Темежников Евгений Александрович: другие произведения.

The Military Balance 1971

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THE MILITARY BALANCE 1971

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1971

   The Military Balance 1970
   The Military Balance 1972

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Preface
USA and Soviet Union: USA, Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
NATO: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey
Europe: Albania, Austria, Finland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East: Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan , Lebanon, Libia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAR.
Africa: Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malagas, Nigeria, Rhodesia, Senegal, Somali, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.
China: China
Asia & Australia: Afghanistan, Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, South Vietnam.
Tables
Balance: NATO-WP
  

PREFACE

   The Military Balance introduces this year much new/material. There are tables which give comparative figures for the last 20 years for the armed forces, defence expenditure and Gross National Product of major countries. The characteristics of the world's tanks are set out. Included as part of the European balance is a comparison of the new ship deliveries to the NATO and Warsaw Pact navies between 1961-70. There is a special section showing forces outside their parent country and the countries in which they are stationed. Other new features are tables of short-range nuclear delivery vehicles and of arms production in countries with significant and growing, but not all-embracing, defence industries.
   Certain items have been omitted, to save space or because last year's entries remain essentially up to date. The Latin American countries are a case in point: they have been excluded this time but it is the intention to return to them next year. An index is included (see p. 83) to give guidance to features appearing in one or more, but not all, of the last four issues (including this one).
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in many cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking material.
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Figures for defence expenditures are the latest available and are generally exclusive of military aid. A glossary of the abbreviations that have been used in the text will be found overleaf. On the facing page are notes explaining the bases for the conversion of national currency figures into dollars and giving the strengths of some military formations.
   This study examines the facts of military power as they existed in July 1971. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1971 have been included, except where explicitly stated. The material should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the balance of strategic power; in particular it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability or efficiency, except where these are touched upon in the appendix on the NATO-Warsaw Pact balance.
   The Military Balance is complemented by another annual publication, Strategic Survey, published each spring, which reviews the most significant issues of international security and conflict in the previous calendar year and describes the major developments in strategic and defence policy and in weapons throughout the world.
   September 1971

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

   Военный баланс вводит в этом году много нового материала. Имеются таблицы, в которых приводятся сравнительные данные за последние 20 лет по вооруженным силам, оборонным расходам и валовому национальному продукту основных стран. Изложены характеристики танков мира. В Европейский баланс включено сравнение поставок новых кораблей в военно-морские силы NATO и Варшавского договора в период 1961-70 годов. Существует специальный раздел, показывающий силы за пределами их родной страны и стран, в которых они размещены. Другими новыми особенностями являются таблицы средств доставки ядерного оружия малой дальности и производства оружия в странах со значительной и растущей, но не всеохватывающей оборонной промышленностью.
   Некоторые пункты были опущены для экономии места или потому, что прошлогодние записи остаются в основном актуальными. Примером могут служить латиноамериканские страны: на этот раз они были исключены, однако мы намерены вернуться к ним в следующем году. Индексация включена (см. стр. 83) дать рекомендации по функциям, появляющимся в одном или нескольких, но не во всех, из последних четырех вопросов (включая этот).
   Институт несет полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Правительства стремились к сотрудничеству и во многих случаях получали его. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают в подготовке информации, и поэтому некоторые цифры были оценочные. Институт в значительной степени благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые оказывали помощь в сборе и проверке материалов.
   Приводятся данные о численности личного состава регулярных сил, хотя в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, приводится информация о численности воинских контингентов, ополченцев или резервных сил. Данные о расходах на оборону являются самыми последними и, как правило, не включают военную помощь. Глоссарий сокращений, использованных в тексте, можно найти на обороте. На лицевой стороне страницы размещены Примечания, поясняющие основы конвертации национальных валют в доллары и даются силы некоторых военных формирований.
   Данное исследование рассматривает военной мощи, на июль 1971 года. Никаких прогнозов сил или вооружений за пределами 1971 не включено, кроме случаев, когда явно указано. Этот материал не следует рассматривать как всеобъемлющее руководство по балансу стратегической мощи; в частности, он не отражает фактов географии, уязвимости или эффективности, за исключением тех случаев, когда они затрагиваются в приложении о балансе NATO-Варшавского договора.
   The Military Balance дополняется еще одним ежегодным изданием Strategic Survey, публикуемый каждую весну, в котором рассматриваются наиболее важные вопросы международной безопасности и конфликтов за предыдущий календарный год и описываются основные события в стратегической и оборонной политике и в области вооружений во всем мире.
   Сентябрь 1971 года
  

ABBREVIATIONS

    []
NOTES
  

NOTES

   Currency Conversion Rates
   National Currency Figures have been converted into dollars at the prevailing rate, generally as reported to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Defence expenditure, in the case of some East European countries which are not members of the IMF, has, however, been converted at the rates described by Professor Benoit and Dr Lubell in Disarmament and World Economic Interdependence (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967). For the Soviet Union, it has been converted as explained in The Military Balance 1970-1971, pp. 10-12. In all cases the conversion rates used are included in the country entry or made clear in the appropriate table but may not always be applicable to commercial transactions. Because estimates for Gross National Product (GNP) and defence expenditure of certain countries have been amended, figures will not in all cases be entirely comparable with those of previous years. GNP figures given are usually at market prices.
   Strength of Military Formations
   The table below gives the average establishment strength of the major military formations used in the text. The figures should be treated as approximate, since military organization is flexible and formations may be reinforced or reduced.
  
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
   Курсы Конвертации Валют
   Данные в национальной валюте пересчитываются в доллары по курсу, как правило, сообщаемому Международным Валютным Фондом (МВФ). Однако расходы на оборону в некоторых восточноевропейских странах, которые не являются членами МВФ, были пересчитаны по ставкам, описанным профессором Бенуа и д-ром Любеллом в документе Disarmament and World Economic Interdependence (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967). Для Советского Союза он был преобразован, как объясняется в военном балансе 1970-1971 годов, С. 10-12. Во всех случаях используемые коэффициенты пересчета включаются в запись о стране или четко указываются в соответствующей таблице, но не всегда могут применяться к коммерческим операциям. Поскольку в смету валового национального продукта (ВНП) и оборонных расходов некоторых стран были внесены поправки, эти цифры не во всех случаях будут полностью сопоставимы с данными за предыдущие годы. Данные о ВНП обычно приводятся по рыночным ценам.
   Численность воинских формирований
   В таблице ниже приводится средняя численность основных воинских формирований, использованных в тексте. Цифры следует рассматривать как приблизительные, поскольку военная организация является гибкой, и формирования могут быть усилены или сокращены.
  
    []
   NOTES
   Divisional strengths cover organic units only and exclude support units or services outside the divisional structure.
   Warsaw Pact formations and squadrons have strengths similar to those of the Soviet Union. NATO formations and squadrons not included in the table have similar totals to those of Germany unless otherwise mentioned in the text. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have tended to follow American military organization, while Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore generally follow British practice.
   a. Army divisions only; a Marine Corps division has over 19,000 men.
   b. Strength of a regiment, which is the equivalent formation in the Soviet and Chinese command structure.
   Combat aircraft
   The term 'combat aircraft', as used in the text, comprises bomber, fighter-bomber, strike, interceptor, reconnaissance, counter-insurgency and armed trainer aircraft, but not other categories. The figures given for aircraft in the text refer to front line strengths only, unless otherwise stated.
   Naval units
   The naval vessels shown in the country sections are those in operational fleet service and vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have usually been excluded. Ships in reserve or undergoing re-fit or conversion are included only where specifically mentioned.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
   Силы дивизий охватывают только органические подразделения и исключают вспомогательные подразделения или службы за пределами дивизионной структуры.
   Формирования и эскадрильи Варшавского договора имеют силы, аналогичные Советскому Союзу. Составы и эскадрильи NATO, не включенные в таблицу, имеют общие показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии, если в тексте не указано иное. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, следуют американской военной организации, в то время как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Малайзия и Сингапур в целом следуют британской практике.
   a. Только армейские дивизии; дивизия морской пехоты насчитывает более 19 000 человек.
   b. Численность полка, что эквивалентно формированию в Советской и Китайской командных структурах.
   Боевые самолеты
   Термин "Боевые самолеты", употребляемый в тексте, включает бомбардировщики, истребители-бомбардировщики, штурмовики, перехватчики, разведчики, контр-партизанские и вооруженные учебно-тренировочные самолеты, но не другие категории. Если не указано иное, приведенные в тексте цифры, касающиеся самолетов, касаются только боевых, без прочих.
   Военно-морские единицы
   Военно-морские корабли, показанные в разделах стран, относятся к категории судов действующего флота, и суда стандартного водоизмещения менее 100 тонн, как правило, исключаются. Корабли резерва или проходящие техническое переоборудование или переустройство включены только где указано.
  

COUNTRIES AND PRINCIPAL PACTS

  

The United States and the Soviet Union

  
   Whatever their other commitments or capabilities, the primary mission of American armed forces remains the deterrence of a strategic attack, necessarily with nuclear weapons, upon the United States. The principal object of that deterrence is the only other 'super-power', the Soviet Union, with China as a subsidiary object of potentially increasing importance. Conversely, although less explicitly, Soviet strategic nuclear forces appear to be designed primarily to deter an American strategic attack upon the Soviet Union. The strategic forces and weapons of both super-powers have capabilities which, at least in theory, go beyond reciprocal deterrence, to the point of offering some prospect of limiting the damage which either would suffer should a strategic nuclear war occur. They also provide means of deterring lesser nuclear powers. In terms of intentions, however, it seems that deterrence of each other represents the first priority for both countries.
   Soviet and American representatives have been engaged since November 1969 in an effort to agree upon the mutual limitation of strategic nuclear forces. These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) have not yet produced any formal agreement, although the governments issued a statement on 20 May 1971 in which they spoke of working out an agreement during the remaining months of the year which would limit the deployment of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems and which would also include 'certain measures' of limitation on offensive weapons. Meanwhile, the expansion or modernization of strategic nuclear forces has continued on both sides. The Soviet Union, having matched the American total of offensive strategic missiles, has continued to deploy additional inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) on land, to construct additional ballistic-missile submarines and to develop more effective weapons for its offensive forces. At the same time, the United States has embarked upon an extensive modernization of its strategic offensive weapons which, over the next four years, will add considerably to the number and effectiveness of the nuclear warheads which its own land-based and sea-based forces can deliver. Both countries have also pursued attempts to deploy an effective ABM system: the Soviet Union by improving the small system which it already has, the United States by starting deployment of the Safeguard system which was announced in 1969.
   With an estimated total of 1,510 ICBM (about 100 of which are positioned in MR/IRBM fields, and may, therefore, be intended for possible use against targets other than the United States), the Soviet Union has now surpassed the United States ICBM force of 1,054. Soviet deployment has, however, slowed down considerably since the beginning of 1970 and may have reached, or be approaching, its planned level. A number of underground silos of a new type have been observed, but it is not clear whether these are intended to fire a new ICBM (of which no other evidence has been reported) or to provide added protection for missiles of existing types, and especially for the large SS-9 missile. If, as seems possible, the latter is the case, this improvement of the silo for the SS-9 system will match the testing of an SS-9 multiple warhead cluster, containing three re-entry vehicles, in which the Soviet Union has been actively engaged since 1968.
   The United States has made no effort to increase its total of ICBM launchers. It has, however, continued the replacement of Minuteman 1 missiles with Minuteman3 missiles which began in 1970. Over 500 Minuteman 3 launchers, each of which carries three independently-targeted warheads, are to be deployed, under present plans, by 1975. This will have the effect of doubling the number of targets at which the total Minuteman force can strike.
   Although the Soviet Union has continued to launch Y-class ballistic-missile submarines now at a rate of some 7-8 a year, it has not yet overtaken the United States in this field. It now has about 350 SLBMs in nuclear-powered submarines (of which some 320 are in modern Y-class boats), in contrast with the 656 launchers in the parallel American force. In terms of launcher totals, the Soviet Union's construction programme continues to bring it closer to the United States at a rate which could produce numerical equality by 1974. Moreover, the Soviet Union has been testing a new SLBM which, with its estimated range of some 3,000 miles, would be comparable to the American Polaris vehicle. Meanwhile, the United States has begun to deploy the more advanced Poseidon SLBM, with at least 10 independently-targeted re-entry vehicles. The first submarine equipped with Poseidon became operational during early 1971; the completion of the planned programme for converting 31 boats would raise the total number of nuclear warheads deliverable by the American SLBM force from about 1,500 (capable of attacking 656 separate targets) to over 5,400 (capable of attacking some 5,000 separate targets). For the longer term, development work continues on an Undersea Long-Range Missile System (ULMS), which might replace the Poseidon submarines themselves at the end of the 1970s.
   In contrast with the quantitative reinforcement of their offensive missile forces, the Soviet Union and the United States have continued to allow their strategic bomber forces to dwindle. The number of American B-52 bombers in service has dropped to well below 500, while the Soviet force of Mya-4 Bison and Tu-20 Bear bombers is now estimated at 140 aircraft (with an additional 50 Bisontankers). On the American side, however, the effectiveness of the B-52 force is likely to be greatly increased by the introduction of the new Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which has been ordered into production and which is expected to have an operational range of 60-75 miles. Each B-52 could carry up to 24 SRAM, while the proposed B-1 bomber, prototype development of which is under way, would, if produced, be able to carry some 32 SRAM when it became operational in about 1978. The total number of nuclear weapons deliverable by the American strategic bomber force is thus likely to rise sharply during the next five years. The Soviet Union has shown no apparent interest in matching this particular effort. The prototype of a new variable-geometry ('swing-wing') bomber has been observed, but it is not clear that, even if produced, it would have an effective inter-continental capability, and there have been no reports of any attempt to develop air-to-surface missiles for it (or for existing Soviet bombers) of a type comparable to SRAM.
   The Soviet Union, with some 10,000 anti-aircraft missiles (SAM) and 3,000 interceptor aircraft, has devoted a great deal more effort to territorial air defence than the United States, although the latter has continued development of its Over-the-Horizon-B (OTH-B) radar system, designed to detect attacking aircraft at great range, and of an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), designed to track aircraft flying below the coverage of other radar systems. Both countries have continued to devote efforts to developing means of defence against ballistic missiles. The Soviet Union, which completed deployment around Moscow of 64 ABM launchers for its Galosh missile in 1970, has been testing an improved ABM missile and may be ready to begin its deployment. It does not appear, however, to have modified the basic orientation of its ABM system, whose missiles and radars are deployed in a manner which suggests a strong bias towards defence against an attack by American ICBM. The United States has begun work on three sites for its Safeguard ABM system, each containing long-range Spartan and short-range Sprint missiles for the protection. of a part of the Minuteman force against ICBM or SLBM attack, the first of which could be operational at the end of 1974. Funds have also been requested for a fourth site, either at an additional Minuteman fieldor at Washington, D.C., as well as for the continuation of development work on an alternative system, known as Hard Site,* (*This would replace the Safeguard Missile Site Radars (MSR)with a large number of smaller and cheaper radars.)for the more economical and less vulnerable defence of Minuteman. On both sides, however, continued deployment of ABM launchers now depends heavily upon the outcome of the SALT negotiations.
   The manpower strength of American conventional forces has declined from the 1968 peak of over 3-5 million to the 'pre-Vietnam' level of 2-7 million and is well on the way towards the 1972 target of 2-5 million. At the same time, withdrawals from Vietnam and South Korea and the redeployment of units from Japan have marked the further contraction of American military deployment in Asia. No parallel manpower reductions or deployment changes have been apparent in the Soviet case. As far as navies are concerned the American tendency to reduce the active ship strength, while improving its quality, has been generally followed by the Soviet Union. Both navies have reduced overall numbers while continuing with modernization (see p. 82 for some comparative figures of new construction).
   *This would replace the Safeguard Missile Site Radars (MSR) with a large number of smaller and cheaper radars.

Соединенные Штаты и Советский Союз

   Какими бы ни были их другие обязательства или возможности, главной задачей американских вооруженных сил остается сдерживание стратегического нападения, с применением ядерного оружия, на Соединенные Штаты. Основным объектом, сдерживание является единственная 'сверхдержава', СССР, хотя Китай в качестве вспомогательного объекта потенциально увеличивает свое значение. И наоборот, хотя и менее явно, советские стратегические ядерные силы, по-видимому, предназначены главным образом для сдерживания американского стратегического нападения на Советский Союз. Стратегические силы и оружие обеих сверхдержав обладают потенциалом, который, по крайней мере теоретически, выходит за рамки взаимного сдерживания и дает определенную перспективу ограничения ущерба, который может быть нанесен любой из них в случае возникновения стратегической ядерной войны. Они также обеспечивают средства сдерживания менее крупных ядерных держав. Однако с точки зрения намерений представляется, что сдерживание друг друга является первоочередной задачей для обеих стран.
   Советские и американские представители с ноября 1969 года предпринимают усилия по согласованию взаимного ограничения стратегических ядерных сил. Эти переговоры по ограничению стратегических вооружений (ОСВ) еще не привели к заключению какого-либо официального соглашения, хотя правительства опубликовали 20 мая 1971 года заявление, в котором они говорили о разработке в оставшиеся месяцы года соглашения, которое ограничило бы развертывание систем противоракетной обороны (ПРО) и которое также включало бы "определенные меры" ограничения наступательных вооружений. Между тем с обеих сторон продолжается расширение или модернизация стратегических ядерных сил. Советский Союз, сравнявшись с американским общим числом наступательных стратегических ракет, продолжал развертывание дополнительных межконтинентальных баллистических ракет (МБР) на суше, строительство дополнительных подводных лодок с баллистическими ракетами и разработку более эффективных вооружений для своих наступательных сил. В то же время Соединенные Штаты приступили к широкомасштабной модернизации своих стратегических наступательных вооружений, которая в течение следующих четырех лет значительно увеличит число и эффективность ядерных боеголовок, которые могут быть доставлены их собственными силами наземного и морского базирования. Обе страны также предпринимают попытки развернуть эффективную систему ПРО: Советский Союз, совершенствуя уже имеющуюся у него малую систему, Соединенные Штаты, приступив к развертыванию системы Safeguard, о чем было объявлено в 1969 году.
   По общему числу в примерно 1,510 МБР (около 100 из которых расположены на позициях БРСД, и может, следовательно, быть предназначено для возможного применения не против Соединенных Штатов), Советский Союз обогнал США с числом МБР 1,054. Советское развертывание, однако, значительно замедлилось с начала 1970 года и, возможно, достигло или приближается к запланированному уровню. Был замечен ряд подземных шахт нового типа, однако неясно, предназначены ли они для новых МБР (о которых не сообщалось никаких других сведений) или для обеспечения дополнительной защиты ракет существующих типов, и особенно для больших ракет SS-9. Если, как представляется возможным, последнее предположение верно, то это усовершенствование шахт для системы SS-9 будет соответствовать испытаниям разделяющихся ГЧ к SS-9, с тремя боеголовками, которые Советский Союз активно проводит с 1968 года.
   Соединенные Штаты не предприняли усилий для увеличения общего числа пусковых установок МБР. Однако они продолжила замену ракет Minuteman 1 ракетами Minuteman 3, которая началась в 1970 году. В соответствии с нынешними планами к 1975 году будет развернуто свыше 500 пусковых установок Minuteman 3, каждая из которых несет три боеголовки индивидуального наведения. Это будет иметь эффект удвоения количества целей, по которым могут нанести удар общие силы Minuteman.
   Хотя Советский Союз продолжал спуск Y-класса ракетных подводных лодок сейчас по 7-8 в год, он еще не обогнали США в этой области. В настоящее время он имеет около 350 БРПЛ на атомных подводных лодках (из которых около 320 находятся в современных лодках Y-класса), в отличие от 656 пусковых установок в параллельных американских силах. В итоговых планах программы строительства СССР продолжает приближаться к США, и может достичь численного равенства к 1974 году. Кроме того, Советский Союз проводит испытания новой БРПЛ, дальность действия которой, по оценкам, составит около 3000 миль, что сопоставимо с американской ракетой Polaris. Между тем, Соединенные Штаты начали развертывание более продвинутый БРПЛ Poseidon, по крайней мере с 10 боеголовками индивидуального наведения. Первая подводная лодка, оснащенная Poseidon должна, быть готова в начале 1971 года; завершение запланированной программы переоборудования 31 лодка позволит увеличит общее число ядерных боеголовок, доставляемых американскими силами БРПЛ, примерно с 1500 (способных атаковать 656 отдельных целей), до более 5400 (способных атаковать около 5000 отдельных целей). В долгосрочной перспективе продолжается разработка подводного ракетного комплекса дальнего радиуса действия, который мог бы заменить сами подводные лодки Poseidon в конце 1970-х годов.
   В отличие от количественного усиления ракетных сил, СССР и США продолжали сокращать, стратегические бомбардировочные силы. Число американских бомбардировщиков B-52 на вооружении упало ниже 500, в то время как советские силы М-4 Bison и Ту-20 Bear бомбардировщики сейчас оценивается в 140 самолетов (дополнительно 50 М-4 танкеров). С американской стороны, однако, эффективность сил B-52, вероятно, будет значительно повышена за счет внедрения новой ракеты ближнего действия (SRAM), которая была запущена в производство и которая, как ожидается, будет иметь оперативную дальность 60-75 миль. Каждый B-52 может нести до 24 SRAM, в то время как предлагаемый бомбардировщик B-1, прототип которого находится в стадии разработки, если он будет произведен, сможет нести около 32 SRAM, когда он начнет функционировать примерно в 1978 году. Таким образом, общее количество ядерного оружия, поставляемого американскими стратегическими бомбардировщиками, вероятно, резко возрастет в течение следующих пяти лет. Советский Союз не проявляет явного интереса к этим конкретным усилиям. Прототип нового бомбардировщика с изменяемой геометрией крыла был замечен, но не ясно, что, даже если он будет произведен, будет ли он иметь межконтинентальную дальность, и не было сообщений о каких-либо попытках разработать ракеты класса "воздух-поверхность" для него (или для существующих советских бомбардировщиков), сопоставимых со SRAM.
   СССР, имея около 10 000 зенитно-ракетных комплексов (ЗРК) и 3000 истребителей-перехватчиков, посвятил больше усилий для территориальной ПВО, чем США, хотя последние продолжают развитие загоризонтной РЛС, предназначенной для обнаружения атакующих самолетов на большой дальности, а также дальнего радиолокационного обнаружения и управления (ДРЛОиУ), предназначен для отслеживания самолетов под покрытия других радиолокационных систем. Обе страны продолжают прилагать усилия по разработке средств защиты от баллистических ракет. Советский Союз, который в 1970 году завершил развертывание вокруг Москвы 64 пусковых установок ПРО для своей ракеты Galosh, проводит испытания усовершенствованной ракеты ПРО и, возможно, готов приступить к ее развертыванию. Однако, как представляется, она не изменила основную ориентацию своей системы ПРО, ракеты и радары которой развернуты таким образом, что это наводит на мысль о сильном уклоне в сторону обороны от нападения американских МБР. Соединенные Штаты приступили к работе на трех объектах своей системы ПРО, каждый из которых содержит ракеты Spartan большой дальности и ракеты Sprint малой дальности для защиты части сил Минитмена от МБР или БРПЛ, первый из которых может быть введен в действие в конце 1974 года. Кроме того, испрашиваются средства на строительство четвертого объекта либо на дополнительном объекте Minuteman в Вашингтоне, а также на продолжение разработки альтернативной системы, известной как Hard Site * (*заменит Safeguard радиолокаторы большим числом более мелких и дешевых радаров) для более экономичной и менее уязвимой обороны Minuteman. Однако с обеих сторон дальнейшее развертывание пусковых установок ПРО в настоящее время в значительной степени зависит от результатов переговоров по СНВ.
   Численность живой силы американских обычных вооруженных сил сократилась с пика в 1968 году в 3,5 млн. к довьетнамскому уровню 2,7 млн. и дойдёт в 1972 года до 2,5 миллионов. В то же время вывод войск из Вьетнама и Южной Кореи и передислокация подразделений из Японии ознаменовали дальнейшее сокращение американского военного развертывания в Азии. Никаких параллельных сокращений численности или изменений в развертывании в Советском случае не наблюдалось. Что касается военно-морских сил, то за американской тенденцией к уменьшению сил активных кораблей при одновременном повышении их качества, как правило, следует Советский Союз. Оба флота сократили общую численность, продолжая модернизацию (см. 82 для некоторых сравнительных показателей нового строительства).
  
