $28.5 billion.
Total regular forces: 126,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 5,800 million Ostmarks ($1,715,000,000). 3.39 Ostmarks = $1.
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   4 motorized rifle divisions.
   About 1,800 tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s, with some T-34s.
   Some 850 artillery pieces, including 122mm and 152mm, and about 450 anti-aircraft guns.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 16,000.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   25 coastal escorts.
   45 coastal minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   50 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   30 other small craft (less than 100 tons).
   18 landing craft.
   A small number of Hound helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 270 combat aircraft.
   18 fighter-interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   (There are 16 aircraft in an East German combat squadron.)
   20 transport aircraft, including An-2 and Il-14.
   40 Hare and Hound helicopters.
   An anti-aircraft division of 9,000 is included in this Command.
Para-military forces 20,000 security and 70,000 border troops, including a Border Command separate from the regular army.
   The Betriebskampfgruppen, an armed workers' organization, numbers over 250,000.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,400,000.
Military service: 3 years maximum.
Estimated GNP 1967: $12.1 billion.
Total regular forces: 102,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 6,439 million forints ($370,000,000). 17.4 forints = $1.
Army Total strength: 95,000.
   1 tank division.
   5 motorized rifle divisions.
   About 700 tanks, mainly T-55s, with some T-54s.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air-missiles.
Navy There is a Danube flotilla of 15 patrol vessels and a training ship.
Air Force Total strength: 7,000; 140 combat aircraft.
   9 fighter-interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s,
   MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   10 An-2 and Li-2 transport aircraft.
   About 10 Hare and Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces 35,000 security troops and border guards, plus a workers' militia of over 100,000.
  
   POLAND
Population: 32,250,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special services, 3 years; Internal security forces, 27 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $34 billion.
Total regular forces: 274,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 29,111 million zloty ($1,830,000,000). 15.9 zloty = $1.
Army Total strength: 185,000.
   5 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   1 amphibious assault division.
   These divisions are normally at 70 per cent of full strength.
   2,800 tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 19,000, including marines.
   5 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   25 coastal escorts.
   24 coastal minesweepers.
   30 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   15 landing craft.
   20 smaller vessels.
   50 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17s, with some
   U-28 light bombers and helicopters.
   Samlet cruise missiles for coastal defence.
Air Force Total strength: 70,000; 750 combat aircraft.
   6 light bomber squadrons with Il-28s.
   45 interceptor squadrons with PZL-15s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   14 ground-support and reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17s and Su-7s.
   About 40 transport aircraft, including An-2s, Il-12s, and Il-14s, and 40 helicopters, including Hares and Hounds.
   About 300 training aircraft.
Para-military forces 45,000 security and border troops, including the armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force.
  
   ROUMANIA
Population: 19,700,000.
Military service: Army, 1 year; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $16.9 billion.
Total regular forces: 173,000.
Defence appropriations 1968: 5,187 million lei ($551,000,000). 9.4 lei = $1.
Army Total strength: 150,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   7 motorized rifle divisions.
   Some independent mountain units.
   1,200 T-34, T-54, and T-55 tanks.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   3 coastal escorts.
   30 minesweepers.
   5 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   25 smaller vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 240 combat aircraft.
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-15s, MiG-17s, MiG-19s, and MiG-21s.
   About 10 medium transports including I1-12, Il-14, and Li-2.
   10 Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
   About 150 training aircraft, including Yak-18 and L-29.
Para-military forces 50,000, including border troops.
  
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 235,000,000
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and Border Guards, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $358 billion.
Defence appropriations 1968: 16,700 million roubles ($39,780,000,000). 0.42 roubles = $1.
   The rouble figure represents the declared budget of the Ministry of Defence and does not include certain expenditures such as the cost of nuclear warheads, research-anddevelopment expenditure on advanced weapons systems, and the military elements of the space programme, which are believed to be included in the budgets of other ministries.
   At the commercial exchange rate ($1 = 0.9 roubles) the dollar equivalent of the declared defence budget is approximately $18.5 billion.
   If calculated at a rate which in the opinion of scholars more accurately reflects the different pricing system used in Soviet industry ($1 = 0.42 roubles) declared Soviet military expenditure is at the level of $39-40 billion a year, and total military expenditure could be of the order of about $50 billion.
Total regular forces are estimated at 3,220,000 men. In addition, the para-military forces, including the security and border troops of the Ministry of the Interior, have about 250,000 men.
  
Strategic Rocket Forces
   Operational Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) now total around 800, nearly double the 1967 figure.
   Newer systems are deployed in individual sites which are hardened and widely separated.
   There is some evidence that missiles using solid-fuel motors may come into service soon, and these would have faster reaction times.
   At the present rate of construction and installation, the total number of ICBMs deployed may have reached 1,000 by the end of 1968.
   A large three-stage rocket (NATO code Scrag) has been displayed in Moscow on several occasions since May 1965; the Russians have claimed that it has a global and orbital bombardment capability and a warhead of up to 50 megatons.
   Since the Russians have also spoken of 'other' orbital systems in development, it may be that a more advanced rocket than Scrag provides the booster for the Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) which, according to a statement by the US Secretary of Defense in November 1967, the Russians are now intensively testing.
   The chief protection for ICBM launchers remains the hardening and separation of launch silos.
   A limited Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system, based on the Galosh anti-missile missile, is being deployed around Moscow, and an advanced surface-to-air missile system, the so-called 'Tallin Line', has been noted in course of installation along the eastern Baltic coast and north-eastwards.
   It is now thought that the 'Tallin Line' does not include any ABM systems, but it is probable that its radars extend the coverage provided by the early-warning system of the Moscow ABM defences.
   The number of Medium-Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBMs) and Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBMs) remains at about 750.
   The liquid-fuelled MRBM Sandal and IRBM Skean, with ranges of 1,100 and over 2,000 miles respectively, may be supplemented at some time in the future by solid-fuel missiles, which could be mobile.
   MRBMs and IRBMs are deployed near the western, southern, and eastern borders of the USSR, the majority being situated in the western USSR, and thus cover most strategic and semi-tactical targets such as airfields in Western Europe, Japan, and probably China.
   The operational personnel of the Strategic Rocket Forces, under the command of Marshal Krylov, now totals about 250,000.
  
Air Defence
   The Air Defence Command (PVO) is a separate command of anti-aircraft artillery and surfaceto-air missile units, using an early-warning system based on radar, and fighter-interceptor squadrons for identification and possible interception of hostile targets.
Total personnel in the PVO numbers about 500,000, of which ground elements account for 250,000.
   Air defence weapons now in service include:
   (1) Anti-aircraft artillery: 23mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm, and 130mm guns, and ZSU-57-2 twin-barrelled guns and ZSU-23-4 four-barrelled SP guns on tank chassis. Guns over 57mm may be being phased out in favour of surface-to-air missiles.
   (2) Surface-to-air missiles.
   Guideline: A two-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile with an impact range of about 31 statute miles, and effective to a height of between 1,000 and 80,000ft.
   Griffon: A two-stage boosted missile now used in the anti-aircraft role. Its impact range is greater than that of Guideline, and its altitude capability is somewhat greater.
   Ganef: A mobile anti-aircraft missile with solid-fuel boosters. These are twin-mounted on tracked carriers and may have been assigned to ground forces in the field.
   Goa: A two-stage missile possibly intended to replace Guideline. Only limited operational deployment is thought to have taken place.
   Gainful: A new missile, twin-mounted on a tracked vehicle.
   Galosh: A multi-stage, solid-fuel anti-ballistic missile missile, now deployed in limited numbers around Moscow. It is believed to have a range of several hundred miles and to carry a nuclear warhead in the 1-2 megaton range. It is therefore only suitable for interception at high altitude and for area defence. This feature and the nature of the radars associated with it suggest that its function is the defence of the north-western USSR, which contains a high proportion of Soviet industrial capacity and many of her major cities. As at present deployed, it provides a limited defence against Minuteman firings from North America or Polaris missiles from the Arctic Ocean.
   (3) Fighters. There are probably about 3,700 PVO fighters in service, the majority of which are MiG-17 Fresco, MiG-19 Farmer, and Su-9 Fishpot. Newer aircraft include the Yak-28 Firebar and Yak-42 Fiddler, the latter of which has a maximum speed of the order of 1,200 mph and an operational ceiling of about 60,000 ft.
  
Army The total size of the Soviet Army (including the ground elements of the Air Defence Command) is now estimated at about 2,000,000 men.
   It is thought to be organized in 140 divisions.
   There are three degrees of combat-readiness in the Soviet Army, and probably less than half the 140 divisions are at or near full combat-strength.
   The remainder could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total are at the lowest degree of readiness and would require major reinforcement.
   The location of divisional headquarters is roughly as follows:
   26 divisions in Central and Eastern Europe (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, 4 in Hungary);
   63 divisions in European USSR (i.e., west of the Ural Mountains and north of the Caucasus);
   8 divisions in central USSR (i.e., between the Ural Mountains and Lake Baikal);
   28 divisions in southern USSR (Caucasus and Soviet Central Asia); and
   15 divisions in the Soviet Far East (i.e., east of Lake Baikal).
   The 26 divisions in Eastern Europe are maintained at or near combat-strength, as are about 10 of those in the Far East.
   The other 5 divisions in the Far East are probably in the second category of readiness: below combatstrength, but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war. The 63 divisions in European USSR include most of the remaining combat ready divisions. The 8 divisions in central USSR would mostly require major reinforcement, as would 10 of the 28 divisions in southern USSR.
   By types of division, the distribution is roughly as follows:
   (1) Motorized rifle divisions (10,500 men and 190 medium tanks at full strength): about 88.
   (2) Tank divisions (9,000 men and 350 medium and heavy tanks at full strength): about 45.
   (3) Airborne divisions (7,000 men and 40 self-propelled guns at full strength): about 7.
   10 of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 4 in the Far East, 2 in Hungary, and 1 in Poland.
   It has been estimated that the force of 26 divisions in Central Europe might be increased to 70 within a month if mobilization and movement were unimpeded by interdiction bombing.
   The airborne forces total some 50,000 men, organized in about 7 divisions.
   The transport fleet could lift 3 of these divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   Use of the large An-22 transport for air-landing of airborne troops, including tactical missiles of the Frog type and mobile Ganef air defence missiles, was demonstrated at the July 1967 air show in Moscow.
   There are small numbers of Soviet military personnel stationed outside the Warsaw Pact area mostly in the capacity of instructors and advisers.
   These include about 1,000 in Cuba, a total of 3,000 in Egypt and Syria, and a further 1,000 in Vietnam.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army still envisage a major offensive role for it in future war and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale advance at high speed.
   Infantry formations contain covered Armoured Personnel Carriers which would enable them to advance across radio-active terrain.
   But in the past year or two, increasing emphasis has been given to preparing the Soviet theatre forces in both a conventional and a nuclear environment, suggesting Soviet adoption of a doctrine along the lines of the 'flexible response' strategy recently adopted by NATO.
   Tactical nuclear missile units are now organic to Soviet formations whether inside or outside the Soviet Union, and the conventional fire-power of a Soviet division is as great as that of most divisions in NATO.
   The Soviet Army is well equipped for offensive and defensive chemical warfare, but its long-standing logistic shortcomings for extended operations have been only partly remedied. Its equipment includes:
   (1) Tanks. Tanks in service with armoured formations include the T-62 medium tank with a 115mm gun, the T-54/55 medium tank with a 100mm gun, the T-10 heavy tank with a 122mm gun, and the PT-76 amphibious reconnaissance tank. The T-34 medium tank is now obsolete.
   Most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infrared night-fighting equipment.
   (2) Artillery. The main types are 85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm, and 203mm.
   Lorry-mounted multi-barrelled rocket-launchers play an important part in Soviet artillery operations.
   The main specialized anti-tank weapons are the 57mm guns and the Snapper, Sagger, and Swatter missiles.
   Self-propelled assault guns are becoming obsolete except in airborne divisions.
   The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including surface-to-air missiles.
   (3) Missiles. Tactical missiles in use by the ground forces include those of the Frog and Scud series, which are carried on modified tank chassis and wheeled launchers, and have ranges of up to 150 miles according to the type of warhead carried (high-explosive, chemical, or nuclear).
   There is also a larger cruise missile, Shaddock, with a range of up to 300 miles.
  
   Navy The strength of the Soviet Navy and Naval Air Force is 465,000 men.
   In total tonnage, it is the second biggest navy in the world, and its main strength lies in the submarine fleet.
   A high proportion of the fleet is kept in commission.
   There are indications that the Naval Air Force and the missile-bearing submarines have an increasingly important role in Soviet strategy.
   (1) Surface Ships. The surface ships of the Soviet navy consist of the following:
   3 Kresta-class and 4 Kynda-class cruisers with Shaddock surface-to-surface cruise and Goa surface-to-air guided missiles.
   12 Sverdlov-class cruisers (one with Goa surface-to-air missiles).
   4 other cruisers (used for training purposes).
   1 helicopter carrier (LPH type) with Goa anti-aircraft missiles.
   10 Krupny-class destroyers with Strela surfaceto-surface cruise missiles.
   6 Kildin-class destroyers with Strela missiles.
   10 Kashin-class guided missile anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers.
   30 Kotlin-class anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers (of which 1 or 2 carry surface-toair guided missiles).
   50 Skory-class anti-aircraft and anti-submarine destroyers.
   100 other ocean-going escort ships.
   270 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   170 ocean-going minesweepers.
   160 coastal minesweepers.
   100 Osa- and 50 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx short-range cruise missiles.
   300 fast patrol boats.
   100 landing ships and numerous landing craft.
   1,000 auxiliaries and support ships.
   Some minesweepers and adapted trawlers are used for electronic intelligence.
   Almost all submarines and large surface vessels are equipped for minelaying.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   (2) Submarines. There are now some 330 conventionally powered and 50 nuclear-powered submarines.
   About 13 of the nuclear and 30 of the conventional submarines can fire ballistic missiles and carry an average of 3 missiles each;
   about 25 of the nuclear and 20 of the conventionally powered submarines are equipped with anti-shipping cruise missiles which have ranges of about 300 miles; they are thought to carry an average of six missiles each.
   The remainder are training vessels or attack submarines equipped with torpedoes.
   A new class of nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine roughly similar to the American Polaris type, and capable of carrying 16 missiles for submerged firing, is now coming into service; production of nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines appears to be at the rate of 1-2 a year.
   The 4 submarine fleets are distributed approximately as follows:
   70 in the Baltic fleet, 170 in the Arctic, 40 in the Black Sea, and about 100 in the Far East.
   The missile-carrying submarines are mostly divided between the Arctic and the Far East fleets.
   (3) Fleet Ballistic missiles. Submarine-launched missiles currently in the Soviet inventory are Sark and Serb; the latter similar in dimensions to Polaris, but believed to have a much smaller range. Serb can be fired from a submerged position but Sark only from the surface.
   A new and larger missile was shown in Moscow for the first time in November 1967, and was claimed to have long-range capability.
   (4) Fleet Cruise missiles. Some ships and submarines are known to be fitted with Shaddock and Strela cruise missiles which are intended primarily for anti-ship use. However, these might also be used against shore targets and, in the case of submarines, would be fired from the surface and from fairly long range.
   (5) Naval Air Force. There are no aircraft carriers in the Soviet Navy, although 1 23,000 ton helicopter carrier has recently come into service.
   The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 400 bomber and 500 other aircraft (including helicopters).
   Most of the bombers are based near the north-western and Black Sea coasts of the Soviet Union.
   They comprise: 300 Tu-16 Badgers with air-to-surface missiles. The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Blinder has begun.
   50 Tu-95 Bears for naval reconnaissance missions.
   50 Il-28 Beagles, some with torpedoes.
   50 Be-6 Madge flying boats and about 100 Mi-4 Hound helicopters in the ASW role.
   Madge will shortly be replaced by the turbo-prop flying boat Mail.
   About 200 miscellaneous transport aircraft.
   Recent Soviet comment has indicated a renewed interest in amphibious forces.
   There is a small Marine Corps (naval infantry) now numbering perhaps 8,000 men, units of which are stationed with all four fleets.
   The number of Soviet vessels in the Mediterranean has varied between 25 and 50 since June 1967 and has included, for the first time, vessels that can land tanks.
   Air Force Soviet air forces include five main categories; there is no Air Force operational command.
   The five categories are as follows:
   (1) the Long Range Air Force (long- and medium-range strategic bombers);
   (2) the Tactical (or frontline) Air Force, which includes fighters and light bombers;
   (3) the air element of the Air Defence Command (fighter-interceptors);
   (4) the Naval Air Force (entirely land-based); and
   (5) the Air Transport Force (including an independent force for the airborne divisions).
   There are about 10,250 combat aircraft in all, and the total personnel strength of the five categories listed above is about 505,000.
   (1) The Long Range Air Force. This is grouped in three main areas: western USSR, the Central Ukraine, and the Far East: in addition it has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic. Its numbers of inter-continental bombers-estimated at 155 aircraft-are about a third those of the US Strategic Air Command's B-52 force; but there is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatre.
   Aircraft include:
   (a) About 110 four-jet Bison(M-4) and about 90 four-turbo-prop Bear (Tu-95) long-range bombers.
   Some 50 out of the total are used in the tanker role. It is believed that half of the Bears carry the Kangaroo stand-off cruise missile.
   (b) About 750 Badger (Tu-16) and Blinder (Tu-22) twin-jet medium bombers, some twothirds the figure of 1963.
   The Blinder, which has a supersonic capability, is now somewhat less than a quarter of the medium bomber force.
   A development of Blinder with the Kipper air-to-surface missile is being introduced.
   (2) Tactical Air Force. The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has remained fairly constant for the last eight years.
   Altogether there are at present nearly 4,000 aircraft.
   These include light bombers, ground-attack and interceptor fighters, transport aircraft, helicopters, and reconnaissance units.
   The aircraft in service still contain a significant proportion of obsolescent types such as the MiG-17 Fresco, MiG-19 Farmer, Yak-25 Flashlight, and the Il-28 Beagle.
   The most notable high performance aircraft in service are the interceptor-fighter Fishbed (MiG-21), the ground attack Fitter (Su-7), the supersonic light bomber Brewer (gradually replacing the Beagle), and the twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft Mangrove.
   Ground-attack aircraft may now be equipped with tactical air-to-surface missiles, similar to NATO's Bullpup and Martel.
   Several new fighter and fighter-bomber types, including a variable-geometry aircraft resembling the American F-111, were displayed at the Moscow air show in July 1967, but they are not believed to be in service.
   (3) and (4) Fighter-interceptor units and the Naval Air Force. These are dealt with under Air Defence and Navy respectively (see above).
   (5) Air Transport Force. About 1,500 short and medium-range transport aircraft, including twin-engined Il-14s Crate and An-24s Coke, and four-engined An-12s Cub, and Il-18s Coot. A few An-22 heavy transports are now also in service.
   There are in addition civil airliners belonging to Aeroflot, some of which could be adapted to military use in time of war; these include about 150 long-range aircraft of the Tu-104 Camel, Tu-114 Cleat, Tu-124 Cookpot, and Tu-134 Crusty classes.
   Helicopters in use with the ground forces include the troop-carrying Hooks (Mi-6), the heavy load-carrier Harke, and the smaller Hares and Hounds (Mi-4). The total helicopter inventory is probably around 1,500.
  
   Para-military Forces and reserves Security and border troops number some 250,000.
   There are also perhaps about 1.5 million DOSAAF members who take part in such recreational activities as athletics, shooting, and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular.
   However, the reduction by one year of compulsory military service in October 1967 was accompanied by an announcement that DOSAAF will assist in pre-military training to be given in schools, colleges and workers' centres, to those of 17 years and over.
  
   СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ
Население: 235.000.000 0.42 рублей = $1.
Военная служба: армия и ВВС, 2 года; флот и пограничники, 3 года.
ВНП оценивается в 1967: $ 358 млрд.
Расходы на оборону 1968: 16,700 млн. рублей ($39,780,000,000).
   Рублевая цифра представляет собой заявленный бюджет Министерства обороны и не включает в себя некоторые расходы, такие как расходы на ядерные боеголовки, расходы на исследования и разработку передовых систем вооружений и военные элементы космической программы, которые, как предполагается, включены в бюджеты других министерств.
   По коммерческому курсу ($1 = 0,9 рубля) долларовый эквивалент заявленного оборонного бюджета составляет около $18,5 млрд.
   Если рассчитать по курсу, который, по мнению ученых, точнее отражает разную систему ценообразования, применявшуюся в советской промышленности ($1 = 0,42 рубля), заявленные советские военные расходы находятся на уровне $39-40 млрд. в год, а общие военные расходы могут составить порядка $50 млрд.
   Всего регулярных войск оцениваются в 3,220,000 человек. Кроме того, в воинских контингентах, включая силы безопасности и пограничные войска Министерства внутренних дел, насчитывается около 250 000 человек.
  
   Ракетные Войска Стратегического Назначения
   В настоящее время межконтинентальных баллистических ракет (МБР) насчитывается около 800, что почти вдвое превышает показатель 1967 года.
   Новые системы развертываются в отдельных защищенных и широко разнесенных установках.
   Есть некоторые свидетельства того, что ракеты, использующие твердотопливные двигатели, могут вскоре вступить в строй, и они будут иметь более быстрое время реакции.
   При нынешних темпах строительства и установки общее число развернутых МБР к концу 1968 года, возможно, достигло 1000.
   С мая 1965 года в Москве несколько раз демонстрировалась большая трехступенчатая ракета (код НАТО Scrag), российская сторона утверждала, что она обладает глобальным и орбитальным потенциалом бомбардировки и боеголовкой до 50 мегатонн. (ГР-1, на вооружение не принята -ЕТ)
   Поскольку русские также говорят о "других" орбитальных системах в разработке, возможно, что имеется более продвинутая ракета, чем Scrag, ракета-носитель для орбитальной системы бомбардировки (FOBS), которая, согласно заявлению министра обороны США в ноябре 1967 года, русские сейчас интенсивно тестируют.
   Главной защитой пусковых установок МБР остается упрочнение и разделение пусковых шахт.
   Вокруг Москвы развертывается ограниченная система противоракетной обороны (ПРО) на базе противоракетной ракеты Galosh, а в ходе установки вдоль восточного побережья Балтики и Северо-востока отмечается усовершенствованный зенитный ракетный комплекс "Линия Таллина".
   В настоящее время считается, что "линия Таллина" не включает систем ПРО, однако существует вероятность того, что ее радары расширят охват, обеспечиваемый системой раннего предупреждения противоракетной обороны Москвы.
   Количество баллистических ракет средней дальности остается около 750.
   Жидкостные БРСД Sandal и Skean (Р-12 и Р-14 -ЕТ) с дальностью полета 1100 и более 2000 миль, соответственно, могут быть дополнены в будущем твердотопливными ракетами, которые могут быть мобильными.
   БРСД развернуты вблизи западных, южных и восточных границ СССР, большинство из которых расположены в западном СССР, и, таким образом, охватывают большинство стратегических и тактических целей, таких как аэродромы в Западной Европе, Японии и, вероятно, Китая.
   Оперативный состав Ракетных войск стратегического назначения под командованием маршала Крылова сейчас составляет около 250 тысяч человек.
  
   Войска Противовоздушной Обороны
   Командование ПВО - отдельное командование зенитной артиллерии и зенитно-ракетных комплексов, использующее систему раннего предупреждения на базе РЛС, и эскадрильи истребительй-перехватыватчиков для идентификации и возможного перехвата враждебных целей.
   Общая численность личного состава ПВО около 500 000 человек, из которых 250 000 - наземные элементы.
   В настоящее время на вооружении ПВО:
   (1) Зенитная артиллерия: 23 мм, 57мм, 85мм, 100мм и 130мм орудий и ЗСУ-57-2 и ЗСУ-23-4 САУ на танковых шасси. Пушки калибра свыше 57мм могут быть сокращено за счет зенитных ракет.
   2) Ракеты класса "земля-воздух".
   Guideline (С-75 -ЕТ): двуступенчатая зенитная ракета с дальностью поражения около 31 миль на высотах от 1000 до 80 000 футов.
   Griffon (Даль, на вооружение не принята -ЕТ): двухступенчатая ракета в настоящее время используется в роли зенитной..
   Ganef (Круг -ЕТ): мобильная зенитная ракета с твердотопливными ускорителями. Они установлены по две на гусеничных транспортерах и, возможно, назначены сухопутным войскам в полевых условиях.
   Goa (С-125): двухступенчатая ракета, возможно, предназначенная для замены Guideline. Предполагается, что имело место лишь ограниченное оперативное развертывание.
   Gainful (Куб -ЕТ): новая ракета, смонтированная на гусеничном транспортере.
   Galosh (А-35 -ЕТ): многоступенчатая, твердотопливные анти-баллистическая ракета, теперь развернута в ограниченном количестве вокруг Москвы. Считается, что он имеет дальность в несколько сотен миль и несет ядерную боеголовку в диапазоне 1-2 мегатонны. Поэтому она подходит только для перехвата на большой высоте для обороны района. Эта особенность и характер радиолокаторов, связанных с ней, позволяют предположить, что ее функцией является оборона Северо-Западного СССР, в котором содержится большая доля советских промышленных мощностей и многих ее крупных городов. В настоящее время он обеспечивает ограниченную защиту от ракет Minuteman из Северной Америки или ракет Polaris из Северного Ледовитого океана.
   (3) Истребители. На вооружении, вероятно, находится около 3700 истребителей ПВО, большинство из которых МиГ-17, МиГ-19 и Су-9. Более новые самолеты включают Як-28П и Як-42 Fiddler (Ту-128 -ЕТ), последний из которых имеет максимальную скорость порядка 1200 миль в час и эксплуатационный потолок около 60 000 футов.
  