   THE UNTIED STATES
Population: 208,100,000.
Military service: selective service for two years.*
   (*A reform of the selective service system is being worked on. 1 July 1973 has been set as the target date for reaching zero draft calls.)
Total armed forces: 2,699,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: 5977 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: $78,743 million.* (* New obligational authority for FY 1971-72; expected outlay is $76,000million.)
  
Strategic Forces
(A) OFFENSIVE)
ICBM: 1,054 (Strategic Air Command - SAC).
   400 Minuteman 1.
   500 Minuteman 2.
   100 Minuteman 3.
   54 Titan 2.
SLBM: (US Navy) 656 in 41 SSBN:
   4 with Poseidon (4 more are converting).
   27 with Polaris A-3.
   10 with Polaris A-2.
Aircraft (SAC)
Bombers: 520
   70 FB-111 in 4 squadrons.
   150 B-52 C/F in 10 squadrons.* (*2 squadrons of B-52, and about 100 KC-135 are based in South-East Asia.)
   210 B-52 G/H in 14 squadrons.
   90 B-52 in active storage.
Tankers: 420 KC-135.
Strategic Reconnaissance: SR-71; 2 squadrons.
(B) DEFENSIVE
North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), with its headquarters at Colorado Springs, is a joint Canadian-American organization.
   American forces under NORAD are Aerospace Defense Command (ADC) and Army Defense Command (ARADCOM);
   combined strength 80,000.
Aircraft * (*Excluding Canadian.)
Interceptors: 522.
   (i) regular: 11 squadrons with F-106.
   (ii) National Guard: 5 squadrons with F-101; 12 squadrons with F-102; 1 squadron with F-104.
AEW aircraft: 3 squadrons with EC-121.
SAM
   (i) regular: 2 battalions with HA WK; 5 squadrons with 170 Bomarc B.
   (ii) National Guard: 27 batteries with Nike Hercules.
Radar and tracking stations - a chain including:
   the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS),with stations in Alaska, Greenland and England,
   the 'forward scatter' Over-the-Horizon radar system.*
   (*This radar-system can detect ICBM regardless of the direction or trajectory of their launch.)
   the Pinetree line.
   the 33 radar Distant Early Warning Line(DEW).
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in North
   American air space is co-ordinated by the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) System.
   14 locations are combined with Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) stations.
   A system (474N) of 7 radar stations on the East, West and Gulf Coasts of the United States is designed specifically for the
   detection of submarine-launched missiles.
  
Army: 1,107,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   1 cavalry division.
   4 infantry divisions (mechanized)
   2 infantry divisions
   2 airborne divisions.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   3 independent infantry brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   5 armoured cavalry regiments.
   5 special forces groups.
   30 SSM batteries.
   About 200 independent aviation units with 11,600 aircraft, incl 9,000 helicopters.
   M-48 and M-60 med tanks; M-60A1E2 med and M-551 Sheridan lt tanks with Shillelagh;
   M-107 175mm SP guns, M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP howitzers;
   Honest John, Sergeant and Pershing SSM;
   HAWK and Nike-Hercules SAM; the Chaparral/Vulcan air defence system;
   and the TOW ATGW system.
RESERVES:
(i) Army National Guard: 400,000 men capable, in 5 weeks from mobilization, of providing
   8 full divisions and some smaller units to round out regular formations, and
   36 SAM batteries with Nike-Hercules.
(ii) Army Reserves: average paid training strength 260,000, organized in 21 brigades.
   In addition 48,000 undergo short tours of active duty.
  
Marine Corps: 212,000.
   3 divisions (19,000 men), each supported by:
   1 tank battalion and
   1 SAM battalion with 24 HAWK.
   M-48 and M-103 tanks; 105mm SP howitzers; 105mm and 155mm howitzers; 175mm guns.
   3 Air Wings; 540 combat aircraft.
   14 fighter squadrons with F-4 (with Sparrow and Sidewinder AAM).
   12 attack squadrons, with A-6A and A-4.
   1 close-support squadron with AV-8A Harrier.
   3 recce squadrons with RF-4B and RF-8A.
   45 AH-1 Cobra gunship helicopters.
   6 heavy helicopter squadrons with CH-53A.
   9 medium helicopter squadrons with CH-46A.
   3 assault transport squadrons with C-130.
RESERVES: Average paid training strength 49,500, plus paid training tours for a further 560.
   They form a reserve division and an associated air wing, which includes
   4 squadrons with F-8,
   5 squadrons with A-4,
   2 squadrons with CH-53 and 3 squadrons with CH-46.
DEPLOYMENT: Ground forces, Army and Marines, were deployed as -follows at the beginning of July 1971:
Continental United States
   (i) Strategic Reserve: 1 armd div; 1 cav div; 1 airborne div; 1 mech inf div; 2 marine divs; 1 marine bde; 1 armd cav regt.
   (ii) To reinforce 7th Army in Europe: 1 mech inf div (less 1 bde)*; 1 armd cav regt; 1 Special Forces gp.
   (* This division is dual-based and its heavy equipment is stored in West Germany.)
   (iii) Other - 1 inf bde; 1 airborne bde; 1 armd cav regt; 2 Special Forces gps.
Hawaii-1 inf bde; 1 marine div (less 1 bde).
Germany
   (i) 7th Army - 2 Corps incl: 2 armd divs; 2 armd cav regts; 2 infantry divs (mech); 1 infantry bde (mech).
   (ii) West Berlin: 1 infantry bde.
Italy - Task Force with HQ elements and 1SSM bn.
South Vietnam - 1 inf div; 1 airborne div; 1 cav bde; 1 mech bde.
South Korea-1 infantry div.
Okinawa - 1 Special Forces gp.
  
Navy: 623,000
Submarines, attack: 53 nuclear-powered (40 with Subroc), and 46 diesel-powered.
   (* Figures for manpower include SSBN force (see p. 3).)
Aircraft carriers
(i) Attack: 15.
   1 nuclear-powered (USS Enterprise, 76,000 tons),
   8 Forrestal- and Kitty Hawk-class (60,000 tons),
   3 Midway-class (52,000 tons) and
   3 Hancock-class (33,000) tons.
   Each normally carries an air wing of 70-85 aircraft organized in:
   2 fighter sqns with F-4 (F-8 in the Hancock-class); 2 light attack sqns;
   1 AWX sqn with A-6; and AEW, tanker and reconnaissance aircraft.
   Light attack aircraft include A-4 and A-7 (the A-7 due eventually to replace the A-4).
   RA-5C are used for reconnaissance (RF-8G in the Hancock-class).
   E-2A and E-1B are used for AEW, and a few KA-3B as tankers.
(ii) Anti-submarine: 3. Essex-class, each with
   52 aircraft and helicopters, incl A-4C for air defence, S-2E for long-range search and SH-3 helicopters.
Other surface ships
   1 nuclear-powered guided-missile cruiser.
   3 guided-missile cruisers.
   4 guided-missile light cruisers.
   1 gun cruiser.
   2 nuclear-powered guided-missile frigates.
   28 guided-missile frigates.
   29 guided-missile destroyers.
   92 gun/ASW destroyers.
   6 guided-missile destroyer escorts.
   51 destroyer escorts.
   4 radar-picket escorts.
   (Guided missiles in service are Tartar, Tabs and Terrier SAM and Asroc and Subroc ASW).
   81 amphibious warfare ships, incl 7 LPH.
   52 landing craft.
   42 ocean minesweepers.
   178 logistics, operational support and small patrol ships.
Shore-based aircraft
   24 maritime patrol sqns with 216 P-3.
   Transports include C-47, C-54, C-118, C-119, C-130 andC-131.
DEPLOYMENT: Fleets: 1st (Eastern Pacific), 2nd (Atlantic), 6th (Mediterranean), 7th (Western Pacific).
RESERVES: Average paid training strength 127,000 plus paid training tours for a further 3,500.
Training Fleet:
   16 submarines.
   30 destroyers.
   6 ocean minesweepers.
   13 coastal minesweepers.
35 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft incl
   A-4 and A-7 fighters;
   P-2 and P-3A maritime patrol aircraft and 4 helicopter squadrons.
  
Air Force: 757,000; 6,000 combat aircraft.* (* Figures for manpower include strategic air forces.)
   The General Purpose Forces include:
(i) Tactical Air Command: 110,000; about 1,000 aircraft normally based in the United States.
   23 F-4, 4 F-105, 1 A-7D and 4 F-111 fighter squadrons.
   9 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with RF-4C.
   16 assault air-lift squadrons with C-130E.
   4 STOL air-lift squadrons with C-7 and C-123.
   2 electronic warfare squadrons.
   7 special operations sqns with A-37, AC-119, C-123K and AC-130.
(ii) US Air Force Europe (USAFE): 50,000, controlling
   3rd Air Force (Britain), 16th Air Force (Spain), 17th Air Force (West Germany), and a Logistics Group in Turkey.
   21 fighter squadrons (and 4 in USA on call to USAFE) with 475 F-100, F-4C/D/E and F-111E.
   5 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with 85 RF-4C.
   2 transport squadrons with C-130.
(iii) Pacific Air Forces (PACAF): 120,000, controlling:
   5th Air Force: over 25,000 (bases in Japan, Korea and Okinawa) with F-4, RF-4C and C-130.
   13th Air Force: about 32,000 (responsible for the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and all joint planning under SEATO),
   with F-4, F-105, RF-4C and C-130 (of which 160 F-4, a few F-105 and 40 RF-4 fly from Thailand).
   7th Air Force: 33,500 (the air component of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam,
   coordinating the operations of the Vietnamese Air Force).
   200 F-4C and A-37 fighter-bombers.
   40 RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft.
   150 A-1E, A-37A, AC-119, AC-130 and C-123 counter-insurgency aircraft.
   75 C-7A assault airlift aircraft.
   A large number of observation and liaison aircraft, and helicopters.
(iv) Military Airlift Command (MAC): 90,000.
   18 heavy transport squadrons with 35 C-133, 260 C-141 and 25 C-5A.
   24 medical tpt, weather recce and SAR sqns.
RESERVES:
(i) Air National Guard: 89,000; 1,500 aircraft in
   16 fighter-interceptor,
   28 tactical fighter and attack,
   11 tactical reconnaissance,
   3 tactical air support,
   4 special operations,
   7 tanker and
   22 air transport squadrons.
(ii) Air Force Reserve: average paid training strength of 48,400 plus training tours for a further 2,600; 400 aircraft in 36 squadrons incl
   2 C-119, 13 C-124 and 18 C-130 tpt sqns (the others have tactical support, special operations and SAR roles).
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 245,700,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and Border Guards, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 3,375,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $490 billion*
   (* An explanation of the valuation of GNP was given in The Military Balance 1970-1971, pp. 10-12,
   together with a note on the exchange rate used for military expenditure. For another, much discussed,
   view on this exchange rate see The Technological Base of Soviet Military Power, by Michael Boretsky,
   a Paper submitted in September 1970 to the Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy of the
   US Congressional Joint Economic Committee. See Survival, October 1971. The official exchange rate is 0.9 roubles=$1.)
Defence budget 1971: 17,854 million roubles ($39.7 billion).
   0.40-0.50 roubles=$l.*
   (*The rouble figure represents the declared budget of the Ministry of Defence and does not include certain expenditures such as
   the cost of nuclear warheads, research and development expenditure on advanced weapons systems,
   and the military elements of the space programme, which are believed to be included in the budget of other ministries.
   Total military expenditure could be of the order of S55 billion.)
  
Strategic Forces
(A) OFFENSIVE
Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF) - 350,000)* (*The Strategic Rocket Forces are a separate Service, with their own manpower.)
ICBM: about 1,510.
   220 SS-7 and SS-8 (Р-16 и Р-9 -ЕТ).
   280 SS-9 (Р-36 -ЕТ).
   950 SS-11 (about 100 have been sited in IRBM/MRBM fields and may have a variable range capability) (УР-100 -ЕТ).
   60 SS-13 (solid-fuelled) (РТ-2 -ЕТ).
IRBM and MRBM: about 700.
   100 SS-5 (Р-14 -ЕТ) IRBM.
   600 SS-4 (Р-12 -ЕТ) MRBM.
   (IRBMs and MRBMs are sited near the southern, eastern and western borders of the USSR:
   about 70 cover targets in China and Japan; and about 630 targets in Western Europe.)
SLBM: 440 in 61 submarines (Navy).
   20 SSBN each with 16 SS-N-6 missiles (Р-27 -ЕТ).
   10 SSBN and 16 diesel each with 3 SS-N-5 missiles (Р-21 -ЕТ).
   12 diesel each with 3 SS-N-4 missiles (Р-13 -ЕТ).
   3 diesel each with 2 SS-N-4 missiles.
Aircraft (Long Range Air Force*).
   (* About 75% is based on European USSR, with most of the remainder in the Far East;
   in addition, it has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic.)
   Long-range Bombers: 140. 100 Tu-20 Bear and 40 Mya-4 Bison.
   Tankers: 50 Bison.
   Medium Bombers: 700. 500 Tu-16 Badger and 200 Tu-22 Blinder.
(B) DEFENSIVE
Air Defence Command (PVO-Strany) is a separate command of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missile units,
   using an early-warning system based on radar, and fighter-interceptor squadrons for identification and interception;
   total strength 500,000 (250,000 from Army and 250,000 from Air Force).
Aircraft: about 3,200.
   Interceptors: mostly MiG-19, MiG-21 and Su-9 with a few MiG-17 still in service.
   Newer aircraft include the Yak-28P and Tu-28, and more recently, the Su-11 and MiG-23 (Су-15 и МиГ-25П -ЕТ).
   Many of these aircraft carry AAM.
   AEW aircraft: some modified Tu-114 with the designation Moss (Ту-126 -ЕТ).
Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM)
   Galosh: 64 launchers for these multi-stage missiles are deployed around Moscow.
   They are believed to have a range of over 200 miles and to carry a nuclear warhead in the megaton range.
SAM
   SA-1 (С-25 -ЕТ): An early vintage AA missile.
   SA-2 (С-75 -ЕТ): about 8,000. A 2-stage boosted AA missile, slant range (from launch to contact with target) about 25 miles,
   effective between 3,000 and 80,000 ft.
   SA-3 (С-125 -ЕТ): A 2-stage missile, probably intended for short-range defence against low-flying aircraft,
   to supplement SA-2. It has a slant range of about 15 miles.
   SA-4 (Круг -ЕТ): An air-transportable, mobile AA missile with solid-fuel boosters.
   They are twin mounted on tracked carriers and assigned to ground forces in the field.
   SA-5 (С-200 -ЕТ): A 2-stage boosted missile developed in a long-range AA role.
   SA-6 (Куб -ЕТ): A triple-mounted missile on a tracked vehicle.
   It is entering service as a defence against low-flying aircraft to supplement SA-4 in the field forces.
Anti-Aircraft Artillery
   14.5mm, 23mm, 57mm guns and ZSU-57-2 twinbarrelled and ZSU-23-4 four-barrelled SP guns on tank chassis.
Army: 2,000,000 (including elements in the Air Defence Command).
   102 motorized rifle divisions.
   51 tank divisions.
   7 airborne divisions.
   Tactical nuclear missile units are organic to formations.
   T-10 hy tanks; T-62 and T-54/-55 med tanks; PT-76 amphibious recce lt tanks
   (most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infra-red night fighting equipment).
   At full strength, tank divisions have 325 medium tanks and motorized rifle divisions 175.
   SP assault guns (in AB divs only);
   100mm, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm and 203mm guns;
   57mm, 85mm, 100mm, 120mm and 130mm ATk guns;
   Scud, Scaleboard, FROG (Р-11/-17, Темп, Луна -ЕТ) SSM, mounted on modified tank chassis and wheeled launchers;
   Shaddock (ФКР-2 -ЕТ) cruise SSM;
   Snapper, Swatter and Sagger (Фагот, Малютка, Шмель -ЕТ) ATGW.
   The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including SAM.
DEPLOYMENT:
Central and Eastern Europe: 31 divs of which
   20 divs (10 tank) are in East Germany; 2 tank divs in Poland; 4 divs (2 tank) in Hungary; and 5 divs in Czechoslovakia.
European USSR: 60 divs.
Central USSR (between the Ural Mountains and Lake Baikal): 8 divs.
Southern USSR (Caucasus and West Turkestan): 28 divs.
Sino-Soviet border area: 33 divs (10 tank) incl 2 divs in Mongolia.
   The 31 divisions in Eastern Europe are maintained at or near combat-strength, as are about 15 of those in the Far East.
   The other divisions in the Far East are probably in the second category of readiness: below combat-strength,
   but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war. Most of the remaining combat-ready divisions are in European USSR,
   while the divisions in central USSR would mostly require major reinforcement, as would 10 of the divisions in southern USSR.
Outside the Warsaw Pact area (mostly as instructors and advisors).
   1,000 in Cuba, 15-20,000 in Egypt, 1,000 in Sudan, 1,000 in Syria, 1,500 in Algeria and 1,000 in North Vietnam.
  
Navy: 475,000 (incl Naval Air Force 75,000).
Submarines (excluding ballistic-missile vessels):
   Attack: 25 nuclear-powered; 210 diesel-powered.
   Cruise-missile: 35 nuclear-powered and 25 diesel-powered (with 4-8 300-mile range msls).
Surface ships
   2 ASW helicopter cruisers with SAM and up to 20 Ka-25 helicopters (пр.1123 Москва)
   2 Kresta II-class cruisers with (horizon-range) surface-to-surface cruise missiles (SSCM) and SAM (пр.1134А -ЕТ).
   4 Kresta I-class cruisers with SSCM and SAM (пр.1134 -ЕТ)
   4 Kynda-class cruisers with SSCM and SAM (пр.58 -ЕТ).
   8 Sverdlov-class and 2 older cruisers (1 with SAM).
   1 Krivak-class destroyer with SSCM and SAM (пр.1135 -ЕТ).
   6 Kanin-class destroyers with SAM (пр.57А -ЕТ).
   3 Krupny-class destroyers with SSCM (пр.57 -ЕТ).
   4 Kildin-class destroyers with SSCM (пр.56М -ЕТ).
   17 Kashin-class destroyers with SAM (пр.61 -ЕТ).
   9 modified Kotlin-class destroyers with SAM (пр.56А -ЕТ).
   23 Kotlin-class destroyers (пр.56 -ЕТ).
   40 Skory- and modified Story-class destroyers (пр.30бис -ЕТ).
   105 other ocean-going escorts.
   250 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   110 Osa- and 30 Komar-class patrol boats with SSCM (пр.205 и 183Р -ЕТ).
   250 fast patrol boats.
   180 fleet minesweepers.
   125 coastal minesweepers.
   105 landing ships and numerous landing craft.
   Some trawlers are used for electronic intelligence.
   All submarines and the larger surface vessels not fitted with SSM are equipped for minelaying.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
Shore-based aircraft
   Bombers: 500, most based near the north-west and Black Sea coasts of the USSR.
   300 Tu-16 with Kipper or Kelt ASM.
   100 Tu-16 reconnaissance and tanker aircraft (replacement of the reconnaissance version with the Tu-22 Blinderhas begun).
   50 Il-28 torpedo-equipped light bombers:
   50 Tu-20 long-range naval reconnaissance.
   Other aircraft and helicopters - 500.
   75 Be-12 ASW amphibians.
   25 Il-18 May ASW aircraft.
   200 Mi-4 and Ka-25 ASW helicopters.
   200 miscellaneous transports.
Naval Infantry - about 15,000.
DEPLOYMENT: Arctic, Baltic, Black Sea and Far East Fleets.
  
Air Force: 550,000: 10,000 combat aircraft.
(i) The Long Range Air Force (see p. 6).
(ii) Tactical Air Force: altogether about 5,000 aircraft, incl light bombers, fighters, helicopters, transport and reconnaissance aircraft.
   Some obsolescent MiG-17, MiG-19 and Il-28 are still in service.
   The most notable high performance aircraft are the MiG-21J and Yak-28P Firebar fighters; the ground-attack Su-7;
   and the supersonic light bomber Yak-28.
   Ground-attack aircraft are equipped with a variety of air-to-ground rockets.
   The variable-geometry Flogger may be about to enter service.
(iii) Air Defence Command (see p. 6), and
(iv) Naval Air Force (see above),
(v) Air Transport Force - about 1,700 aircraft.
   Il-14, An-24, some 800 An-12 and Il-18 medium transports and 10 An-22 heavy transports.
   There are in addition civil airliners of Aeroflot, some of which could be adapted to military use; these include about
   275 long- and medium-range Tu-104, Tu-114, Tu-124 and Tu-134.
   About 800 helicopters in use with the ground forces including troop-carrying Mi-6 and Mi-8 and the heavy load-carrier Mi-10.
   The Mi-12, a very heavy load carrier, may soon enter service.
   The total helicopter inventory is probably around 1,750.
Para-Military Forces:300,000.
   125,000 security troops; 175,000 border troops.
   There are also about 1.5 million members of the part-time military training organization (DOSAAF),
   who take part in such recreational activities as athletics, shooting and parachuting, but reservist training and
   refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular. However, DOSAAF assists in pre-military training being given in
   schools, colleges, and workers' centres, to those of 16 years and over.
  

The European Balance

THE WARSAW PACT

   Treaties
   The Warsaw Pact is a multilateral military alliance formed by a Treaty of Friendship, Mutual
   Assistance and Co-operation', which was signed in Warsaw on 14 May 1955 by the Governments of the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Rumania. (Albania denounced the Pact in September 1968.) According to East European documentary sources the Pact is committed to the defence of only the European territories of the member states.
   The Soviet Union is also linked by bilateral treaties of friendship and mutual assistance with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania. All present members of the Warsaw Pact also have similar bilateral treaties with each other. The Soviet Union concluded status-of-forces agreements with Poland, East Germany, Rumania and Hungary between December 1956 and May 1957 and with Czechoslovakia in October 1968; all these remain in effect except the one with Rumania which lapsed in June 1958 when Soviet troops left Rumania. The essence of East European defence arrangements is not therefore dependent on the Warsaw Treaty as such.
   Organization
   The Organization of the Warsaw Pact has two main bodies.
   The first, the Political Consultative Committee, consists, in full session, of the First Secretaries of the Communist Party, Heads of Government and the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the member-countries. It met twice in the year up to July 1971, at which point there had been 17 meetings in all*. (* Some of these meetings have been entitled Meetings of Ministers.) The Committee has a Joint Secretariat, headed by a Soviet officer, consisting of a specially appointed official from each country, and a Permanent Commission, whose task is to make recommendations on general questions of foreign policy for Pact members. Both these bodies are located in Moscow.
   The second body, the Joint High Command, is directed, according to the Treaty, 'to strengthen the defensive capability of the Warsaw Pact, to prepare military plans in case of war and to decide on the deployment of troops'. The Command consists of a Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C), a Defence Committee, made up of the six Defence Ministers of the Pact, which acts as an advisory body, and a Military Council. This body, which is modelled on a similar organization in the Soviet Armed Forces, meets under the chairmanship of the C-in-C, and includes the Chief of Staff (C of S) and permanent military representatives from each of the allied armed forces. (It seems to be the main channel through which the Pact's orders are transmitted to its forces in peace time, and through which the East European forces are able to putt heir point of view to the C-in-C.)The Pact also has a Military Staff, which has been enlarged by additional non-Soviet senior officers. The posts of C-in-C and C of S of the Joint High Command have, however, always been held by Soviet officers, and most of the key positions are still in Soviet hands. In the event of war, the forces of the other Pact members would be operationally subordinate to the Soviet High Command. The command of the air defence system covering the whole Warsaw Pact area is centralized in Moscow and directed by the C-in-C of the Soviet Air Defence Forces.
   The Soviet forces in the Warsaw Pact area are organized as the Northern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Legnica in Poland; the Southern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Budapest; the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, with headquarters at Zossen-Wiinsdorf, near Berlin; and the Central Group of Forces, consisting of five divisions in Czechoslovakia, with headquarters at Milovice, north of Prague. Soviet tactical air forces are stationed in Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
   The Soviet Union has deployed tactical nuclear missiles in Eastern Europe. Most East European countries have displayed short-range SSM launchers, but there is no evidence that nuclear warheads for these missiles have been supplied to these countries. Soviet MRBM (and other strategic weapons) are based in the Soviet Union and remain under Soviet control.
  

ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Договор
   Варшавский договор - многосторонний военный союз, образованный Договором о дружбе, взаимопомощи и сотрудничество, который был подписана в Варшаве 14 мая 1955 года правительствами Советского Союза, Албании, Болгарии, Чехословакии, ГДР, Венгрии, Польши и Румынии. (Албания денонсировала пакт в сентябре 1968 года.) Согласно восточноевропейским документальным источникам, договор об обороне только европейских территорий государств-членов.
   Советский Союз также связан двусторонними договорами о дружбе и взаимной помощи с Болгарией, Чехословакией, ГДР, Венгрией, Польшей и Румынией. Все нынешние члены Варшавского договора также имеют аналогичные двусторонние договоры друг с другом. Советский Союз заключил соглашения статуса своих сил с Польшей, ГДР, Румынии и Венгрии в период с декабря 1956 по май 1957 и с Чехословакией в октябре 1968 года; все они остаются в силе, за исключением одного, с Румынией, который истек в июне 1958 года, когда советские войска покинули Румынию. Таким образом, суть восточноевропейских оборонных договоренностей не зависит от Варшавского договора как такового.
   Организация
   Организация Варшавского договора имеет два основных органа.
   Первый, политический консультативный комитет, состоит в полном составе из первых секретарей Коммунистических партий, глав правительств, министров иностранных дел и обороны стран-членов. До июля 1971 года он собирался дважды в год, и на тот момент всего было проведено 17 заседаний*. (*Некоторые из этих совещаний были озаглавлены "совещания министров".) Комитет имеет Объединенный Секретариат, возглавляемый Советским должностным лицом, состоящим из специально назначенного должностного лица от каждой страны, и постоянную комиссию, задача которой состоит в вынесении рекомендаций по общим вопросам внешней политики для членов пакта. Оба эти органа находятся в Москве.
   Второй орган - Объединенное Верховное Командование - направлен, согласно договору, "на укрепление обороноспособности Варшавского договора, подготовку военных планов на случай войны и принятие решения о размещении войск". В состав командования входят Верховный Главнокомандующий, Комитет по обороне, состоящий из шести министров обороны пакта, который действует в качестве консультативного органа, и Военный Совет. Этот орган, созданный по образцу аналогичной организации в Советских Вооруженных Силах, заседает под председательством командующего и включает начальника штаба и постоянных военных представителей от каждой из союзнических вооруженных сил. (По-видимому, это основной канал, по которому приказы пакта передаются его силам в мирное время и через который восточноевропейские силы могут передать информацию командованию.) В Пакте также есть военный персонал, который был расширен дополнительными старшими офицерами, не являющимися советскими. Однако должности командующего и начальника штаба объединенного Верховного командования всегда занимали советские офицеры, и большинство ключевых должностей все еще находятся в советских руках. В случае войны силы других участников пакта находились бы в оперативном подчинении Советского Верховного командования. Командование системой противовоздушной обороны, охватывающей весь район Варшавского договора, централизовано в Москве и управляется командующим советских войск противовоздушной обороны.
   Советские войска в районе Варшавского договора организованы как
   Северная группа войск, со штаб-квартирой в городе Легница в Польше;
   Южная группа войск, со штаб-квартирой в Будапеште;
   группа советских войск в Германии, со штаб-квартирой в Цоссен-Винсдорф, недалеко от Берлина; и
   Центральная группа войск в составе пяти дивизий в Чехословакии, со штаб-квартирой в Миловице, к северу от Праги.
   Советские тактические ВВС дислоцируются в Польше, ГДР, Венгрии и Чехословакии.
   Советский Союз развернул тактические ядерные ракеты в Восточной Европе. Большинство восточноевропейских стран имеют пусковые установки малой дальности, но нет доказательств того, что ядерные боеголовки для этих ракет были поставлены в эти страны. Советские БРСД (и других стратегических вооружений) в СССР и остаются под советским контролем.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,555,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy 3 years.
Total regular forces: 148,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: S8.9 billion.
Defence expenditure 1970: 324 million leva (5279,000,000). 1.16 leva=$l.
Army: 117,000.
   8 motorized rifle divisions (3 cadre).
   5 tank brigades.
   30 JS-3 and T-10 hy tanks; about 1,900 med tanks, mainly T-54, with some T-34, T-55 and T-62; PT-76 lt tanks,
   and BTR-40P scout cars; BTR-50, BTR-60 and BTR-152 APC;
   over 500 85mm, 122mm, 130mm, and 152mm guns; SU-100 and JSU-122mm SP guns;
   FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATK guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   ZSU-57 SP AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 9,000.
   2 submarines.
   2 escorts.
   8 coastal escorts.
   2 minesweepers.
   2 minehunters.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   12 motor torpedo boats (8 less than 100 tons).
   14 landing craft.
   A small Danube flotilla.
Air Force: 22,000; 252 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with MiG-17.
   4 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   3 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19.
   5 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Il-28.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17C.
   4 Li-2, 6 An-2 and 10 Il-14 transports.
   About 40 Mi-4 helicopters. .
   1 parachute regiment.
Para-Military Forces: 15,000 including border security troops.
   A volunteer People's Militia of 150,000.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,700,000.
Military service: Army 24 months; Air Force 27 months.
Total regular forces: 185,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $30.3 billion.
Defence expenditure 1970: 15,000 million crowns ($1,765,000,000). 8.5 crowns=$1.
Army: 145,000.
   4 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne brigade.
   (All about 70% of strength except 2 cadre motorized rifle divisions at 30% strength.)
   About 100 JS-3 and T-10 hy tanks; about 3,400 med tanks, mostly T-55 and T-62, with some T-54 and T-34;
   OT-65 and FUG-1966 scout cars; BTR-50P, BTR-152, OT-62 and OT-64 APC;
   SU-100, SU-122, JSU-152 SP guns; 82mm and 120mm mortars;
   FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   47mm twin SP and 30mm AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Air Force: 40,000; 504 combat aircraft. (14 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   12 ground-support squadrons with Il-28, Su-7, MiG-15 and MiG-17.
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   6 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-15 and L-29
   About 50 Li-2, Il-14 and Il-18 transports.
   About 90 Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: Border troops (Pohrankki straz)- 35,000.
   A part-time People's Militia of about 120,000 is being increased to 250,000.
  
   GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 17,150,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total regular forces: 126,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $34 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 7,200 million Ostmarks ($2,124,000,000). 3.39 Ostmarks=$l.
Army: 90,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   4 motorized rifle divisions.
   About 100 T-10 and JS-3 hy tanks; about 2,200 med tanks, mostly T-54 and T-55, with some T-34 and T-62;
   about 125 PT-76 lt tanks;
   SK-1 armd cars; BTR-40P scout cars;
   about 650 BTR-50P, BTR-60P and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-100 SP guns; 85mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns;
   FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm and 100mm ATK guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   ZSU-57-2 SP, 57mm and 100mm AA guns.
Navy: 16,000.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   25 coastal escorts.
   47 minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   70 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   18 landing craft.
   16 Mi-4 helicopters.
Air Force: 20,000; 290 combat aircraft. (16 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   2 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17.
   16 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   30 transports, including An-2, Il-14 and Li-2.
   20 Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   An anti-aircraft division of 9,000 (5 regiments), with about 120 57mm and 100mm AA guns and with SA-2 SAM.
Para-Military Forces:46,000 border troops (Grenzschutztruppe) including a Border Command separate from the regular army.
   20,000 security troops. 350,000 in armed workers' organizations (Betriebskampfgruppen).
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,320,000.
Military service: 2-3 years.
Total regular forces: 103,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $14.4 billion.
Defence expenditure 1970: 8,900 million forints ($511,000,000). 17.4 forints=$l.
Army: 90,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   5 motorized rifle divisions.
   2 SAM battalions with SA-2.
   T-10 hy tanks; about 1600 med tanks, mainly T-55, with some T-34, T-54 and T-62; 50 PT-76 lt tanks;
   FUG-A armd cars; OT-65 scout cars; OT-64, OT-66 and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-100 and JSU-122 SP guns; about 400 76mm, 85mm and 122mm guns, and 122mm howitzers;
   FROG SSM;
   57mm ATk guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   ZSU-57 SP AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 500.
   There is a Danube flotilla of:
   40 minesweepers.
   20 patrol craft.
Air Force: 12,500; 130 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   1 fighter-bomber/recce squadron with MiG-17.
   10 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   About 25 An-2,Il-14 and Li-2 transport aircraft.
   About 6 Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 27,000 security and border guard troops. 250,000 workers militia.
  
   POLAND
Population: 33,200,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and special services, 3 years; Internal security forces, 27 months.
Total regular forces: 265,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $42.5 billion.
Defence expenditure 1970: 35,300 million zloty ($2,220,000,000). 15.9 zloty= $1.
Army: 190,000.
   5 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   1 amphibious assault division.
   (Divisions are at 70% of strength, except those in the Warsaw Military District which are at 30-50 per cent of strength.)
   30 JS-3 and T-10 hy tanks; 3,400 med tanks, mostly T-54 and T-55, with some T-34 and T-62; about 150 PT-76 lt tanks;
   FUG-A armd cars; BTR-40P scout cars; OT-62, OT-64 (Skot-2) and BTR M-1967 APC;
   ASU-57, SU-100, JSU-122 and JSU-152 SP guns;
   FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm antitank guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 20,000 (including 1,000 marines).
   5 submarines.
   2 destroyers.
   30 coastal escorts/submarine chasers.
   24 fleet minesweepers.
   27 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   20 torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   22 landing ships.
   45 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17, with a few Il-28 lt bombers, and some helicopters.
   Samlet cruise missiles for coastal defence.
Air Force: 55,000; 730 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   6 light bomber/recce squadrons with Il-28.
   12 fighter-bomber squadrons with MiG-17 and Su-7.
   40 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-15 and MiG-17.
   About 45 An-2, An-12, Il-12, Il-14, Il-18 and Li-2 transports.
   40 helicopters, including Mi-1 and Mi-4.
Para-Military Forces: 65,000 security and border troops, including armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force,
   and operating 20 small patrol boats.
  
   RUMANIA
Population: 20,400,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 16 months; Navy 2 years.
Total regular forces: 160,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $21.4 billion. Defence Budget 1971:7,500 million lei ($798,000,000). 9.4 1ei=$l.
Army: 130,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   7 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 mountain brigade.
   1 airborne regiment.
   (All at about 90% of strength.)
   A few JS-3 and T-10 hy tanks; 1,700 T-34, T-54, T-55 and T-62 med tanks;
   about 900 BTR-40, BTR-50P and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-100 and JSU-122 SP guns; 76mm, 122mm and 152mm guns;
   about 75 FROG SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Snapper, Swatter and Sagger ATGW;
   37mm, 57mm and 100mm AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 9,000.
   6 coastal escorts.
   4 minesweepers.
   22 inshore minesweepers.
   5 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   8 landing craft.
Air Force: 21,000; 230 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Il-28.
   1 transport squadron with Il-14 and Li-2.
   10 Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 40,000, including border troops. A militia of about 500,000.
  

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

   Treaties
   The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 by Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and West Germany in 1955. The Treaty unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all, to be met by such action as each of them deems necessary, 'including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   The Paris Agreements of 1954, added a Protocol to the Treaty, strengthening the structure of NATO, and revised the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which now includes Italy and West Germany in addition to its original members (Benelux countries, Britain and France).
   The Brussels Treaty signatories are committed to give one another 'all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' if they are the subject of 'armed aggression in Europe'. Since 1969 members of the Atlantic Alliance can withdraw on one year's notice; the Brussels Treaty was signed for 50years.
  
   Organization
   The Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty is known as NATO. The governing body of the alliance, the North Atlantic Council, which has its headquarters in Brussels, consists of the Ministers of the fifteen member-countries, who normally meet twice a year, and, in permanent session, of ambassadors representing each government.
   In 1966, France left the integrated military organization and the 14-nation Defence Planning Committee (DPC), on which France does not sit, was formed. It meets at the same levels as the Council and deals with questions related to NATO's integrated military planning and other matters in which France does not participate. The Secretary-General and an international staff advise on the politico-military, financial, economic and scientific aspects of defence planning.
   Two permanent bodies for nuclear planning were established in 1966. The first, the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC) is open to all NATO members (France, Iceland and Luxembourg do not take part): it normally meets at Defence Minister level once or twice a year, to associate non-nuclear members in the nuclear affairs of the alliance. The Secretary-General is Chairman of the NDAC.
   The second, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG), derived from and subordinate to the NDAC, has eight members, and is intended to go further into the details of topics raised there. The members in June 1971 were Britain, Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Turkey and the United States (Belgium, Denmark and Greece had participated earlier). The Secretary-General also chairs the NPG.
   The Council's military advisors are the Military Committee, which gives policy direction to the NATO military commands. The Military Committee consists of the Chiefs of Staff of all member countries, except France, which maintains a liaison staff, and Iceland, which is not represented; in permanent session, the Chiefs of Staff are represented by Military Representatives who are located in Brussels together with the Council. The Military Committee has an independent Chairman and is served by an integrated, international military staff. The major NATO Commanders are responsible to the Military Committee, although they also have direct access to the Council and heads of Governments.
   The principal military commands of NATO are Allied Command Europe (ACE), Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) and Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN).
   The NATO European and Atlantic Commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System at Omaha, Nebraska, but there is no Alliance Command specifically covering strategic nuclear forces. As for ballistic-missile submarines, the United States has committed a small number and Britain all hers to the planning control of SACEUR, and the United States a larger number to SACLANT.
   The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) have always been American officers; and the Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCCHAN) and Deputy SACEUR and Deputy SACLANT British. SACEUR is also Commander-in-Chief of the United States forces in Europe.
   (i) ALLIED COMMAND EUROPE (ACE) has its headquarters known as SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe), at Casteau, near Mons, in Belgium. It is responsible for the defence of all NATO territory in Europe excluding Britain, France, Iceland and Portugal and of all Turkey. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain.
   The European Command has some 7,000 tactical nuclear warheads in its area. There is a very wide range in the kiloton spectrum. The number of delivery vehicles (aircraft, missiles and howitzers) is about 2,250, spread among all countries, excluding Luxembourg. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained in American custody. Tactical nuclear bombs and missile warheads are all fission. The average yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads, 20 kilotons.
   About 60 division equivalents are available to SACEUR in peacetime. The Command has some 2,900 tactical aircraft, based on about 150 standard NATO airfields and backed up by a system of jointly financed storage depots, fuel pipelines and signal communications. The majority of the land and air forces stationed in the Command are assigned to SACEUR while the naval forces are earmarked.
   The 2nd French Corps of two divisions (which is not integrated in NATO forces) is stationed in Germany under a status agreement reached between the French and German Governments. Cooperation with NATO forces and commands has been agreed between the commanders concerned. The ACE Mobile Force (AMF), has been formed as a NATO force with particular reference to the northern or south-eastern flanks. Found by eight countries, it consists of eight infantry battalion groups, an armoured reconnaissance squadron and ground-support fighter squadrons, but has no air transport of its own.
   The following Commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has command of both the land forces and the air forces in the Central European Sector. Its headquarters are at Brunssum, Netherlands, and its Commander (CINCENT) is a German general.
   The forces of the Central European Command include 21 divisions assigned by Belgium, Britain, Canada, West Germany, the Netherlands and the United States and about 1,700 tactical aircraft.
   The Command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) and Central Army Group (CENTAG). NORTHAG, responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen Liege axis, includes the Belgian, British and Dutch divisions, four German divisions and is supported by 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force (ATAF), composed of Belgian, British, Dutch and German units. The American forces, seven German divisions and the Canadian battle group are under the Central Army Group, supported by the 4th ATAF which includes American, German and Canadian units, and an American Army Air Defense Command.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas, Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Denmark, Norway, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. The Commander has always been a British General. Most of the Danish and Norwegian land, sea and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division, two combat air wings and her Baltic fleet.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters at Naples, and its Commander (CINCSOUTH) has always been an American admiral. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece and Turkey, and for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and the Turkish territorial waters of the Black Sea. The formations available include 14 divisions from Turkey, 12 from Greece and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other formations from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as have the United States 6th Fleet, and naval forces of Greece, Italy, Turkey and Britain. The ground-defence system is based on two separate commands: Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, under an Italian Commander, and South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey, under an American Commander. There is, however, an overall air command and there is a single naval command (NAVSOUTH), responsible to AFSOUTH with its headquarters in Malta.
   A special air surveillance unit, Maritime Air Forces Mediterranean (MARAIRMED), is now operating Italian, British and American patrol aircraft from bases in Greece, Turkey, Sicily, Malta and Italy. French aircraft are participating in these operations. Its Commander, an American rear admiral, is immediately responsible to CINCSOUTH.
   The Allied On-Call Naval Force for the Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED) has consisted of at least three destroyers, contributed by Italy, Britain and the United States, and three smaller ships provided by other Mediterranean countries, depending upon the area of operation.
   (ii) ALLIED COMMAND ATLANTIC (ACLANT) has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia, and is responsible for the North Atlantic area from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer, including Portuguese coastal waters.
   In the event of war, its duties are to participate in the strategic strike and to protect sea communications. There are no forces assigned to the command in peacetime except Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT), which normally consists, at any one time, of four destroyer type ships. However, for training purposes and in the event of war, forces which are predominantly naval are earmarked for assignment by Britain, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal and the United States. There are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT. There are five subordinate commands: Western Atlantic Command, Eastern Atlantic Command, Iberian Atlantic Command, Striking Fleet Atlantic and Submarine Command. The nucleus of the Striking Fleet Atlantic has been provided by the American 2nd Fleet with up to six attack carriers; their nuclear role is shared with the missile-firing submarines.
   (iii) ALLIED COMMAND CHANNEL (ACCHAN) has its headquarters at Northwood near London. The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, Britain and the Netherlands are earmarked for this Command, as are some maritime aircraft. There are arrangements for co-operation with French naval forces.
  