   Армия Общая численность советской армии (включая наземные подразделения ПВО) ныне оценивается примерно в 2 000 000 человек.
   Предполагается, что они сведены в 140 дивизий.
   В Советской армии три степени боеготовности, и, вероятно, менее половины из 140 дивизий имеют полную или близкую к ней.
   Остальную часть можно было бы довести до уровня численности в кратчайшие сроки, хотя примерно четверть от общего числа находятся в самой низкой степени готовности и потребуют значительного усиления.
   Расположение дивизий примерно следующее:
   26 дивизий в Центральной и Восточной Европе (20 в Восточной Германии, 2 в Польше, 4 в Венгрии);
   63 дивизии в Европейской части СССР (к западу от Уральских гор и к северу от Кавказа);
   8 дивизий в Центральной части СССР (т. е. между Уральскими горами и озером Байкал);
   28 дивизий в Южной части СССР (Кавказ и Советская Центральная Азия); и
   15 дивизий на советском Дальнем Востоке (т. е. к востоку от озера Байкал).
   26 дивизий в Восточной Европе, а также около 10 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке, находятся в полном боевом составе.
   Остальные 5 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке, вероятно, находятся во второй категории готовности: ниже боеспособности, но не требуют серьезного усиления в случае войны. В 63 дивизиях в европейской части СССР относится большинство дивизий боеготовые. 8 дивизий в Центральной части СССР, как и 10 из 28 дивизий в южной части СССР, в основном требовали бы значительного усиления.
   По типам деления распределение примерно следующее:
   (1) мотострелковые дивизии (10 500 человек и 190 средних танков в полном составе): около 88.
   (2) танковые дивизии (9000 человек и 350 средних и тяжелых танков в полном составе): около 45.
   (3) Воздушно-десантные дивизии (7000 человек и 40 самоходных орудий в полном составе): около 7.
   10 танковых дивизий находятся в Восточной Германии, 4 на Дальнем Востоке, 2 в Венгрии и 1 в Польше.
   Согласно оценкам, силы 26 дивизий в Центральной Европе могут быть увеличены до 70 в течение месяца, если мобилизации и передвижению не будут препятствовать бомбардировки.
   ВДВ всего около 50 000 человек, сведенных в 7 дивизий.
   Транспортная авиация могла бы одновременно перебросить три из этих дивизий и с поддежкой на короткие или средние расстояния.
   На авиасалоне в Москве в июле 1967 года было продемонстрировано использование крупного транспорта Ан-22 для Воздушно-десантных войск, включая тактические ракеты типа Frog и мобильные ракеты ПВО Ganef.
   Советский военный персонал, дислоцированный за пределами территории Варшавского договора, в основном в качестве инструкторов и советников, невелик.
   К ним относятся около 1000 на Кубе, в общей сложности 3000 в Египте и Сирии и еще 1000 Во Вьетнаме.
   Военные доктрины Советской Армии по-прежнему предусматривают для нее важную наступательную роль в будущей войне и, соответственно, делают упор на подготовку к крупномасштабному наступлению с высокой скоростью.
   Пехотные формирования имеют закрытые бронетранспортеры, которые позволят им продвигаться по радиоактивной местности.
   Но в последние год или два все больше внимания уделялось подготовке советских войск как в обычной, так и в ядерной среде, что предполагает принятие советской доктрины в соответствии со стратегией "гибкого реагирования", недавно принятой НАТО.
   Тактические ядерные ракетные подразделения теперь органичны для советских формирований как внутри, так и за пределами Советского Союза, а обычная огневая мощь советской дивизии так же велика, как и у большинства дивизий в НАТО.
   Советская Армия хорошо приспособлена к наступательной и оборонительной химической войне, но ее давние материально-технические недостатки для длительных операций были исправлены лишь частично. В её оснащение входит:
   (1) Танки. К танкам, находящимся на вооружении танковых формирований, относятся средний танк Т-62 со 115-мм пушкой, средний танк Т-54/55 со 100-мм пушкой, тяжелый танк Т-10 с 122-мм пушкой и танк-разведчик ПТ-76. Средний танк Т-34 устарел.
   Большинство советских танков оборудованы для переправы вброд по дну, а многие несут инфракрасное ночное оборудование.
   (2) Артиллерия. Основные калибры 85мм, 100мм, 122мм, 130мм, 152мм и 203мм.
   Многоствольные ракетные установки на грузовиках играют важную роль в советских артиллерийских операциях.
   Основным специализированным противотанковым оружием являются 57-мм пушки и Snapper, Sagger, и Swatter ракеты (Шмель, Малютка и Фаланга -ЕТ).
   Самоходные штурмовые орудия устарели, разве что кроме тех, что в Воздушно-десантных дивизиях.
   Советская армия также имеет сильную ПВО, включая зенитные ракеты.
   (3) Ракеты. Тактические ракеты, используемые сухопутными войсками, включают ракеты серии Frog и Scud (Луна и Р-11/Р-17 -ЕТ), которые перевозятся на модифицированных танковых шасси и колесных пусковых установках и имеют дальность до 150 миль в зависимости от типа боеголовки (фугасная, химическая или ядерная).
   Существует также большая крылатая ракета, Shaddock (ФКР-2 -ЕТ), с дальностью до 300 миль.
  
   Военно-морской флот. Численность советского Военно-Морского Флота и морской авиации 465,000 человек.
   В общем тоннаже это второй по величине флот в мире, и его главная сила заключается в подводном флоте.
   Большая часть флота находится в эксплуатации.
   Есть признаки того, что морская авиация и, подводные ракетоносцы играют все более важную роль в советской стратегии.
   (1) Надводные Корабли. Надводные корабли ВМФ СССР включают:
   3 Kresta и 4 Kynda крейсера с крылатыми ракетами Shaddock и зенитными Goa (пр.58 и 1134 -ЕТ с ПКР П-35 и ЗРК М-1 -ЕТ).
   12 Свердлов крейсеров (один с зенитными ракетами Goa (М-2 -ЕТ).
   4 других крейсера (используемых в учебных целях).
   1 вертолетоносец (типа LPH) с зенитными ракетами Goa (пр.1123 Москва с ЗРК М-22 -ЕТ).
   10 Krupny эсминцев с Strela крылатых ракет. (пр.57 с ПКР КСЩ -ЕТ)
   6 Kildin эсминцев с ракетами Strela (пр.56М с ПКР КСЩ -ЕТ).
   10 зенитно-ракетных и противолодочных эсминцев Kashin (пр.61 -ЕТ).
   30 эсминцев класса Kotlin (из которых один или два несут ЗРК) (пр.56 и 56К)
   50 Skory (пр.30бис -ЕТ) эсминцев.
   100 других океанских кораблей охранения.
   270 прибрежных эскортных кораблей и охотников подводных лодок.
   170 океанских тральщиков.
   160 прибрежных тральщиков.
   100 Osa и 50 Komar (пр.206 и 205Р -ЕТ) патрульных катеров с крылатыми ракетами малой дальности Styx (П-15 -ЕТ).
   300 патрульных катеров.
   100 десантные корабли и многочисленные десантные суда.
   1000 вспомогательных и вспомогательных кораблей.
   Некоторые минные тральщики и адаптированные траулеры используются для целей электронной разведки.
   Почти все подводные лодки и крупные надводные суда оборудованы для минирования.
   Часть эсминцев и небольших судов может быть не полностью укомплектована.
   (2) Подводные лодки. Сейчас насчитывается около 330 дизельных и 50 атомных подводных лодок.
   Около 13 атомных и 30 дизельных подводных лодок могут стрелять баллистическими ракетами и несут по три ракеты на каждой;
   около 25 атомных и 20 дизельных подводных лодок оснащена крылатыми ракетами, дальность которых составляет около 300 миль; они, как полагают, несут в среднем по 6 ракет в каждой.
   Остальные - учебные или ударные подводные лодки, оснащенные торпедами.
   В настоящее время на вооружение поступает новый класс атомных подводных лодок с баллистическими ракетами, примерно аналогичный американскому типу Polaris и способный нести 16 ракет для подводного пуска; производство атомных подводных лодок с баллистическими ракетами, по-видимому, составляет 1-2 в год.
   Подводные лодки распределены примерно следующим образом:
   70 на Балтийском, 170 на Северном, 40 на Черноморском и около 100 на Тихоокеанском флоте.
   Ракетоносцы в основном разделены между Северным и Тихоокеанским флотами.
   (3) Морские баллистические ракеты. Ракеты подводных лодок, находящиеся в настоящее время в советском арсенале, - это Sark и Serb (Р-13 и Р-21 -ЕТ); последние по размерам схожи с Polaris, но, как полагают, имеют гораздо меньшую дальность. Serb может быть запущен из подводного положения, но Sark только с поверхности.
   Впервые новая и более крупная ракета была показана в Москве в ноябре 1967 года, и утверждалось, что она обладает потенциалом большой дальности (Р-27 -ЕТ).
   (4) Морские крылатые ракеты. Известно, что некоторые корабли и подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами Shaddock и Strela (П-5/-6/-35, КСЩ -ЕТ), предназначенными в основном против окораблей. Однако они могут также использоваться против береговых целей и, в случае подводных лодок, будут запускаться с поверхности и с довольно большой дальности.
   (5) Морская авиация. В ВМФ СССР нет авианосцев, хотя недавно на вооружение поступил один 23-тыс.тонный вертолетоносец.
   Авиация берегового базирования включают около 400 бомбардировщиков и 500 других самолетов (включая вертолеты).
   Большинство бомбардировщиков базируются вблизи северо-западного и Черноморского побережий Советского Союза.
   В их составе: 300 Ту-16 Badger с ракетами класса "воздух-земля". Началась частичная замена этого самолета на Blinder (Ту-22 -ЕТ).
   50 Ту-95 Bear для военно-морских разведывательных миссий.
   50 Ил-28 Beagle, с торпедами.
   50 летающих лодок Be-6 Madge и около 100 вертолетов Ми-4 Hound в роли ПЛО.
   Вскоре Madge могут быть заменены на турбовинтовые летающие лодки Mail (Бе-12 -ЕТ).
   Около 200 разных транспортных самолетов.
   Недавний советский комментарий указывает на возобновление интереса к десантным силам.
   Существует небольшой корпус морской пехоты в настоящее время численностью около 8000 человек, подразделения которого распределены между всеми четырьмя флотами.
   Количество советских кораблей в Средиземном море менялось между 25 и 50 с июня 1967 и впервые включало танко-десантные суда.
  
   Военно-Воздушные Силы ВВС СССР включают в себя пять основных категорий; отсутствует оперативное командование ВВС.
   Эти пять категорий являются следующими:
   (1) Авиация дальнего действия (дальние и средние стратегические бомбардировщики);
   (2) Тактические (или фронтовые) ВВС, в состав которых входят истребители и легкие бомбардировщики;
   (3) Воздушный элемент командования ПВО (истребители-перехватчики);
   4) Морская авиация (полностью наземные); и
   (5) Военно-транспортная авиация (включая независимые силы для Воздушно-десантных дивизий).
   Имеется около 10,250 боевых самолетов, а общая численность персонала пяти категорий, перечисленных выше примерно 505,000.
   (1) Дальняя Авиация. Сгруппирована по трем основным направлениям: западная часть СССР, Центральная Украина и Дальний Восток: кроме того, он имеет пункты подскока и рассредоточения в Арктике. Численность межконтинентальных бомбардировщиков 155 самолетов - это менее трети сил B-52 Стратегического Авиационного Командования; но есть еще очень сильная группа средних бомбардировщиков для действий на Евразийском театре.
   Самолеты включают:
   (а) около 110 четырехдвигательных Bison (М-4) и около 90 четырехдвигательных бомбардировщиков большой дальности Bear (Ту-95).
   Около 50 из общего числа используются в роли танкеров. Считается, что половина Bear несут крылатую ракету Kangaroo (Х-20 -ЕТ).
   (b) около 750 средних бомбардировщиков Badger (Ту-16) и Blinder (Ту-22), что примерно вдвое превышает показатель 1963 года.
   Blinder, обладающий сверхзвуковой способностью, в настоящее время составляет чуть менее четверти средних бомбардировочных сил.
   Развитие Blinder с Kipper ракетой воздух-земля внедряется.
   (2) Фронтовая авиация. В течение последних 8 лет численность советских тактических ВВС оставалась практически неизменной.
   Всего в настоящее время насчитывается около 4000 самолетов.
   Они включены в легко-бомбардировочные, истребительные, транспортные, вертолетные и разведывательные части.
   Самолеты, находящиеся в эксплуатации, по-прежнему содержат значительную долю устаревших типов,таких как МиГ-17 Fresco, МиГ-19 Farmer, Як-25 Flashlight, и Ил-28 Beagle.
   Наиболее заметными высокоэффективными самолетами, находящимися на вооружении, являются перехватчик-истребитель Fishbed (МиГ-21), истребитель-бомбардировщик Fitter (Су-7), сверхзвуковой легкий бомбардировщик Brewer (Як-28Б -ЕТ) (постепенно заменяющий Beagle) и двухмоторный разведывательный самолет Mangrove (Як-25РВ).
   Теперь истребители-бомбардировщики могут оснащаться тактическими ракетами класса "воздух-поверхность", аналогичными натовским Bullpup и Martel.
   Несколько новых типов истребителей и истребителей-бомбардировщиков, в том числе самолет изменяемой геометрии, напоминающий американский F-111, были представлены на московском авиасалоне в июле 1967 года, но они, как полагают, не находятся на вооружении.
   (3) и (4) Истребители-перехватчики ПВО и Морская авиация. Рассматриваются соответственно в рамках противовоздушной обороны и Военно-Морского Флота (см. выше).
   (5) Военно-транспортная Авиация. Около 1500 ближне-и средне-магистральных транспортных самолетов, в том числе двухмоторные Ил-14 (Crate) и Ан-24 (Coke), а также четырехмоторные Ан-12 (Cub) и Ил-18 (Coot). Несколько Ан-22 тяжелый транспортный самолет теперь на службе.
   Дополнительно гражданские авиалайнеры, принадлежащих авиакомпании "Аэрофлот", некоторые из которых могут быть адаптированы для использования в военных целях во время войны; в их число входят около 150 дальних самолетов Ту-104 (Camel), Ту-114 (Cleat), Ту-124 (Cookpot), и Ту-134 (Crusty).
   Вертолеты, используемые в сухопутных войсках, включают в себя десантные Hook (Ми-6), тяжелый грузовой Harke (Ми-10 -ЕТ) и более мелких Hare (Ми-1 -ЕТ) и Hound (Ми-4). Общее число вертолетов, вероятно, составляет около 1500.
  
   Полу-военные силы и резервы. Численность внутренних и пограничных войск составляет около 250 000 человек.
   Также, возможно, около 1,5 миллиона членов ДОСААФ принимают участие в таких мероприятиях, как легкая атлетика, стрельба и парашютный спорт, но подготовка резервистов и курсы повышения квалификации кажутся случайными и нерегулярными.
   Однако сокращение на один год обязательной военной службы в октябре 1967 года сопровождалось объявлением о том, что ДОСААФ будет оказывать помощь в проведении довоенной подготовки в школах, колледжах и рабочих центрах для лиц в возрасте 17 лет и старше.
  

CHINA

   China is not the centre of a military alliance system in the way that the Soviet Union is. She has however a mutual security treaty with the Soviet Union and bilateral friendship treaties with Mongolia and North Korea, and has issued declarations of support for North Vietnam.
   The Chinese armed forces have remained substantially loyal to Mao Tse-tung, despite the deep split in the Chinese Communist Party which has developed since late 1965. The destruction of the party organizations in the provinces, and their replacement in most cases by Provincial Revolutionary Committees, has led to a considerable growth in the influence of local military leaders who are generally also the Chairmen of the new political bodies. Future stability throughout the country will depend to a large extent on the loyalty of these men to the governing group in Peking. Fresh dismissals in the early part of 1968 of important military personalities at the national level indicated continued political pressures in Peking; the post of Chief-of-Staff changed hands for the second time since May 1966, and is now held by the Canton army leader Huang Yung-sheng.
   Nuclear Weapons. Political disorientation seems to have retarded progress in some sectors of China's advanced-weapons programme, which had earlier been isolated from outside interference. No nuclear tests were announced by the official news agency in the past year (the longest period of official inactivity since testing began in 1964), although a low-yield detonation was detected by Western seismic centres in December 1967. Chinese silence on the subject points to an abortive test. The test site lies in Sinkiang, one of the areas where the political situation has not been solved to Peking's satisfaction; social and economic disturbance would in addition have made nuclear testing difficult. If they functioned without interruption, Chinese nuclear facilities could probably have produced by now enough fissile material for 70 atomic bombs of 20 KT yield based on uranium and plutonium, and for a small number of hydrogen bombs.
   Missile Programme. It is difficult to gauge the progress of the missile programme, but first references in the Chinese press to a new military formation known as the Second Artillery (evidently created about 1965) and to a Missile Launching Unit, show that China's deployment of her first short- and medium-range missiles may not be far away. China is also believed to be developing ICBMs at the same time as the medium-range missiles. Her progress in this field over the past year has not measured up to some of the Western forecasts.
   Manpower. The large number of political tasks given to the Chinese armed forces in the past two years entailed a halt to normal conscription and demobilization. However, both restarted in early 1968 and the total strength of the regular forces has stabilized at about 2.76 million men.

КИТАЙ

   Китай не является центром системы военного альянса, как Советский Союз. Однако у нее есть договор о взаимной безопасности с Советским Союзом и двусторонние договоры о дружбе с Монголией и Северной Кореей, и он опубликовал декларации о поддержке Северного Вьетнама.
   Китайские вооруженные силы оставались в значительной степени лояльными Мао Цзэдуну, несмотря на глубокий раскол в китайской Коммунистической партии, который развивался с конца 1965 года. Уничтожение партийных организаций в провинциях и их замена в большинстве случаев провинциальными революционными комитетами привели к значительному росту влияния местных военачальников, которые, как правило, также являются председателями новых политических органов. Будущая стабильность по всей стране будет в значительной степени зависеть от лояльности этих людей к руководящей группе в Пекине. Новые увольнения важных военных деятелей на национальном уровне в начале 1968 года свидетельствовали о продолжающемся политическом давлении в Пекине; должность начальника штаба сменилась во второй раз с мая 1966 года и в настоящее время её занимает лидер Кантонской армии Хуан Юн Шэн.
   Ядерное оружие. Политическая дезориентация, как представляется, замедлила прогресс в некоторых секторах программы Китая в области передовых вооружений, которые ранее были изолированы от вмешательства извне. В прошлом году официальное информационное агентство не объявило о проведении ядерных испытаний (самый продолжительный период официального бездействия с начала испытаний в 1964 году), хотя западные сейсмические центры в декабре 1967 года обнаружили маломощную детонацию. Молчание китайцев по этому вопросу указывает на неудачное испытание. Испытательный полигон находится в Синьцзяне, одной из областей, где политическая ситуация не была решена к удовлетворению Пекина; социальные и экономические беспорядки, кроме того, затруднили бы ядерные испытания. Если бы они функционировали без перерыва, китайские ядерные объекты, вероятно, уже могли бы производить достаточно расщепляющегося материала для 70 атомных бомб мощностью 20 кт на основе урана и плутония и для небольшого числа водородных бомб.
   Ракетная программа. Трудно оценить прогресс ракетной программы, но первые упоминания в китайской прессе о новом военном формировании, известном как вторая артиллерия (очевидно, созданная около 1965 года) и о ракетном пусковом агрегате, показывают, что Китай разместил свои первые ракеты малой и средней дальности. Считается также, что Китай разрабатывает МБР одновременно с ракетами средней дальности. Его прогресс в этой области за последний год не соответствовал некоторым западным прогнозам.
   Численность. Большое число политических задач, поставленных перед китайскими вооруженными силами в последние два года, повлекло за собой прекращение обычного призыва и демобилизации. Однако обе операции были возобновлены в начале 1968 года, и общая численность регулярных сил стабилизировалась на уровне примерно 2,76 миллиона человек.
  
   CHINA
Population: 792,000,000.
Selective military service: Army, 4-5 years; Air Force, 5 years; and Navy, 5-6 years.
Total regular forces: 2,761,000 (including railway engineer troops).
As the Chinese government has not made public any budget figures since 1960, it is impossible to state China's defence expenditure.
   If one accepts the American view that China is spending 9-10 per cent of her gross national product on defence"(including defence R&D),
   then Professor T. C. Liu's calculation of the GNP for late 1966 at 118 billion yuan indicates a defence expenditure figure of approximately
   12.5 billion yuan today ($5,000,000,000).
   Calculation of the GNP in dollar purchasing power (about $75 billion) would indicate a rather higher defence expenditure figure when viewed
   at dollar prices * 2.46 yuan = $1.
   * Based on a US Bureau of the Census estimate of 760,000,000 for January 1966, and assuming an annual increase of 12-14,000,000. Official Chinese statements still quote either 700 or 750 million as the current figure.)


Army Total strength: 2,500,000 (including railway engineer troops).