   Policy
   The political and strategic guidance laid down in 1967 includes the concept of political warning time in a crisis and the possibility of distinguishing between an enemy's military capabilities and his political intentions. The strategic doctrine defined by the DPC in December 1967 envisaged that NATO would meet attacks on its territory with whatever force levels were appropriate. In June 1968 at the Ministerial Meeting at Reykjavik, the Council called on the countries of the Warsaw Pact to join in discussions of mutual force reductions, reciprocal and balanced in scope and timing, and repeated this invitation at their meeting in Rome in 1970.
  

СЕВЕРОАТЛАНТИЧЕСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Договор
   Североатлантический договор был подписан в 1949 году Бельгией, Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Францией, Исландией, Италией, Люксембургом, Нидерландами, Норвегией, Португалией и Соединенными Штатами. Греция и Турция присоединились в 1952 году, а Западная Германия в 1955 году. Договорившиеся страны объединения Западной Европы и Северной Америки взяли на себя обязательство консультироваться друг с другом, если один из участников находится под угрозой, и рассматривать вооруженное нападение на одну страну как нападение на всех, когда должны быть выполнены такие действия, какие каждый из них сочтет необходимым, включая применение вооруженной силы с целью восстановления и последующего сохранения безопасности Североатлантического региона.
   Парижские соглашения 1954 года добавили протокол к Договору, укрепив структуру NATO, и пересмотрели Брюссельский договор 1948 года, который теперь включает Италию и Западную Германию в дополнение к его первоначальным членам (страны Бенилюкса, Великобритания и Франция).
   Стороны, подписавшие Брюссельский договор, обязуются оказывать друг другу "всю военную и иную помощь и содействие, какое в их власти", если они являются объектом "вооруженной агрессии в Европе". С 1969 года члены Атлантического Cоюза могут выйти из него с уведомлением за один год; Брюссельский договор был подписан на 50 лет.
  
   Организация
   Организация Североатлантического договора известного как NATO. Руководящий орган Североатлантического союза -Североатлантический совет, штаб-квартира которого находится в Брюсселе, состоит из министров пятнадцати стран-членов, которые обычно встречаются два раза в год, и послов, представляющих каждое правительство, на постоянных сессиях.
   В 1966 году Франция покинула объединенную военную организацию, и был создан 14-национальный комитет по оборонному планированию (DPS), в состав которого Франция не входит. Он заседает на тех же уровнях, что и Совет, и занимается вопросами, связанными с комплексным военным планированием NATO и другими вопросами, в которых Франция не участвует. Генеральный секретарь и международный персонал консультируют по военно-политическим, финансовым, экономическим и научным аспектам оборонного планирования.
   В 1966 году были созданы два постоянных органа по ядерному планированию. Во-первых, Комитет по вопросам ядерной обороны (NDAC) открыт для всех членов NATO (Исландия, Люксембург и Франция не принимают в нем участия): он обычно собирается на уровне министров обороны один или два раза в год, чтобы привлечь неядерных членов к участию в ядерных делах Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь является председателем NDAC.
   Во-вторых, группа ядерного планирования (NGP), созданная на основе NDAC и подчиняющаяся ему, состоит из восьми членов и призвана углубиться в детали затронутых там тем. Членами в июне 1971 года были Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Италия, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Турция и Соединенные Штаты (Бельгия, Дания и Греция участвовали ранее). Генеральный секретарь также председательствует в NPG.
   Военные советники Совета являются военным комитетом, который осуществляет политическое руководство военным командованиям NATO. Военный комитет состоит из начальников штабов всех государств-членов, за исключением Франции, которая имеет персонал связи, и Исландии, которая не представлена; на постоянной сессии начальники штабов представлены военными представителями, которые находятся в Брюсселе вместе с Советом. Военный комитет имеет независимого председателя и обслуживается интегрированным международным военным персоналом. Главные командующие NATO несут ответственность перед Военным комитетом, хотя они также имеют прямой доступ к Совету и главам правительств.
   Главным военным командованием NATO подчинены командования ОВС NATO в Европе (ACE), командование NATO на Атлантике (ACLANT) и союзное командование канала (ACCHAN).
   Европейское и Атлантическое командования NATO участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, штат Небраска, но нет командования Североатлантического союза, специально охватывающего стратегические ядерные силы. Что касается подводных лодок с баллистическими ракетами, то США передали небольшое количество, и Британия все свои под управление планирования SACEUR, и Соединенные Штаты большее число в ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике.
   Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС NATO в Европе (SACEUR) и Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС NATO Атлантике (ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике) всегда были американскими офицерами, а командующий Канала (CINCCHAN) и заместитель верховного главнокомандующего и заместитель ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике английские. SACEUR также является Главнокомандующим Вооруженными силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе.
  
   (i) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ В ЕВРОПЕ (ACE), имеет штаб-квартиру, известную под названием SHAPE (Верховный штаб союзных держав в Европе), находится в Касто, недалеко от Монса, в Бельгии. Он отвечает за оборону всей территории NATO в Европе, за исключением Великобритании, Франции, Исландии и Португалии, а также всю Турцию. Он также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Великобритании.
   Европейское командование имеет около 7000 тактических ядерных боеголовок в своем районе. Существует очень широкий спектр килотонн. Количество средств доставки (самолетов, ракет и гаубиц) составляет около 2250, распределенных между всеми странами, за исключением Люксембурга. Однако сами ядерные заряды находятся под американским контролем. Тактические ядерные бомбы и ракетные боеголовки на принципе деления. Средняя мощность бомб, накопленных в Европе для использования тактической авиации NATO, составляет около 100 килотонн, и ракетных боеголовок, 20 килотонн.
   Около 60 эквивалентных дивизий доступны для SACEUR в мирное время. Командование располагает 2900 тактическими самолетами, базирующимися примерно на 150 стандартных аэродромах NATO и обеспеченных системой совместно финансируемых складов, топливопроводов и сигнальной связи. Большая часть сухопутных и военно-воздушных сил, дислоцированных в командовании, закреплена за SACEUR, а военно-морские силы назначаются в подчинение.
   2-й французский корпус из двух дивизий (который не интегрирован в силы NATO) дислоцируется в Германии в соответствии с соглашением о статусе, достигнутым между правительствами Франции и Германии. Между соответствующими командующими было согласовано сотрудничество с силами и командованиями NATO. Мобильные силы ACE (AMF) были сформированы в качестве сил NATO с особым акцентом на северные или юго-восточные фланги. Набранные в восьми странах, они состоят из восьми пехотных батальонных групп, бронетанкового разведывательного эскадрона и эскадрилий истребителей наземного обеспечения, но не имеет собственного воздушного транспорта.
   В подчинении командования ОВС NATO в Европе находятся:
   (a) Союзные силы в Центральной Европе (AFCENT) включают как сухопутные, так и военно-воздушные силы в центрально-европейском секторе. Штаб-квартира находится в Брунссуме, Нидерланды, а командующий (CINCENT) - немецкий генерал.
   Силы Центрально-европейского командования включают 21 дивизию, выделенные Бельгией, Великобританией, Канадой, Западной Германией, Нидерландами и Соединенными Штатами, и около 1700 тактических самолетов.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную группу армий (NORTHAG) и Центральную группу армий (CENTAG). NORTHAG, ответственна за оборону сектора к северу от оси Геттинген-Льеж, включает бельгийские, британские и голландские дивизии, четыре немецкие дивизии и поддерживается 2-й Союзной тактической авиацией (ATAF), в составе бельгийских, британских, голландских и немецких подразделений. Американские войска, семь немецких дивизий и канадская боевая группа находятся в Центральной группе армий, поддерживаемой 4-м ATAF, которая включает в себя американские, немецкие и канадские подразделения, а также командование ПВО американской армии.
   (b) Союзные Силы в Северной Европе (AFNORTH) имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе, Норвегия, и отвечают за оборону Дании, Норвегии, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и Балтийских проходов. Командующий всегда был британским генералом. Большая часть сухопутных, морских и тактических военно-воздушных сил Дании и Норвегии предназначена для него, и большая часть их активных резервов закреплена за ним. Германия выделила одну дивизию, два боевых воздушных крыла и свой Балтийский флот.
   (c) Союзные Силы в Южной Европе (AFSOUTH), штаб-квартира в Неаполе, а их командующий (CINCSOUTH) всегда был американским адмиралом. Он отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции, а также за охрану коммуникаций в Средиземном море и турецких территориальных водах Черного моря. В состав входят 14 дивизий из Турции, 12 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие формирования из этих трех стран предназначены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот Соединенных Штатов и военно-морские силы Греции, Италии, Турции и Великобритании. Система наземной обороны имеет два отдельных командования: Южное, включающее Италию и подходы к ней, под командованием итальянского командующего, и Юго-Восточное, включающее Грецию и Турцию, под командованием американского командующего. Существует, однако, общее воздушное командование, и есть одно военно-морское командование (NAVSOUTH), ответственное за AFSOUTH со штабом на Мальте.
   Специальное подразделение воздушного наблюдения Военно-Морских Сил Средиземноморья (MARAIRMED) в настоящее время использует итальянские, британские и американские патрульные самолеты с баз в Греции, Турции, Сицилии, Мальте и Италии. Французская авиация участвует в этих операциях. Его командующий, американский контр-адмирал, ответственен перед CINCSOUTH.
   Союзные военно-морские силы по вызову для Средиземноморья (NAVOCFORMED) состояли, по крайней мере, из трех эсминцев, предоставленных Италией, Великобританией и Соединенными Штатами, и трех меньших кораблей, предоставленных другими средиземноморскими странами, в зависимости от района операции.
  
   (ii) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ НА АТЛАНТИКЕ (ACLANT) имеет штаб-квартиру в Норфолке, штат Виржиния, и отвечает за Североатлантический район от Северного полюса до Тропика Рака, включая прибрежные воды Португалии.
   В случае войны в его обязанности входит участие в стратегическом ударе и защита морских коммуникаций. В мирное время командованию не назначаются никакие силы, кроме постоянных Военно-Морских Сил Атлантики (STANAVFORLANT), которые обычно состоят из четырех кораблей класса эсминец. Однако для целей подготовки и в случае войны силы, которые в основном являются военно-морскими, выделяются Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Нидерландами, Португалией и Соединенными Штатами. Есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике. Есть пять подчиненных командований: командование Западной Атлантики, командование Восточной Атлантики, командование Иберийской Атлантики, Ударный флот Атлантики и командование подводного флота. Ядро ударного флота Атлантики было обеспечено американским 2-м флотом до 6 ударных авианосцев; их ядерная роль поделена с подводными лодками ракетоносцами.
  
   (iii) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ В КАНАЛЕ (ACCHAN), штаб-квартира находится в Нортвуде, недалеко от Лондона. Роль командования канала в военное время заключается в осуществлении контроля над проливом Ла-Манш и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из малых военных кораблей Бельгии, Великобритании и Нидерландов, а также некоторые морские самолеты предназначены для этого командования. Есть договоренности о сотрудничестве с французскими военно-морскими силами.
  
   Политика
   Политическое и стратегическое руководство, сформулированное в 1967 году, включает концепцию времени политического предупреждения в условиях кризиса и возможность проведения различия между военным потенциалом противника и его политическими намерениями. Стратегическая доктрина, определенная DPC в декабре 1967 года, предусматривала, что NATO будет отвечать на нападения на своей территории с использованием любых соответствующих сил. В июне 1968 года на совещании министров в Рейкьявике совет призвал страны Варшавского договора присоединиться к обсуждению вопроса о взаимных сокращениях сил, взаимных и сбалансированных по охвату и срокам, и повторил это предложение на своем совещании в Риме в 1970 году.
  
   BELGIUM
Population: 9,800,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 96,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $24.9 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 29,700 million francs ($594,000,000). 50 francs=$l.
Army: 71,500.
   2 mechanized divisions of 2 brigades each.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   2 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   2 SAM battalions with HA WK.
   4 squadrons with Alouette II and Do-27.
   330 Leopard and 175 M-47 med tanks; 135 M-41 lt tanks; M-75 and AMX-VTT APC;
   M-108 105mm, M-44 and M-109 155mm and M-55 203mm SP howitzers; 203mm howitzers.
RESERVES: 1 mech bde and 1 motorized bde.
Navy: 5,000.
   5 fleet minesweepers/minehunters.
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   10 coastal minesweepers/minehunters.
   10 inshore minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   2 S-58 and 3 Alouette III helicopters.
RESERVES: 3,000 trained
Air Force: 20,000; 175 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 18-25 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   (The F-84F and RF-84F are being replaced by Mirage-VB.)
   33 C-119 and 18C-47, Pembroke and DC-6 tpts.
   11 HSS-1 helicopters.
   8 SAM squadrons with Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces: 13,500 Gendarmerie.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 56,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 380,900 (including 16,300 enlisted outside Britain).
Estimated GNP 1970: S121 billion.
Defence budget 1971/72: £2,545 million ($6,108 million). £l=$2.40.
Strategic Forces
   4 SSBN each with 16 Polaris A-3 missiles.
   The Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales provides early warning of missile threats.
Army: 185,300 (including 14,200 enlisted outside Britain).
   12 armoured regiments.
   5 armoured car regiments.
   43 infantry battalions.
   3 parachute battalions.
   6 Gurkha battalions.
   1 special air service (SAS) regiment.
   3 regts with Honest John SSM and 203mm howitzers.
   24 other artillery regiments.
   1 SAM regiment with Thunderbird.
   14 engineer regiments.
   59 of the above units are organized in 2 armoured, 12 infantry, 1 parachute and 1 Gurkha brigades.
EQUIPMENT: 900 Chieftain and Centurion med tanks;
   105mm Abbot and M-107 175mm SP guns; M-109 155mm SP howitzers: 203mm howitzers; Honest John SSM;
   Vigilant and Swingfire ATGW;
   light aircraft and 30 Scout helicopters.
DEPLOYMENT:
The Strategic Reserve - includes 1 div of 3 airportable bdes and 2 parachute bns of the United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF),
   and the SAS regiment.
Germany - British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), of 54,900, includes
   3 div HQ, 1 mech and 5 armd bdes, 2 armd car regts, 2 arty bdes and the Thunderbird SAM regt.
   In Berlin there is 1 3,000-strong brigade.
Far East (excl Hong Kong) - By the end of 1971 the force will be reduced to 1 bn gp in Singapore, and 1 Gurkha bn in Brunei.
Hong Kong - 5 inf bns, 1 arty regt.
Persian Gulf- 2 inf bns and support units (until end of 1971).
Cyprus -UNFICYP: 1 inf bn and 1 air portable recce sqn. Garrison: 1 inf bn and 1 armd car sqn.
Malta - 1 inf bn and 1 coy gp.
Gibraltar - 1 inf bn.
The Caribbean - 1 coy gp and eng det.
RESERVES: 118,200 Regular Reserves. 49,000 Volunteer reserves.
Navy: 84,600 (including Fleet Air Arm and Marines).
Submarines, attack:
   2 nuclear-powered (SSN) (2 more are due to enter service in 1971-72);
   17 diesel-powered.
Surface Ships
   2 aircraft carriers.
   2 commando carriers.
   2 assault ships.
   1 GM cruiser with Seacat SAMs.
   1 GM destroyer with Seadart SAM.
   6 GM destroyers with Seaslug and Seacat SAM.
   2 other destroyers.
   29 general purpose (GP) frigates.
   19 ASW frigates.
   4 AA and 3 aircraft direction frigates.
   47 MCM ships.
Ships in reserve or undergoing refit or conversion include (in addition to the above):
   2 SSN, 9 diesel submarines,
   1 commando carrier,
   2 GM cruisers,
   1 GM destroyer, 1 other destroyer,
   6 GP frigates, 3 ASW frigates, 1 aircraft direction frigate.
THE FLEET AIR ARM: 96 combat aircraft. (a combat squadron has 12 aircraft.)
   2 strike squadrons with Buccaneer.
   2 air defence sqns with F-4K.
   4 air defence sqns with Sea Vixen.
   8 helicopter sqns with Wessex.
   3 helicopter sqns with Sea King.
   3 helicopter sqns with Wasp and Whirlwind.
THE ROYAL MARINES total about 8,000 men, and include 4 800-men Commandos.
RESERVES (naval and marines): 24,200 regular and 7,800 volunteers.
Air Force: 111,000; about 500 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 6-12 aircraft.)
   8 medium bomber squadrons with Vulcan.
   2 light bomber squadrons with Canberra.
   3 strike squadrons with Buccaneer.
   6 strike/attack/reconnaissance squadrons with F-4M.
   1 ground-attack squadron with Hunter.
   4 close support squadrons with Harrier.
   9 air defence squadrons with Lightning.
   1 air defence squadron with F-4K.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Victor 2.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with Canberra.
   2 maritime patrol squadrons with Nimrod.
   6 maritime patrol squadrons with Shackleton.
   3 tanker squadrons with Victor.
   4 strategic tpt squadrons with VC-10, Belfast and Britannia.
   8 tactical tpt sqns with Hercules and Argosy.
   2 light communication squadrons with Andover.
   7 helicopter squadrons with Wessex and Whirlwind.
   (SA-330 Puma are entering service.)
   There are 11 ground defence and AD squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, some with Bloodhound and Tigercat SAM,
   and L-40/70 AA guns. (Rapier SAM are being introduced.)
DEPLOYMENT - The Royal Air Force includes 2 operational home commands - Strike Command and Air Support Command,
   and 4 smaller overseas commands - RAF Germany, Near East Air Force, Air Force Gulf and Far East Air Force.
   Squadrons are deployed overseas as follows:
Germany: 8,600. 4 F-4; 1 Buccaneer (a second is due to form during 1971);
   2 Canberra, 2 Lightning; 2 Harrier (a third is due to form by the end of 1971); 1 Wessex.
Near East: (a) Cyprus. 2 Vulcan; 1 Lightning; 1 Hercules,
   (b) Malta. 1 Shackleton (converting to Nimrod); 1 Canberra.
Gulf: 1 Hunter; 1 Shackleton; 1 Argosy; 1 Andover; 1 Wessex. (Until the end of 1971.)
Far East: (a) mid-1971. 1 Lightning; 1 Shackleton; 1 Hercules; 1 Whirlwind,
   (b) after 1971 some Nimrod aircraft and Whirlwind helicopters, based on Singapore.
RESERVES: 32,800 regular; about 400 volunteer.
  
   CANADA
Population: 21,700,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 85,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $US 78.2 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: $Canl, 822,500,000 ($US l,687,500,000).
   $Can 1.08=1 $US.* (* The exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate since 1 June 1970.)
The Canadian Armed Services have been unified since February 1968, but for purpose of comparison with other countries,
   are presented here in traditional form.
Army (Land): 33,000.
IN CANADA: Mobile Command.
   1 airborne regiment.
   3 combat groups each comprising:
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 reconnaissance regiment.
   1 reduced light artillery regiment (of 2 batteries).
   Support units.
   1 group is intended for operations in Europe, while part of it, an air transportable battalion group, is assigned to Allied Command Europe
   (ACE) Mobile Force. The other groups contribute to North American ground defence, and UN commitments.
IN EUROPE: 1 mechanized battle group of about 2,800 men, with
   32 Centurion tanks, 375 M-113 APC and 18 M-109 155mm SP howitzers.
IN CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 460 men.
RESERVES: about 18,000.
Navy (Maritime): 15,000.
   4 submarines.
   9 helicopter destroyer escorts.
   11 ASW destroyer escorts.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   1 ASW hydrofoil.
   3 support ships.
The Maritime Air Element consists of:
   4 maritime patrol squadrons with Argus.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with Tracker aircraft.
   1 ASW squadron with Sea King helicopters.
RESERVES: about 2,900.
Air Force (Air): 37,000; 162 combat aircraft. (A squadron has 6-18 aircraft.)
IN CANADA:
Mobile Command:
   2 CF-5 tactical fighter squadrons.
   6 helicopter squadrons.
Air Defence Command:
   3 interceptor squadrons with CF-101 (due to be replaced in 1971 by F-101C).
   2 SAM squadrons with Bomarc B.
   28 surveillance and control radar squadrons.
   (The above are assigned to NORAD.)
   1 CF-100 electronic warfare training squadron.
Air Transport Command:
   1 sqn with Boeing 707-320C transport/tankers.
   2 sqns with C-130E Hercules.
   2 sqns with CC-115 Buffalo and CC-138 Twin Otter.
   2 sqns with Buffalo, and CH-113 Labrador helicopters.
   1 sqn with CC-106 Yukon.
   1 sqn with CC-109 Cosmopolitan, and Falcon.
IN EUROPE: 2 strike-attack and 1 reconnaissance squadrons, with CF-104.
RESERVES: 800.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,990,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 40,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $16.0 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 3,077,100,000 kroner ($410,300,000). 7.5 kroner=$1.
Army: 24,000.
   4 armoured infantry brigades.
   1 battalion group.
   3 artillery battalions.
   Centurion med tanks; M-41 lt tanks; M-113 APC;
   M-109 155mm SP howitzers; 203mm howitzers;
   Honest John SSM* (*There are no nuclear warheads on Danish soil.);
   12 Hughes 500M hel.
RESERVES: 40,000.
   2 armd inf bdes and support units to be formed from reservists within 72 hours.
   Local defence units form 15 inf bn gps and 15 arty btys.
   Volunteer Home Guard 52,000.
Navy: 6,500.
   6 submarines.
   2 fast frigates.
   4 helicopter frigates (fishery protection).
   4 coastal escorts.
   16 fast torpedo boats.
   16 patrol boats (7 less than 100 tons).
   4 fleet minelayers.
   3 coastal minelayers.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   8 Alouette III helicopters.
RESERVES: 3,000. Volunteer Home Guard 4,000 with small patrol boats.
Air Force: 10,000; 112 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 16 aircraft.)
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-35XD Draken.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D/F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with Hunter.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F (converting to RF-35 Draken during 1971).
   1 transport squadron with C-47 and C-54.
   1 SAR squadron with S-61 helicopters.
   4 SAM squadrons with Nike-Hercules.
   4 SAM squadrons with HAWK.
RESERVES: Volunteer Home Guard - 8,000.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 51,225,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 501,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $148 billion.
   Defence Budget 1971: 28,873 million francs ($5,202,000,000). 5.55 francs=$l.
Strategic Forces
IRBM: the first 9-missile squadron is due to become operational during 1971*.(*It became operational on 2 August 1971.)
SLBM: the first 16-missile SSBN is due to become operational during 1971 (5 SSBN are due to be built in all.)
Aircraft: Bombers: 36 Mirage IVA in 9 squadrons.
   Tankers: 9 KC-135F in 3 squadrons.
Army: 329,000.
   5 mechanized divisions.
   1 parachute division (2 brigades).
   1 airportable motorized brigade.
   2 Alpine brigades.
   4 armoured car regiments.
   2 motorized infantry regiments.
   1 parachute battalion.
   25 infantry battalions.
   5 SSM battalions with Honest John.*
   (*The nuclear warheads held under double-key arrangements with the USA were withdrawn in 1966.)
   The tactical nuclear SSM Pluton is due to enter service in 1973.
   3 SAM regiments with HAWK.
   M-47 and about 575 AMX-30 med tanks; AMX-13 lt tanks;
   EBR hy and AML lt armd cars; VTT-AMX APC; SP AMX 105mm guns and 155mm howitzers;
   30mm twin SP AA guns; SS-1l/Harpon ATGW.
DEPLOYMENT:
Strategic Reserve: permanent element includes the para div and the air-portable bde.
Germany: About 62,000 incl two mech divs; 4 SSM regts with Honest John. About 1,700 in West Berlin.
French Territory of the Afars and Issas: 2 battalions.
Elsewhere in Africa: about 4,000 (see p. 64).
Pacific Territories: 2 battalions.
Caribbean: 1 battalion.
   The remaining troops are stationed in France for local defence (DOT).
   Their peacetime strength is about 61,500 men, including 35 battalions (infantry, light armour, artillery and engineer).
RESERVES: Mobilization would bring the DOT up to a total of 80 infantry battalions, 5 armoured car regiments and support units.
Navy: 68,500 (including Naval Air Force).
   19 attack submarines.
   2 aircraft carriers.
   1 helicopter/aircraft carrier.
   1 helicopter carrier.
   2 assault landing ships.
   1 anti-aircraft/command cruiser.
   16 destroyers (4 GM, with Tartar SAM).
   3 GM frigates with Malafon ASW missiles (2 with Masurca SAM).
   27 frigates.
   14 coastal escorts.
   14 fleet minesweepers.
   60 coastal minesweepers.
   15 inshore minesweepers.
   5 landing ships.
   12 landing craft.
NAVAL AIRFORCE: 12,000; 200 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter-bomber sqns with Etendard IV-M.
   2 interceptor sqns with F-8F.
   3 reconnaissance sqns with Etendard 1V-P.
   3 ASW sqns with Alize.
   (All the above can be flown from aircraft carriers.)
   5 maritime recce sqns with Atlantic and P-2.
   1 ASW helicopter sqn with Super-Frelon.
   2 helicopter sqns with Alouette II/III.
DEPLOYMENT: For naval elements overseas see p. 64.
Air Force: 104,000; 500 combat aircraft.
Air Defence Command (CAFDA) has:
   3 interceptor squadrons with Mirage IIIC.
   2 AWX interceptor squadrons with Vautour IIN.
   3 interceptor squadrons with Super-Mystere B2.
   (Co-ordination is by the automatic STRIDA II air defence system.)
Tactical Air Force (FATAC) has: 2 subordinate
   Tactical Air Commands-1st CATAC and 2nd CATAC and includes:
   8 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage IIIE.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with Mirage IIIB.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mystere IVA.
   3 tactical recce squadrons with Mirage IIIR/RD.
Air Transport Command (COTAM) has:
   3 tactical transport squadrons with Transall.
   4 tactical transport squadrons with Noratlas.
   1 heavy transport squadron with DC-6 and Br-765Sahara and 2 mixed transport squadrons.
   4 squadrons with H-34 and Alouette II helicopters.
DEPLOYMENT: 1 squadron of A-1D and 1 mixed transport squadron are stationed in the French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
   Other air elements overseas are shown on p. 64.
Para-Military Forces: 65,000 Gendarmerie and
   85,000 reserves (subordinate to the Ministry of Defence).
   15,000 CRS (Compagnies Republicqinesde Securite) (subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior).
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 60,000,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 18 months. (*A Government Commission has proposed a reduction to 16 months.)
Total armed forces: 467,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $185 billion.
Defence budget 1971: DM 21,816 million ($5,961 million). DM 3.66= $1.
   (The exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate since 9 May 1971)
Army: 327,000 (including the 35,000 Territorial Force).
   12 armoured brigades.
   1 armoured regiment.
   13 armoured infantry brigades.
   3 rifle brigades.
   2 mountain brigades.
   3 airborne brigades.
   11 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   4 SSM battalions with Sergeant.
   1,050 M-48A2 Patton and 2,250 Leopard med
   tanks; 1,770 HS-30 and 3,140 M-113 APC;
   1,100 tank destroyers with 90mm guns or ATK msls;
   250 105mm, 375 155mm, 150 175mm and 75 203mm SP guns;
   500 SP 40mm AA guns;
   about 460 Bell-47, UH-1D Iroquois and Alouette II helicopters, and 80 Do-27 light aircraft.
RESERVES: 540,000 on immediate recall.
Navy: 36,000 (including Naval Air Arm).
   11 coastal submarines.
   3 GM destroyers with Tartar SAM.
   9 destroyers.
   6 fast frigates.
   2 frigates.
   5 fleet utility vessels.
   13 escort and support ships.
   24 coastal minesweepers/minehunters.
   30 fast minesweepers.
   18 inshore minesweepers.
   2 minelayers.
   40 fast patrol boats.
   2 landing ships.
   22 landing craft.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 6,000; 100 combat aircraft.
   4 fighter-bomber/recce squadrons with F-104G.
   2 MR squadrons with BR-1150 Atlantic.
   23 S-58 SAR helicopters, being replaced by SH-3D.
RESERVES: 36,000 on immediate recall.
Air Force: 104,000; 504 combat aircraft.
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 It ground-attack/strike squadrons with G-91.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   4 heavy reconnaissance squadrons with RF-104G (replacement with RF-4E Phantom II has started).
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with G-91.
   6 transport squadrons with C-160 Transall.
   4 helicopter squadrons with UH-1D.
   (Fighter, fighter-bomber, reconnaissance and light strike squadrons have 15-21 aircraft, and tpt squadrons up to 18.)
   3 SSM battalions with Pershing.
   24 SAM batteries with Nike-Hercules.
   36 SAM batteries with HAWK.
RESERVES: 87,000 for immediate recall.
Para-Military Forces: 18,500 Border Police with Saladin armoured cars and coastal patrol boats.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,960,000.
Military service: 24 months.
Total armed forces: 159,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $9.2 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971:10,138 million drachmas ($337,900,000). 30 drachmas= $1.
Army: 118,000.
   11 infantry divisions (3 close to full strength).
   1 armoured division.
   1 commando brigade.
   2 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   200 M-47, 220 M-48 and 50 AMX-30 med tanks;
   M-24, M-26 and M-41 lt tanks; M-8 and M-20 armd cars; M-3 scout cars; M-2, M-59 and M-113 APC;
   105mm, 155mm and M-107 175mm SP guns; 105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers;
   40mm, 75mm and 90mm AA guns.
Navy: 18,000.
   2 submarines (4 more to be delivered by West Germany).
   8 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   7 coastal patrol vessels.
   2 minelayers.
   20 coastal minesweepers.
   12 fast torpedo boats (less than 100 tons) (4 FPB, with Exocet SSM, are on order from France, the first due for delivery in 1971).
   8 tank landing ships.
   6 medium landing ships.
   1 dock landing ship.
   8 landing craft.
   8 HU-16 maritime patrol aircraft.
Air Force: 23,000; 216 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has up to 18 aircraft.)
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-102A.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-5.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   30 C-47 and C-119G, and 25 Noratlas tpts.
   1 helicopter squadron with 12 H-19 and 6 AB-205.
   1 helicopter squadron with 10 Bell 47G.
   1 SAM battalion with Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces and Reserves: 25,000 Gendarmerie. 200,000 Reserves.
  
   ITALY
Population: 54,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 24 months.
Total armed forces: 414,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Estimated GNP 1970: $93.2 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 1,657 billion lire ($2,651,000,000). 625 lire=$l.
Army: 295,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   1 independent cavalry brigade.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   5 Alpine brigades (of-5,000 men each).
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 SSM brigade (incl 4 bns with Honest John).
   4 SAM battalions with Hawk.
   800 M-47 and 200 M-60 med tanks (deliveries of 800 Leopard have started); M-24 lt tanks;
   M-113 APC; M-44, M-56, M-107 and M-109 SP guns; M-42 SP AA guns.
Navy: 45,000 (incl air arm and marines).
   9 submarines.
   3 GM cruisers with Terrier SAM and ASW helicopters, (one with ASROC ASW missiles).
   2 GM destroyers with Tartar SAM.
   2 destroyer leaders.
   7 ASW destroyers.
   10 destroyer escorts. .
   16 coastal escorts.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   37 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers.
   7 fast patrol boats.
   7 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   1 command ship.
   3 landing ships.
   2 marine infantry battalions.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 3 maritime patrol squadrons with S-2 (due to be replaced by Atlantic by mid-1972),
   HU-16A SAR aircraft and 50 Bell-47, SH-34, AB-204 and SH-3D SAR helicopters.
Air Force: 74,000; 300 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron ('gruppo') has 12-18 aircraft, and a transport squadron 16.)
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with G-91Y.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-84F.
   4 light attack squadrons with G-91R.
   4 AWX squadrons with F-104G.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-104S.
   1 AWX squadrons with F-86K.
   3 recce squadrons with RF-84F and RF-104G.
   3 transport squadrons with C-119 (delivery of 14
   C-130E Hercules is due to begin in 1971).
   1 transport sqn with C-47, Convair 440 and DC-6.
   6 SAM groups with Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces and Reserves: 80,000 Carabinieri Corps. About 650,000 trained reservists.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 342,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 550.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.91 billion.
Defence budget 1971:429,600,000 francs ($8,592,000). 50 francs =$1.
Army: 550.
   A light infantry battalion (4 companies). Some anti-tank guns and mortars.
Para-Military Forces: 350 Gendarmerie.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 13,175,000.
Military service: Army, 16-18 months; Navy and Air Force, 18-21 months.
Total armed forces: 116,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $31.3 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 4,203 million guilders ($1,161,000,000).
   3.62 guilders =$1*. (* The exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate since 9 May1971.)
Army: 76,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   4 armoured infantry brigades.
   2 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   400 Centurion (with 105mm guns) and 200 Leopard med tanks (285 more Leopards are being delivered);
   120 AMX-13 lt tanks;
   M-106, M-113 and M-577 amphibious APC; AMX-VTT and YP-408 APC;
   AMX-105, M-109 155mm, M-107 175mm and M-110 203mm SP howitzers.
RESERVES: 1 inf div, and the remaining corps troops, incl 1 indep inf bde, are to be completed by call-up of reservists.
Nary: 19,000 including 2,900 marines and 2,000 naval air force.
   5 submarines (2 more due to become operational in 1971/72).
   2 cruisers (1 GM with Terrier SAM).
   6 GM frigates with Seacat SAM.
   12 destroyers.
   6 corvettes.
   6 support escorts.
   5 patrol vessels.
   36 coastal minesweepers and minehunters.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   1 fast combat support ship.
NAVAL AIR ARM:
   5 Atlantic, and about 30 P-2 and S-2 MR aircraft.
   15 Wasp, SH-34J and AB-204B ASW helicopters.
Air Force: 21,500; 126 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 18 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with NF-5A.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G.
   1 transport squadron with F-27.
   3 observation and communication squadrons (under Army command) with Alouette III helicopters, and Super-Cub and Beaver l ac.
   8 SAM squadrons with Nike-Hercules.
   9 SAM squadrons with HAWK.
Para-Military Forces: 3,200 Gendarmerie (Royal Marechaussee).
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,915,000.
Military service: Army, 12 months; Navy and Air
   Force, 15 months.
Total armed forces: 35,900.
Estimated GNP 1970: $12.46 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 2,932 million kroner ($410,640,000). 7.14 kroner=$l.
Army: 18,000.
   The peacetime establishment includes
   1 brigade group in North Norway, independent battalions and supporting elements and training units.
   Leopard and M-48 med tanks; M-24 lt tanks and M-8 armd cars; M-113 and BV-202 APC;
   M-109 155mm SP howitzers; L-18 and L-19 lt aircraft.
RESERVES: mobilization would produce 11 Regimental Combat Teams (brigades), supporting units and territorial forces totalling 157,000.
Navy: 8,500 (incl 800 coastal artillery).
   15 coastal submarines.
   5 frigates.
   2 coastal escorts.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 minelayers.
   21 gunboats (refitting with Penguin SSM).
   6 torpedo boats.
   20 torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 armed depot and training ships.
   A number of coastal artillery batteries.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Air Force: 9,400; 121 combat aircraft.
   5 light attack squadrons each with 16 F-5A.
   1 AWX fighter squadron with 20 F-104G.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with 16 RF-5A.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with 5 P-3B.
   1 transport squadron with 6 C-130 and 4C-47.
   2 helicopter squadrons with UH-1.
   4 SAM batteries with Nike-Hercules.
RESERVES: 10,600, providing 12 airfield defence lt AA bns.
   Home Guard (all services): 75,000.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,730,000.
Military service: Army, 24 months; Air Force, 36 months; Navy, 48 months.
Total armed forces: 218,000
   (about 60,000, incl those locally enlisted, are in Angola, 45,000 in Mozambique, and 25,000 in Portuguese Guinea).
Estimated GNP 1970: $6.1 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970:11,444 million escudos ($398,100,000). 28.75 escudos=$l.
Army: 179,000.
   2 tank regiments.
   8 cavalry regiments and battalions.
   35 infantry regiments and battalions.
   17 coastal artillery regiments and battalions.
   M-47 and M-4 med tanks; M-41 lt tanks;
   Humber Mark IV and EBR-75 armd cars; AML-60 scout cars; FV-1609 and M-16 half-track APC;
   105mm and 140mm howitzers.
DEPLOYMENT: Some of the above units form 2 infantry divisions, at or below half-strength, in Portugal.
   About 25 infantry regiments and supporting units are in the provinces in Africa.
Navy: 18,000 (including 3,300 marines).
   4 submarines.
   11 frigates.
   6 corvettes.
   14 coastal patrol vessels.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   41 patrol launches (less than 100 tons).
   5 landing craft (LCT-type).
   58 small landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 21,000; 150 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 10-25 aircraft.)
   2 light bomber sqns with B-26 Invader and PV-2.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-84G.
   2 light-strike squadron with G-91.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-86F.
   6 COIN flights with armed T-6.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with P-2 V5.
   22 Noratlas, 16 C-47, 11 DC-6 and 15 C-45 transports.
   13 T-33, 25 T-37 and 35 T-6 reconnaissance/trainers.
   Other aircraft include 11 Do-27 and about 85 Alouette II/III and SA-330 Puma helicopters.
   1 parachute regiment of 4,000.
DEPLOYMENT: 1 parachute battalion in each of the African provinces.
   1 G-91 squadron in Mozambique.
Para-Military Forces and Reserves: 9,700 National Republican Guard. 500,000 Reserves.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 36,100,000.
Military service: 20 months.
Total armed forces: 508,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $13.7 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 6,695 million liras ($446,000,000). 15 liras=$l (before 9 August 1970 9= $1).
Army: 420,000.
   1 armoured division.
   12 infantry divisions.
   4 armoured brigades.
   4 armoured cavalry brigades.
   1 mechanized infantry division.
   3 mechanized infantry brigades.
   2 parachute battalions.
   M-47 and M-48 med tanks; M-24, M-26 and M-41 lt tanks; M-36 tank destroyers;
   M-8 armd cars; M-59 and M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm SP guns; 105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers;
   40mm, 75mm and 90mm AA guns;
   Honest John SSM.
Navy: 38,500.
   12 submarines.
   10 destroyers.
   6 coastal escorts.
   11 motor torpedo boats (2 less than 100 tons).
   10 motor launches.
   15 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   1 fleet minelayer.
   5 coastal minelayers.
   A number of landing craft.
Air Force: 50,000; 360 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 10-25 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-5.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-86 (in store)
   2 AWX squadrons with F-102A.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   4 tpt sqns incl 50 C-47, 3 C-54 and 5 C-130.
   2 SAM battalions (6 batteries) with Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces: 75,000 Gendarmerie (incl 3 mobile brigades).
  

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

   ALBANIA
Population: 2,190,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 42,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.9 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 580 million leks ($116,000,000). 5 1eks=$1.
Army: 35,000.
   1 tank brigade.
   6 infantry brigades.
   Some light shore batteries.
   70 T-34 and 15 T-54 med tanks; 20 BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-76 SP guns; 122mm and 152mm guns and howitzers; 45mm, 57mm, 76mm and 85mm ATk guns;
   37mm, 57mm and 85mm AA guns; a few SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 3,000.
   4 submarines.
   4 ASW patrol vessels.
   30 MTB and patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   8 inshore minesweepers.
   Some SSM deployed around the ports of Durazzo and Valona.
Air Force: 4,000: 72 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 12 aircraft.)
   3 fighter squadrons with MiG-17.
   2 fighter squadrons with MiG-15.
   1 interceptor squadron with MiG-19.
   1 transport squadron with An-2 and Il-14.
   About 8 Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 37,500.
   Internal security force 12,500. Frontier force 25,000.
  