   The ground forces of the People's Liberation Army consist of about 115 line divisions (i.e., infantry, cavalry, armoured, and airborne)
   and supporting arms and services.
   The line divisions comprise
   106 infantry,
   4 armoured,
   3 cavalry, and
   2 airborne divisions.
   There are 12-14,000 men in a Chinese infantry division, and rather fewer in armoured, cavalry, and airborne divisions.
   The armoured, cavalry, and airborne divisions are probably split up into independent regiments, which are assigned to different sectors.
   In addition to the 115 line divisions, there are 20 artillery divisions which are normally split into regiments, one to each infantry division.
   There are also
   5 anti-tank artillery regiments,
   66 engineering regiments,
   34 motor transport regiments,
   2 signal regiments, and
   11 divisions of railway engineers (who, in the PLA, are uniformed troops).
   There are also some desert cavalry and mountain units.
   Heavy equipment consists of items supplied earlier by the Soviet Union, such as artillery up to 152mm and 203mm, and the JS-2 heavy tank.
   Medium armour consists of the T-34 tank and the T-54 tank, which is produced under the description T-59.
   Heavy field-engineering equipment and heavy self-propelled artillery, as well as motor transport, are all in short supply,
   while radar and electronic communications equipment is generally less sophisticated than modern Western or Soviet types.
   The ground forces are adequately equipped with a range of infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles,
   and light and medium artillery, all of which are produced in China.
   The Chinese airlift capability is probably limited to not more than 2 brigades.
Deployment. China is divided into 13 Military Regions (MR), of which 3 on the north and western borders-Inner Mongolia, Sinkiang,
   and Tibet-normally report directly to the Central Government in Peking rather than to the central military authorities.
   The military commander of each Region also commands the regular air and naval forces assigned to it, together with the civilian militia.
   The Military Regions are in turn divided into Military Districts, with usually 2 or 3 Military Districts to a Military Region.
   It is believed that basically one Army is assigned to each Military District, giving a total of about 30 Armies.
   An Army generally consists of 3 infantry divisions, 3 artillery regiments, and in some cases an armoured or cavalry division.
   (Since there are not more than 4 full-scale armoured divisions in the PLA, 1 or 2 are probably kept in the Peking and Manchuria Regions for
   display purposes.)
   On the basis of the above organization, and allowing for the fact that divisions may be transferred at one time or another to areas of particular
   tension,, the geographical distribution of the line divisions is believed to be as follows:
   Tibet (Direct Control MR): 3 divisions.*
   Sinkiang (Direct Control MR): 4 divisions.*
   Inner Mongolia (Direct Control MR): 4 divisions.*
   * There are in addition 2 or 3 divisions of border troops in each of these Military Regions.
   Manchuria and Peking (Shenyang and Peking MRs): 28 divisions.
   Along the coastal belt from Shantung to Hong Kong (Tsinan, Nanking, and Foochow MRs), i.e., mainly deployed against invasion from Taiwan: 28 divisions.
   Along the axis of the Canton-Wuhan railway (Canton and Wuhan MRs), i.e., in reserve against invasion from Taiwan: 25 divisions.
   On Hainan Island (under Canton MR): 3 divisions..
   Western China (Lanchow MR): 10 divisions.
   Szechwan and Yunnan (Chengtu and Kunming MRs): 10 divisions.
   Working in North Vietnam are 2 railway engineer and 2 anti-aircraft artillery divisions, amounting to about 40,000 men, and sometimes
   more. These are not included in the above distribution.
Navy Total strength: 141,000 (including 15,000 Naval Air Force). The ships of the fleet are as follows:
   4 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   11 frigate escorts.
   1 G-class submarine (with ballistic missile tubes).
   4 R-class attack submarines.
   21 W-class long-range submarines.
   7 other submarines (ex-Soviet).
   26 coastal escorts.
   7 missile patrol boats (5 Osa-class, 2 Komarclass).
   17 minesweepers.
   150 motor torpedo boats.
   48 gunboats (including river gunboats).
   60 landing ships/landing craft.
   20 other vessels.
   The Chinese Navy is divided into three fleets, the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet and the South Sea Fleet.
   Deployment of ships among these is thought to be as below:
North Sea Fleet. 210 vessels; 60,000 tons.
   It is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 landing craft squadron, 1 submarine squadron, and 2 motor torpedo boat squadrons,
   plus minesweeper and auxiliary vessel units. The main bases are at Tsingtao and Lushun. Units are deployed along the coast from the mouth
   of the Yalu river in the north to Lien Yuen Kang in the south.
East Sea Fleet. 600 vessels; 180,000 tons.
   This constitutes the major strength of the Chinese Navy in surface ships and is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 sumbarine squadron,
   2 landing ship squadrons, 2 minesweeper squadrons, and 1 squadron of auxiliary vessels. Bases are at Shanghai and Chou Shan.
   It is deployed along the coast from Lien Yuen Kang in the north to Chao An Wan in the south.
South Sea Fleet. 260 vessels; 55,000 tons.
   It is organized into 1 escort squadron, 1 landing craft squadron, and 1 minesweeper squadron.
   Bases are at Whampoa and Tsamkong. It is deployed from Chao An Wan in the north to Hainan Island in the south.
There are about 500 shore-based naval aircraft, including up to 150 Il-28 torpedo-carrying jet light bombers and
   substantial numbers of MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   These fighters, though under Navy Command, are fully integrated into the air defence system of China.
Air Force Total strength: 120,000; 2,500 combat aircraft.
   There are up to 12 Tu-4 medium bombers (a copy of the B-29), and about 150 Il-28 light bombers.
   The remaining aircraft are chiefly early model MiG-15s and MiG-17s, with a lesser number of MiG-19s and MiG-21s
   (the latter probably Russian-supplied in the early 1960s).
   There is a small air transport fleet, which includes some An-2s, Il-14s, Il-18s, and Mi-4 helicopters.
   This fleet could be supplemented by aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau, numbering about 350.
   The serviceability of some aircraft types may be affected by shortage of spare parts.
   There is an air defence system, initially developed to defend the eastern seaboard of China and now greatly expanded.
   It is based on radar and interceptor aircraft, including some MiG-21s, and may have a small number of SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Para-military forces Security and border troops number about 300,000.
   The border troops include 19 infantry-type divisions and 30 independent regiments permanently stationed in the frontier areas,
   in addition to the 'line' divisions already there.
   There is also a People's Armed Police force, and a civilian militia claimed bytheChinese authorities to be 200 million strong.
  

OTHER COUNTRIES

   CUBA
Population: 7,900,000.
Military service: 2 to 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $3.3 billion.
Total armed forces: 194,000.
Defence expenditure 1967: approx. 250 million pesos ($250,000,000). 1 peso = $1.
Army Total strength: 175,000 (including ready reserves).
   9 infantry brigades (nominal divisions).
   2 motorized brigades.
   1 artillery brigade.
   300 JS-2, T-34, and T-54/T-55 tanks.
   100 Su-100 assault guns.
   200 Soviet-type armoured personnel carriers.
   30 Frog short-range surface-to-surface missile launchers.
   57mm, 76mm, 85mm, 122mm, and 152mm artillery.
   Ready reserves (mobilizable within 48-72 hours) total 85,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   3 frigates.
   2 patrol escorts.
   18 coastal escorts (ex-Soviet Kronstadt and SO-1 classes).
   18 missile patrol boats (Komar-class).
   24 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   50 small patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
   Some Mi-4 Hound helicopters for ASW duties.
   50 Samlet short-range cruise missiles (for coastal defence).
Air Force Total strength: 12,000 (including air defence units); 165 combat aircraft.
   45 MiG-21 interceptors.
   20 MiG-19 interceptors.
   40 MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   60 MiG-15 interceptor/fighter-bombers.
   About 70 transport aircraft, mostly Il-14 and
   An-2, and about 24 Mi-4 troop-carrying helicopters.
   60 T-28, T-33, and MiG-15 trainers.
   24 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile sites with a total of approx. 500 missiles.
Para-military forces There is a well-trained militia of about 200,000 men andwomen.
   The Soviet forces in Cuba, now mainly instructors andadvisers, number about 1,000.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,200,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $0.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 17,500.
Defence expenditure 1967:approx. 80 million tugrik ($20,000,000). 4 tugrik = $1.
Army Total strength: 17,000.
   1 infantry division (a second is being formed).
   A fewT-34 medium tanks.
   All light arms and equipment have been supplied from the USSR.
   A division of Soviet troops is believed now to be stationed in Mongolia.
Air Force Total strength: 500 men; 6 combat aircraft.
   Operates primarily in support of the Army, and employs a large number of Soviet technical advisers.
   6 MiG-15 fighter-bombers.
   20 An-2, Il-12, Li-2, and Po-2 transports.
   1 Il-14 and 2 Tu-104 transports for joint civil/military use.
   Yak-11, Yak-18, and UT-2 trainers. Para-military forces Security police: about 15,000.
  
  NORTH KOREA
Population: 13,000,000.
Military service: 3-4 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 384,000.
Defence budget 1968: 1,617 million won ($629,000,000). 2.6 won = $1.
Army Total strength: 345,000.
   1 armoured division.
   18 infantry divisions.
   5 independent infantry brigades.
   800 Soviet tanks including PT-76s, T-34s, T-54s, and T-55s.
   200 Su-76, Su-100, and ZSu-57 self-propelled guns.
   5,000 other artillery pieces up to 152mm guns.
   Some 900 soft-skinned vehicles, including BTR-40 and BTR-152.
   15,000 men in 'special commando teams'.
   15 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile sites with about 300 missiles.
   Reserve units total a further 110,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 9,000.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   10 fleet minesweepers.
   14 coastal escorts.
   4 missile patrol boats (Komar-class).
   21 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons)
   30 other small patrol boats.
Air Force Total strength: 30,000 men; 590 combat aircraft.
   60 Il-28 jet light-bombers.
   30 MiG-21 interceptors.
   50 MiG-19 interceptors.
   450 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   27 An-2 and Li-2 transports, with 20 Mi-4 helicopters.
   Yak-9, Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15, and Il-28 trainers. Para-military forces 26,000 security forces and border guards.
   There is also a civilian militia with a claimed strength of 1,200,000.
  
  NORTH VIETNAM
Population: 19,000,000.
Military service: 3 years minimum.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2 billion.
Total armed forces: 447,000.
Defence budget: equivalent to about $500,000,000. 3.5 dong = $1.
Army Total strength: 440,000 (including at least 85,000 in South Vietnam and 40,000 in Laos).
   About 55 infantry regiments (equivalent to 13 divisions).*
   (*North Vietnamese infantry divisions normally comprise 3 infantry regiments and 1 support regiment each of some 2,700 men;
   divisional strength varies between 10,000 and 12,000 men.
   6 artillery regiments.
   Infantry regiments have Chinese or Soviet bloc light arms, and the artillery regiments mostly Soviet equipment.
   400 miscellaneous armoured vehicles, including T-34 medium tanks, PT-76 reconnaissance tanks, and BTR-40 armoured cars.
   About 6,000 anti-aircraft guns, including 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, and 100mm.
   About half of these are radar-controlled. In addition there are some thousands of air defence machine guns.
   Some 50 surface-to-air missile sites for SA-2 Guidelinemissiles; there are usually 4-6 launchers to each site.
Navy Total strength: 2,500.
   3 coastal escorts (ex-Soviet).
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   4 ex-Chinese fast patrol boats (104 tons).
   18 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (67 tons).
   3 ex-Chinese P-6 motor torpedo boats (50 tons).
   8 ex-Soviet P-4 motor torpedo boats (50 tons).
   A number of small auxiliary patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 4,500; 128 combat aircraft.
   8 Il-28 light bombers.
   20 MiG-21 interceptors with Atoll air-to-air missiles.
   100 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   60 transport aircraft, including An-2, An-24, Il-14, and Li-2.
   6 Mi-6 Hook, and 20 Hare and Hound helicopters.
   There is a Soviet aid and training mission of about 1,000 men.
Para-military forces There is a regionally organized armed militia of about 300,000.
   The Frontier and Coastal Security troops and the People's Armed Security Force total another 20,000.
  

PART II. THE WESTERN ALLIANCES

THE TREATIES

   In the decade between 1949 and 1959, the Western powers entered into a wide range of formal security treaties in response to what was seen as a world-wide military threat from the Communist powers. All of these remain in effect, though their importance to some governments has diminished as fear of Communist aggression has receded.
   The most important Western powers are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to maintain their armed forces, to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all. If such an armed attack occurs, each of them promises to take forthwith 'such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed forces, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   Britain, France, the Benelux countries, Italy, and Germany have, in addition, commitments under the revised Brussels Treaty of 1954 to give one another 'all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' if they are the subject of 'armed aggression in Europe'.
   The United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand agreed in the Manila Treaty of 1954 to set up the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of attack on a party to the Treaty.
   Under the Baghdad Pact of 1955, the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) was established. Since the withdrawal of Iraq, this has included Britain, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. The United States is associated.
   The United States has mutual defence undertakings with Australia and New Zealand in the ANZUS Pact and bilateral treaties with Spain, Iran, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea.
   The United States is also linked to 19 Latin American republics by the Rio Pact of 1947, which makes provision for collective military action in the event of an armed attack on the Americas.
   Britain has commitments to assist in the defence of Malta, to consult and co-operate in the defence of Cyprus, to aid Libya if she is engaged in conflict, and to support Bahrein, Sharjah, Qatar, Muscat, Oman, the Trucial States, and Kuwait if they should be subject to external attack. The future of the present treaty for the defence of Malaysia and Singapore is under discussion.
   France has responsibilities towards the countries of the 'Union Africaine et Malgache', which includes all the African members of the former French Community except Mali.

ДОГОВОРЫ

   В течение десятилетия между 1949 и 1959 годами западные державы заключили широкий круг официальных договоров по безопасности в ответ на то, что рассматривалось как Всемирная военная угроза со стороны коммунистических держав. Все они остаются в силе, хотя их значение для некоторых правительств уменьшилось, поскольку угроза коммунистической агрессии отступила.
   Наиболее важные западные державы являются членами Организации Североатлантического договора, которая объединяет Западную Европу и Северную Америку в стремлении сохранить свои вооруженные силы, консультироваться друг с другом, если безопасность какого-либо одного члена находится под угрозой, и рассматривать вооруженное нападение на одно нападение на всех. Если произойдет такое вооруженное нападение, каждый из них обещает незамедлительно предпринять "такие действия, которые он сочтет необходимыми, включая использование вооруженных сил, для восстановления и поддержания безопасности в Североатлантическом регионе".
   Великобритания, Франция, страны Бенилюкса, Италия и Германия имеют, кроме того, обязательства по пересмотренному Брюссельскому договору 1954 г. оказывать друг другу "всю военную и иную помощь и содействие в своей власти", если они являются предметом "вооруженной агрессии в Европе".
   Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания, Франция, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Австралия и Новая Зеландия договорились в Манильском договоре 1954 года о создании Организации Договора Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO) и "действовать для удовлетворения общей безопасности" в случае нападения на участника Договора.
   Под Багдадский пакт 1955 года, был создана Организация Центральный Договора (CENTO). После вывода Ирака, она включала Великобританию, Турцию, Иран, и Пакистан. США ассоциативный член.
   Соединенные Штаты имеют взаимные обязательства в сфере обороны С Австралии и Новой Зеландии в ANZUS пакте и двусторонние договоры с Испанией, Иран, Японии, Тайвань, Южная Корея.
   США связано также с 19 латиноамериканских республик пактом Рио 1947 года, который предусматривает совместные военные действия в случае вооруженного нападения на Америку.
   Великобритания обязана оказывать помощь в обороне Мальты, консультироваться и сотрудничать в обороне Кипра, помогать Ливии, если она вовлечена в конфликт, и поддерживать Бахрейн, Шарджу, Катар, Маскат, Оман, ОАЭ и Кувейт, если они подвергнутся внешнему нападению. В настоящее время обсуждается вопрос о заключении настоящего Договора об обороне Малайзии и Сингапура.
   Франция несет ответственность перед странами "Союза африканцев и Мальгаче", в который входят все африканские члены бывшего французского сообщества, за исключением Мали.
  

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The signatories to the North Atlantic Treaty are Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and the United States. Ambassadors representing each government form the North Atlantic Council in permanent session. The Council moved from Paris to Brussels in October 1967, but France remains a member. There is also a 14-nation Defence Planning Committee, on which France does not sit, which deals with questions related to NATO's integrated military planning and any other matters in which France does not participate. The Secretary-General and an international staff advise on the political, financial, and economic aspects of defence planning.
   The Council's military advisers are the military commands. The Military Committee, consisting of 13 permanent military representatives of all members except for France, and Iceland (France maintains a liaison staff with the Committee, and Iceland is not represented) is located in Brussels together with the NATO Council. It has an independent Chairman and is served by an integrated, international military staff. The major NATO commanders are responsible to the Military Committee, although they also have direct access to the Council and heads of Governments.
   The major military commands of NATO are the European, with its headquarters in Belgium, and the Atlantic, with its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. There is also a third major command, Allied Command, Channel, with headquarters at Northwood near London. The headquarters of the European Command, known as SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe), are at Casteau, near Mons, in south-west Belgium. Its Commander, known as SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander, Europe), has been an American general ever since NATO was established. The Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT), has also always been American.
   There is no allied command organization covering strategic nuclear forces, but the European and Atlantic commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System, at Omaha, Nebraska, where the planning of American bomber and missile forces is integrated with NATO nuclear planning. The United States has committed a small number of Polaris submarines, and Britain her medium bomber force and Polaris submarines, to the planning control of SACEUR, and the United States a larger number of Polaris submarines to SACLANT.
   Two new permanent bodies for nuclear planning were established in 1966, the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC) and, subordinate to it, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG). Membership in the NDAC is open to all NATO members, but France, Iceland, and Luxembourg do not take part. The NDAC is basically a meeting of Defence Ministers and two meetings have so far taken place. The intention is to associate non-nuclear members in the nuclear affairs of the alliance. The Secretary General of NATO is Chairman of the NDAC.
   The Nuclear Planning Group has seven members and is intended to go further into the details of topics raised in the NDAC. The countries who participated up to June 1968 were Britain, Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States, with Turkey and Greece each serving half a term, at which date Denmark replaced Canada, and Belgium replaced the Netherlands.
   At their April 1968 meeting in the Hague, Defence Ministers agreed that it was not in NATO's interest at the present time to set up an Anti-Ballistic Missile System in NATO Europe, but that developments in this field should be closely followed. Other subjects under consideration have included levels of strategic nuclear forces and the tactical uses of nuclear weapons, with the intention of laying down political guidelines for their use.
   It has been agreed to set up a NATO-wide communications system to facilitate political consultation both in planning and in crisis. It is also intended that new ways and means should be developed for collecting, evaluating, and disseminating intelligence data.

1. Allied Command Europe

   The European allied command is responsible for the defence of all NATO territory in Europe (plus Turkey) apart from Britain, France, and Portugal. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain. The arrangements for the air defence of France are under negotiation. NATO responsibility for the defence of Portuguese coastal waters is undertaken by the Atlantic Command.
   The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR), is also Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Europe, whose headquarters are in Stuttgart, Southern Germany. Deputy SACEUR is British, and in addition there is an Italian deputy for nuclear affairs, and an American air deputy. The European Command has at least 7,000 tactical nuclear warheads in its area, and the number of delivery vehicles (aircraft and missiles) is believed to be about 2,250, spread among a number of countries. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained in American custody. The average explosive yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads, 20 kilotons.
   Forces trained and equipped for the defence of the NATO European area are assigned to SACEUR, who has about 45 such divisions and a considerable number of independent brigades. A further 14 division forces could be brought forward if time allowed. The Command has some 3,500 tactical aircraft based on about 150 standard NATO airfields, and backed up by a system of jointly financed storage depots, fuel pipelines, and signal communications.
   Certain French forces have remained in Germany, and co-operation between them and NATO forces and commands has been agreed between NATO and the French Government. Their presence in Germany has been the subject of a status agreement reached between the French and German governments. France is participating in the improved air defence and radar system to be built by the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE) consortium. All NATO military units and commands, including logistics units, have left French soil. Permission to fly over France is at present given to air forces of the members on a yearly basis.
   A task force (called ACE Mobile Force) has been formed to act under certain circumstances as a mobile force for NATO as a whole, with particular reference to northern or south-eastern Europe. It consists of six reinforced infantry battalions, an armoured reconnaissance squadron and ground-support fighter squadrons, and is found by eight countries.
   The following commands are subordinate to ACE:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has command of both the land forces and the air forces in the Central Europe Sector. Its headquarters are at Brunssum, in the Netherlands province of Limburg, and its commander is a German general.
   The ground defences of the Central European Command consist of 24 assigned divisions provided by six countries. All assigned forces with the exception of some Dutch and Belgian units and some logistic units, are based in Germany.
   The tactical air forces available consist of about 2,000 aircraft, of which about 400 are USAF fighter-bombers. There are also British Canberras, Canadian CF-104s, and the F-104Gs of the German and other air forces. American and German forces are equipped with Sergeant and Pershing surface-to-surface missiles at corps and army level. Honest John rockets and missile artillery are deployed for nuclear bombardment at divisional level. An integrated early-warning and air-defence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries, and north-eastern France. 28 Hawk and Nike surface-to-air missile battalions have been deployed in the command.
   The command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) and Central Army Group (CENTAG). Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen-Liege axis. It includes the British, Belgian, and Dutch divisions, 4 of the German divisions, and the Canadian brigade. It is supported by Second Allied Tactical Air Force, which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian, and German units. The American forces and seven German divisions are under the Central Army Group. The Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force includes American, German, and Canadian wings, and an American army Air Defence Command.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, and the Baltic approaches. The Commander is a British general. Most of the Danish and Norwegian land, sea, and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division (stationed in Schleswig), 2 combat air wings, and her Baltic Fleet.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters in Naples, and its Commander is an American admiral. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece, and Turkey, and for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and the Turkish territorial waters of the Black Sea. The land forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece, and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other formations from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as have the United States Sixth Fleet, which would become Strike Force South in war, and certain naval and maritime forces of Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. For geographical reasons the ground defence system is based on two separate commands: the Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey. There is, however, an overall air command and a single naval command (NAVSOUTH) responsible to AFSOUTH: its headquarters are in Malta, and its Commander is an Italian admiral.

2. Allied Command Atlantic

   The Atlantic Allied Command has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. In the event of war, the duties of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), who is an American admiral, with a British deputy, are(a) to participate in the strategic strike, and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by hostile forces. In peacetime, SACLANT has no forces permanently assigned to his command. However, for training purposes and in the event of war, forces earmarked by Britain, Canada, Denmark, Holland, Portugal, and the United States are assigned. Although these forces are predominantly naval, they also include ground forces and land-based air forces. (France no longer provides any forces, but there are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT.) SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer, including Portuguese coastal waters. There are five subordinate commands: Western Atlantic Command, Eastern Atlantic Command, Iberian Atlantic Command, Striking Fleet Atlantic, and Submarine Command. The nucleus of the Striking Fleet Atlantic has been provided by the American Second Fleet with 2 or 3 attack carriers, but this role is now being partly shared with the missile-firing submarines.
   A multi-national naval squadron of escort ships known as Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT) was formed in January 1968 and comes under the authority of SACLANT. It normally consists, at any one time, of 4 destroyer-type ships; by the end of 1968 seven countries (Britain, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States) will at various times have taken part.
   There are about 500 escort vessels serving in the navies that come under SACLANT, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW, and over 150 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The NATO powers also have about 375 long-range land-based maritime patrol planes in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near American coasts. The American Navy possesses about 800 carrier-borne specialist anti-submarine fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, of which about half can be carrier-borne at any one time. The overall total that could be quickly operational from all carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 350. (These figures include units earmarked for Channel Command.)

3. The Channel Command

   The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this Command, as are some maritime aircraft. The Commander-in-Chief is a British admiral who also acts asthe major Subordinate Commander, Eastern Atlantic Area, under SACLANT, and has his headquarters at Northwood, Middlesex. The Channel Committee, consisting of the naval chiefs of-staff ofthe three countries concerned, acts as an advisory body to the Commander-in-Chief.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРО-АТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Участниками Североатлантического договора являются Бельгия, Великобритания, Канада, Дания, Франция, Федеративная Республика Германия, Греция, Исландия, Италия, Люксембург, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия, Турция и Соединенные Штаты. Послы, представляющие каждое правительство, образуют Североатлантический совет на его постоянной сессии. Совет переехал из Парижа в Брюссель в октябре 1967 года, но Франция остается членом. Существует также Комитет по оборонному планированию в составе 14 государств, в котором Франция не участвует, который занимается вопросами, связанными с комплексным военным планированием НАТО, и другими вопросами, в которых Франция не участвует. Генеральный секретарь и его международный персонал консультируют по политическим, финансовым и экономическим аспектам оборонного планирования.
   Военные советники Совета совещаются с военными командованиями. Военный комитет, состоящий из 13 постоянных военных представителей всех членов, за исключением Франции, и Исландии (Франция поддерживает связь с комитетом, а Исландия не представлена) находится в Брюсселе вместе с Советом НАТО. Он имеет независимого председателя и обслуживается интегрированным международным военным персоналом. Главные командующие НАТО несут ответственность перед Военным комитетом, хотя они также имеют прямой доступ к Совету и главам правительств.
   Основными военными командованиями НАТО являются европейское, со штаб-квартирой в Бельгии и Атлантическое, со штаб-квартирой в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. Существует также третье крупное командование, Канал, со штаб-квартирой в Нортвуде недалеко от Лондона. Штаб Европейского командования, известный как SHAPE (Верховный штаб союзных держав в Европе), находятся в Касто, недалеко от Монса, на юго-западе Бельгии. Ее командующий, известный как SACEUR (Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе), был американским генералом с момента создания НАТО. Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО на Атлантике (ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике), также всегда была американским.
   Нет организации Союзного Командования, охватывающей стратегические ядерные силы, но европейское и Атлантическое командования участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, Небраска, где планирование американских бомбардировочных и ракетных сил интегрировано с ядерным планированием НАТО. Соединенные Штаты передали небольшое количество подводных лодок Polaris и британскую средне-бомбардировочную авиацию и подводные лодки Polaris, в управление планирования ВГК ОВС НАТО в Европе, и Соединенные Штаты большое число подводных лодок Polaris в ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике.
   В 1966 году были учреждены два новых постоянных органа по ядерному планированию - Комитет по делам ядерной обороны (NDAC) и подчиненная ему группа ядерного планирования (NPG). Членство в NDAC открыто для всех членов НАТО, но Франция, Исландия и Люксембург не принимают участия. NDAC - это, по сути, встреча министров обороны, и к настоящему времени состоялось две встречи. Намерение состоит в том, чтобы ассоциировать неядерных членов в ядерные дела Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь НАТО является председателем NDAC.
   Группа по ядерному планированию состоит из семи членов и намерена более подробно рассмотреть темы, поднятые в NDAC. К числу стран, участвовавших до июня 1968 года, относились Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Италия, Нидерланды и Соединенные Штаты, причем Турция и Греция исполняли свои обязанности в течение половины срока, когда Дания заменила Канаду, а Бельгия заменила Нидерланды.
   На своей встрече в апреле 1968 года в Гааге министры обороны согласились с тем, что в настоящее время создание системы противоракетной обороны в Европе НАТО не отвечает интересам НАТО, однако следует внимательно следить за развитием событий в этой области. К числу других рассматриваемых вопросов относятся уровни стратегических ядерных сил и тактическое применение ядерного оружия с целью разработки политических руководящих принципов их применения.
   Была достигнута договоренность о создании общей системы связи НАТО для содействия политическим консультациям как в процессе планирования, так и в кризисных ситуациях. Предполагается также разработать новые пути и средства сбора, оценки и распространения разведывательных данных.