   AUSTRIA
Population: 7,445,000.
Military service: 9 months (to be reduced to 6 months during 1971). .
Total armed forces: 48,350.
Estimated GNP 1970: $14.3 billion.
Defence budget 1971:S4.283 million ($170,138,000) 24.75 schillings = $1 (before 9 May 1971 26 = $1).
Army: 44,000.
   4 reduced strength infantry brigades.
   3 reduced strength mechanized brigades.
   3 tank battalions.
   3 independent air defence battalions.
   150 M-47 and 120 M-60 med tanks; 40 M-41 and 60 AMX-13 lt tanks; 400 G1-2K APC;
   105mm and 155mm howitzers, and 155mm guns;
   JPz-4K SP ATk guns; 84mm Carl Gustav ATGW;
   130mm rocket launchers;
   38 M-42 SP AA guns; 20mm and 35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors AA guns.
Air Force*: 4,350; 23 combat aircraft.
   (* Austrian air units are an integral part of the Army but for purposes of comparison have been listed separately.)
   17 Saab 105 fighter-bombers.
   6 J-29F Tunnan fighter-bombers.
   35 Magister, Vampire and Safir trainers.
   19 Cessna L-19 light reconnaissance aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with 3 Beaver and 2 Skyvan.
   22 AB-204, 23 Alouette and 12 AB-206 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces:12,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   FINLAND
Population: 4,600,000.
Military service: 8-11 months.
Total armed forces: 39,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $10.3 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 646 million markkaa ($153,800,000). 4.2 markkaa=$l.
Army: 34,000.
   1 armoured brigade (at about half strength).
   6 infantry brigades (at about 35 per cent strength).
   8 independent infantry battalions.
   2 coastal artillery regiments.
   3 coastal artillery battalions.
   1 anti-aircraft regiment.
   4 anti-aircraft battalions.
   T-54, T-55, and Charioteer med tanks; PT-76 lt tanks; BTR-50P APC;
   105mm, 122mm and 130mm guns; 122mm and 152mm howitzers; 81mm and 120mm mortars;
   Vigilant and SS-11 ATGW;
   ZSU-57, 35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors AA guns.
Navy: 2,500.
   3 frigates (1 used as training ship).
   2 corvettes.
   1 patrol boat with Mk66 SSM.
   15 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 coastal minelayers.
   5 patrol boats (ex-inshore minesweepers).
Air Force: 3,000; 48 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter sqns with MiG-21F and Gnat Mark 1.
   12 Magister armed trainers.
   About 100 other trainers, incl 70 Magister, 30 Safir, and a few MiG-15/MiG-21UTI.
   About 10 C-47 and Beaver transports.
   Hound, Alouette II and 4 AB-204B helicopters.
Para-Military Forces and Reserves: 3,000 Frontier defence tps. 650,000 reserves.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 33,600,000.
   Military Service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 301,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $32.3 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 47,724 million pesetas ($681,000,000). 70 pesetas=$1.
Army: 220,000.
   1 armoured division.
   1 mechanized infantry division.
   1 motorized infantry division.
   2 mountain divisions.
   12 independent infantry brigades.
   1 armoured cavalry brigade.
   (All above are about 70 per cent strength.)
   1 high mountain brigade.
   1 airportable brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   2 artillery brigades.
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   M-47 and M-48 med tanks; M-24 and M-41 lt tanks;
   Greyhound armd cars; AML-60/90 and M-3 scout cars; M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm SP guns; 105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers; 90mm SP AT guns.
Navy: 47,500 including 6,000 marines.
   3 submarines.
   1 helicopter carrier.
   1 cruiser.
   16 ASW destroyers.
   3 destroyers.
   8 frigates.
   6 frigate-minelayers.
   6 corvettes.
   1 ASW patrol vessel.
   3 torpedo boats.
   13 fleet minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   8 landing ships.
   3 ASW helicopter squadrons.
   1 light helicopter squadron.
Air Force: 33,500; 221 combat aircraft.
   12 Mirage-IIIE fighter-bombers.
   50 F-5 fighter-bombers.
   55 HA-200 fighter-bombers.
   (36 F-4C fighter-bombers are being delivered.)
   21 F-104G interceptors.
   48 F-86F interceptors.
   25 T-6 armed trainers.
   1 ASW squadron with 11 Hu-16B.
   About 150 transport aircraft and helicopters, including C-47, C-54, 12 Caribou and 20 Azor.
Para-Military Forces:65,000 Guardia Civil
DEPLOYMENT (outside mainland Spain): Total strength: 41,000.
   These include mechanized and commando formations of the Spanish Foreign Legion, elements of 3 divisions and support units.
   Balearic Islands: 6,000.
   Canary Islands: 8,000.
   Ceuta: 8,000 incl 1 regt of the Foreign Legion.
   Melilla: 9,000 incl 1 regt of the Foreign Legion.
   Spanish Sahara: 10,000 incl 2 regts of the Foreign Legion.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 8,125,000.
Military service: Army and Navy, 9-15 months; Air Force, 9-14 months.
Total armed forces: 23,000 regulars and 50,300 conscripts (total mobilizable strength 750,000).
Estimated GNP 1970: $31.2 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 6,165 million Swedish kronor ($1,192,000,000). 5.17 kronor= $1.
Army: 12,500 regulars; 36,500 conscripts; 100,000 reservists called up each year for 18-40 days training.
   7 armoured regiments.
   15 infantry regiments.
   7 artillery regiments.
   6 anti-aircraft artillery regiments.
   1 parachute training unit.
   (All in cadre form.)
   1 SAM battalion with HA WK.
   Centurion and STRV-103 med tanks; STRV-74 lt tanks; IKV-91 amphibious tanks; Pbv-301/-302 APC;
   105mm and 155mm SP howitzers; 155mm SP guns; 105mm and 155mm guns; 75mm, 105mm and 155mm howitzers;
   90mm ATk guns; SS-11, Bantam, Carl Gustav and Miniman ATGW;
   57mm SP, 20mm and 40mm AA guns; Redeye SAM.
Navy: 4,700 regulars; 7,400 conscripts.
   23 submarines.
   2 GM destroyers with Rb-08 SSM.
   4 GM destroyers with Seacat SAM.
   2 other destroyers.
   7 fast anti-submarine frigates.
   17 heavy torpedo boats.
   25 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   1 minelayer/submarine depot ship.
   18 coastal minesweepers.
   17 inshore minesweepers (8 less than 100 tons).
   5 coastal artillery regiments with 75mm, 105mm, 120mm, 152mm and 210mm guns; Rb-08 and Rb-52 (SS-11) SSM.
   10 Vertol and 10 AB-206A helicopters.
Air Force: 5,800 regulars; 6,400 conscripts; 650 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has up to 18 aircraft.)
   10 attack squadrons with A-32A Lansen (with Rb-04 ASM) (replacement by the AJ-37 Viggen is due to start in 1971).
   13 AWX squadrons with J-35 Draken F.
   8 AWX squadrons with J-35 Draken A/D.
   2 recce/fighter squadrons with S-32C.
   3 recce/day-fighter squadrons with S-35E.
   1 transport squadron with 2 C-130E and 7 C-47.
   1 heavy helicopter squadron with 10 Vertol-107.
   6 SAM squadrons with Bloodhound 2.
   There is a fully computerized, fully automatic control and air surveillance system, Stril 60, co-ordinating all air defence components.
Para-Military Forces: Voluntary defence organizations - 325,000, including 90,000 women.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 6,375,000.
Military service: 4 months initial training,
   followed by reservist training of 3 weeks a year for 8 years, 2 weeks for 3 years, and 1 week for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 5,500 regulars and 24,000 conscripts
   (total mobilizable strength 600,000; reservists can be fully mobilized within 48 hours).
Estimated GNP 1970: $20.5 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 1,909,200,000 francs ($459,000,000). 4.08 francs = $1 (before 9 May 1971 4.3= $1).
Army: 2,500 regular training cadre; 17,000 conscripts; 530,500 reservists.
   The militia-style Army is organized into 4 corps.
   1 corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of 3 mountain divisions;
   the other 3 corps, for the defence of the plain, consist of an armoured division and 2 infantry divisions each.
   There are also 17 frontier, fortress and 'redoubt' brigades, and 48 artillery battalions.
   300 Centurion and 150 Pz-61 med tanks; 200 AMX-13 lt tanks;
   1,000 M-113 APC; 155mm SP howitzers; 105mm guns and howitzers; 81mm and 120mm mortars.
Air Force: (including Air Defence troops)*; 3,000 regular; 7,000 conscripts; (A combat squadron has 15 aircraft.)
   40,000 reservists (maintenance by civilians); 315 combat aircraft.
   (* Swiss Air Force and Air Defence Troops are an integral part of the Army, but are listed here separately for purposes of comparison)
   13 ground support squadrons with Venom FB 50.
   2 interceptor squadrons with Mirage-IIIS.
   5 interceptor squadrons with Hunter F-58 (with Sidewinder AAM).
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Mirage-IIIR.
   20 transports including 3 Ju-52/3 and 6 Do-27.
   80 helicopters including 60 Alouette II/III.
   40 AA batteries with Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
   2 SAM battalions with Bloodhound 2.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 20,800,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 233,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $11.8 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 8,838 million dinars ($596,000,000). 15 dinars= $1 (before 23 Jan. 1971 12.5 dinars =$1).
Army: 195,000.
   9 infantry divisions.
   14 armoured brigades.
   31 independent infantry brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 marine infantry brigade.
   T-54/55, T-34, M-47 and 650 M-4 med tanks; PT-76 and 35 AMX-13 lt tanks;
   M-3, BTR-50, BTR-60P and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-100 SP guns; 105mm and 155mm howitzers; 50mm, 57mm, 75mm and 76mm ATK guns;
   SU-57 SP AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 18,000.
   5 submarines.
   1 destroyer.
   3 patrol vessels.
   16 submarine chasers.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers (12 less than 100 tons).
   10 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   67 motor torpedo boats (55 less than 100 tons).
   35 landing craft.
   25 coastal artillery batteries. 50
Air Force: 20,000; 330 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 15 aircraft.)
   10 GA squadrons with F-84, Kraguj and Jastreb.
   10 fighter/interceptor squadrons with F-86D/E and MiG-21F/PF.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with RT-33.
   60 Galeb trainers.
   25 Li-2, Beaver, C-47 and Il-14 transports.
   Whirlwind and Mi-4, and some Alouette III helicopters.
   8 SAM batteries with SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: 19,000 Frontier Guards.
   1,000,000 Territorial defence force (planned to increase to 3,000,000).
  

The Middle East and the Mediterranean

   Multilateral Agreements
   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) are Britain, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, with the United States as an associate. All sit on the Military, Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees and on the Permanent Military Deputies Group. The Treaty provides for mutual co-operation for security and defence but has no international command structure, nor forces allocated to it. For the local powers, the economic organization of Regional Co-operation for Development (RCD), which arose out of CENTO, may today be more important.
   Bilateral Agreements
   A number of external powers have military arrangements with countries in the region. The United States has varying types of security assistance agreements and provides significant military aid on either a grant or credit basis to Greece, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Israel. It provides, in addition, a significant amount of military equipment on a cash sales basis to many countries, notably Israel, Spain and Jordan. For grant military assistance purposes Greece and Turkey are considered forward defence areas and Spain is considered a base rights country. Communication bases are maintained in Morocco under informal arrangements.
   The Soviet Union has a military assistance agreement, concluded in December 1970, and a 15year treaty of friendship and co-operation, signed in May 1971, with the UAR. Important military assistance is also provided to Algeria, Iraq, Sudan and Syria which may be covered by more informal arrangements.
   The People's Republic of China has supplied arms to Albania, and has a treaty of friendship with the Yemen.
   Britain has defence commitments to Cyprus, Gibraltar, and Malta,* (*The Malta and British Governments are discussing the 1964 Defence Agreement with a view to revising its provisions) and has proposed defence arrangements with the lower Gulf States after her withdrawal from the Persian Gulf at the end of 1971. Britain is also an important arms supplier for the Gulf Sheikhdoms, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. France has a pilot training agreement with Morocco but no other formal commitments in the region. The facilities provisions of the Evian agreements with Algeria lapsed at the end of 1970 with the return of the Bou-Sfer airbase to Algeria. France sells arms to a number of countries, notably to Libya.
   Arrangements within the region (between Arab states)
   Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Yemen, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the UAR and Yemen are members of the League of Arab States. Among its subsidiary bodies are the Arab Defence Council set up in 1950 and the Unified Arab Command organized in 1964.
   Defence agreements were concluded by the UAR with Syria in November 1966 and Jordan in May 1967 to which Iraq later acceded. These agreements provided for the establishment of a Defence Council and a Joint Command. The loosely associated Eastern Front Command, comprising Iraq, Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Army and Syria, was reorganized in December 1970 into separate Jordanian and Syrian commands. Iraq and Syria concluded defence pacts in May 1968 and July 1969. The proposed Union of Arab Republics, announced by Libya, Syria, and the UAR in April 1971, would provide for a common defence policy and a Federal Defence Council. Sudan has announced its intention to join.
  

Ближний Восток и Средиземноморье

   Многосторонние договоренности
   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Великобритания, Иран, Пакистан и Турция, с Соединенными Штатами в качестве ассоциированного члена. Имеются военный, экономический и борьбы с подрывной деятельностью комитеты и постоянную военную группу депутатов. Договор предусматривает взаимное сотрудничество в области безопасности и обороны, но не имеет международной структуры командования и выделенных ему сил. Для стран экономическая организация регионального сотрудничества в целях развития (RCD), возникшая в результате деятельности CENTO, может сегодня иметь более важное значение.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   Ряд внешних держав заключили военные соглашения со странами региона. Соединенные Штаты имеют различные виды соглашений об оказании помощи в обеспечении безопасности и предоставляют значительную военную помощь на безвозмездной или кредитной основе Греции, Турции, Португалии, Испании, Марокко, Тунису, Ливану, Иордании, Саудовской Аравии и Израилю. Кроме того, они продают значительное количество военного оборудования многим странам, в частности Израилю, Испании и Иордании. Для целей предоставления военной помощи Греция и Турция считаются передовыми районами обороны, а Испания считается страной с базами. В Марокко базы связи поддерживаются в рамках неофициальных договоренностей.
   Советский Союз имеет соглашение о военной помощи, заключенное в декабре 1970 года, и 15-летний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве, подписанный в мае 1971 года с ОАР. Важная военная помощь оказывается также Алжиру, Ираку, Судану и Сирии, которые могут быть охвачены более неформальными договоренностями.
   Китайская Народная Республика поставила оружие Албании и заключила договор о дружбе с Йеменом.
   Великобритания имеет оборонные обязательства перед Кипром, Гибралтаром и Мальтой* (*правительства Мальты и Великобритании обсуждают оборонное соглашение 1964 года с целью пересмотра его положений) и предложила оборонные договоренности с государствами залива после ее выхода из Персидского залива в конце 1971 года. Великобритания также является важным поставщиком вооружений для шейхств залива, Саудовской Аравии и Иордании. Франция заключила с Марокко экспериментальное соглашение о подготовке кадров, но никаких других официальных обязательств в регионе не взяла. Положения Эвианских соглашений с Алжиром об объектах истекли в конце 1970 года после возвращения Алжиру авиабазы Бу-сфер. Франция продает оружие ряду стран, в частности Ливии.
   Договоренности в регионе (между арабскими государствами)
   Алжир, Ирак, Иордания, Кувейт, Ливан, Ливия, Марокко, Саудовская Аравия, Южный Йемен, Судан, Сирия, Тунис, ОАР и Йемен являются членами Лиги арабских государств. Среди его вспомогательных органов имеется арабский Совет обороны, создано в 1950 году и единое арабское командование организованное в 1964 году.
   Оборонные соглашения были заключены ОАР с Сирией в ноябре 1966 года и Иорданией в мае 1967 года, к которым позднее присоединился Ирак. Эти соглашения предусматривали создание Совета обороны и Объединенного командования. Свободно ассоциированное командование Восточного фронта в составе Ирака, Иордании, Армии Освобождения Палестины и Сирии было реорганизовано в декабре 1970 года в отдельные иорданские и сирийские командования. Ирак и Сирия заключили договоры об обороне в мае 1968 года и июле 1969 года. Предлагаемый Союз арабских республик, объявленный Ливией, Сирией и ОАР в апреле 1971 года, обеспечит общую оборонную политику и Федеральный Совет обороны. Судан объявил о своем намерении присоединиться.
  
   ALGERIA
Population: 14,150,000.
Military service: limited conscription.
Total armed forces: 60,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $4.4 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 490 million dinars ($99,200,000). 4.94 dinars=$1.
Army: 53,000.
   4 motorized infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   3 independent tank battalions.
   50 independent infantry battalions.
   12 companies of desert troops.
   5 independent artillery battalions.
   200 T-34, 200 T-54 and 50 T-55 med tanks; AMX-13 lt tanks;
   350 BTR-152 APC; 25 SU-100 and 6 JSU-152 SP guns;
   85mm guns, 122mm and 152mm howitzers; 140mm and 240mm RL.
Navy: 3,250.
   6 coastal escorts.
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   8 Komar- and 1 Osa-class patrol boats (Styx SSM).
   8 P-6 torpedo boats..
Air Force: 4,000; 142 combat aircraft.
   24 Il-28 light bombers.
   20 MiG-15, 40 MiG-17 FGA.
   30 MiG-21 interceptors.
   28 Magister armed trainers.
   8 An-12 and 3 Il-18 transports.
   3 Mi-1, 40 Mi-4, 7 Hughes-269A and 2 SA-330 helicopters.
   1 SAM battalion with SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: 8,000. Gendarmerie with 50 AML armoured cars.
  
   IRAN
Population: 29,500,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 181,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $10.9 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 77,500 million rials ($1,023,000,000). 75.75 rials=$l.
Army: 150,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   3 infantry divisions.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   1 SAM battalion with HA WK.
   400 M-47 and 460 M-60A1 med tanks; 100 M-24 lt tanks;
   100 M-8 and 140 M-20 armd cars; 300 M-113, 270 BTR-50 and 300 BTR-60 APC;
   75mm, 105mm and 155mm howitzers; 40mm, 57mm and 85mm AA guns.
   8 Huskie helicopters. (Further helicopters are being delivered.)
Navy: 9,000.
   1 destroyer.
   1 frigate (4 with Seacat SAM are being delivered).
   4 corvettes.
   4 patrol boats.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   8 SRN-6 and 2 Wellington hovercraft (less than 100 tons).
   4 landing craft.
Air Force: 22,000; 140 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-4D, with Sidewinder and Sparrow AAM. (32 F-4E are on order).
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5.
   20 F-86 AWX (being phased out).
   9 RT-33 reconnaissance aircraft.
   Transports include 10 C-47, 26 C-130E and 6 Beaver (30 C-130H are being delivered).
   Helicopters include 10 Huskie, 45 AB-205 and 16 Super-Frelon. (Further helicopters are being delivered.)
   Tigercat SAM. (Rapier SAM are on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 40,000. Gendarmerie with 30 AB-206 helicopters.
  
   IRAQ
Population: 9,250,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 95,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $3.12 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970-71:84,700,000 dinars ($237,160,000). 1 dinar=$2.8.
Army: 85,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   4 infantry divisions (each of 4 brigades).
   800 T-54 and T-55, and 60 T-34/85 med tanks; 45 PT-76 lt tanks;
   115 AML armd cars; 60 Ferret scout cars; BTR-152 APC;
   artillery includes 300 Soviet 120mm and 130mm guns.
Navy: 2,000.
   3 submarine chasers.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 8,250; 220 combat aircraft.
   9 Tu-16 medium bombers.
   12 Il-28 light bombers.
   48 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   35 Hunter FGA.
   16 T-52 Jet Provost light-strike aircraft.
   85 MiG-21 interceptors.
   15 MiG-17 fighters.
   35 Mi-4, 12 Mi-8 and 9 Wessex helicopters.
   2 An-2, 8 An-12, 10 An-24, 2 Tu-124 and 2 Heron transports.
Para-Military Forces: 20,000 including 10,000 national guard and 4,000 security troops, forming 1 mechanized brigade.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 3,040,000.
Military service (Jewish population only): men, 36 months; women, 20 months.
Total armed forces: 75,000 regular cadre and conscripts (can be raised to 300,000 by mobilizing reservists within 48-72 hours).
Estimated GNP 1970: $5.4 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 5,193 million Israeli pounds (51,483,700). 3.5 Israeli pounds= $1.
Army: 11,500 regular, 50,000 conscripts (275,000 when fully mobilized).
   4 armoured brigades.
   4 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   300 M-48 (with 105mm guns), 250 Ben Gurion (Centurion with French 105mm gun), 200 Centurion,
   200 Isherman (with 105mm gun) and Super Sherman, 100 TI-67 CT-54/55 with 105mm gun) and 25 M-60 med tanks;
   AML-60, 15 AML-90 and some Staghound armd cars; about 1,000 M-2 and M-3 half-tracks; M-113 APCs;
   24 M-109 155mm SP howitzers; 155mm howitzers on Sherman chassis; about 300 SP 105mm howitzers,
   120mm and 160mm mortars on AMX chassis;
   90mm SP ATk guns and 106mm jeep-mounted recoilless rifles;
   Cobra, and weapons carrier-mounted SS-10/11 ATGW;
   20mm, 30mm and 40mm AA guns.
   (The MD-660 280-miles-range SSM may become operational during 1971.)
RESERVES: would increase above formations to 10 armoured, 9 infantry and 4 parachute brigades.
Navy: 3,500 regular, 1,000 conscripts (8,000 when fully mobilized).
   3 submarines.
   1 destroyer (used as a training ship).
   12 FPB (with Gabriel SSM).
   9 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   8 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 landing craft (4 less than 100 tons).
Naval commandos: 500.
Air Force: 8,000 regular, 1,000 conscripts (17,000 when fully mobilized); 374 combat aircraft.
   10 Vautour light bombers.
   75 F-4E fighter-bomber/interceptors.
   60 Mirage IIIC fighter-bomber/interceptors (some with R-530 AAM).
   72 A-4E/H fighter-bombers (18 more are due to be delivered during 1971).
   27 Mystere IVA fighter-bombers.
   30 Ouragan fighter-bombers.
   9 Super Mystere interceptors.
   6 RF-4E reconnaissance aircraft.
   85 Magister armed trainers.
   10 Stratocruiser transports/tankers.
   15 Noratlas, 10 C-47 and 4 C-46 transports.
   12 Super Frelon, 8 CH-53, 25 AB-205 and 20 Alouette helicopters.
   8 SAM batteries with 48 HAWK.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000. Militia providing regional border defence units.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 2,225,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 60,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.64 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 32,300,000 dinars ($90,440,000). 1 dinar = $2.8.
Army: 58,000.
   1 armoured division.
   1 mechanized division.
   1 infantry division.
   1 Royal Guards battalion (armoured).
   3 artillery regiments.
   1 SAM regiment with Tigercat.
   150 M-47 and M-48, and 140 Centurion med tanks;
   125 Saladin armd cars; 140 Ferret scout cars;
   250 M-113 and 100 Saracen APC;
   25 pounder guns, 30 105mm and 155mm howitzers, a few 155mm and 203mm guns; M-42 SP AA guns.
Navy: 250. 8 small patrol craft.
Air Force: 2,000; 33 combat aircraft.
   2 ground-attack squadrons with 18 Hunter.
   1 interceptor squadron with 15 F-104A.
   4 C-47 and 2 Dove transports.
   Helicopters include 7 Alouette III.
Para-Military Forces: 37,500, consisting of 7,500 Gendarmerie, and 30,000 National Guard.
  