1. Союзное Командование в Европе

   Европейское командование НАТО отвечает за оборону всей территории НАТО в Европе (плюс Турция), за исключением Великобритании, Франции и Португалии. Оно также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Великобритании. Об организация противовоздушной обороны Франции ведутся переговоры. Ответственность НАТО за оборону прибрежных вод Португалии несет Атлантическое командование.
   Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе (SACEUR) также является главнокомандующим силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе, штаб-квартира находится в Штутгарте, Южная Германия. Заместитель SACEUR - британец, кроме того, есть итальянский заместитель по ядерным вопросам и американский заместитель по воздушным перевозкам. Европейское командование имеет по меньшей мере 7000 тактических ядерных боеголовок в своем районе, а количество средств доставки (самолетов и ракет), как полагают, составляет около 2250, распределенных между рядом стран. Однако сами ядерные заряды находятся под американским контролем. В среднем мощность бомб, складированные в Европе для использования тактической авиацией НАТО составляет около 100 килотонн, а ракетных боеголовок 20 килотонн.
   Силы, подготовленные и оснащенные для обороны Европейского региона НАТО, подчиненные SACEUR, насчитывают около 45 дивизий и значительное число отдельных бригад. Если позволит время, возможно перебросить еще 14 сил дивизии. Командование располагает 3500 тактическими самолетами, базирующимися примерно на 150 стандартных аэродромах НАТО, и обеспеченных системой совместно финансируемых складов, топливопроводов и связи.
   Часть французских силы остались в Германии, и сотрудничество между ними и силами и командованием НАТО было согласовано между НАТО и французским правительством. Их присутствие в Германии был предметом соглашения, достигнутого между правительствами Франции и Германии. Франция участвует в усовершенствованной системе противовоздушной обороны и радиолокации, которая будет создана консорциумом НАТО по наземной ПВО (NADGE). Все воинские части и командования НАТО, включая подразделения тылового обеспечения, покинули французскую территорию. Разрешение на полеты над Францией в настоящее время предоставляется военно-воздушным силам государств-членов на ежегодной основе.
   Была сформирована целевая группа (называемая мобильной группой ACE), которая при определенных обстоятельствах будет действовать в качестве мобильной группы для НАТО в целом, с уделением особого внимания Северной или Юго-Восточной Европе. Он состоит из шести усиленных пехотных батальонов, бронетанковой разведывательной эскадрильи и эскадрилий истребителей наземной поддержки, и находится в восьми странах.
   Командования следующие сил являются подчиненными ACE:
   (а) Союзные силы Центральной Европы (AFCENT) командует сухопутными войсками и военно-воздушными силами в секторе Центральной Европы. Штаб-квартира находится в Брунссуме, нидерландская провинция Лимбург, а командующий - немецкий генерал.
   Наземная оборона Центральноевропейского командования состоит из 24 дивизий, предоставленных шестью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских и бельгийских подразделений и некоторых подразделений тылового обеспечения, базируются в Германии.
   Тактические военно-воздушные силы насчитывают около 2000 самолетов, из которых около 400 - истребители-бомбардировщики ВВС США. Есть также Британские Canberra, канадские CF-104, и F-104G немецких и других военно-воздушных сил. Американские и немецкие войска оснащены ракетами типов Sergeant и Pershing класса "земля-земля" на уровне корпуса и армии. Ракеты Honest John и артиллерия развернуты для ядерных ударов на дивизионном уровне. Комплексная система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны была разработана для Великобритании, Западной Германии, стран Бенилюкс и северо-восточной Франции. 28 зенитных ракетных дивизионов Hawk и Nike были развернуты в командовании.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную группу армий (NORTHAG) и Центральною группу армий (CENTAG). Северная группа армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Готтинген-Льеж. В нее входят британские, бельгийские и голландские дивизии, 4 немецкие дивизии и канадская бригада. Она поддерживается 2-ми союзными тактическими ВВС, которые состоят из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Американские войска и 7 немецких дивизий находятся в Центральной группе армий. 4-е союзные тактические ВВС включает американские, немецкие и канадские крылья и командование ПВО американской армии.
   (b) Союзные Силы Северной Европы (AFNORTH) имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе в Норвегии и отвечают за оборону Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и балтийские проходов. Командующим британский генерал. Большая часть сухопутных, морских и тактических военно-воздушных сил Дании и Норвегии предназначена для этого, и большая часть их активных резервов закреплена за ним. Германия назначила одну дивизию (дислоцированную в Шлезвиге), два боевых воздушных крыла и свой Балтийский флот.
   (с) Союзные Силы в Южной Европе (AFSOUTH) со штаб-квартирой в Неаполе, командующий - американский адмирал. Он отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции, а также за охрану коммуникаций в Средиземном море и турецких территориальных вода Черного моря. В состав сухопутных войск входят 14 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие формирования из этих трех стран были предназначены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот Соединенных Штатов, который станет ударной силой на юге в войне, и некоторые военно-морские силы Греции, Италии, Турции и Соединенного Королевства. По географическим причинам система наземной обороны состоит из двух отдельных командований: Южное, включающее Италию и подходы к ней, и Юго-Восточное, включающее Грецию и Турцию. Существует, однако, общее авиационное командование и единое военно-морское командование (NAVSOUTH) отвечающее за AFSOUTH: штаб-квартира на Мальте, и его командир итальянский адмирал.

2. Союзное Командование на Атлантике

   Штаб Атлантического командования союзников находится в Норфолке, штат Виржиния. В случае войны обязанности верховного главнокомандующего ОВС НАТО на Атлантике(SACLANT), который является американским адмиралом, с британским заместителем, являются (а) участие в стратегическом ударе, и (b) защита морских коммуникаций от нападения враждебных сил. В мирное время SACLANT не имеет сил, постоянно назначенных в его командование. Однако для учебных целей и в случае войны выделяются силы, выделенные Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Голландией, Португалией и США. Хотя эти силы в основном морские, они также включают в себя сухопутные силы и ВВС. (Франция не предоставляет каких-либо сил, но есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике.) SACLANT отвечает за Североатлантический регион от Северного полюса до Тропика Рака, включая прибрежные воды Португалии. Существует пять подчиненных командований: командование западной Атлантики, командование восточной Атлантики, командование иберийской Атлантики, ударный флот Атлантики и командование подводных лодок. Ядро ударного флота Атлантики было 2-м флотом Соединенных Штатов с двумя или тремя ударными авианосцами, но эта роль в настоящее время частично разделяется с ракетными подводными лодками.
   Многонациональная эскадра кораблей сопровождения, известная как постоянные военно-морские силы Атлантики (STANAVFORLANT), была сформирована в январе 1968 года и подчиняется SACLANT. Как правило, она состоит из четырех эсминцев; к концу 1968 года в нем примут участие семь стран (Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия и Соединенные Штаты).
   В военно-морских флотах насчитывается около 500 эскортных кораблей, которые подпадают в SACLANT, из которых большая часть полностью или частично предназначена для противолодочной войны (ПЛО). Большинство военно-морских сил НАТО оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы главным образом для ПЛО, и более 150 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. Кроме того, державы НАТО имеют в своем распоряжении около 375 морских патрульных самолетов большой дальности наземного базирования, подавляющее большинство из которых базируется на американском побережье или вблизи него. Американский военно-морской флот имеет около 800 палубных специализированных противолодочных самолетов и вертолетов, из которых около половины могут действовать в любое время. Общее число, которое может быть быстро введено в действие с авианосцев и баз Атлантического океана, вероятно, составляет около 350. (Эти цифры включают подразделения, предназначенные для командования Канала.)

3. Союзное Командование Канала (ACCHAN)

   Роль командования Канала в военное время заключается в осуществлении контроля над проливом Ла-Манш и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из малых военных кораблей Бельгии, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства предназначены для этого командования, как и некоторые морские самолеты. Главнокомандующий британский адмирал, который также выступает в качестве подчиненного командующего, Восточной Атлантики, в рамках ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике, и его штаб-квартира в Нортвуде, Мидлсекс. Комитет Канала, состоящий из начальников штабов ВМС трех соответствующих стран, действует в качестве консультативного органа при Верховном Главнокомандующем.
  

NATIONAL FORCES

   BELGIUM
Population: 9,600,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $19.4 billion.
Total armed forces: 99,000.
Defence budget 1968: 24,900 million Belgian francs ($501,000,000). 49.6 BF= $1.
Army Total strength: 75,000.
   2 mechanized divisions of 2 brigades each.
   1 motorized reserve division.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   700 M-24, M-41, and M-47 tanks are being replaced by 330 Leopards.
   M-75 and AMX-13 armoured personnel carriers.
   Honest John rockets, 105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   2 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   The mechanized divisions are assigned to NATO.
   1 battalion of the paracommando regiment and the reserve division are earmarked for assignment to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 4,000.
   7 fleet minesweepers.
   2 coastal escorts.
   22 coastal minesweepers.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   2 S-58 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 140 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   (There are 18-20 aircraft in a Belgian combat squadron.)
   50 C-47, C-54, and C-119 transport aircraft.
   8 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Nike-Ajax or Nike-Hercules missiles.
   All squadrons, including the missile squadrons are assigned to NATO, except for 1 squadron of the transport wing which is under national command.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 12,000.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 55,500,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $110 billion.
Total armed forces: 427,000 (inc. forces enlisted outside Britain).
Defence budget 1968-69: £2,271 million ($5,450,000,000). £1=$2.40.
Army Total strength: 210,000 (including 22,000 enlisted outside Britain).
   The Army has 2 armoured brigades and 13 infantry brigades,
   comprising some 56 infantry battalions, 3 parachute battalions, and 8 Gurkha infantry battalions.
   There are 23 tank and armoured car regiments, 30 artillery regiments, 6 engineer regiments and 10 signal regiments.
   The British Army of the Rhine, based in Germany, has a current strength of 48,500.
   It is organized into 3 divisions, each of 2 brigades (2 of the 6 are armoured, 4 are infantry).
   1 of the infantry brigades, together with support units, is now stationed in Britain but is still part of BAOR.
   About 18 infantry battalions are normally maintained in the United Kingdom garrison,
   in addition to 3 infantry brigades and the parachute brigade in the Strategic Reserve.
   There is an Army headquarters and a Gurkha infantry brigade in Singapore,
   an infantry brigade in Hong Kong,
   a Gurkha infantry battalion in Brunei,
   and an infantry battalion with the Commonwealth Brigade in Malacca.
   In addition, there is a Marine Commando brigade based in Singapore.
   The present strength in the Persian Gulf is 2 battalions.
   There are 2 battalions in Cyprus (including 1,000 men with the United Nations forces).
   Other garrisons include a brigade in West Berlin, 2 battalions in Malta, 1 battalion in Gibraltar, and small units in Libya and British Honduras.
   The Chieftain medium tank with a 120mm gun has now replaced the Centurion in 2 of the seven armoured regiments in Germany.
   Tactical nuclear artillery available to BAOR includes 3 regiments with Honest John and 203mm howitzers.
   The 105mm SP Abbot and American 155mm and 175mm heavy self propelled guns have replaced all the
   25 pounders and 5.5 inch guns previously in service.
The Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve numbers approximately 53,000 men and women.
Nary Total strength: 96,000, (including marines).
   The strength of the operational fleet during 1968 was as follows:
   2 aircraft carriers, (23,000 and 43,000 tons).
   2 commando ships.
   2 headquarter landing ships.
   6 guided-missile destroyers.
   11 other destroyers.
   24 ASW frigates.
   31 other escort vessels.
   2 fleet ballistic missile submarines.
   2 nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarines.
   30 other submarines.
   44 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   120 support ships.
Ships in reserve, or undergoing refit or conversion, include
   2 aircraft carriers, 3 cruisers, 20 escort vessels, 1 nuclear submarine, 5 other submarines, and 6 coastal minesweepers.
   The first fleet ballistic missile submarine became available for operational service in March 1968;
   there will be 4 in all, each will be nuclear-powered and will carry 16 Polaris missiles.
The Fleet Air Arm has a nuclear and conventional strike capacity with about 80 Buccaneer Mark 1 and 2 light jet bombers.
   Air Defence is provided by about 80 Sea Vixen all-weather fighters.
   The commando ships carry troops in Wessex and Whirlwind helicopters. Wessex and Wasp helicopters are used for ASW.
The Royal Marines total about 9,000 men, and provide five Commandos of 800 men each.
   There are about 8,000 men in the naval and marine reserves.
Air Force Total strength: 121,000; 600 combat aircraft.
   The Royal Air Force has been reorganized in the past year, so that it now forms
   Strike Command, Coastal Command, Air Support Command, three overseas commands, and the various training and technical commands.
(1) Strike Command consists of a medium bomber force for strategic nuclear strike and conventional bombing, reconnaissance and tanker aircraft,
   and the fighter-interceptor force responsible for the defence of British airspace.
   The former Bomber and Fighter Commands have been disbanded.
   Aircraft include about
   80 Victor 2 and Vulcan 2 medium bombers, with bombs or Blue Steel air-tosurface nuclear missiles,
   24 Victor 1 tankers and 12 Victor 2 strategic reconnaissance aircraft,
   30 Canberra PR-7 photo-reconnaissance aircraft and
   100 Lightning interceptors with air-to-air missiles.
   All Strike Command's combat aircraft are assigned to NATO.
   The BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) station at Fylingdales provides early warning of aircraft and missile threats to the
   United Kingdom and other NATO countries, and Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missile squadrons protect some British airfields.
(2) Coastal Command is equipped with about 75 Shackleton aircraft for long-range ASW and maritime reconnaissance.
(3) Air Support Command (formerly Transport Command) has 10 Belfast, 22 Britannia, 5 Comet, and 14 VC-10 aircraft for long-range airlift.
   Medium-range transports include 28 Argosies, and the force of Hastings and Beverleys has now been replaced by the turbo-prop
   C-130E Hercules, of which 66 have been ordered in all.
   10 short-range Andovers are in service with the command.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Belvederes, Whirlwinds, and Wessex Mark 2s.
   2 ground-attack squadrons of Hunter Mark 9 are included in the Command.
(4) RAF Germany, whose present strength is about 7,000 men, is equipped with
   70 Canberra strike and reconnaissance aircraft (the strike squadrons have both nuclear and conventional roles),
   18 Hunter reconnaissance aircraft, and
   30 Lightning interceptors.
   The Hunters will eventually be replaced with a mixed force of F-4 Phantoms and P-1127 Harriers.
(5) Near East Air Force in Cyprus includes about
   50 Vulcan and Canberra bombers (with nuclear capacity and assigned to CENTO), and
   1 squadron of Lightning interceptors.
   Some Canberra reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta.
   Gulf Air Force in Bahrein has Shackleton and Hunter ground-attack aircraft.
(6) Far East Air Force, based on Singapore, contains
   Canberra, Hunter, Lightning, and Shackleton combat aircraft;
   Hercules and Andover transports;
   Whirlwind and Belvedere helicopters;
   light aircraft such as Pioneers and Twin Pioneers; and
   Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missiles. A squadron of Whirlwind helicopters is stationed in Hong Kong.
(7) There are 11 squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, whose chief role is ground defence of airfields.
   The Bloodhound and Tigercat surface-to-air missiles are now in service with these units.
RAF reserves total approximately 2,000 personnel.
  
   CANADA
Population: 20,700,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $57.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 101,600.
Defence budget 1968-69: $Can. 1,715 million ($1,589,000,000). $Can. 1.08 = $US1.
* The Canadian Armed Services have been unified since February 1968, but for purposes of comparison with other countries, are presented here
   in the traditional form.
Army* Total strength: 41,500.
In Europe: 1 mechanized infantry brigade group of 5,500 men, with 60 Centurion tanks, 300 M-113 armoured personnel carriers, and 155mm SP howitzers.
In Canada: 1 mechanized and 2 air transportable brigade groups. 1 of the latter will be earmarked as a reinforcement for NATO Command in Europe.
   The other brigades at present contribute to North American ground defence, and UN commitments.
   All Canadian operational land forces and tactical air forces are assigned to the new Mobile Command.
   850 men in UNFICYP (Cyprus).
Army reserves number 27,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 16,600.
   1 light aircraft carrier (ASW).
   23 ASW destroyer escorts.
   1 ocean escort (frigate).
   4 submarines.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   3 support ships.
   22 other ships.
   A squadron of Tracker aircraft and some Sea King helicopters are carried on the aircraft carrier,
   and helicopters are carried on some of the destroyer escorts.
   Naval reserves total about 2,500 men and women.
Air Force Total strength: 43,500; 300 combat aircraft. (There are 18 aircraft in a Canadian squadron.)
In Europe: 4 strike-attack and 2 reconnaissance squadrons equipped with CF-104 Starfighters.
In Canada (NORAD): 3 interceptor and 2 training squadrons with CF-101B Voodoos, and
   2 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Bomarc B missiles.
Coastal aircraft: 3 squadrons with CL-28 Argus on the East Coast (NATO-earmarked), and 1 squadron with Argus on the West Coast.
   5 transport squadrons with C-130E Hercules, CC-109 Cosmopolitan, DHC-4 Caribou, CC-106 Yukon, DHC-5 Buffalo, and Falcon aircraft.
Air Force reserves: 800 personnel and some light aircraft.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,840,000
Military service: 12-14 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $12.2 billion.
Total armed forces: 45,500.
Defence estimates 1968-69: 2,185 million Danish kroner ($292,000,000). Dkr. 7.5 = $1.
Army Total strength: 28,000.
   4 armoured infantry brigades and 1 battalion group with Centurion tanks.
   3 artillery battalions (2 with Honest John and 1 with 203mm howitzers).
   2 armoured infantry brigades to be formed from reservists within 72 hours.
   (Local defence reservist units form 15 infantry battalion groups and 15 artillery batteries.)
A volunteer Army Home Guard of 55,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,200.
   2 fast frigates.
   4 submarines.
   4 coastal escorts.
   8 minelayers.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   16 fast patrol boats.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   28 other ships.
Volunteer Naval Home Guard: 3,500.
Air Force Total strength: 10,300; 115 combat active aircraft.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D/F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with Hunters.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   1 transport squadron with C-47, C-54, and Catalinas.
   1 air-sea rescue squadron with S-61 helicopters.
   (There are 16 aircraft in a Danish combat squadron.)
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules batteries located around Copenhagen.
   4 semi-mobile Hawk batteries to supplement the Nike batteries.
A volunteer Air Force Home Guard of 10,500.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 50,400,000.
Military service: 12-15 months (selective).
Estimated GNP 1967: $104 billion.
Total armed forces: 505,000.
Defence expenditure 1968: 30,000 million francs ($6,104,000,000).* 4.9 francs = $1.
   * Including certain items of the military nuclear programme not shown in the budget estimates of the Defence Ministry.
Army Total strength: 328,000.
   6 divisions stationed in Europe. These include
   2 mechanized divisions in Germany,
   1 independent brigade in West Berlin, and
   3 mechanized divisions, 1 air-transportable division, and an independent parachute regiment in France.
   The air-transportable division combines parachute troops with an amphibious group and supporting arms,
   and makes up the permanent element of a strategic reserve.
   The AMX-30 medium tank is replacing the M-47 Patton in some of the armoured regiments
   while the AMX-13 light tank and the EBR heavy and AML light armoured cars have been rearmed with a 90mm gun.
   The artillery has self-propelled AMX 105mm and 155mm howitzers, and 30mm anti-aircraft twin-barrelled guns.
   There are 5battalions of Honest John rockets in Germany (without nuclear warheads), and
   3 surface-to-air missile regiments with Hawk in France.
   Combat troops stationed over seas number about 12,000, including
   2 regiments in French Somaliland and
   3 regiments elsewhere in Africa, a detachment in Algeria,
   3 battalions in the Indian Ocean,
   1 regiment in the Caribbean, and
   2 battalions in the Pacific territories.
   There are in addition 3,000 French officers and NCOs serving either on secondment or on contract with the armed forces of independent African countries.
   The remaining troops are stationed in metropolitan France for local defence, and have only light arms and equipment.
   Their peacetime strength is 6 brigades, including 1 mountain brigade.
   Mobilization would add a further 6 brigades, making a total of 12 brigades or approximately 50 infantry and 10 armoured car regiments.
Navy Total strength: 69,000.
   The fleet is deployed with the Mediterranean squadron at Toulon, the Atlantic squadron at Brest, and the Amphibious Force at Lorient.
   2 22,000-ton aircraft carriers.
   1 14,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   1 10,000-ton helicopter carrier.
   2 assault ships.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   1 guided-missile frigate.
   18 fleet destroyers (4 with Tartarsurface-to-air missiles).
   24 destroyer escorts.
   19 attack submarines.
   14 coastal escorts.
   8 fleet minesweepers.
   41 coastal minesweepers.
   (A further seven fleet and 30 coastal minesweepers in reserve.)
   7 tank landing ships.
   14 other landing craft.
   43 other ships.
   A Marine Commando of 600 men.
   4 Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines (FBMS) are scheduled for completion between 1970 and 1972.
   An experimental FBMS is now being used in tests.
The Naval Air Force, consisting of 12,000 men and about 275 combat aircraft, includes:
   53 Etendard IV-M fighter-bombers,
   19 Etendard IV-P reconnaissance aircraft,
   38 F-8E Crusader interceptors,
   60 Alize patrollers and 4 Super-Frelon ASW heavy helicopters, all of which can be flown from aircraft carriers. There are also
   25 Atlantic and 27 Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft which are flown from shore bases, and about
   50 Alouette 3 and S-58 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 108,000; 475 combat aircraft.
(a) The Strategic Air Command (CFAS) has a first line strength of 45 aircraft, organized in
   3 mixed bomber wings, each of 3 Mirage IVA bomber squadrons and 1 C-135F tanker squadron.
   The force is adapted to low-level penetration with 80-kiloton atomic bombs.
   A brigade with 27 IRBMs, organized in 3 squadrons of 9 missiles each, is being formed and will enter service in 1970-71.
   Construction of missile silos and underground operations centres has begun in Haute-Provence.
(b) The Air Defence Command (CAFDA) has
   2 squadrons with Mirage IIIC interceptors,
   2 squadrons with Vautour IIN all-weather interceptors,
   4 squadrons with Super-Mystere B2 interceptors and
   2 squadrons with Mystere IVA fighters.
   The various components of this command are co-ordinated by the automatic STRIDA II air defence system,
   being installed at HQ in Taverny and in major radar stations.
(c) The Tactical Air Force (FATAC) has 2 subordinate Tactical Air Commands:
   1st CATAC, now completely withdrawn from Germany, and
   2nd CATAC, which would eventually command the air component of the Strategic Reserve. FATAC controls
   3 squadrons with Mirage IIIC interceptors,
   6 squadrons with Mirage IIIE fighter-bombers,
   3 squadrons with F-100D fighter-bombers,
   2 squadrons with Mystere IVA fighter-bombers and
   3 squadrons with Mirage IIIR tactical reconnaissance.
(c) The Air Transport Command (COTAM) has
   1 squadron with C-160 Transall and
   6 squadrons with ND-2501 Noratlas tactical transports,
   1 squadron with DC-6 and Br 765 Sahara heavy transports,
   2 mixed squadrons and 4 squadrons with H-34 and Alouette 2 helicopters.
   1 squadron of A-1D Skyraider fighter bombers and 1 mixed transport squadron are stationed in French Somaliland.
Reserves and Para-military forces
   The regular forces could be supplemented by up to 450,000 reservists in time of emergency,
   plus the Gendarmerie and the CRS (Compagnies Republicaines de Securite), who total 75,000.
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 58,500,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 18 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $125 billion.
Total armed forces: 456,000.
Defence budget 1968: DM 20,435 million ($5,108,000,000). DM4 = $1.
Army Total strength: 326,000 (including the Territorial Force of 20,000).
   12 armoured brigades.
   16 armoured infantry brigades.
   2 mountain brigades.
   2 airborne brigades.
   1,500 M-47 and M-48A2 Patton and 1,400 Leopard (with 105mm guns) medium tanks.
   105mm, 155mm, 175mm, and 203mm artillery.
   12 battalions with Honest John and 4 battalions with Sergeant surface-to-surface missiles.
   7,000 HS-30 and M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   1,000 tank destroyers with 90mm guns or antitank missiles.
   110 light aircraft, mostly Do-27.
   About 400 Bell 47, UH-1D Iroquois, and Alouette 2 helicopters.
   The Territorial Force is held for rear-area duties, and is not assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 32,000.
   9 submarines.
   8 destroyers.
   6 destroyer escorts.
   13 support ships.
   7 coastal escorts.
   3 minelayers.
   24 coastal minesweepers.
   34 fast minesweepers.
   11 inshore minesweepers.
   45 fast patrol boats.
   16 landing craft.
   96 other vessels.
The Naval Air Force has 6,000 men and about 100 combat aircraft, consisting of
   4 fighter-bomber and reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G, and is due to receive
   2 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Br-1150 Atlantics.
Air Force Total strength: 98,000; 500 combat aircraft.
   (There are up to 15-20 aircraft in German fighter, fighter-bomber, and light-strike squadrons, and up to
   18 aircraft in reconnaissance and transport squadrons.)
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 light ground-attack strike squadrons with G-91.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with G-91.
   4 heavy reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G.
   6 transport squadrons with Noratlas.
   6 battalions Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   9 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   3 battalions Pershing surface-to-surface missiles.
   The Air Force is assigned to NATO.
Para-military forces and reserves About 30,000 Border Police, equipped with Saladin scout cars, and regional police units.
   Trained reservists number about 750,000.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,720,000.
Military service: Army and Navy, 30 months; Air Force, 23 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $6.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 161,000.
Defence expenditure 1968: 9,550 million drachmas ($318,000,000). 30 drachmas = $1.
Army Total strength: 118,000.
   11 infantry divisions in 3 Corps (4 divisions are kept close to full strength).
   1 armoured division with M-47 and M-48 Patton tanks.
   1 Commando brigade.
   (The 8 divisions near the northern frontier are assigned to NATO; the rest, which are located in southern Greece and Crete,
   are under national command but are earmarked for NATO.)
   2 battalions of Honest John surface-to-surface missiles.
   105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Hawk.
   Most light arms and vehicles are American.
   (About 2,000 men of the Greek Army are currently serving in Cyprus.)
Navy Total strength: 20,000.
   2 submarines.
   8 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   8 coastal patrol vessels.
   2 minelayers.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   6 fast patrol boats.
   10 tank landing ships.
   6 medium landing ships.
   25 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 250 combat aircraft. (There are 18 aircraft in Greek fighter and fighter-bomber squadrons.)
   2 all-weather fighter squadrons with F-5A.
   2 day-fighter squadrons with F-86F.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-5.
   About 30 C-47 and C-119G transport aircraft.
   Bell-47 and H-19 helicopters.
   (7 tactical squadrons and 1 transport squadron are assigned to the 6th Allied Tactical Air Force; the remainder are under national command.)
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 23,000.
   Trained reserves: 200,000.
  
   ITALY
Population: 53,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 24 months. 625 lire = $1.
Estimated GNP 1967: $65 billion.
Total armed forces: 365,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Defence budget 1968: 1,210,000 million lire ($1,940,000,000) (excluding Carabinieri).
Army Total strength: 265,000.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 and M-60 tanks.
   5 infantry divisions.
   5 Alpine brigades of 6,000 men each.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   1 independent cavalry brigade with M-47 tanks.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 rocket brigade (including 2 Honest John battalions).
   4 surface-to-air missile battalions with Hawk.
   The 7 divisions, the 5 Alpine brigades, the rocket brigade, and the Hawk battalions are assigned to NATO;
   the 6 independent brigades remain under national command.
Navy Total strength: 40,000.
   3 guided-missile light cruisers with surface-to-air and ASW missiles.
   2 destroyer leaders with Tartar surface-to-air missiles.
   4 ASW destroyers.
   14 ASW destroyer escorts.
   6 submarines.
   24 coastal escorts.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   46 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers.
   6 fast patrol boats.
   6 motor gunboats.
   7 motor torpedo boats.
   17 transport ships.
   65 other ships.
1 marine infantry battalion.
The naval air force includes air-sea rescue units with H-19, Bell-47, and S-55 helicopters, and HU-16A Albatross.
Air Force Total strength: 60,000; 450 combat aircraft.
   (There are 16-18 aircraft in an Italian combat squadron ['gruppo']. The transport squadrons have 16 aircraft each.)
(a) Assigned to Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force:
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   3 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   3 all-weather fighter squadrons with F-86K.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G.
   3 transport squadrons with C-119.
   2 squadrons with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
(b) Under national command:
   1 light-strike and reconnaissance squadron with G-91.
   1 transport squadron with C-45, C-47, Convair 440, and DC-6.
   3 anti-submarine squadrons with a total of 40 S-2A Trackers.
Para-military forces The Carabinieri Corps (mainly security, Frontier Guard, and military police duties): 75,000.
   Other security forces number a further 30,000. Trained reservists total about 600,000.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 335,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $0.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 560.
Defence estimates 1968: 370 million Belgian francs ($7,460,000). BF49.6 = $1.
Army Total strength: 560.
   A light infantry battalion is being formed (4 companies).
   2 of these companies are earmarked for the ACE mobile land force (AMLF).
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 350 men.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 12,650,000. 3.6 guilders = $1.
Military service: Army, 16-18 months; Navy and Air Force, 18-21 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $22 billion.
Total armed forces: 128,500.
Defence estimates 1968: 3,238 million guilders ($898,000,000).
Army Total strength: 83,500.
   2 mechanized divisions, including 2 armoured brigades and some corps troops (assigned to NATO).
   600 Centurion medium tanks (including those with reserve units).
   AMX 105mm tank destroyers.
   AMX, M-113, and DAF-YP 408 armoured personnel carriers.
   105mm, 155mm, and 175mm SP artillery.
   203mm nuclear howitzers and Honest John rockets.
   Army reserves: 1 infantry division, and the remaining corps troops, including an independent infantry brigade,
   to be completed by call-up of reservists, are earmarked for assignment to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 21,500 including 3,000 marines and 2,100 naval air force.
   6 submarines.
   2 cruisers (one fitted with Terrier surface-to-air missiles).
   I fast combat support ship.
   18 ASW destroyer escorts.
   17 coastal escorts.
   46 coastal minesweepers.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   11 support ships.
   1 landing craft.
   18 other vessels.
   The naval air force is an ASW and reconnaissance force with about 40 Neptunes and Trackers, and 25 S-55 and SH-34 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 23,500; 145 combat aircraft. (There are 18 aircraft to a Netherlands combat squadron.)
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G.
   1 fighter squadron (USAF under Dutch Command) with F-102.
   7 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Nike Hercules.
   I1 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Hawk.
   1 transport squadron with Friendships and Troopships.
   3 observation and communication squadrons of light aircraft and Alouette 3 helicopters (under operational command of Army).
   The whole Air Force is assigned to NATO.
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,825,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $8.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 35,000.
Defence budget 1968: 2,293 million Norwegian kroner ($320,000,000). 7.15 kroner = $1.
Army Total strength: 19,000.
   The army is organized into five regional commands, comprising all ground forces.
   The regional commands are again divided into a number of ground defence districts.
   Major units are mainly organized in Regimental Combat Teams (RCT).
   Peacetime establishment includes a brigade group with M-48 tanks, stationed in Arctic Norway, a number of independent battalions,
   and supporting elements as well as training units.
   Mobilization would produce 11 RCT plus supporting units. This force would total 130,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,000, including 650 coastal artillery.
   15 coastal submarines.
   5 frigates.
   4 coastal minelayers.
   9 coastal minesweepers.
   2 coastal escorts.
   20 gunboats.
   14 auxiliaries.
   About 25 torpedo boats of less than 100 tons.
   A number of coastal artillery battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 130 combat aircraft.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with F-104G.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A/B.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   18 HU-16 maritime patrol aircraft.
   15 medium transports including C-47, C-119, and Twin Otters.
   20 UH-1B Iroquois helicopters and 2 Bell-47s.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules sites are located around Oslo (without nuclear warheads).
Reserve forces
   Trained reservists of all services number over 110,000, and there is a Home Guard with local defence responsibilities, totalling about 70,000.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,500,000.
Military service: Army, 18-48 months; Air Force, 18-48 months; and Navy, 48 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $4.4 billion.
Total armed forces: 182,500.
Defence budget 1968: at least 8,700 million escudos ($302,000,000), of which about two thirds represents expenditure in Africa. 28.8 escudos = $1.
Army Total strength: 150,000.
   Elements of 2 infantry divisions are stationed in metropolitan Portugal.
   1 of these divisions, which has some M-41 and M-47 tanks and is earmarked for assignment to NATO, may be only 50 per cent up to strength.
   The other division, reserved for joint Iberian defence, is even lower in numbers.
   These units have some 105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   The remaining troops (including about 25 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese provinces in Africa.
   About 55,000, including locally enlisted troops, are in Angola, 40,000 in Mozambique, and 20,000 in Portuguese Guinea.
Navy Total strength: 15,000, including 2,500 marines.
   4 submarines.
   14 frigates (including 1 ASW frigate).
   13 coastal escorts.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   15 patrol launches.
   4 landing craft (LCT-type).
Air Force Total strength: 17,500; 100 combat aircraft.
   20 B-26 piston-engined light bombers.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-86F Sabre.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-84G Thunderjet.
   2 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   1 ASW reconnaissance squadron. with P-2 Neptune.
   About 60 medium transports, including 12 Noratlas, 40 C-47s, C-54s, and DC-6s.
   Only the Neptune squadron is NATO assigned.
   There is a paratroop regiment of 4,000, which comes under Air Force command; 1 battalion is serving in each of the three African provinces.
Para-military forces National Republican Guard: 15,000.
   Reservists with military training total about 500,000.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 33,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: S10.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 514,000.
Defence estimates 1968-69:4,287 million Turkish lire ($472,000,000). 9.08 lire = $1.
Army Total strength: 425,000.
   1 armoured division with M-47 and M-48 tanks.
   4 armoured brigades with M-47 tanks.
   2 armoured cavalry regiments.
   13 infantry divisions, 1 of which is mechanized.
   2 mechanized infantry brigades.
   2 parachute battalions.
   M-24 light tanks and M-36 tank destroyers (with 90mm gun).
   Honest John surface-to-surface rockets.
   105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   Apart from some fortress regiments and territorial defence units, all Turkish Army formations are assigned to NATO.
Trained Army reservists number 450,000.
Navy Total strength: 39,000.
   10 submarines.
   10 destroyers.
   15 coastal escorts.
   6 coastal minelayers.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   8 motor torpedo boats.
   80 landing craft (some less than 30 tons).
Naval reserves: 70,000.
Air Force Total strength: 50,000; 500 combat aircraft. (There are up to 20 aircraft in a Turkish combat squadron.)
   1 interceptor squadron with F-5A.
   6 interceptor squadrons with F-86D/E/K.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A.
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100C.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F and F-84Q.
   4 transport squadrons (C-47, C-54, and C-130).
   2 battalions Nike-Hercules anti-aircraft missiles (6 batteries).
   The Turkish Air Force, including the Nike batteries, is NATO-assigned.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 20,000 (including 3 formations organized into infantry brigades).
   National Guard: 20,000.
  
  
   UNITED STATES
Population: 201,000,000.
Military service: selective service for 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $807 billion.
Total armed forces: 3,500,000.
Defence estimates 1968-69: $79,576,000,000, of which an estimated $25-30 billion is attributable to operations in Vietnam.
Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The strategic offensive and defensive deployment of American forces has two major objectives:
   (1) the deterrence of deliberate nuclear attack upon the United States and her allies by maintaining the ability to inflict an unacceptable degree of damage upon any single aggressor, or combination of aggressors, at any time during the course of a strategic nuclear exchange;
   (2) in the event of global war, the limiting of damage to the population and industrial capacity of the United States. Extensive provision has been made for the control of these forces in the event of heavy nuclear attack on the United States.
   In September 1967 it was announced that a 'light' ABM defence system based on the Spartan and Sprint missiles would be deployed against a possible ICBM attack from China. The complete system, to be known as Sentinel, will also include an elaborate radar network, and is unlikely to be operative before the early 1970s.
  
Стратегические ядерные силы
   Стратегическое наступательное и оборонительное развертывание американских сил преследует две основные цели:
   (1) сдерживание преднамеренного ядерного нападения на Соединенные Штаты и их союзников путем сохранения способности нанести неприемлемый ущерб любому агрессору или комбинации агрессоров в любое время в ходе стратегического ядерного обмена;
   (2) в случае глобальной войны, ограничение ущерба, наносимого населению и промышленному потенциалу США. Обширные меры были приняты, чтобы сохранить контроль над этими силами в случае большого ядерного нападения на Соединенные Штаты.
   В сентябре 1967 года было объявлено, что против возможной атаки МБР из Китая будет развернута "легкая" система ПРО на базе ракет Spartan и Sprint. Полная система, известная как Sentinel, включающая сложную радиолокационную сеть и вряд ли будет функционировать до начала 1970-х годов.
  
1. Strategic Offensive Forces,
LAND-BASED MISSILES.
   At present 650 Minuteman 1 and 350 Minuteman 2 solid-fuel inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBM) are operational.
   The Minuteman 2 is gradually replacing the Minuteman 1, and eventually all six wings will be equipped with the later missile.
   An improved version, the Minuteman 3, is being developed, to be equipped with MIRVs.
   54 launchers (6 squadrons of 9 missiles each) of the Titan 2 liquid-fuelled ICBM remain in service.
   These have greater range and payload than Minuteman 2.
SEABORNE MISSILES.
   The Navy now has in commission 41 nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, each of which carries 16 Polaris missiles.
   32 of these submarines are normally deployed at any one time, 25 in the AtlanticArctic-Mediterranean area, and 7 in the Pacific.
   Of the total 41, 13 are equipped with the A-2 missile (1,500-mile range) and the remainder with the A-3 (2,500-mUe range).
   It has now been decided to start production of the Poseidon missile, which will have nearly twice the payload of the A-3 missile and will be
   equipped with MIRVs, and will eventually replace the Polaris missiles in 31 submarines (the remaining 10 submarines will have A-3 missiles).
BOMBERS. The Strategic Air Command (SAC) operates about 520 bombers.
   These include about 480 long-range B-52s (with a further 80 in storage).
   B-52s carry the AGM-28B Hound Dog air-to-surface cruise missile with a range of up to 700 miles and a thermonuclear warhead.
   There are 2 wings of B-58 Hustler medium bombers with a total of about 40 aircraft remaining in service.
   It is planned to procure 210 FB-111A supersonic bombers for entry into service in 1969-71.
   There are about 575 KC-135 tankers in SAC.
   15 SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft are in service, some of which have been used in Vietnam.
   45 B-52s are based in Okinawa for operations over South Vietnam.
   Some of these are detached to operate from Thailand and other bases in South-East Asia.
   It is estimated that 100 SAC tankers are also operating in South-East Asia to assist B-52, F-4 and F-105 missions.
2. Strategic Defensive Forces.
   The North American Air Defence Command (NORAD), which has its headquarters situated at Colorado Springs, Colorado,
   is a joint Canadian-American organization.
   The American forces under NORAD are known as the Aerospace Defence Command (ADC) and Army Air Defence Command (ARADCOM),
   and number approximately 90,000 men.
   There are 26 interceptor squadrons in ADC, including the following:
   11 squadrons F-106A Delta Dart,
   12 squadrons F-101B Voodoo,
   2 squadrons F-102A Delta Dagger (1 in Iceland) and
   1 squadron with F-104A Starfighters.
   Air-to-air missiles used by these aircraft include Sidewinder, Falcon, and Genie.
   The regular units of Continental Air Defence Command are supplemented by 23 interceptor squadrons of the Air National Guard,
   21 with F-102As and
   2 with F-89J Scorpions.
   This gives a total number of interceptor aircraft in NORAD (including Canadian units) of 1,250.
   The surface-to-air missile force consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk, and Bomarc.
   There are 16 battalions of Nike-Hercules and 2 battalions of Hawk missiles still in service;
   both these systems are operated by the Army elements of ADC.
   The present number of longrange surface-to-air Bomarc missiles is 188, deployed in six squadrons.
   These are all Bomarc B, with a range of 440 miles and a ceiling of 100,000 feet, and are mostly stationed in the north-eastern states.
   Ground defence against bomber or missile attack is supported by a chain of radar and tracking stations, including the
   Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS), with stations in Alaska, Greenland, and England;.
   the Pinetree line; and the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW).
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in North American air space is co-ordinated by the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment System (SAGE)
   organized at 13 locations. 11 of the locations are being combined with Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) stations.
   Some of the air-defence radar stations now on the East, West and Gulf Coasts of the United States have been adapted for detection of
   submarine launched missiles.
Army Total strength: 1,535,000.
   The ground forces are organized into
   18 operational divisions,
   38 surface-to-surface missile battalions,
   7 Special Forces Groups,
   5 armoured cavalry regiments,
   10 independent infantry and airborne brigades, and some
   230 independent aviation units.
   The Army operates about 10,600 aircraft and helicopters.
   American ground forces, including the 4 divisions of the Marine Corps, were deployed as follows in July 1968:
Continental United States. Strategic reserve:
   2nd Marine Division, 28th Marine Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division (less 1 brigade), 194th Armoured Brigade, 171st and 172nd infantry brigades,
   6th Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   For reinforcing Seventh Army in Europe: 1st Armoured Division, 2nd Armoured Division, 2 brigades of 24th Mechanized Division.
   Training division for units being sent to Vietnam: 5th Mechanized Division.
Panama Canal Zone. 193rd Infantry Brigade.
South Korea. 2nd Infantry Division, 7th Infantry Division, and 4th Missile Command.
Hawaii/Okinawa. A Special Forces Group.
South Vietnam. 1st Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division, 9th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, the Americal Division,
   1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), 101st Airborne Division, 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Division, 5th Marine Division (2 regiments only),
   199th Light Infantry Brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade, 11th Armoured Cavalry Regiment, 5th Special Forces Group, 5 artillery groups,
   1 aviation brigade, and a Logistical Command.
Germany. 5th Corps: 3rd Armoured Division, 8th Mechanized Division, and 14th Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   7th Corps: 4th Armoured Division, 3rd Mechanized Division, 24th Mechanized Division (less 2 brigades), and 2nd Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   In West Berlin: 1 infantry brigade.
Italy. Southern European Task Force (HQ elements only).
Forces in Germany (7th Army). The
   7th Army has M-48 (90mm gun) and M-60 (105mm gun or 152mm Shillelagh missile system) medium tanks,
   and the Sheridan light tank with Shillelagh, and includes
   3 battalions (12 launchers) of solid-fuel Pershing nuclear missiles.
   Self-propelled medium artillery includes the M-107 175mm gun and the M-110 203mm howitzer.
   The Lance guided missile, with a range of 30 miles, is being procured to replace the unguided Honest John and Little John and some artillery.
   The 7th Army also has 6 battalions of Sergeant surface-to-surface nuclear bombardment weapons with a maximum range of 75 miles,
   and in the short-range category, Lacrosse rockets.
   There are 6 battalions each of Hawk and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
Forces in Vietnam. The total of American land forces in Vietnam (including units of the Marine Corps) in July 1968 was 437,000;
   these included either the whole or elements of the 9 divisions listed above, and also individual detachments,
   including special aviation battalions on which the US command has placed great emphasis. (See also 'The Vietnam War' on page 60).
   The equipment includes most of the light and medium tanks also with the 7th Army, and some short-range tactical artillery
   including Honest John and Lacrosse, but not long-range weapons such as Sergeant and Pershing.
Army Reserves. It is now proposed that the Army National Guard should consist of 400,000 men capable, in about 5 weeks from mobilization,
   of providing 8 full divisions, 21 separate brigades, and some smaller units to round out regular Army formations and provide for air defence.
   3 of the divisions and 6 of the brigades already form a Select Reserve and are capable of more rapid mobilization.
   The current strength of the Army National Guard is about 415,000.
   The Army Reserves, with an authorized strength of 260,000, act chiefly as a reinforcement pool.
  