   LEBANON
Population: 2,775,000.
Voluntary military service (proposals have been made to introduce compulsory military training).
Total armed forces: 15,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.56 billion.
Defence budget 1971: £L166,200,000 ($51,100,000). Lebanese £3.25= $1.
Army: 14,000.
   2 tank battalions.
   1 motorized battalion.
   9 infantry battalions.
   40 Charioteer med tanks; 40 AMX-13 and 20 M-41 lt tanks;
   M-706, M-6 and AEC Mark-3 armd cars; M-113 and M-59 APC;
   155mm howitzers; 15 M-42 SP AA guns.
Navy: 250.
   1 patrol vessel.
   4 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   1 landing craft.
Air Force: 1,000; 21 combat aircraft.
   12 Hunter FGA.
   1 interceptor squadron with Mirage IIIC* with R-530 AAM.
   (* Negotiations have taken place for their resale to France, and they are not thought to be operational.)
   5 transports.
   1 helicopter sqn with 4 Alouette II and 6 Alouette III.
   Some radars of a Crotale SAM system have been delivered.
Para-Military Forces: 2,500 Gendarmerie.
   A National Guard of 5,000 is being formed.
  
   LIBYA
Population: 2,000,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 22,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: S4.0 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: £L30 million ($84 million). £L1=$2.8.
Army: 20,000.
   4 armoured battalions.
   5 infantry battalions.
   3 artillery battalions.
   2 AA artillery battalions.
   6 Centurion-5,100 T-54/55 and 15 T-34/85 med tanks;
   Saladin armd cars; Shorland and Ferret scout cars; Saracen APC;
   122mm guns, 105mm and 155mm howitzers;
   L40/70 Bofors AA guns.
   (An order for 188 Chieftain tanks from Britain is in abeyance.)
Navy: 1,000.
   1 corvette.
   3 FPB with SS-12(M) SSM.
   1 fleet minesweeper.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 logistic support ship.
   12 small patrol craft.
   (1 fast frigate is due for delivery during 1971.)
Air Force: 1,000; 7 combat aircraft.
   1 interceptor squadron with 7 F-5.
   18 Mirage III and 3 T-33 trainers.
   8 C-130E and 9 C-47 medium transports.
   2 AB-206, 3 OH-13, 4 Alouette III and 6 Super Frelon helicopters.
   (30 more of the total order of 110 Mirage, and 8 F-5 are due to be delivered during 1972.)
  
   MOROCCO
Population: 16,000,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 57,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $3.34 billion.
Defence budget 1971: 491 million dirham ($97,000,000). 5.06 dirham=$1.
Army: 52,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   3 motorized infantry brigades.
   1 light security brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   12 independent infantry battalions.
   2 camel corps battalions.
   3 desert cavalry battalions.
   4 artillery groups.
   120 T-54 med tanks; 120 AMX-13 lt tanks;
   some EBR-75, and 50 AML-245 and M-8 armd cars; 40 M-3 half-track and 95 Czech APC;
   25 SU-100 and AMX-105, and 50 M-56 90mm SP guns; 75mm and 105mm howitzers;
   6 Alouette II/III helicopters.
Navy: 1,500.
   1 frigate.
   2 coastal escorts.
   1 patrol boat (less than 100 tons).
   2 landing ships.
Air Force: 4,000; 38 combat aircraft.
   10 F-5A and 4 F-5B interceptors.
   24 Magister armed trainers.
   45 T-6 and 25 T-28 trainers.
   10 C-47 and 11 C-119 transports.
   OH-13, 24 AB-204, 12 AB-205 and 6 HH-43 helicopters.
   (12 MiG-17 fighter-bombers are in storage.)
Para-Military Forces: 23,000.
   2,250 Gendarmerie including 2 mobile security battalions; 750 Royal Guards; 20,000 Auxiliaries.
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Population: 7,400,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 41,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $4.1 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 1,723 million riyals ($383,000,000). 4.5 riyals=$l.
Army: 35,000.
   4 infantry brigades.
   10 SAM batteries with HAWK.
   25 M-47 med tanks; 60 M-41 lt tanks;
   200 AML-60 and AML-90; some Staghound and Greyhound armd cars: Ferret scout cars.
DEPLOYMENT: 1,000 in Jordan; 2,000 in UAR.
Navy: 1,000.
   3 torpedo boats.
   1 patrol vessel.
   2 FPB.
   8 SRN-6 hovercraft.
   (20 smaller patrol boats are being delivered.)
Air Force: 5,000; 75 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 15 F-86.
   2 ground-attack squadrons with 20 BAC-167.
   2 interceptor squadrons with 20 Lightning.
   10 C-130E transport aircraft.
   4 Alouette III, 1 AB-204, 3 AB-205 and 14 AB-206 helicopters.
   About 35 Hunter, Lightning and T-33A trainers.
   2 SAM regiments with 36 Thunderbird.
Para-Military Forces: 30,000.
   National Guard (formerly known as the 'White Army') - lightly armed tribal levies with Vigilant ATGW.
   SUDAN
Population: 16,050,000.
Voluntary military service.* (*Proposals for compulsory service have been made.)
Total armed forces: 37,100.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.83 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: £S46,400,000 ($133,200,000). £Sudan 1=$52.87.
Army: 35,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   6 infantry brigades.
   1 independent infantry battalion.
   1 parachute regiment.
   3 artillery regiments.
   1 engineer regiment.
   20 T-34/85, 50 T-54 and 50 T-55 med tanks;
   50 Saladin and 45 Commando armd cars; 60 Ferret scout cars; BTR-40, BTR-152 and Saracen APC;
   55 25-pounder, 40 105mm and some 122mm guns and howitzers; 20 120mm mortars;
   80 Bofors 40mm and some Soviet 85mm AA guns.
DEPLOYMENT: 2,000 in Egypt.
Navy: 600.
   6 coastal patrol boats.
   2 landing craft.
Air Force: 1,500; 32 combat aircraft.
   16 MiG-21 interceptors.
   5 BAC-145 Mk 5, 8 Jet Provost Mk 52, and 3 Provost Mk 51 light attack aircraft.
   3 Pembroke, 3 F-27 Troopship, 6 An-12 and 5 An-24 transports.
   10 Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 3,000. 1,000 Gendarmerie; 2,000 Frontier Police.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 6,200,000.
Military service: 30 months (Jewish population exempted).
Total armed forces: 111,750.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.46 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: £S 670 million ($176,000,000). £Syrian 3.8=$1.
Army: 100,000.
   1 armoured division.
   2 mechanized divisions.
   2 infantry divisions.
   1 parachute battalion.
   5 commando battalions.
   7 artillery regiments.
   8 SAM batteries with SA-2.
   About 30 JS-3 hy tanks; 150 T-34 and 600 T-54/55 med tanks; some PT-76 lt tanks;
   100 SU-100 SP guns; 500 BTR-152 APC;
   800 Soviet-made guns including 122mm, 130mm and 152mm.
Navy: 1,750.
   2 minesweepers.
   2 coastal patrol vessels.
   6 Komar-class patrol boats, with Styx SSM.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 10,000 men; 210 combat aircraft.
   80 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   30 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   100 MiG-21 interceptors.
   8 Il-14, 6 C-47 transports.
   4 Mi-1, 8 Mi-4 and some Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 6,500. 5,000 Gendarmerie; 1,500 Internal Security Camel Corps.
  
   TUNISIA
Population: 5,050,000
Military service: 1 year (selective).
Total armed forces: 21,550.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.24 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 10,509,000 dinars ($20,020,000). 1 dinar= $1,905.
Army: 20,000.
   1 armoured battalion.
   6 infantry battalions.
   1 commando battalion.
   1 artillery group. .
   1 Sahara patrol group.
   About 15 AMX-13 and M-41 lt tanks; 20 Saladin and some M-8 armd cars;
   105mm SP and 155mm guns; 40mm Bofors AA guns.
Navy: 800.
   1 corvette.
   1 coastal escort.
   2 patrol boats with SS-12 (M) SSM.
   10 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   (4 FPBs and 6 coastal patrol boats due to be delivered in 1971.)
Air Force: 750; 12 combat aircraft.
   12 F-86 fighters.
   8 MB-326,12 T-6 and 14 Saab 91D trainers.
   3 Flamant light transports.
   8 Alouette II helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000. 5,000 Gendarmerie organized in 6 battalions. 5,000 National Guard.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (UAR)
Population: 34,150,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 318,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $6.43 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: £E 650 million (51,495,000,000). £E1= $2.3.
Army: 275,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   4 mechanized infantry divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   2 parachute brigades.
   16 artillery brigades.
   20 commando battalions.
   50 JS-3 and T-10 hy tanks; 1,200 T-54/55 and 250 T-34/85 med tanks; 150 PT-76 lt tanks;
   850 BTR-40, BTR-50P, BTR-60P, OT-64 and 350 BTR-152 APC;
   about 150 SU-100 and JSU-152 SP guns;
   about 1,500 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns and howitzers, and 40 203mm howitzers;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Snapper ATGW;
   24 FROG and 25 Samlet short-range SSM;
   ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57 SP AA guns.
Nary: 14,000 including coastguards.
   12 submarines (including 6 ex-Soviet W-class and 6 ex-Soviet R-class).
   5 destroyers (including 4 ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   2 corvettes.
   10 submarine chasers.
   4 fleet minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class and 8 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   30 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   20 landing craft.
Air Force: 25,000; 523 combat aircraft.
   18 Tu-16 medium bombers.
   25 Il-28 light bombers.
   200 MiG-21 interceptors.
   110 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   200 MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   150 MiG, Yak and L-29 trainers, some can be armed.
   About 40 Il-14 and 20 An-12 medium transports.
   140 Mi-1, Mi-4, Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   Air defence is provided by 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm guns;
   up to 70 sites with 6 launchers each of SA-2 SAM;
   a radar network and 6 squadrons of MiG-21 interceptors.
   Co-ordinated with this defence are up to 150 MiG-21J and possibly MiG-23 aircraft - all Soviet-operated.
   There are also up to 65 Soviet-controlled sites with 4 launchers each of SA-3 (and possibly SA-4).
DEPLOYMENT: elements in Sudan.
Missile Command: 4,000. This is separate from the Army and the Air Force andits numbers include civilian technicians.
   Fresh development work may have started on the 1,000 lb warhead 235 mile-range Al Zafir,
   the 375 mile-range Al Kahir and
   the 440 mile-range Al Raid, stated to be able to carry a one-ton scientific probe, but these ranges are probably overoptimistic.
   The first two missiles were designed to be mobile; none is thought to have achieved any operational capability.
Para-Military Forces: National Guard - about 120,000.

Sub-Saharan Africa*

   * With a few important exceptions, only countries with armed forces over 5,000 strong are included. Though in some African States they have a considerable internal security role, civil police forces have not been included. Details of civil police forces of African States and of the armed forces of countries not included here may be found in Adelphi Paper No. 67 The Armed Forces of African States, 1970. The amount of military equipment shown may not necessarily be that which can be used. In some of the developing nations maintenance facilities and skills may pose problems, and spare parts may not be readily available.
   Multilateral Agreements The Organization of African Unity (OAU), constituted in May 1963, includes all internationally recognized independent African states except South Africa. Its Defence Commission is responsible for defence and security co-operation, and the defence of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its members.
   There is a regional defence pact between France, Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic and Chad, and there is a five-party defence agreement between France, Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Niger and Upper Volta which has set up the 'Conseil de defense de l'Afrique equatoriale'.
   Bilateral Agreements
   A number of external powers have military arrangements with countries in the region. The United States has varying types of security assistance agreements and provides significant military aid on either a grant or credit basis to Ethiopia, Liberia and Congo (Kinshasa). For grant military assistance purposes, Ethiopia, where the United States has a large communications centre, is considered a base rights country.
   The Soviet Union and China are not known to have defence agreements with countries in the region but Soviet military assistance has been given to Guinea, Mali and Mauritania.
   Britain maintains defence agreements with Kenya and Mauritius, and an agreement with South Africa, made in June 1955 and revised in January 1967, covering the use of the Simonstown naval base. France has defence agreements with Cameroun, Gabon, Malagasy Republic, Mauritania, Senegal and Togo; technical military assistance agreements with Cameroun, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Malagasy Republic, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo and Upper Volta; and mutual facilities agreements with Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mauritania and Niger.
   Portugal directly assures the defence of Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, and Spain of Spanish Sahara, Ceuta and Melilla. All of these are administratively regarded as overseas provinces except Ceuta and Melilla, which are treated as integral parts of Spain.
  
   Страны Африки к югу от Сахары*
   * За некоторыми важными исключениями, включены только страны, вооруженные силы которых превышают 5000 человек. Хотя в некоторых африканских государствах они играют значительную роль в обеспечении внутренней безопасности, в их состав не входят силы гражданской полиции. Подробности сил гражданской полиции африканских государств и вооруженных сил страны могут быть найдены в Adelphi Paper No. 67 The Armed Forces of African States, 1970. Количество военной техники не обязательно может быть тем, которое может быть использовано. В некоторых развивающихся странах технические средства и навыки могут создавать проблемы, а запасные части могут быть недоступны.
   Многосторонние соглашения
   Организация африканского единства (ОАЕ), учрежденная в мае 1963 года, включает все международно-признанные независимые африканские государства, за исключением Южной Африки. Е` комиссия по обороне отвечает за сотрудничество в области обороны и безопасности, а также за защиту суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости своих членов.
   Между Францией, Конго (Браззавиль), Центральноафриканской Республикой и Чадом существует региональный оборонный пакт, а между Францией, Дагомеей, Кот-Д'Ивуаром, Нигером и Верхней Вольтой существует пятистороннее оборонное соглашение, в соответствии с которым был создан "экваториальный Совет обороны Африки".
   Двусторонние соглашение
   Ряд внешних держав заключили военные соглашения со странами региона. Соединенные Штаты имеют различные виды соглашений об оказании помощи в обеспечении безопасности и предоставляют значительную военную помощь на безвозмездной или кредитной основе Эфиопии, Либерии и Конго (Киншасе). Для целей предоставления военной помощи Эфиопия, где Соединенные Штаты имеют крупный центр связи, считается страной, обладающей базовыми правами.
   Советский Союз и Китай, как известно, не имеют оборонных соглашений со странами региона, но советская военная помощь была оказана Гвинее, Мали и Мавритании.
   Великобритания поддерживает оборонные соглашения с Кенией и Маврикием, а также соглашение с Южной Африкой, заключенное в июне 1955 года и пересмотренное в январе 1967 года, охватывающее использование военно-морской базы Симонстаун. Франция имеет оборонные соглашения с Камеруном, Габоном, Малагасийской Республикой, Мавританией, Сенегалом и Того; соглашения о военно-технической помощи с Камеруном, Центральноафриканской Республикой, Чадом, Конго (Браззавиль), Дагомеей, Габоном, Кот-д'Ивуаром, Малагасийской Республикой, Мавританией, Нигером, Сенегалом, Того и Верхней Вольтой; и договоры взаимных услуг, с Дагомеей, Габоном, Кот-д'Ивуаром, Мавританией и Нигером.
   Португалия непосредственно обеспечивает оборону Анголы, Мозамбика и португальской Гвинеи, а Испания - испанской Сахары, Сеуты и Мелильи. Все они административно рассматриваются как заморские провинции, за исключением Сеуты и Мелильи, которые рассматриваются как неотъемлемые части Испании.
  
   CONGO (Kinshasa) (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Population: 21,300,000
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 46,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.9 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 42 million zaires ($84,000,000). 1 zaire = $2.
Army: 45,000.
   14 infantry battalions.
   7 parachute battalions.
   1 heavy weapons battalion.
   4 other battalions.
   The above, together with support units, form 7 brigade groups and 1 parachute division.
   About 80 AML armd cars: M-3 and Ferret scout cars (less than half operational).
Navy: 150. 7 river gunboats. 1 patrol boat.
Air Force: 850; 32 combat aircraft.
   17 MB-326GB, 8 T-6G and 5 T-28D armed trainers.
   10 C-47, 4 C-54 and 3 C-130 transports.
   8 SF-260M trainers.
   1 Alouette II, 4 Alouette III and 7 SA-330 Puma helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 6 National Guard and 7 Gendarmerie battalions.
  
   ETHIOPIA
Population: 25,800,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 42,750.
Estimated GNP 1970: US$1.75 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: E$89,100,000 (US $35,640,000). E$2.5= US$1.
Army: 39,000.
   4 infantry divisions* (incl Imperial Guard). (* 8,000 men in each.)
   1 tank battalion.
   1 airborne infantry battalion.
   1 armoured car squadron.
   4 artillery battalions.
   5 air defence batteries.
   2 engineer battalions.
   55 M-41 med tanks; 15 M-24 lt tanks; about 50 APC.
Navy: 1,500.
   1 training ship (ex-seaplane tender).
   5 patrol boats.
   2 motor torpedo boats.
   4 gun boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 2,250; 48 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with 4 Canberra B-2.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 11 F-86F.
   1 ground-attack squadron with 13 T-28.
   1 ground-attack squadron with 8 Saab-17.
   1 fighter squadron with 10 F-5A.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 2 T-33.
   1 tpt sqn with 4 C-47, 2 C-54, 4 C-119G, 3 Dove and 1 Il-14.
   3 trg sqns with 20 Safir, 15 T-28A and 11 T-33.
   4 Alouette II and 2 Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces:13,750.
   6,000 Territorial Army-active strength. 6,800 mobile emergency police force; 1,500 frontier guards.
  
   GHANA
Population: 9,050,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 18,600.
Estimated GNP 1970: $2.57 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 45,300,000 cedi ($44,400,000). 1.02cedi=$l.
Army: 16,500.
   2 brigades comprising 7 inf bns and support units.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons.
   Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; heavy mortars.
Navy: 1,000.
   2 corvettes. (There is a substantial shortage of spares for all naval craft.)
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   2 seaward defence vessels.
   3 P-class patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 1,100; no combat aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with 7 Otter.
   1 transport squadron with 8 Caribou and 3 Heron.
   1 comms and liaison squadron with 11 Beaver.
   3 Whirlwind, 2 Wessex and 3 Hughes 269 hel.
   6 MB-326 and 9 Chipmunk trainers.
Para-Military Forces: A workers brigade.
  
   GUINEA
Population: 4,075,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.7 billion.
Total armed forces: 5,350.
Defence budget 1966-67: 2,338 million Guinea francs ($9,470,000). 278 Guinea francs =$1.
Army: 5,000.
   5 infantry battalions.
   1 armoured battalion.
   3 engineer companies.
   T-34 tks: BTR-152 APC: 105mm and 85mm guns.
DEPLOYMENT: about 200 in Sierra Leone.
Navy: (Coast Guard) 150.
   6 ex-Soviet patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 200; 5 combat aircraft.
   5 MiG-17 fighters.
   2 Il-18 and 4 Il-14 transports.
   Yak-18 and MiG-15 trainers.
Para-Military Forces: 7,500. 900 Gendarmerie. 1,600 Republican Guard; 5,000 Militia.
  