Navy Total strength: 763,000. The total number of commissioned ships is 940.
   The General Purpose Forces navy consists of approximately 900 ships, of which 485 are warships.
   The fleets are the 1st in the Eastern Pacific, the 2nd in the Atlantic, the 6th in the Mediterranean, and the 7th in the Western Pacific.
   The main units of the active fleets are:
(1) 15 attack carriers:
   1 nuclear-powered (USS Enterprise, 76,000 tons),
   7 Forrestal-class (60,000 tons), 2 Midway-class (52,000 tons),and 5 Oriskany-class (33,000 tons).
   The attack carriers no longer have a primary strategic nuclear mission, although they retain a nuclear strike capability.
   Each attack carrier is assigned an air wing with 2 fighter squadrons, 3 or 4 light attack squadrons, and
   lesser numbers of airborne early warning (AEW), tanker, and reconnaissance aircraft.
   The fighter squadrons in the larger carriers have the F-4 Phantom, with the F-8 Crusader in the Oriskany-class.
   The light attack aircraft include the A-4 Skyhawk, the A-6A Intruder, and the A-7A Corsair; Corsairs will eventually replace all the Skyhawk.
   A few squadrons with the A-l Skyraider still operate from attack carriers.
   The RA-5C Vigilante is used for reconnaissance in the larger carriers, and the RF-8G Crusader is used in this role in the Oriskany-class.
   The E-2A Hawkeye is used for AEW, and a few KA-3B Skywarrior aircraft are retained as tankers.
   The number of aircraft in each wing varies with size of carrier, but is in the range of 80-100.
(2) 8 anti-submarine carriers, all Essex-class.
   They are equipped with S-2E long-range search aircraft and SH-3A helicopters, and have A-4C Skyhawks for air defence;
   each carries about 52 aircraft and helicopters.
(3) 113 submarines (excluding Polaris vessels), of which 35 are nuclear-powered attack submarines.
(4) 345 surface ships for anti-submarine warfare, fleet air defence, and coastal bombardment.
   These include the following ships:
   1 battleship (temporarily re-activated).
   12 guided-missile cruisers.
   2 gun cruisers.
   30 guided-missile frigates.
   3 gun frigates.
   25 guided-missile destroyers.
   190 gun/ASW destroyers.
   6 radar-picket destroyers.
   16 radar-picket escorts.
   52 other escorts.
   Guided missile ships are armed with the Tartar, Talos, and Terrier surface-to-air missiles, and Asroc and Subroc anti-submarine missiles.
(5) 160 amphibious assault ships, including 8 helicopter landing platforms (LPH);
   62 ocean minesweepers; 18 coastal minesweepers; and 200 logistic and operational support ships.
   There are over 400 escorts and 15 cruisers in reserve. The active fleet and reserves also include over 1,000 service, patrol, and other craft.
(6) There are 30 squadrons of shore-based ASW patrol aircraft (about 410 aircraft), mostly equipped with P-2 Neptunes and P-3A Orions.
   There are also 55 transport/liaison squadrons with C-54s and C-118s.
   Air units in the naval reserve include 19 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft and 4 squadrons of helicopters.
   The number of aircraft in the active inventory of the Navy is estimated at 8,500.
   Naval reservists total approximately 133,000.
Marine Corps. Total strength: 302,000.
   In July 1968, the active Marine Corps consisted of 4 marine divisions and 3 air wings.
   The 4th Marine division (i.e. 5th Marine Division), does not appear to have its associated wing of attack and interceptor aircraft.
   A Marine division is about 20,000 strong, and includes a tank battalion with M-48 and M-103 tanks, and a battalion of 24 Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   Other tactical artillery with the divisions includes 105mm, 115mm, and 155mm howitzers.
   The 3 Marine Air Wings have about 1,200 combat and support aircraft. In the
   15 fighter squadrons, the F-4 Phantom, armed with Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles, is replacing the F-8 Crusader. The air wings comprise
   12 attack squadrons, with the A-6A Intruder replacing the A-4 Skyhawk, and
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with the RF-4B Phantom replacing the RF-8A Crusader. There are
   3 squadrons of C-130 Hercules assault transports,
   2 squadrons of CH-37C and CH-53A heavy helicopters, and
   14 squadrons of UH-34D and CH-46A medium helicopters.
   Marine reservists total 50,000 and form a reserve Marine Division (4th Marine Division) with an associated Air Wing.
Air Force Total strength: 900,000 (including Air Force personnel serving in Strategic Air Command and Air Defence Command;
   for the organization of strategic and air defence forces see above).
   16,500 Air National Guard reservists were called up early in 1968.
   The General Purpose Forces of the Air Force consist of the
   Tactical Air Command, the Military Airlift Command, and some interceptor squadrons assigned to American air forces in Europe and the Pacific.
The present strength of Tactical Air Command is 100,000 men and about 3,000 aircraft.
   It controls most squadrons deployed in Europe and the Pacific, and includes the following units:
   85 tactical fighter squadrons with F-100, F-105, and F-4D;
   1 tactical fighter squadron with F-111A;
   17 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with RF-101 and RF-4C;
   25 assault air-lift squadrons with C-130 and six with C-7A;
   3 electronic warfare squadrons with EC-66; and
   22 air commando squadrons with A-1E, B-26K, F-5, C-123, and AC-47 aircraft.
US Air Force Europe (USAFE), which controls the 3rd Air Force in England, the 16th Air Force in Spain, the 17th Air Force in West Germany,
   and a Logistics Group in Turkey has about 600 tactical aircraft and includes
   17 tactical fighter squadrons and
   6 tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
   4 other tactical fighter squadrons are based in the USA but are 'on call' to USAFE.
   The Mace tactical missile is being phased out as its 'quick reaction alert' role is taken over by the Pershing surface-to-surface missile.
   The tactical fighters include about 325 F-100s and F-4s, and the reconnaissance aircraft are 108 RF-l0ls and RF-4Cs.
   There are 4 F-102 squadrons for air defence in Germany and the Netherlands.
   Of the 6 reconnaissance squadrons formerly at bases in eastern France, 2 have moved to England, and the remainder have returned to the USA
   or been disbanded.
   There are normally 2 C-130 and 1 C-124 transport squadrons in the Command.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), with a strength of over 100,000 men and headquarters in Hawaii, controls the
   5th Air Force with bases in Japan, Korea, and Okinawa; the
   13th Air Force with headquarters in the Philippines; and the
   7th Air Force, which is the air component of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV).
   The 5th Air Force operates squadrons of F-4, F-102, and C-130 aircraft, out of which 230 aircraft are now at bases in South Korea;
   the 13th Air Force, with F-4, F-105, RF-101, and C-130 aircraft, is responsible for the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand,
   plus all joint planning responsibilities under SEATO.
   The 7th Air Force, with about 55,000 men in South Vietnam, consists of fighter-bomber, interceptor, reconnaissance, and assault airlift squadrons.
   It also co-ordinates the operations of the Vietnamese Air Force (see p. 37).
   The approximate strength of the 7th Air Force is
   370 F-100 and F-4C fighter-bombers, 40 F-102 interceptors, 40 RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft,
   150 A-1E, AC-47, A-37, and C-123 counterinsurgency aircraft, 80 C-130 assault airlift aircraft, and a
   large number of observation and liaison aircraft and helicopters.
   About 125 F-4 and 120 F-105 fighter-bombers, as well as 40 RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft, fly from 13th Air Force bases in Thailand.
The Military Airlift Command (MAC) numbers 75,000 men and operates about 1,200 aircraft in 66 squadrons.
   Of these 32 are heavy transport squadrons, and the aircraft include
   200 C-124 Globemaster, 36 C-133 Cargomaster, 32 C-130 Hercules, and 200 C-141 Starlifter.
   The remaining squadrons are for medical transport, weather reconnaissance, and air-sea rescue.
The Air National Guard General Purpose Forces have approximately 1,750 aircraft in
   23 fighter-interceptor squadrons,
   24 tactical fighter squadrons,
   12 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   4 air commando squadrons,
   5 tanker squadrons, and
   25 air transport squadrons, mostly with the older type transports.
   Of this total, 10 F-100 and 3 F-101 squadrons were called to active duty in January and May 1968.
   The strength of the Guard is 82,700 men.
There is also an Air Force Reserve of 53,400 men, of whom about 50,000 have paid drill status, i.e. are attached to specific units.
   The Air Force Reserve numbers
   41 squadrons of which 17 have C-119 Boxcar, 19 have C-124 Globemaster, and 1 has C-130 medium transports (about 400 aircraft in all).
   There are now approximately 12,500 aircraft and helicopters in the active inventory of the US Air Force.
  

CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) are Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The United States is an associated member and is represented on the Council of Military Deputies and on the Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees. CENTO does not have an international command structure, nor are forces allocated to it. Air striking power is, however, supplied by Britain, with Canberra and Vulcan bombers based in Cyprus, and by the United States from the aircraft-carriers of the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. The treaty is explicitly intended to provide a framework for collective action in the event of a threat from a Communist power, but not in the case of friction between member states and non-Communist powers.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Иран, Пакистан, Турция и Соединенное Королевство. Соединенные Штаты являются ассоциированным членом и представлены в Совете военных депутатов и в экономических комитетах и комитетах по борьбе с подрывной деятельностью. CENTO не имеет международные структуры, ни сил, выделенных ему. Однако воздушная ударная мощь есть, предоставляется Великобританией, бомбардировщиками Canberra и Vulcan на Кипре, и США с авианосцев 6-го флота в Средиземном море. Договор явно призван обеспечить рамки для коллективных действий в случае угрозы со стороны коммунистической державы, но не в случае трений между государствами-членами и некоммунистическими державами.
  
   IRAN
Population: 26,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $7 billion.
Total armed forces: 221,000.
Defence budget 1968-69: 37,703 million rials ($495,000,000). 76 rials = $1.
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   7 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   M-24, M-47, and M-60A1 tanks.
   1 battalion Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   M-113 and BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers.
   Soviet 57mm and 85mm anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   2 escort destroyers.
   4 other escorts.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   3 landing craft.
   6 other ships.
   24 patrol vessels less than 100 tons.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 200combat aircraft.
   36 F-4D all-weather fighter-bombers with Sidewinder and Sparrow air-to-air missiles.
   90 F-5 tactical fighter-bombers.
   60 F-86 all-weather interceptors.
   16 tactical reconnaissance aircraft.
   Transport aircraft include 12C-47s, 11C-130Es, and 6 Beavers.
   A helicopter squadron includes about 25 Huskies and Whirlwinds.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 25,000 men.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 110,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP1967: $13.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 324,000.
Defence estimates 1968-69: 2,457 million rupees ($514,000,000). 4.8 rupees = $1.
Army Total strength: 300,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   4 armoured brigades with M-4 Sherman, M-47 Patton, M-48 Patton, and Chinese T-59 tanks.
   12 infantry divisions (based on 32 brigades).
   Some of the infantry divisions have reconnaissance regiments with M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Bulldog light tanks.
   About 900 25-pounders, 125mm and 155mm howitzers.
   Cobra anti-tank missiles.
   An air defence brigade with anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 9,000.
   1 submarine.
   2 large destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 ASW frigates.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 fast patrol boats.
   2 small patrol boats (less than 100tons).
   8 support ships.
   There is a coastguard force of 1,500men.
   Naval aircraft include Albatross and some UH-19 helicopters for air-sea rescue.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 250 combat aircraft.
   4 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   20 B-57B light jet bombers.
   140 F-86 jet interceptor/fighter-bombers.
   40 MiG-19 jet interceptors.
   14 Mirage IIIE jet interceptor/fighter-bombers.
   12 F-104A jet interceptors.
   20 RT-33A, RB-57, and Mirage IIIR reconnaissance aircraft.
   8 C-47, 6 Bristol Mark 31, and 8 C-130B transport aircraft.
   About 75 T-6, T-33,T-37B, and Mirage IIIE trainers.
   25 Bell-47, Kaman-43B, and Alouette 3 helicopters.
   Air Force reservists number 2,000.
Para-military forces Total strength: 200,000.
   This total includes the frontier corps, lightly armed tribal levies and local defence units.
  

SOUTH-EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of SEATO are Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. These countries were originally committed to build up collective economic and military strength and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member country or against the so-called 'protocol states' of Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. However, since 1957 and 1962 respectively, Cambodia and Laos have not recognized the protection of SEATO. The treaty area is the general area of South East Asia and the South-West Pacific, below latitude 21R30'N. SEATO has no central command structure and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised by the Seventh Fleet, based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces in Guam, Okinawa, Vietnam, and Thailand. The 28th Commonwealth Brigade (consisting of British, Australian, and New Zealand forces), plus supporting air units, is based in Malaysia. Commonwealth naval forces, which would operate in support of the treaty powers in the event of war, are based in Singapore, which is also the headquarters of the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve. France now has no forces declared to SEATO, and Britain will cease to have any after her withdrawal from the Far East in 1971. The United States, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Thailand have sent troops to South Vietnam, but this has not been done by a decision of the SEATO Council. However, these countries have, for the most part, viewed their decision to send troops in the light of their SEATO obligations.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ДОГОВОРА ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

   Членами SEATO являются Австралия, Великобритания, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, и США. Эти страны изначально были привержены наращиванию коллективной экономической и военной мощи и проведению консультаций с целью оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против стран-членов или против так называемых "протокольных государств" Камбоджи, Лаоса и Южного Вьетнама. Однако с 1957 и 1962 годов, соответственно, Камбоджа и Лаос не признали защиту SEATO. Договорный район является общей зоной Юго-Восточной Азии и юго-западной части Тихого океана, ниже 21R30 ' северной широты. SEATO не имеет центральной структуры командования, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. Американскую поддержку договорным державам оказывают 7-ой флот, базирующийся на Тайване и Филиппинах, и американские военно-воздушные и сухопутные силы на Гуаме, Окинаве, Вьетнаме и Таиланде. 28-я бригада Содружества (состоящая из британских, австралийских и новозеландских сил), а также вспомогательных воздушных подразделений базируются в Малайзии. Военно-морские силы Содружества, которые будут действовать в поддержку договорных держав в случае войны, базируются в Сингапуре, который также является штаб-квартирой стратегического резерва Содружества. У Франции сейчас нет сил, объявленных в SEATO, а у Великобритании их не будет после ее ухода с Дальнего Востока в 1971 году. Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Филиппины и Таиланд направили войска в Южный Вьетнам, но это не было сделано по решению Совета SEATO. Однако эти страны в основном рассматривают свое решение о направлении войск в свете своих обязательств перед SEATO.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 12,050,000.
   Two years selective military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $25.8 billion.
Total armed forces: 84,300.
Defence estimates 1968-69: $A 1,217 million dollars (ї1,375,000,000). $A1 = $US.1.13
Army Total strength: 45,400.
   9 infantry battalions, including 1 battalion group in Malaysia, and a brigade group (3 infantry battalions with supporting services) in South Vietnam.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment.
   1 tank regiment with Centurions.
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
   About 50 Sioux and Alouette 3 helicopters.
   The Citizen Military Force of 37,000 (not included in the above total) is found from reservists,
   and is intended to form 25 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services, which will include 1 battalion each in Papua and New Guinea.
Navy Total strength: 17,200.
   1 light fleet carrier (used for ASW).
   3 fleet submarines.
   3 guided-missile destroyers.
   3 gun destroyers.
   4 ASW frigates.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   18 support ships.
   1 fast troop transport.
   Carrier-borne aircraft include 10 A-4G Skyhawk fighter-bombers, 14 S-2E Tracker maritime patrollers, and a helicopter squadron with Wessex Mk 31.
   The Navy Citizen Military Force (reservists) numbers 4,350.
Air Force Total strength: 21,700; 200 combat aircraft.
   40 Canberra B-20 light jet bombers.
   80 Mirage III-O jet fighters (with Matra air-to-air missiles).
   60 Australian Sabre fighters (with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles).
   10 P-3B Orion and 12 P-2H Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   75 Aermacchi MB 326 light strike/jet trainers are on order (of which 16 have been delivered).
   24 C-130 Hercules and 25 CV-2B Caribou medium transports.
   2 helicopter squadrons with UH-1B Iroquois.
   1 surface-to-air missile squadron with Bloodhound Mark 1.
   There is a Citizen Air Force (reservists) of 1,000 men.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,756,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service for the Army).
Estimated GNP 1967: $5.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 13,170.
Defence estimates 1968-69: $NZ 96,800,000 ($109,000,000). $NZ1 = $US 1.3.
Army Total strength: 5,810.
   1 infantry battalion (less 2 companies) in Malaysia.
   2 infantry companies and an artillery battery in Vietnam.
   Regular troops form the nucleus of a Combat Brigade Group, a Logistic Support Force, Reserve Brigade Group, and a Static Support Force.
   These units would be completed by the mobilization of territorials.
   There are 11,600 in the Territorial Army.
Navy Total strength: 2,900.
   1 general purpose frigate (with Seacat surface-toair missiles).
   3 ASW frigates (one on loan from Britain).
   2 escort minesweepers.
   1 fleet auxiliary.
   1 survey ship.
   2 support ships.
   12 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
   3,150 naval reservists.
   2 Wasp helicopters operate from the general purpose frigate.
Air Force Total strength: 4,460; 28 combat aircraft.
   11 Canberra B(1) 12 light jet bombers.
   12 Vampire FB.9 fighter-bombers.
   5 P-3B Orion maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   3 C-130H Hercules, 17 Devon, and 9 Bristol Mark 31 medium transports.
   1 transport squadron and the light bomber squadron are deployed in Singapore.
   5 Iroquois and 6 Sioux helicopters.
  
   PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Population: 34,500,000.
   Selective military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $6 billion.
Total armed forces: 30,000 (excluding Constabulary).
Defence estimates 1968-69: about 450 million pesos ($115,000,000). 3.9 pesos = $1.
Army Total strength: 15,500.
   1 combat infantry division.
   4 training divisions (cadres only).
   M-24 and M-41 light tanks.
   Sherman medium tanks and M-3 half-tracks in reserve.
   10 engineer-construction battalions, of which 1 is in South Vietnam.
   There is a reserve of 207,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 5,500.
   2 command ships.
   12 escort patrol vessels.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   22 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 landing ships.
   10 support ships.
   5 naval engineer-construction battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 60 combat aircraft.
   12 F-86D all-weather fighters.
   26 F-86F day-fighters.
   22 F-5A/B fighter/ground-support aircraft.
   About 20 transports, including 12 C-47 and 3 F-27 Friendship.
   Observation, air-sea rescue, and training units.
Para-military forces The Philippine Constabulary of 17,000.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 33,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $4.8 billion.
Total armed forces: 141,500.
Defence expenditure 1967-68: 2,618 million baht ($125,000,000). 20.8 baht = $1.
Army Total strength: 95,000.
   3 infantry divisions (including 3 tank battalions).
   1 regimental combat team.
   M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Bulldog light tanks.
   M-2 armoured half-tracks, M3A1 and M-8 scout cars.
   105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   One infantry division is in South Vietnam.
   A battery of Hawk surface-to-air missiles is to be supplied by the USA.
Navy Total strength: 21,500 (including 3,330 marines).
   4 ASW frigates.
   1 destroyer escort.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 armoured gunboats.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   20 patrol vessels.
   13 landing ships and landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 150 combat aircraft.
   20 F-86L all-weather interceptors.
   25 F-5A and F-5B fighter-bombers.
   40 F-86F fighter-bombers.
   6 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   40 T-28D and 20 T-6 counter-insurgency aircraft.
   About 30 medium transports, including C-45,
   C-47, C-54, and 6 C-123B.
   About 60 helicopters, including 22 troopcarrying CH-34Cs, and a few each of S-51s, S-55s, and CH-19s.
   200 training aircraft, mainly T-6s and T-33As.
   4 battalions of airfield defence troops.
Para-military forces Volunteer Defence Corps: 25,000. Border Police: 7,000.
  

THE PROTOCOL STATES

   CAMBODIA
Population: 6,500,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $0.9 billion.
Total armed forces: 49,000.
Defence estimates 1968: 2,204 million riels ($63,000,000). 35 riels =$1
Army Total strength: 45,000.
   30 infantry battalions.
   15 commando battalions.
   2 tank battalions with M-24 and AMX-13 light tanks.
   1 armoured car battalion with M-8 armoured cars.
   2 parachute battalions.
   Medium and light anti-aircraft guns and field guns have been supplied by both the USSR and China, and there are some 105mm howitzers.
Navy Total strength: 1,500 (including 150 marines).
   2 patrol vessels.
   4 gunboats.
   6 landing craft.
   4 motor torpedo boats.
Air Force Total strength: 2,500; 55 combat aircraft.
   20 MiG-15/MiG-17 jet fighters.
   20 A-l Skyraider light bomber (ex-French) aircraft.
   15 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   4 Magister jet trainers.
   12 C-47 and about 15 other miscellaneous transports.
   Morane Saulnier trainers and about 6 helicopters.
Para-military forces Armed police and Home Guard type forces number about 45,000 men.
  
   LAOS
Population: 2,700,000.
Military service: conscription.
Estimated GNP 1967: $0.2 billion.
Total armed forces: about 80,000.
Defence expenditure: approx. 9,600 million kip ($40,000,000). 240 kip = $1.
1. Royal Lao Forces Total strength: 65,000.
Army About 60,000 men. There are also some 5,000 neutralist troops not yet fully integrated.
   24 infantry battalions and 6 paratroop battalions, organized in 10 mobile groups.
   About 40 static infantry battalions.
   M-24 light tanks and M-8 armoured cars.
   12 artillery batteries (gun or heavy mortar).
   Light arms and equipment are American.
Navy About 400 men.
   4 river squadrons, with small gunboats and landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 1,500 men and 40 combat aircraft.
   40 T-28D light-strike aircraft.
   8 C-47 transports and 3 Beaver liaison aircraft.
   Some commercial transport planes are also available.
   About 6 helicopters, including Alouette 3s.
2. Pathet-Lao Forces Total strength: about 30,000 men (including dissident neutralists).
   Some PT-76 light tanks and BTR-40 armoured cars.
   These are believed to be supported by about 45,000 regular North Vietnamese troops operating in the northern provinces and in the eastern area
   of the southern provinces.
   They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin, but no troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao and North Vietnamese now control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
  
   SOUTH VIETNAM
Population: 16,800,000.
Military service: minimum 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.2 billion.
Total armed forces: 410,000 (regular).
   325,000 (para-military).*
* The Saigon Government has announced that it will increase the size of its total armed forces to over 900,000, but it is not thought that this decision will be fully implemented until the end of 1968.
Defence budget 1968: 36,800 million piastres ($312,000,000). 118 piastres = $1.
Army Total strength: 370,000 (regular forces).
   10 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division (eight battalions).
   6 Marine battalions.
   20 Ranger battalions.
   1 Special Forces Group.
   (There are normally 3 regiments to a Vietnamese infantry division, and 4 battalions to a regiment.
   There are thus about 160 infantry battalions in the Vietnamese regular army, but some units are below establishment;
   the average actual strength of a battalion is 450, and of a regiment, 1,200, against authorized strengths of 640 and 3,000 respectively.)
   10 tank squadrons with M-41 and AMX-13 light tanks.
   24 squadrons of M-113 armoured carriers.
   26 artillery battalions with 105mm and 155mm guns.
   Most light arms and equipment are American.
Navy Total strength: 24,000 (including marines and junk-force personnel).
   8 coastal escorts.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
   22 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   22 motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   6 other ships.
   There is a force of about 350 motorized junks
   for coastal defence.
   There is a Marine Brigade of 5 infantry battalions and 1 support battalion which come under Army command.
Air Force Total strength: 16,000 men; 125 combat aircraft.
   100 A-1E Skyraider light bombers.
   15 F-5 tactical fighters.
   Some RC-47 reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 60 C-47 and 20 Skywagon transports.
   80 01-A spotter aircraft and 100 Choctaw helicopters.
Para-military forces Regional Forces: 142,000.
   Organized into 700 rifle companies and at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces: 143,000.
   About 4,000 platoons, with light arms, acting as a militia.
   Civilian Irregular Defence Groups: 40,000.
   Civil Police: 45,000.
   These have light arms, and there are some special units with armoured vehicles and helicopters for internal security duties.
  

AMERICAN BILATERAL TREATY POWERS

   JAPAN
Population: 101,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $116 billion.
Total armed forces: 250,000.
Defence estimates 1968-69: 422,075 million yen ($1,172,000,000). 362 yen = $1.
Army Total strength: 174,000.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 mechanized division.
   1 airborne brigade.
   Artillery, engineer, and signal brigades.
   740 M-4, M-24, M-41, and type 61 tanks.
   Artillery up to 203mm guns.
   2 surface-to-air missile battalions with Hawk.
   140 aircraft and 160 helicopters.
   Reserves: 30,000.
Navy Total strength: 36,000.
   8 submarines.
   23 destroyers (one with Tartar surface-to-air missiles).
   17 frigates and other escorts.
   20 coastal escorts.
   2 minelayers.
   40 coastal minesweepers.
   10 motor torpedo boats (100 tons or less).
   52 landing craft and landing ships.
   20 auxiliaries.
The naval air component has about 190 combat aircraft including 55 S2F-1 Trackers, 60 P2V-7 Neptunes, and 50 helicopters.
The Coast Guard (not included in Navy figures) includes 84 armed patrol vessels over 100 tons, and a similar number' of smaller seaward defence craft.
Air Force Total strength: 40,000; 570 combat aircraft.
   200 F-104J Eiko interceptors.
   55 F-86D all-weather interceptors.
   300 F-86F day-fighters.
   18 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   45 transport aircraft, mostly C-46.
   30 H-19, H-21, and S-62 helicopters.
   400 training aircraft, including T-l, T-33A, T-34, and F-104DJ.
   2 Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile groups (72 launchers).
   A Base Air Defence Ground Environment and 24 radar stations.
  
   REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Population: 31,000,000.
Military service: Army/Marines, 2-jt- years; Navy/Air Force, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $4.6 billion.
Total armed forces: 620,000.
Defence estimates 1968: 64,116 million won ($234,000,000). 274 won = $1.
Army Total strength: 550,000 (including 46,000 in South Vietnam).
   19 front-line infantry divisions.
   2 armoured brigades with M-47 and M-48 Pattons.
   4 other tank battalions in reserve.
   40 artillery battalions.
   10 reserve infantry divisions (cadres only).
   One battalion with Honest John rockets.
   2 battalions with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   One squadron with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   Two infantry divisions and engineer units are in South Vietnam.
   About 10,000 Koreans are serving with the American Army in Korea.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   3 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   4 frigates.
   15 coastal escorts.
   3 fast transports.
   11 coastal minesweepers.
   8 tank landing ships.
   12 medium landing ships.
   12 other ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 30,000.
   1 newly formed division, serving in South Vietnam. plus a brigade
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 195 combat aircraft.
   54 F-5 tactical fighters.
   36 F-86D all-weather interceptors (with Sidewinder missiles).
   95 F-86F interceptors.
   10 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   29 C-46 and Aero Commander transport aircraft, with a few Chickasaw helicopters.
   T-28 and T-33 trainers.
Para-military forces A militia with a proposed strength of 2,000,000 is being formed (out of existing reservist strength) for local defence purposes.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 32,350,000.
Military service: Army, 15 months; Navy, 24 months; and Air Force, 18 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $22.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 305,000.
Defence estimates 1968-69: 38,052 million pesetas ($544,000,000). 70 pesetas = $1.
Army Total strength: 225,000.
   1 armoured division with M-47 and M-48 tanks.
   2 mechanized infantry divisions.
   2 mountain divisions.
   12 independent infantry brigades.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   1 high mountain brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   About 32,000 soldiers, including elements of 3 divisions, are serving in Spanish Africa, 7,000 in the Canary Islands, and a further 7,000 in the Balearics.
Navy Total strength: 42,000, including marines.
   1 light helicopter carrier.
   1 cruiser.
   4 submarines.
   8 destroyers.
   10 fast frigates.
   14 other escorts.
   4 minelayers.
   25 minesweepers.
   2 attack transport ships.
   11 landing ships.
   70 other ships.
A Marine Corps of 9,750 men.
3 squadrons of ASW helicopters.
   1 squadron of light helicopters.
   Naval reserve personnel total 250,000.
Air Force Total strength: 38,000; 225 combat aircraft.
   75 F-86F interceptors.
   20 F-104G interceptors.
   30 He-111 light bombers.
   75 F-86F fighter bombers.
   25 armed T-6 trainers.
   About 150 transport and communications aircraft, including C-47s, C-54s, 6 Caribous, and Spanish-built Alcotans, Halcons, and Azors.
   250 training aircraft, including T-6, T-33, and TF-104G.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 13,400,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $3.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 528,000.
Defence expenditure 1967: 11,000 million new Taiwan dollars ($275,000,000). 40 new Taiwan dollars = $1.
Army Total strength: 372,000 (including 65,000 on Quemoy and 15,000 on Matsu).
   2 armoured divisions.
   2 armoured cavalry regiments.
   14 infantry divisions.
   6 light divisions.
   4 Special Forces Groups.
   1 parachute brigade.
   M-24, M-41, and M-48 tanks.
   1 battalion with Honest John rockets.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 battalions with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 35,000.
   5 destroyers.
   6 frigates.
   18 coastal escorts.
   11 fast transports.
   5 fleet minesweepers.
   1 fleet minelayer.
   9 coastal minesweepers.
   27 tank landing ships.
   18 medium landing ships.
   38 landing craft.
   100 patrol vessels (less than 100 tons).
   22 other ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 36,000.
   2 Marine divisions.
Air Force Total strength: 85,000 men; 370 combat aircraft
   45 F-104G interceptors.
   180 F-86F interceptors.
   60 F-100 fighter-bombers.
   70 F-5A tactical fighters.
   15 RF-104G and RF-101 reconnaissance aircraft.
   115 C-46, C-47, C-119, and C-123 transports.
   T-6, T-33A, F-104F, and PT-17 trainers.
   There are some American Air Force formations on Taiwan, equipped with transports, a few jet fighters, and tactical missiles.
Local defence forces and reserves Militia units and reserves total about 1,000,000 men.
  

PART III. NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES


* The term non-aligned has generally been used to describe those countries which are not members of the Warsaw Pact, NATO, CENTO, SEATO, or of the loose group of Communist countries around and including China, or which do not have bilateral treaties with the USA.
Термин "неприсоединившиеся" обычно используется для стран, которые не являются членами Варшавского договора, НАТО, СЕНТО, СЕАТО или группы коммунистических стран, включая Китай, или которые не имеют двусторонних договоров с США.

EUROPE

   AUSTRIA
Population: 7,320,000.
Military service: nine months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $10.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 50,000.
Defence budget 1968: 3,558 million schillings ($137,000,000). 25.9 schillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 45,000.
   3 armoured infantry brigades.
   4 mountain infantry brigades.
   3 reserve brigades.
   1 air defence brigade.
   Artillery and engineer units.
   M-47 and M-60a medium tanks.
   M-41 and AMX-13 light tanks.
   35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors AA guns.
   84mm Carl Gustav anti-tank weapons.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; 21 combat aircraft.
   * Austrian air units are an integral part of the Army but have been listed separately.
   21 J-29F Tunnan jet fighter-bombers.
   26 Cessna L-19 light reconnaissance aircraft.
   14 Magister and 8 Vampire jet trainers.
   3 DHC-2 Beaver transport aircraft.
   24 Iroquois, 24 Alouette, 10 Bell 47, and 12 Bell
   H-13 helicopters for transport and liaison duties.
   20 Saab 105s have been ordered.
  
   FINLAND
Population 4,690,000.
Military service: 8-11 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $7.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 36,400.
Defence budget 1968: 533 million markkas ($127,000,000). 4.2 markkas = $1.
Army Total strength: 31,400.
   1 armoured brigade.
   6 infantry brigades (below strength).
   2 artillery and 2 coastal artillery regiments.
   T-54, T-55, and Comet medium tanks.
   PT-76 light tanks and Charioteer tank destroyers.
   Finnish and Soviet field artillery.
   ZSU-57, 35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns.
   Vigilant and SS-11 anti-tank missiles.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   3 frigates (one used as training ship).
   2 gunboats.
   2 coastal minelayers.
   13 fast patrol boats.
   5 inshore minesweepers.
   4 coast guard patrol vessels.
   13 smaller patrol boats.
   7 auxiliary and service vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; 50 combat aircraft.
   38 MiG-21 jet fighter/fighter-bombers.
   12 Gnat Mark 1 fighter/reconnaissance aircraft.
   4 C-47 and 2 Pembroke transport aircraft.
   About 120 training aircraft, including 80 Magister, 32 Safir, and 8 MiG-15/MiG-21 UT1.
   4 Hound, 3 Hare, and 2 Alouette 2 helicopters.
Para-military forces About 3,000 frontier defence troops.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 7,900,000.
Military service: from 10 months for privates to 23 months for officers. Reserve liabilities up to the age of 47.
Estimated GNP 1967: $25 billion.
Total armed forces: 750,000 (total mobilizable strength).
Defence estimates 1968-69: 5,200 million Swedish kronor ($1,008 million). 5.17 kronor = $1.
Army Total strength: 12,000 regular officers and NCOs, 38,000 conscript trainees, and 75,000 reservists called up for 15-40 days training per year.
   On mobilization the total number would become about 600,000.
   The nucleus of the mobilized army is formed by about 8 armoured and infantry brigades, with a personnel strength of 5,000-6,000 men each.
   Centurion tanks, including some mounting a 105mm gun, are in service.
   The Swedish tank strv-S (turretless) is to be assigned to armoured units.
   Anti-tank weapons include the SS-11, Bantam, Carl Gustav, and Miniman.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 4,600 regular; 7,000 conscripts.
   23 submarines.
   1 cruiser.
   2 destroyers with Rb-308 ship-to-surface missiles.
   6 other destroyers (2 with Seacat surface-to-air missiles).
   9 fast anti-submarine frigates.
   1 fleet minelayer.
   40 minesweepers.
   17 heavy torpedo boats.
   20 other motor torpedo boats.
   80 other vessels.
   A large number of coastal artillery batteries.
   Naval helicopters include Vertols and Alouette.
Air Force Total strength: 24,000 (including 6,000 regulars and 10,000 civilians); 650 combat aircraft.
   10 attack squadrons with A-32A Lansen (with air-to-ship missiles).
   16 all-weather fighter squadrons with J-35 Draken.
   6 all-weather fighter squadrons with J-32B Lansen.
   5 reconnaissance/day-fighter squadrons with S-32 and S-35.
   6 squadrons with Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missiles.
   A fully computerized and semi-automatic control and air surveillance system, with which all components of the.
   Swedish air defence are co-ordinated, is now operating. This is known as Stril 60 and is similar to the American SAGE.
Para-military forces The voluntary defence organizations have about 1,000,000 members, of whom more than 350,000 are women.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 6,100,000.
Military service: 4 months initial basic training, followed by regular reservist training of about three weeks a year for 18 years,
   2 weeks for 3 years, and 1 week for 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $16.3 billion.
Total armed forces: 700,000 total mobilizable strength; reservists can be fully mobilized within 48 hours.
Defence budget 1968: 1,787 million Swiss francs ($415,000,000). 4.3 francs = $1.
Army Total strength: 1,000 regular training cadre, and about 650,000 reservists capable of rapid mobilization.
   The militia-style Army is organized into 4 corps.
   1 corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of 3 mountain divisions;
   the other 3 corps, for the defence of the plain, consist of a mechanized division, and 2 infantry divisions each.
   There are also nine frontier, fortress, and 'redoubt' brigades.
   The mechanized formations are equipped with 300 Centurion and 200 AMX-13 tanks, and M-113 armoured troop carriers.
   150 Swiss-built PZ-61 medium tanks are also with the mechanized divisions.
   There are 15 artillery regiments with 105mm and 155mm guns and howitzers.
Air Force (including Air Defence Troops).*
   * Swiss Air Force and air defence troops are an integral part of the Army, but are listed here separately.
Total strength: 2,000 regular, 5,000 conscript trainees and 42,000 reservists, capable of rapid mobilization.
   Maintenance is carried out by civilian employees. About 400 combat aircraft.
   100 Hunter F-58 jet interceptors with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.
   36 Mirage IIIS jet interceptor/ground-attack aircraft.
   18 Mirage IIIR fighter/reconnaissance aircraft.
   200 Venom FB 50 ground support fighters.
   2 Ju-52/3 and 6 Do-27 transport aircraft.
   35 Alouette 2/3 helicopters, Mirage and Vampire trainers.
   About 40 anti-aircraft batteries with Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
   Bloodhound 2 missiles are operational, with 68 launchers built.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 20,250,000.
Military service: Army, 18 months; Navy and Air Force, 24 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $9.2 billion.
Total armed forces: 220,000.
Defence estimates 1968: 6,030 million new dinars ($482,000,000). 12.5 new dinars = $1.
Army Total strength: 180,000.
   3 armoured divisions with M-47, T-54, and T-55 tanks.
   10 infantry divisions with some T-34 tanks.
   27 independent brigades, including an airborne and a marine infantry brigade.
   PT-76 reconnaissance tanks.
   M-3 and BTR-50/60P armoured personnel carriers.
   105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
   SU-57 anti-aircraft guns.
   Army reserves (for bringing existing units up to war strength only): 450,000.
Navy Total strength: 20,000.
   4 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   20 coastal escorts.
   25 motor gunboats.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers (some less than 100 tons).
   25 auxiliaries.
   About 40 motor torpedo boats less than 100 tons.
   At least 4 Osa-class missile patrol boats with Styx guided missiles.
   60-80 batteries of coastal artillery.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 335 combat aircraft.
   50 MiG-21 Fishbed C/D fighter-interceptors.
   120 F-86D and CF-86D/E fighter-interceptors.
   120 F-84G Thunderjet ground-attack aircraft.
   15 Jastreb light ground-attack fighters.
   30 RT-33A and F-86E photo-reconnaissance aircraft.
   25 medium transport aircraft including C-47s and U-14s.
   About 40 helicopters including 20 Whirlwinds (made in Yugoslavia) and 15 Mi-4 Hounds.
   60 surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline.
Para-military forces 19,000 Frontier Guards.
   A militia-type force for local defence is being formed.
  

THE MIDDLE EAST

   IRAQ
Population: 8,500,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.2 billion.
Total armed forces: 82,000.
Defence expenditure 1968: approx. 90 million Iraqi dinars ($252,000,000). 1 dinar = $2.8.
Army Total strength: 70,000.
   1 armoured division.
   4 infantry divisions.
   1 independent infantry brigade.
   300 T-54/55s, 180 T-34, and 55 Centurion Mark 5 medium tanks.
   40 Chaffee light tanks.
   AML-60 and Ferret armoured cars.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   Small number of MTBs and patrol vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000; 215 combat aircraft.
   8 Tu-16 medium jet bombers.
   10 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   60 MiG-21 interceptors.
   20 Su-7 all-weather fighter bombers.
   50 Hunter Mark 9 ground-attack.
   45 MiG-17 and MiG-19 jet fighters.
   20 T-52 Jet Provost light-strike.
   9 Mi-4 and 11 Wessex helicopters.
   About 40 Soviet and British medium transports.
Para-military forces Total strength: 10,000.
   1 mechanized brigade of security troops.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 4,000,000.
Military service (Jewish population only): men, 30 months; women, 20 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $3.6 billion.
Total armed forces: 40,000 regular cadre (can be raised to approx. 275,000 by mobilization of reservists, which is completed within 48-72 hours).
Defence budget 1968-69: 2,200 million Israeli pounds ($628,000,000). 3.5 Israeli pounds $1.
Army Total strength: 29,000 (regular cadre); 255,000 when fully mobilized.
   Active: 5 infantry, 3 armoured, and 1 paratroop brigade (some only in cadre form).
   Reserve: approx. 24 brigades, for one-third of which armour is available on mobilization.
   Armour includes 130 M-48 Patton tanks, 100 Centurion Mark 7 with 105mm guns, 125 older Centurions, 120 T-54/55s,
   200 Shermans and Super Shermans, and 125 AMX-13.
   About 250 self-propelled guns, including 155mm howitzers on Sherman chassis and 105mm howitzers on AMX-chassis.
   200 M-3 armoured half-tracks and some AML-90 armoured cars.
   Anti-tank weapons include the 106mm recoilless rifle mounted on jeeps, and SS-10 and SS-11 missiles mounted on weapons carriers.
   40mm and 90mm anti-aircraft guns.
   There are separate regional defence units which provide a permanent guard in the border regions.
   Most of these units are on a militia basis.
Navy Total strength: 3,000 (regular), 6,000 when fully mobilized.
   3 submarines.
   1 destroyer.
   1 anti-aircraft frigate.
   1 coastal escort.
   4 landing craft.
   9 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 seaward defence vessels (less than 100 tons).
   12 fast gunboats of the Saar type are being built.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000 (regular), 14,000 when fully mobilized; 270 combat aircraft.
   15 Vautour light jet bombers.
   48 A-4E Skyhawk jet fighter/fighter-bombers.
   65 Mirage IIIC fighter-bomber/interceptors (some with R-530 missiles).
   15 Super Mystere fighter/interceptors.
   35 Mystere IVA fighter-bombers.
   45 Ouragan fighter-bombers.
   65 Magister jet trainers (can be used in groundstrike role).
   18 Noratlas, 5 Stratocruiser, and 12 C-47 medium transports.
   25 S-58, 15 H-13, 5 Alouette, and 6 Super Frelon helicopters.
   Some light aircraft, including Piper Cubs.
   About 50 launchers with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 1,250,000
Military service: 2 years (selective).
Estimated GNP 1967: $0.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 55,000.
Defence expenditure 1968: 29 million dinars ($81,000,000). 1 dinar = $2.8. (at 1 July 1968).
Army Total strength: 53,000.
   9 infantry brigades.
   2 armoured brigades.
   1 Royal Guards brigade (armoured).
   110 M-47 and M-48 Patton, 105 Centurion Mark 5, and 15 Charioteer medium tanks.
   150 Saladin and Ferret armoured cars.
   200 M-113 and Saracen personnel carriers.
   30 105mm and 155mm howitzers, and a few
   155mm Long Tom guns.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   A small number of patrol craft operating in the Dead Sea and from Aqaba.
Air Force Total strength: 1,750; 20 combat aircraft.
   12 Hunter FGA 9 and 4 F-86F (ex-Pakistan) jet fighters.
   First deliveries of some 20 F-104A fighter-bombers, for which pilots were being trained in USA, started in early August 1968.
   4 C-47 medium transports.
   4 Alouette 3 and 4 Whirlwind helicopters.
   2 Heron and 2 Dove light transports.
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Population: 4,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: S2.4 billion.
Total armed forces: 36,000.
Defence expenditure 1968: 1,438 million ryals ($321,000,000). 4.5 ryals = $1.
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   About 5 infantry brigades.
   A few M-47 Patton medium tanks, M-24, M-41, and AMX-13 light tanks and Vigilant anti-tank missiles.
   Some AML-90 armoured cars.
   6 batteries of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   Coastal patrol craft only.
   A Navy is being formed around the nucleus of a coastal escort vessel purchased from the USA.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; about 40 combat aircraft.
   4 Hunter and 24 Lightning jet fighters.
   11 obsolescent F-86 Sabre jet fighters.
   8 C-130E, 10 C-47, and 2 C-118 medium transports.
   2 Alouette 3, 20 AB-205 and AB-206 helicopters.
   About 40 Hunter, Lightning, Jet Provost, and T-41A jet trainers.
   Some Thunderbird surface-to-air missiles installed around airfields.
Para-military forces Lightly armed tribal levies (the 'White Army') number 20,000. They are used chiefly for internal security purposes.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 5,600,000.
Military service: 2 years (Jews are exempted).
Estimated GNP 1967: 51.05 billion.
Total armed forces: 60,500.
Defence expenditure 1968: approx. 520 million Syrian pounds (ї137,000,000). 3.8 Syrian pounds = $1.
Army Total strength: 50,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   2 mechanized brigades.
   5 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute battalion.
   6 artillery regiments.
   150 T-34, 250 T-54/55s, and 30 older German tanks.
   60 Su-100 tank destroyers and 500 BTR-152 APC.
   Soviet artillery up to 152mm.
   100 launchers for SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Reserves with some military training number 40,000.
Navy Total strength: 1,500.
   2 minesweepers (ex-Soviet).
   3 coastal patrol vessels (ex-French).
   6 Komar-class missile patrol boats, possibly with Styx short-range missiles.
   17 ex-Soviet motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 9,000 men; 150 combat aircraft.
   60 MiG-21 jet interceptors.
   70 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   20 Su-7 all-weather fighter-bombers.
   8 Il-14, 6 C-47, and 4 Di-8 medium transports.
   4 Mi-1 and 10 Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 8,000.
   The 'People's Army', a militia force, is claimed to be 150,000 strong.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Population: 31,500,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1967: $5.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 211,000 (including mobilized reservists).
Defence expenditure 1968-69: approx. 300 million Egyptian pounds ($690,000,000). 1 Egyptian pound = $2.30.
Army Total strength: 180,000.
   6 armoured brigades.*
   15 infantry brigades.*
   8 artillery regiments.*
   10 commando battalions.*
   * These units have been re-formed, but it is doubtful whether they are yet in a state of operational readiness.
   1 parachute brigade.
   20 JS-3 heavy tanks.
   500 T-54/T-55, 100 T-34, and 10 Mark 3 Centurion medium tanks.
   50 PT-76 and 20 AMX-13 light tanks.
   150 Su-100, JSU-152, and ZSU-157 self propelled guns.
   600 122mm, 130mm, 152mm, and 160mm guns and lorry-mounted rocket-launchers.
   About 15 Frog-3 and 20 Samlet short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
   800 BTR-40, BTR-50, and BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers.
Army reserves of 100,000, some of whom have been mobilized.
Navy Total strength: 12,000, including coastguards.
   13 submarines (6 ex-Soviet W-class, 6 ex-Soviet R-class, and 1 M-V-class).
   6 destroyers (4 ex-Soviet Skory-class, and 2 ex-British Z-type).
   4 escort vessels.
   2 corvettes.
   8 coastal escorts.
   6 fleet minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   18 missile patrol boats (12 Osa-class and 6 Komar-class, both with Styx short-range cruise missiles).
   1 tank landing ship (ex-Soviet Polnochny-class).
   2 motor torpedo boats (over 100 tons).
   42 motor torpedo boats (36 ex-Soviet and 8 ex-Yugoslav), less than 100 tons.
   20 small landing craft.
Naval reserves total about 5,000 men.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 400 combat aircraft.
   10 Tu-16 medium jet bombers.
   40 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   110 MiG-21 jec interceptors.
   80 MiG-19 all-weather jet fighters.
   40 Su-7 all-weather fighter-bombers.
   120 MiG-15 and MiG-17 jet fighter-bombers.
   About 40 Il-14, 20 An-12, and 8 C-45/C-47 medium transports.
   50 Mi-4, Mi-6, and Mi-8 helicopters.
   150 MiG, Yak, and Delfin jet trainers, some of which can be armed.
Air Defence is provided both by 37mm, 57mm, and 90mm anti-aircraft guns, and by
   180 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles deployed in 30 batteries of 6 launchers each.
   These missiles are supported by a radar network and by 6 squadrons of MiG-21 interceptors.
Air Force reservists total 4,000.
Missile Command This is separate from the Army and the Air Force, and consists of about 4,000 men, including civilian technicians.
   The 100 missiles that have been built include the
   Al Zafir, which carries a 1,000-lb warhead some 235 miles, the
   Al Kahir, which carries a rather larger warhead up to 375 miles, and the
   Al Raid, which carries a one-ton scientific probe some 440 miles.
   The first two of these can be launched from mobile platforms, but none of the missiles is thought yet to have achieved any
   significant operational capability.
Para-military forces A National Guard of about 90,000.
  

ASIA

  
   BURMA
Population: 26,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $1.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 137,500.
Defence budget 1967-68: approx. 554 million kyat ($112,000,000). 4.8 kyat = $1.
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   5 regional commands.
   Some Comet medium tanks, Humber and Ferret armoured cars.
   Largely an infantry force, but with some artillery, engineer, and signals regiments.
   It is organized chiefly for internal security duties, and has mainly American, British, and Yugoslav light arms.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 coastal escorts.
   37 gunboats.
   5 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 auxiliaries.
Air Force Total strength: 6,500; 26 combat aircraft.
   3 Sea Fury and 5 Vampire fighter-bombers.
   12 T-33 and 6 Vampire armed trainers.
   30 C-45, C-47, Otter, and Bristol-170 transports.
   40 Vertol, Sioux, Huskie, and Alouette 3 helicopters.
   The Air Force is mostly equipped for internal security duties.
  
   INDIA
Population: 520,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $41 billion.
Total armed forces: 1,033,000 (regular armed forces excluding police, border guards, and other para-military units).
Defence expenditure 1968-69: 10,825 million rupees ($1,452,000,000).* 7.5 rupees = $1.
   * Including some categories not included in the Defence Ministry budget.
Army Total strength: 950,000.
   1 armoured division.
   2 independent armoured brigades.
   13 infantry divisions.
   10 mountain divisions.
   6 independent infantry brigades.
   2 parachute brigades.
   220 Centurion 5/7, 250 M4A3 Sherman, and 50 Vijayanta medium tanks (with 105mm guns).
   100 PT-76, 90 AMX-13, and 50 M3A1 Stuart light tanks.
   Some 400 T-34 and T-54 medium tanks have been delivered from Eastern Europe, but are believed to be not yet operational.
   About 3,000 artillery pieces, mostly British 25-pounders, but including some 350 100mm and 140 130mm guns from the USSR.
   About 12 anti-aircraft artillery regiments.
Trained reservists number about 100,000, including a Territorial Army of 42,000.
Navy Total strength: 25,000.
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   1 submarine (ex-Soviet jF-class).
   2 cruisers.
   6 destroyer/destroyer escorts (including 1 ex-Soviet Petya-class).
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   2 other escort vessels.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   4 survey ships.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 landing ship.
   3 landing craft.
   2 patrol craft.
   3 seaward defence boats.
   5 other ships.
The naval air force includes 30 Sea Hawk attack aircraft, 12 Alize maritime patrollers, and some Alouette 3 helicopters.
   10 Sea Hawks, 4 Alize, and 2 Alouette can be carried on the aircraft carrier at any one time.
Air Force Total strength (regular, including all ground personnel): 58,000; 500 combat aircraft.
   45 Canberra B(l) light bombers.
   8 Canberra PR-57 reconnaissance aircraft.
   80 MiG-21 interceptors.
   150 Hunter F-56 fighter/ground-attack aircraft.
   150 Gnat Mark I interceptors.
   60 Mystere IV fighter/fighter-bombers.
   7 Convair B-24 maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 50 Vampire and Ouragan fighter-bombers (in reserve).
   50 C-47, 9 Super Constellation,60 C-119, 22
   H-14, 35 An-12, 30 Otter, 20 HS-748, and 18 Caribou medium transport aircraft.
   90 Mi-4, 50 Alouette 3, 4 Bell-47, and 6 S-55 helicopters.
   About 60 Auster and Krishak light observation aircraft.
   About 50 Guideline 2 surface-to-air missile launchers.
   There is an Auxiliary Air Force of 7 squadrons, flying chiefly Harvardand Vampire trainers.
   6 Su-7B Fitter fighter-bombers have been delivered by the Soviet Union, but are believed not yet to be in operational service.
Para-military forces A Border Security Force of about 100,000.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 112,000,000.
   Selective military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $4.5 billion.*
Total armed forces: 340,000.
Defence expenditure 1968:36,070 million rupiahs ($113,000,000).* 210-320 new rupiahs = $1.*
* The exchange rate of the new rupiah rose from approximately 130 = $1 in January 1967 to approx. 270 = $1 in January 1968, and has been rising steadily since that date. In this booklet, new rupiahs have been converted into dollars at an average rate of 210 = $1 for 1967, and 320 = $1 for 1968.
Army Total strength: 275,000.
   16 infantry brigades formed from about 100 infantry battalions.
   Some specialist units have been formed such as the Paracommando Regiment (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Reserve Command) consists of approx.
   4 brigades and is based on the paratroops and such infantry battalions as may be assigned to it.
   A number of independent battalions are stationed in the more outlying areas, where their chief function is internal security and civic action.
   Approximately seven tank battalions with either AMX-13 or Russian PT-76 light tanks, and
   Saladin armoured cars; some light reconnaissance vehicles have also been acquired from Eastern Europe.
   Various types of Soviet-bloc artillery, including 57mm Soviet anti-aircraft guns and associated radar.
   Small arms are of both Western and Soviet-bloc origin.
Navy Total strength: 40,000 (25,000 regular navy, plus naval air forces, and the 14,000-strong Marine Commando Corps).
   6 diesel-powered submarines (ex-Soviet W-class) * 6 other W-class vessels are normally kept in reserve.
   1 heavy cruiser-(ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class).
   7 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   I1 frigates (of which 7 ex-Soviet Riga-class).
   6 fleet minesweepers (ex-Soviet).
   12 coastal escorts.
   3 corvettes.
   11 coastal minesweepers.
   7 motor torpedo boats.
   11 patrol vessels.
   33 motor gunboats (including 12 Komar-class missile patrol boats).
   3 submarine support ships.
   7 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   6 motor torpedo boats (P-6 type, less than 100 tons).
   50 other vessels.
   A small land-based naval air arm including
   20 Il-28 Beagle light bombers and 6 Mi-4 helicopters.
   The 14,000 marines form 2 brigades.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000, including air defence units and 2,000 parachute troops.
   The Indonesian Air Force is organized into 5 main air areas; of a total strength of some 550 aircraft, comprising over 30 different types,
   only about 200 are available for squadron operational service. These include:
   25 Tu-16 medium jet bombers, some with air-to-surface missiles.
   18 B-25 Mitchell and B-26 Invader piston engined light bombers.
   55 MiG-15,-17,-19, and 16 MiG-21 interceptors.
   20 F-51D Mustang light-strike aircraft.
   About 60 transport aircraft, including Il-14, C-130B, C-47, and An-12.
   About 35 Soviet and American helicopters, including some Mi-6 Hook.
   There are at least three surface-to-air missile sites, which are claimed to be equipped with SA-2 Guideline missiles, and equipment for further sites.
Para-military forces The police force numbers about 110,000 and includes a para-military force (Mobile Brigade), numbering approximately 20,000.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 10,100,000.
Voluntary military service.
Estimated GNP 1967: $3.1 billion.
Total armed forces: 33,800.
Defence budget 1968: 402 million Malaysian dollars (ї130,000,000). 3.1 Malaysian dollars = $1.
Army Total strength: 28,000.
   14 infantry battalions.
   2 reconnaissance regiments and 1 independent squadron with Ferret armoured cars.
   2 artillery regiments with 105mm howitzers.
   Signals, engineer, and administrative units.
   These units form 5 brigade groups.
   Army reserves number approximately 41,000.
Navy Total strength: 2,800.
   1 ASW frigate.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   4 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   24 other patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 support ships.
   Naval reserves total 500.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; 20 combat aircraft.
   20 CL-41 Tebuan light jet training and strike aircraft.
   11 Pioneer, 8 Herald, and 3 Caribou medium transports.
   24 Alouette 3 and 10 S-61 helicopters.
   5 Dove and 2 Heron liaison aircraft.
Para-military forces Total strength: 23,000.
   24 companies of para-military field police.
  
  SINGAPORE
Population: 2,050,000.
Military service: 24 months.
Estimated GNP 1967: $3.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 4,700.
Defence estimates 1968: 100.8 million straits dollars (ї32,400,000). 3.1 straits dollars = $1.
Army Total strength: 4,500.
   4 infantry battalions.
   An artillery, an engineer, and a signals battalion are being formed.
   Army reserves number 5,000, and form 2 further infantry battalions, an artillery regiment, and an engineer battalion.
   The Army has British, American, Swiss, and Israeli equipment.
Navy and Air Force
   For naval and air defence, Singapore relies mainly on British naval and air units stationed in Singapore.
   There are 2 small patrol craft, some PT-type boats are being ordered from Australia and there are about 200 naval reservists.
   Some 40 cadets are undergoing selection as possible trainee pilots.
  

AFRICA

   ALGERIA
Population: 12,500,000.
Voluntary military service. * Provision for limited military training at schools and universities was announced in November 1967.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.6 billion.
Total armed forces: 58,500 (excluding gendarmerie).
Defence expenditure 1968: 850 million dinars ($173,000,000). 4.9 dinars = $1.
Army Total strength: 55,000.
   3 armoured infantry brigades.
   3 independent tank battalions with T-34s, T-54s, and T-55s.
   Over 40 independent infantry battalions.
   5 independent artillery battalions.
   12 companies of desert cavalry.
   140mm and 240mm rocket launchers.
   85mm, 122mm, and 152mm howitzers.
   About 50 Su-100 SP guns.
   Possibly some SA-2 surface-to-air missile launchers.
Navy Total strength: 1,500.
   6 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet).
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   6 Komar-and 3 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   8 motor torpedo boats (Soviet P-6 class).
Air Force Total strength: 2,000; 150 combat aircraft.
   140 MiG-15, MiG-17, and MiG-21 jet fighters.
   30 Il-28 light jet bombers.
   8 An-12 and 4 Il-18 transports.
   50 helicopters, mainly Mi-4Hound.
   About 30 training aircraft.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 8,000.
  
   MOROCCO
Population: 14,000,000.
Military service: limited conscription.
Estimated GNP 1967: $2.8 billion.
Total armed forces: 54,000 (excluding gendarmerie).
Defence expenditure 1968: 750 million dirhams ($150,000,000). 5 dirhams = $1.
Army Total strength: 50,000.
   1 armoured brigade with T-54 medium and AMX-13 light tanks.
   Some SU-100 tank destroyers.
   3 infantry brigades.
   12 independent infantry battalions.
   1 parachute battalion.
   1 armoured car regiment with EBR-75s.
   3 squadrons of desert cavalry.
   75mm and 105mm howitzers.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 coastal escort.
   2 patrol vessels.
   1 tank landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; about 40 combat aircraft.
   16 MiG-17 jet fighter/bombers (in storage).
  

TABLES

   Табл.1. Сравнение стратегических сил в начале 1969
    []

   Табл.2. Военный баланс в Европе
    []
   NOTES.
   a. Includes, on the NATO side, the commands for which the AFCENT and AFNORTH commanders have responsibility (see introduction to NATO section), France is not included. On the Warsaw Pact side, it includes the command for which the Pact High Commander has responsibility, but excluding the armed forces of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. Soviet units normally stationed in the Western USSR and such troops as would be committed to the Baltic theatre of operations have, however, been included on the Warsaw Pact side.
   b. Includes, on the NATO side, the Italian, Greek, and Turkish land forces and such American and British units as would be committed to the Mediterranean theatre of operations, and on the Warsaw Pact side, the land forces of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania, and such Soviet units normally stationed in Hungary and Southern USSR as would be committed to the Mediterranean theatre.
   c. This indicates the brigade 'slice', i.e., the brigade itself together with those divisional forces needed to keep the brigade operational in the field. It should be noted that the average Warsaw Pact brigade is about 60 per cent the size of the average NATO brigade.
   d. NATO is estimated to have on average some 50 per cent more anti-tank weapons.
   e. The division of tactical aircraft into these categories must be regarded as very approximate, since some aircraft can be adapted to more than one kind of mission. In general, it can be said that NATO has a higher proportion of such multi-purpose aircraft than the Warsaw Pact. According to the 1968 posture statement of the US Secretary of Defense, NATO aircraft, on average, have a much higher capability than those of the Warsaw Pact in range, payload, loiter time, and crew training.
   The NATO superiority was expressed by "Mr McNamara in the following way:
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ.
   a. Включает, со стороны NATO, командования, за которые несут ответственность командиры AFCENT и AFNORTH (см. введение в раздел NATO), Франция не включена. Со стороны Варшавского договора включает командование, за которое отвечает Верховный Главнокомандующий Договором, но исключая вооруженные силы Болгарии, Венгрии и Румынии. Советские части, размещенные в западной части СССР, и такие войска, которые были бы приписаны Балтийскому ТВД, были, включены в Варшавский договор.
   b. Включает, со стороны NATO, итальянские, греческие и турецкие сухопутных войска, и такие американские и британские подразделения, как будут переброшены на Средиземноморской ТВД, и Варшавского договора сухопутные войска Болгарии, Венгрии, и Румынии, и такие советские подразделения, которые расположены в Венгрии и на юге СССР будут брошены на Средиземноморский театр.
   с. Это означает, бригадный "срез", т. е. сама бригада вместе с теми дивизионными силами, необходимыми, чтобы поддерживать бригады в полевых действиях. Следует отметить, что средняя бригада Варшавского договора составляет около 60% от средней бригады НАТО.
   d. По оценкам, в НАТО в среднем на 50% больше противотанкового оружия.
   e. Разделение тактических самолетов на эти категории следует рассматривать как весьма приблизительно, так как некоторые самолеты могут быть приспособлены к более чем одной миссии. В целом можно сказать, что в НАТО доля таких многоцелевых самолетов выше, чем в Варшавском договоре. Согласно заявлению министра обороны США 1968 года, самолеты НАТО, в среднем, обладают гораздо более высокими возможностями, чем самолеты Варшавского Договора по дальности, полезной нагрузке, времени ожидания и подготовке экипажей.
   Превосходство НАТО выразил "г-н Макнамара в следующем виде (табл. выше):
   Французская авиация не включена.

   Табл.3. Системы доставки ядерного оружия в 1968-69
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ. Мобильная БРПД (Scrooge) и передвижная БРСД (Scamp) были показаны на московских парадах, но, как полагают, еще не находятся в эксплуатации. L = Жидкое топливо. S = Твердое топливо. SL = Хранимое жидкое топливо. T = Турбореактивный Двигатель. SLM = Ракета морского базирования. SLBM = Баллистическая ракета подводных лодок. SLCM = крылатая ракета подводных лодок. SRM = ракета малой дальности. CRM = крылатая ракета. LGM = ракета шахтного базирования. UGM = подводная ракета. MGM = мобильная ракета.
   а. СССР заявлял об этом как об орбитальном оружии, но никогда не испытывал как таковое, и такие испытания теперь были бы запрещены соглашением по Договору о космическом пространстве, которое было достигнуто между США и СССР в декабре 1966 года договор по космосу, заключенный между США и СССР в декабре 1966 года.
   b. Считается не действующим.

    []
   ASM=ракета класса "воздух-поверхность".
   a. Радиус действия максимальный без дозаправки в полете. Во многих случаях полная дальность или полная боевая нагрузка существенно уменьшают одна другую.
   b. Несоответствие между числами Маха и скоростью в миль/ч объясняется различиями в эксплуатационных высотах.

  c. Используется в китайских ВВС

   Табл.4. Военные расходы и национальные экономики
    []
   * Включает в себя некоторые элементы военной ядерной программы в бюджете Министерства обороны ,
   t За исключением финансовой помощи Западному Берлину, которая, если она будет включена, будет:

    []
   ОБЩЕЕ ЗАМЕЧАНИЕ. В колонке 1 представлена смета сокращения расходов на оборону в 1967 году. В колонке 2 представлены запланированные расходы на оборону на текущий год, в большинстве случаев согласно заявлениям национальных правительств. Выражая процентные показатели в колонках 4, 5 и 6, ВНП рассчитывается в рыночных ценах, и поэтому в некоторых случаях эти процентные показатели могут отличаться от тех, которые устанавливаются национальными правительствами и международными организациями.
   При пересчете национальных валют в доллары обычно пересчитываются по текущим обменным курсам, о чем сообщается МВФ. Для того чтобы учесть девальвацию в ноябре 1967 года некоторых валют по отношению к доллару и провести достоверное сравнение между 1967 и 1968 годами, все данные за 1967 год были пересчитаны по обменным курсам после девальвации.
   Для восточноевропейских стран и СССР (которые не являются членами МВФ) показатели расходов на оборону были пересчитаны в доллары по коэффициентам пересчета, рассчитанным Эмилем Бенуа и Гарольдом Любеллом и описанным в их книге "Разоружение и мировая экономическая взаимозависимость" (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967). ВНП для стран Восточной Европы, СССР и Китая оценивается в эквиваленте покупательной способности на Западе.

   Табл.5. Численность вооруженных сил 1968
    []

   Основные выявленные сделки с оружием июль 1967 - июль 1968
    []
    []
   NOTES
   This table lists major agreements between governments.
   It does not distinguish between commercial arms deals and those that come under the rubric of 'military assistance'. Apart from inputs into the Middle East and Nigeria, no attempt has been made to list on-going transfers of weapons, which have resulted from agreements reached before July 1967. The private trade, though significant in areas such as Nigeria, has not been included.
   The table does not include American, Soviet, or Chinese military aid to Vietnam, Laos, and Korea, or Soviet deliveries to other members of the Warsaw Pact.
   The monetary figures refer to estimates of costs to the purchasing country. The recipients of this money often include sub-contractors in the purchasing country, as well as prime contractors in the supplier country.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ
   В этой таблице перечислены основные соглашения между правительствами.
   В нем не проводится различия между коммерческими сделками с оружием и сделками, подпадающими под категорию "военной помощи". Помимо поставок на Ближний Восток и в Нигерию, не предпринималось никаких попыток перечислить продолжающиеся поставки оружия, которые стали результатом соглашений, достигнутых до июля 1967 года. Частная торговля, хотя и значительная в таких областях, как Нигерия, не была включена.
   Таблица не включает американскую, советскую или китайскую военную помощь Вьетнаму, Лаосу и Корее или советские поставки другим членам Варшавского договора.
   Денежные показатели относятся к оценкам расходов страны-покупателя. Получатели этих денег часто включают субподрядчиков в стране-покупателе, а также главных подрядчиков в стране-поставщике.

APPENDIX: Military Activity Between July 1967 and July 1968*

   * For details of military activity during the year 1967, please see the Chronology in Strategic Survey 1967, also published by the Institute for Strategic Studies. The following notes refer only to the two major wars in progress during July 1967-July 1968.
  

THE VIETNAM WAR

   Regular and irregular armed forces of eight countries (South Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States) are taking part in the fighting in South Vietnam. Four other countries (China, the Soviet Union, Laos, and Cambodia) either supply arms and equipment or allow their territories to provide base facilities for the chief participants. No country involved has declared war on any other. South Vietnam's armed forces totalled about 750,000 in July 1968. (The Saigon authorities have said that they will increase this figure to 1,000,000.) American forces in South Vietnam totalled 545,000 in July 1968, and were made up as follows: Army, 355,000; Marine Corps, 82,000; Air Force, 64,000; Navy (land-based), 33,000; Coast Guard, 11,000. There were also 49,000 South Korean, 8,000 Australian, 13,500 Thai, 2,200 Philippine, and 550 New Zealand forces; giving a grand total of about 1,370,000 allied forces.
   American air strikes on North and South Vietnam have been made from aircraft carriers stationed in the South China Sea, from air bases on Okinawa and in Thailand, and from South Vietnam itself. The American Seventh Fleet, now operating mostly off the Vietnam coast, includes some 75,000 Navy and Marine personnel, 200 ships (including 5 attack carriers), and about 700 aircraft (including 250 light bombers). There are 58,000 American servicemen in Thailand, consisting of 45,000 Air Force personnel, 12,000 Army, and 1,000 Navy personnel.
   Communist regular and irregular forces in South Vietnam totalled about 270,000 in July 1968, 85,000 of whom were North Vietnamese regular troops, the remainder having been recruited in South Vietnam. Of the 270,000, about 70,000 were in regular North Vietnamese regiments and battalions, 80,000 were in regular Viet Cong regiments and battalions, 50,000 were in smaller guerrilla units and the remainder were support troops or political cadres. Troops and supplies from North Vietnam are brought in through parts of Laotian and Cambodian territory (the 'Ho Chi Minn Trail'), as well as directly across the 17th parallel. Communist forces maintain no air forces in the territory of South Vietnam.
   South Vietnamese regular and irregular forces have had about 70,000 fatal casualties since 1962; in the same period, over 30,000 civilians have been killed, 70,000 wounded, and 50,000 reported missing as a result of insurgent action. American and other allied forces have had over 27,500 killed and about 175,000 wounded in the same period. Communist fatal casualties in South Vietnam since 1962 are estimated at over 300,000.
   The American forces have lost over 3,800 aircraft since 1962 as a result of military operations in Vietnam. This figure comprises 2,200 fixed-wing aircraft and 1,600 helicopters, and includes aircraft destroyed in accidents or by ground attacks on airfields. About 80 North Vietnamese aircraft have been lost.

ВОЙНА ВО ВЬЕТНАМЕ

   В боях в Южном Вьетнаме принимают участие регулярные и нерегулярные вооруженные силы восьми стран (Южного Вьетнама, Северного Вьетнама, Южной Кореи, Австралии, Новой Зеландии, Филиппин, Таиланда и США). Четыре другие страны (Китай, Советский Союз, Лаос и Камбоджа) либо поставляют оружие и технику, либо предоставляют свои территории для размещения основных участников. Ни одна страна не объявила войну другой. В июле 1968 года Вооруженные силы Южного Вьетнама насчитывали около 750 000 человек. (Власти Сайгона заявили, что увеличат эту цифру до 1 000 000.) Американские войска в Южном Вьетнаме составили 545,000 в июле 1968 года, и были распределены следующим образом: армия 355,000; морская пехота 82,000; ВВС 64,000; ВМС (на суше) 33,000; береговая охрана 11,000. Было также 49 000 южнокорейских, 8 000 австралийских, 13 500 тайских, 2200 филиппинских и 550 новозеландских войск; в общей сложности около 1370 000 союзных сил.
   Американские авиа-удары по Северному и Южному Вьетнаму были нанесены с авианосцев, дислоцированных в Южно-Китайском море, с авиабаз на Окинаве и в Таиланде, а также с самого Южного Вьетнама. Седьмой американский флот, в настоящее время действующий в основном у берегов Вьетнама, включает около 75 000 человек морского персонала, 200 кораблей (включая 5 ударных авианосцев) и около 700 самолетов (включая 250 легких бомбардировщиков). В Таиланде 58 000 американских военнослужащих, 45 000 военнослужащих ВВС, 12 000 военнослужащих армии и 1000 военнослужащих ВМС.
   В июле 1968 года коммунистические регулярные и нерегулярные войска в Южном Вьетнаме насчитывали около 270 000 человек, 85 000 из которых составляли регулярные войска Северного Вьетнама, а остальные были набраны в Южном Вьетнаме. В 270,000, около 70 000 были в регулярных северо-вьетнамских полках и батальонах, 80,000 были во Вьетконговских полках и батальонах, 50 000 были в мелких партизанских отрядах, а остальные были вспомогательными войсками или политическими кадрами. Войска и припасы из Северного Вьетнама доставляются через Лаосскую и камбоджийскую территории ("Тропа Хо Ши Мина"), а также непосредственно через 17-ю параллель. Коммунистические силы не имеют военно-воздушных сил на территории Южного Вьетнама.
   С 1962 года регулярные и нерегулярные силы Южного Вьетнама потеряли около 70 000 убитыми; за тот же период более 30 000 гражданских лиц были убиты, 70 000 ранены и 50 000 пропали без вести в результате действий повстанцев. За тот же период американские и другие союзные войска потеряли убитыми более 27 500 человек и ранеными около 175 000 человек. Потери коммунистов в Южном Вьетнаме с 1962 года оцениваются в более чем 300 000 человек.
   Американские войска потеряли более 3800 самолетов с 1962 года в результате военных действий во Вьетнаме. Эта цифра включает 2200 самолетов и 1600 вертолетов и включает самолеты, уничтоженные в результате аварий или наземных нападений на аэродромы. Погибло около 80 самолетов Северного Вьетнама.

THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR

   On 7 July 1967, troops of the Nigerian Federal Army mounted an attack across the northern border of the secessionist Eastern Region (Biafra). Biafran troops resisted, and in spite of the fall of Nsukka, made a counter-attack into the Mid-West Region which resulted in the capture of Benin on 10 August. The Federal Army then regrouped and by 10 October reoccupied the Mid-West Region. On 5 October, they occupied the former Eastern capital of Enugu, and in November cut off the Biafran trade routes to Cameroun by the capture of Calabar and Ikom. A lull in December 1967-January 1968was followed by a fierce struggle for Onitsha on the eastern banks of the Niger which was not fully consolidated by the Federal forces until May. On 20 May, following a combined land-sea assault, the Federal forces occupied Port Harcourt and cut off the Biafran heartland both by land and sea from the outside world.
   The Federal Army has about 75,000 men in the war zone, organized in 3 divisions. These divisions operate in the north, west, and south-west respectively. The Federal forces have modern light arms mainly of British and Belgian origin, including mortars, recoilless rifles, and bazookas. They operate Saladin and AML-90 armoured cars, Ferret scout cars, and a few Saracen armoured personnel carriers, but have no tanks. Their artillery consists mainly of British 25 pounder field guns and Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft guns.
   The Federal Air Force operates 3 Il-28 light bombers, about 12 MiG-15/17 fighter/fighter-bombers, 7 L-29 and one Provost jet trainers (which can be armed), and a number of older piston engined trainers, liaison aircraft, and helicopters. The combat aircraft are believed to be flown by Egyptian and South African pilots. The Federal Navy consists of a frigate, 3 coastal patrol vessels, 3 fast patrol boats, and some landing craft. The Biafran Army consists of about 30,000 men organized in some six under-strength brigades. They are equipped with light arms, recoilless rifles and mortars (chiefly of French, Spanish, Portuguese, British, and American origin) but are generally of inferior quality to those used by the Federal Army. Apart from a number of home-made vehicles, the Biafrans have no armoured cars or tanks, and only a very few artillery pieces. The Biafran forces operate some 7 Alouette helicopters and 3-4 light transport aircraft, but have no recognized combat aircraft. There is no Navy.
   No official casualty figures have been issued, but it is probable that the Federal Army has had at least 30,000 killed and the Biafran forces at least 15,000. Civilian deaths on both sides, both as a result of the fighting and due to lack of food supplies, are believed to be much higher.

ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ВОЙНА В НИГЕРИИ

   7 июля 1967 года войска нигерийской федеральной армии совершили нападение через северную границу сепаратистского Восточного региона (Биафра). Войска биафрана оказали сопротивление и, несмотря на падение Нсукки, предприняли контрнаступление в район Среднего Запада, в результате которого 10 августа Бенин был захвачен. Затем федеральная армия перегруппировалась и к 10 октября вновь оккупировала район Среднего Запада. 5 октября они оккупировали бывшую Восточную столицу Энугуа, а в ноябре отрезали Биафранские торговые пути в Камерун в результате захвата Калабара андиком. После затишья в декабре 1967-январе 1968гг. последовала ожесточенная борьба за Онитшу на восточных берегах Нигера, которая не была полностью взята федеральными силами до мая. 20 мая после совместного сухопутно-морского нападения федеральные силы оккупировали Порт-Харкорт и отрезали биафран от внешнего мира как по суше, так и по морю.
   Федеральная армия насчитывает около 75 000 человек в зоне боевых действий, организованных в три дивизии. Эти подразделения действуют соответственно на севере, западе и юго-западе. Федеральные силы располагают современными легкими вооружениями, главным образом британского и бельгийского происхождения, включая минометы, безоткатные винтовки и базуки. Они имеют Saladin и AML-90 бронированные автомобили, Ferret разведывательные автомобили, и несколько бронетранспортеров Saracen, но не имеют танков. Их артиллерия состоит в основном из британских 25-фунтовых полевых орудий и 40-мм зенитных орудий Bofors.
   В Федерального ВВС действуют 3 Ил-28 легких бомбардировщиков, около 12 МиГ-15/-17 истребителей-бомбардировщиков, 7 L-29 и 1 Provost реактивных учебных самолётов (которые могут быть вооружены), и ряд старых винтовых учебных, связных самолетов и вертолетов. На боевых самолетах, как полагают, летали египетские и южноафриканские пилоты. Федеральный Военно-Морской Флот состоит из фрегата, 3 прибрежных патрульных судов, 3 быстроходных патрульных катеров и нескольких десантных судов. В состав Биафранской армии входят около 30 000 человек, объединенных примерно в 6 малочисленных бригад. Они оснащены легким оружием, безоткатными орудиями и минометами (главным образом французского, испанского, португальского, британского и американского происхождения), но, как правило, уступают по качеству тем, которые используются федеральной армией. Помимо ряда самодельных автомобилей, у Biafrans нет бронированных автомобилей и танков, и лишь несколько орудий. В Биафрских силах действуют примерно 7 вертолетов Алуэт и 3-4 легких транспортных самолетов, но нет боевых самолетов. Нет Военно-Морского Флота.

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