   IVORY COAST
Population: 4,375,000.
Military Service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 4,400.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.44 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 6,350 million CFA francs ($22,800,000). 278 CFA francs=$l.
Army: 4,000.
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 armoured squadron.
   1 parachute company.
   2 artillery batteries.
   1 engineer company.
   About 5 AMX-13 lt tanks: some armd cars, scout cars, 105mm guns, mortars, 40mm AA guns.
Navy: 100.
   3 patrol vessels (1 less than 100 tons).
   2 landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 300; no combat aircraft.
   3 C-47 medium, and 1Mystere 20, 1 Commander500 and 5 MH-1521 Broussard light transports.
   5 Alouette helicopters and 6 light aircraft.
Para-Military Forces: 2,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   KENYA
Population: 11,525,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 7,170.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.58 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: Sh. 175 million ($24,500,000). 7.143 shillings= $1.
Army: 6,300.
   4 infantry battalions.
   1 support battalion with a parachute company.
   Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; 81mm and 120mm mortars; 120mm recoilless rifles.
Navy: 250.
   1 seaward defence boat.
   3 patrol boats.
Air Force: 620; 6 combat aircraft.
   6 BAC-167 ground support aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with 4Caribou.
   1 light transport squadron with 7 Beaver.
   1 training squadron with 5 Chipmunk and 3Beaver.
   3 Alouette II and 2 H-269 helicopters.
   (5 Bulldog armed trainers are due to be delivered by mid-1972.)
Para-Military Forces: 1,800 in General Service Units (including Presidential escort).
  
   MALAGASY REPUBLIC
Population: 7,200,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 4,100.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.82 billion.
Defence budget 1969: 3,450 million francs ($13,450,000). 278 MG francs= $1.
Army: 3,700.
   2 infantry regiments.
   1 parachute company.
   1 armoured squadron.
   1 artillery battery.
   1 engineer regiment.
Navy: 200.
   1 patrol vessel.
   1 training ship.
   1 tender.
   1 marine company.
Air Force: 200; no combat aircraft.
   5 C-47 medium and 3 MH-1521 light transports.
   2 MD-315 Flamant light aircraft
Para-Military Forces: 4,100 Gendarmerie.
  
   NIGERIA
Population: 62,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 252,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $9.1 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: £N87 million ($243,600,000). £N1=$2.80.
Army: 240,000.
   3 infantry divisions.
   3 reconnaissance regiments.
   3 artillery regiments.
   Saladin and 20 AML-60/90 armd cars; Ferret scout cars; Saracen APC;
   25-pounder, 76mm, 105mm and 122mm guns.
Navy: 5,000.
   1 frigate (refitting).
   3 ex-Soviet FPB (jess than 100 tons).
   6 seaward defence boats.
   1 landing craft.
   (2 corvettes are due to be delivered by mid-1972.)
Air Force: 7,000; 32 combat aircraft.
   6 Il-28 medium bombers.
   8 MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   8 L-29 Delfin and 10 P-149D armed trainers.
   Other aircraft include 6 C-47 transports; 20 Do-27/28 communication/liaison aircraft;
   8 Whirlwind and Alouette II helicopters.
  
   RHODESIA
Population: 5,425,000 (250,000 white population).
Military service: 12 months (white population).
Total armed forces: 4,600.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.44 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970-71: R$17,879,000 (US$ 25,031,000). R$1 = US$1.4.
Army: 3,400.
   2 infantry battalions (one has Ferret scout cars).
   1 Special Air Service squadron.
   1 artillery battery.
   There is an establishment for 3 brigades, 2 based on regular infantry battalions,
   which would be brought up to strength by calling out the Territorial battalions referred to below.
Air Force: 1,200; 55 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber squadron with 11 Canberra.
   1 fighter/ground-attack squadron with 12 Hunter.
   1 fighter/ground-attack squadron with 12 Vampire.
   1 recce squadron with 13 T-52 Provost.
   1 armed trainer squadron with 7 AL-60.
   1 transport squadron including G-47s.
   1 helicopter squadron with 8 Alouette IIIs.
RESERVES: 8,000.
   The white population completing military service is assigned for three years part-time training to Territorial units,
   which include active Territorial battalions based on the cities and reserve Territorial battalions based on country districts.
   The establishment of the Army Reserves is 8 infantry battalions and one field artillery battery.
   The majority of ground personnel servicing regular Air Force units are Air Force reservists or non-white civilians employed
   by the Air Force.
Para-Military Forces: 6,400 active; 28,500 reservist.
   The British South African Police (BSAP) have some military equipment such as small arms and would be responsible
   for much of the internal security of Rhodesia in the event of civil disturbances or a military threat from outside.
   The white population forms only about a third of the active strength, but nearly three-quarters of the Police reserves.
  
   SENEGAL
Population: 3,950,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 5,900.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.72 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70: 4,461 million CFA francs ($18,060,000). 278 CFA francs = $1.
Army: 5,500.
   3 infantry battalions.
   2 parachute companies.
   2 commando companies.
   1 reconnaissance squadron.
   1 engineer battalion.
   Support units include a tpt and a sig coy.
   Greyhound and AML-245 armd cars.
Navy: 200.
   1 coastal escort.
   2 submarine chasers.
   1 patrol boat (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 200; no combat aircraft.
   4 C-47 medium and 4 MH-1521 light transports.
   2 Bell-47G helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 1,600 Gendarmerie.
  
   SOMALI DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 2,900,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 15,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.18 billion.
Defence budget 1969: 64,320,000 shillings ($9,005,000). 7.143 Somali shillings= $1.
Army: 13,000.
   4 tank battalions.
   9 mechanized infantry battalions.
   1 commando battalion.
   About 150 T-34 med tanks* (Only about one quarter are serviceable.);
   5 Ferret scout cars; over 200 BTR-40, 50 and 152 APC; 100mm guns.
Navy: 250.
   6 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 1,750; 20 combat aircraft.
   20 MiG-15/MiG-17 fighters.
   2 MiG-15/MiG-17UTI and 3 P-18 trainers.
   Tpts include 1 C-45, 3 C-47, 3 An-2 and 1 An-24.
Para-Military Forces: 500 border guards.
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 20,550,000 (3,900,000 white population).
Military service: 9-12 months in Citizen Force.
Total armed forces: 44,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $17.6 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 316 million rand ($442,400,000). 1 rand =$1.4.
Army: 32,000 (10,000 regular; 22,000 Citizen Force)
   100 Centurion Mark 5, 100 Sherman and 40 Comet med tanks;
   500 AML-60 and AML-90, and 50 M-3 armd. cars; 200 Ferret scout cars;
   Saracen APC.
RESERVES: 23,000 trained reserves in Citizen Force.
Navy: 4,250 (3,000 regular: 1,250 Citizen Force).
   1 submarine (2 more due for delivery by mid-1972).
   2 destroyers with Wasp ASW helicopters.*
   6 ASW frigates.* (* Reports suggest that both destroyers and 1 frigate are temporarily in reserve.)
   1 escort minesweeper.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 seaward defence boats.
   1 fleet replenishment tanker.
RESERVES: 4,750 trained reserves in Citizen Force.
Air Force: 8,000 (5,000 regular: 3,000 Citizen Force); 163 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with 16 Canberra B-12.
   1 lt bomber squadron with 15 Buccaneer Mark 50.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 20 Mirage III-EZ (with AS-20 and AS-30 ASM).
   (Mirage aircraft are to be built in South Africa under licence.)
   1 interceptor sqn with 16 Mirage III-CZ (with R-530 AAM).
   Other aircraft include 4 Mirage III-RZ, 30 F-86,
   5 Vampire FB-5 and at least 50 MB-326 Impala.
   1 maritime recce squadron with 7 Shackleton.
   9 Transall, 30 C-47, 4 C-54, 7 C-130B/E and 1 Viscount med and 9 P-166 light transports.
   106 Alouette II/III, 8 Wasp and 16 Super Frelon helicopters. (Deliveries of 20 SA-330 Puma have begun.)
   A Cactus air defence missile system is being in-stalled, but the Crotale SAM have not yet been delivered.
RESERVES: The Citizen Air Force operates 8 squadrons with 50 Impala, about 120 Harvard armed trainers and C-47 transports.
Para-Military Forces: 78,000.
   75,000 Kommandos organized and trained on the same lines as the Citizen Force.
   3,000 police with anti-terrorist training whose equipment includes 80 Saracen APC on loan from the army.
  
   TANZANIA
Population: 13,600,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 11,100.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.1 billion.
Defence budget 1968-69: 190,300,000 shillings ($26,640,000). 7.143 shillings=$l.
Army: 10,000
   4 infantry battalions.
   14 Chinese T-62 lt tanks; some BTR-40 and 152 APC;
   Soviet field artillery and Chinese mortars.
Navy: 600.
   5 fast patrol boats.
   8 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 500; no combat aircraft.
   1 An-2, 6 Beaver, and 4 Caribou transports.
   7 P-149 trainers.
Para-Military Forces: A police marine unit.
  
   UGANDA
Population: 10,025,000.
Voluntary military service
Total armed forces: 9,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.06 billion.
Defence budget 1968-69: 120,540,000 shillings ($16,875,000). 7.143 shillings= $1.
Army: 8,550
   2 brigades each of 2 infantry battalions with supporting services.
   2 border guard battalions.
   1 mechanized battalion.
   1 parachute/commando battalion.
   1 artillery regiment.
   5 M-4 med tanks; 16 Ferret scout cars;
   20 BTR-40 and BTR-152, and 12 OT-64B APC (perhaps half are operational).
Air Force: 450; 19 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter squadron with 7 MiG-15 and MiG-17.
   12 Magister armed trainers.
   1 transport squadron with 6 C-47 and 1 Caribou.
   2 AB-206 and 2 Scout helicopters.
   4 Piaggio P-149 and 12 L-29 Delfin trainers, and 7 Piper light aircraft.
  
   ZAMBIA
Population: 4,250,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 5,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.58 billion.
Defence budget 1966: 12,600,000 kwachas ($17,640,000). 1 kwacha= $1.4.
Army: 4,500.
   1 brigade of 3 inf bns and 1 recce sqn.
   1 artillery battery.
   1 engineer squadron.
   A signals squadron and supporting services.
   Ferret scout cars; 105mm guns.
Air Force: 1,000; 12 combat aircraft.
   4 Jastreb light attack aircraft.
   8 SF-260MZ armed trainers.
   1 transport squadron with 2 C-47 and 4 Caribou.
   1 comms/liaison sqn with 6 Beaver and 2 Pembroke.
   4 AB-205 helicopters.
   2 Galeb and 6 Chipmunk trainers.
   (12 MB-326 ground-attack aircraft are on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 2 police mobile battalions.
  

Asia and Australia

CHINA

   China's dominant strategic concept is People's War, in which most of the population is allotted a military role. This entails a peacetime programme of rudimentary military training for civilians. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is heavily involved in the political and military administration of the country.
   China's large manpower pool allows great selectivity in manning the 2.9 million strong regular forces. The vast bulk of the manpower lies in the land forces, specifically in the infantry and artillery. Out of a total of 140 divisions, only 5 are armoured. The Navy and Air Force account for little more than 10 per cent of the personnel, compared with about 30 per cent in the Soviet Union.
   The PLA is not equipped on the scale of major industrial countries, including the Soviet Union, and its mobility is limited. However, China's military production is improving steadily in quantity and quality. She now produces the Tu-16 medium bomber, the MiG-21, the T-59 medium tank, the (Chinese) T-62 light tank, and APC, which improve the mobility of the PLA; also a new Chinese twin-engined fighter is being developed. In the Navy, the build-up of fast guided-missile patrol boats is continuing,'along with its own version of the R-class medium range diesel-powered submarine. At least one nuclear-powered submarine appears to be under construction; it is probably an attack vessel.
   The PLA is organized in 11 Military Regions, and to some extent its equipment and logistics support reflect this regional character. Its deployment is uneven, with major concentrations along the littoral, the Canton-Wuhan railway and in the north-east. During 1969-70, there were some shifts of forces from the south of China to the northern half of the country, but little movement has been reported since. In July 1971 there were thought to be 15,000-20,000 railway engineers, construction engineers and protecting troops in North Vietnam and Laos.
   China has a 30-year Treaty of Alliance and Friendship with the Soviet Union signed in 1950 with mutual defence obligations, the validity of which must be in doubt. China has a mutual defence agreement with North Korea dating from 1961, and it is probable that she has well-defined defence commitments towards North Vietnam. China has in the past year continued to provide military assistance to Pakistan and Tanzania and to Albania with whom she has been co-operating on defence matters. .
   Nuclear weapons programme
   China conducted only one nuclear test in the past year, the eleventh since 1964. As with at least three of the previous tests, the 1970 explosion involved a fusion (thermonuclear) device with a yield of some 3 megatons. China has significant resources of natural uranium and its own plant for uranium enrichment. It may now have sufficient fissionable material for a total of about 120 fission and fusion weapons, although the availability of deuterium and/or tritium may constrain production of fusion weapons.
   For air delivery of nuclear weapons China had until recently only a few old Tu-4 bombers. At least 30 Tu-16, a medium bomber with an operational range of about 1,500 miles, have now been produced, and estimated production capacity is some 5 a month.
   China, which has been testing MRBM since the mid-1960s, has apparently deployed, mainly in north-western and north-eastern China, about 20 operational missiles with a range of up to 1,000 miles.* (The 230-kilogramme second earth satellite was launched, in March 1971,by a booster of IRBM capability.)
   During 1970-71, a new missile testing site was also brought into use in Manchuria, allowing ballistic flights of up to 2,000 miles into the Sinkiang desert. One test from this site in late 1970 may have been connected with the development of an IRBM, or components for an ICBM. Full-range testing of an ICBM would require the use of impact areas and tracking facilities in the Indian or Pacific Oceans.
   There is no clear evidence to show what 'mix' of missile forces China is seeking to develop. The design of any Chinese ICBM would have to take into account the fact that the urban areas on the north-western coast of the United States are some 6,000 miles from Chinese territory.
   The responsibility for operational Chinese missile forces is believed to have been assigned to the 'Second Artillery Command'. It is not clear whether this Command is autonomous (cf. the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces) or is subordinate to the Army.

КИТАЙ

   Доминирующей стратегической концепцией Китая является народная война, в которой большей части населения отводится военная роль. Это влечет за собой в мирное время программы строевой подготовки для гражданских лиц. Народно-освободительная армия (НОАК) активно участвует в политическом и военном управлении страной.
   Большой запас живой силы Китая позволяет большую избирательность в укомплектовании 2,9 миллионных регулярных сил. Подавляющая часть живой силы находится в сухопутных войсках, в частности в пехоте и артиллерии. Из 140 дивизий только 5 являются танковыми. На ВМФ и ВВС приходится чуть более 10% служащих, по сравнению с примерно 30% в Советском Союзе.
   НОАК не оснащена в масштабах крупных промышленных стран, в том числе Советского Союза, и ее мобильность ограничена. Тем не менее, военное производство Китая неуклонно улучшается в количественном и качественном отношении. В настоящее время он производит средний бомбардировщик Ту-16, истребитель МиГ-21, средний танк Т-59, легкий танк (китайский) Т-62 и БТР, которые улучшают мобильность НОАК; также разрабатывается новый китайский двухдвигательный истребитель. В военно-морском флоте, наращивание быстроходных ракетных катеров продолжается, вместе с собственной версией R-класс средних дизельных подводных лодок. По крайней мере, одна атомная подводная лодка, по-видимому, находится в стадии строительства, вероятно, ударная.
   НОАК организована в 11 военных регионах, и в некоторой степени ее материально-техническое обеспечение отражает этот региональный характер. Размещение неравномерно, с концентрацией вдоль побережья, железной дороги Кантон-Ухань и в северо-востоке. В 1969-70 годах имели место некоторые перемещения сил с юга Китая в северную часть страны, но с тех пор о них сообщалось мало. В июле 1971 года в Северном Вьетнаме и Лаосе насчитывалось от 15 000 до 20 000 инженеров железнодорожного транспорта, инженеров-строителей и охранных войск.
   У Китая есть 30-летний договор о Союзе и дружбе с Советским Союзом, подписанный в 1950 году с взаимными обязательствами по обороне, действительность которого должна быть под сомнением. Китай имеет соглашение о взаимной обороне с Северной Кореей, датируемое 1961 годом, и вполне вероятно, что у нее есть четко определенные оборонные обязательства в отношении Северного Вьетнама. В прошлом году Китай продолжал оказывать военную помощь Пакистану и Танзании и Албании, с которыми он сотрудничает в вопросах обороны.
   Ядерная программа
   Китай провел только одно ядерное испытание в прошлом году, 11-е с 1964 года. Как и по меньшей мере в трех предыдущих испытаниях, взрыв 1970 года был термоядерным мощностью около 3 мегатонн. Китай располагает значительными ресурсами природного урана и собственным заводом по обогащению урана. В настоящее время он может располагать расщепляющимся материалом достаточным для производства в общей сложности около 120 единиц оружия деления и синтеза, хотя наличие дейтерия и/или трития может сдерживать производство оружия синтеза.
   Для авиационной доставки ядерного оружия Китай имел до недавнего времени лишь несколько старых бомбардировщиков Ту-4. По меньшей мере, 30 Ту-16, средних бомбардировщиков с дальностью действия около 1500 миль, в настоящее время производятся, и расчетная производственная мощность составляет около 5 в месяц.
   Китай, проводит испытания МРБМ с середины 1960-х годов, по-видимому, развернул, главным образом на северо-западе и северо-востоке Китая, около 20 оперативных ракет с дальностью до 1000 миль.* (*230-килограммовый второй спутник Земли был запущен в марте 1971 года с помощью ракеты-носителя IRBM.)
   В 1970-71 годах в Маньчжурии был также введен в эксплуатацию новый испытательный ракетный полигон, позволяющий осуществлять баллистические полеты на расстояние до 2000 миль в пустыню Синьцзян. Одно испытание, проведенное на этом объекте в конце 1970 года, возможно, было связано с разработкой ИРБМ или компонентов МБР. Полномасштабные испытания МБР потребуют использования районов падения и средств слежения в Индийском или Тихом океанах.
   Нет четких доказательств того, какие ракетные силы стремится развивать Китай. При разработке любой китайской МБР необходимо учитывать тот факт, что городские районы на северо-западном побережье Соединенных Штатов находятся примерно в 6000 милях от китайской территории.
   Предполагается, что ответственность за оперативные ракетные силы Китая была возложена на "второе артиллерийское командование". Не ясно, является ли эта командование автономным (как советские ракетные войска стратегического назначения) или находится в подчинении армии.
  
   CHINA
Population: 760,000,000.*
   * No official population figures have been published since 1 January 1958, when the total was646,530,000.
   The figure quoted here is based on the latest estimate published by the United Nations.
   Other estimates range from 720 million to 850 million.
Selective military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, 3 years; Navy, 4 years.
Total regular forces: 2,880,000 (including railway engineer troops).
Estimated GNP 1970: $80 to $90 billion.
   (The Chinese Prime Minister has mentioned, as the gross value of industrial, transport and agricultural production,
   a figure of $120 billion. This suggests that the GNP is higher than a recent Japanese estimate of $75billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: $7.6 to $8.55 billion. 2.46yuan=$l.
   (This is based on an American estimate that China is spending about 9,5% of her GNP on defence, since the Chinese Government
   has not made public any Budget figures since 1960.
  
Army: 2,550,000 (including railway engr tps).
   5 armoured divisions.
   110 infantry divisions.
   3 cavalry divisions.
   2 airborne divisions.
   About 20 artillery divisions.
   These are supported by signals, engineer, railway engineer and motor transport units.
   Heavy equipment consists of Soviet items supplied up to 1960 including JS-2 tanks and 152mm and 203mm artillery.
   Soviet T-34 and T-54, and Chinese T-59 (version of T-54) med tanks; Chinese T-62 lt tanks, and APC;
   SP arty incl SU-76, SU-100 and JSU-122.
   Heavy field-engineering equipment, heavy SP artillery and motor transport are in short supply.
   The army is, however, adequately equipped with infantry weapons, mortars, rocket-launchers, recoilless rifles and
   light and medium artillery, all produced in China.
DEPLOYMENT: China is now divided into 11 Military Regions (MR), as Inner Mongolia has been incorporated in the Peking MR,
   and Tibet in the Chengtu MR.
   The military commander of each Region commands the regular air and naval forces assigned to it, and the civilian militia.
   The MR are in turn divided into Military Districts (MD), with usually two or three Districts to a Region.
   It is believed that basically one Army is assigned to each MD giving a total of about 30 Annies.
   An Army generally consists of three infantry divisions, three artillery regiments and, in some cases, three armoured regiments.
   Of the five armoured divisions in the PLA, two or three are probably kept in the Peking and Shenyang Regions.
   The geographical distribution of the divisions (excluding artillery) is believed to be:
   North and north east China(Shenyang* and Peking* MR): 33divisions.
   East and southeast China (Tsinan, Nanking and Foochow MR): 25divisions.
   South-central China Canton, includes Hainan island and Wuhan MR): 31 divisions.
   Mid west China (Lanchow MR): 11divisions.
   West and southwest China (Sinkiang*, Chengtu and Kunming MR): 20 divisions.
   North Vietnam and Laos: 1 railway engineer division and some construction engineer troops, in all 15-20,000men.
   *There are, in addition, 2 or 3 divisions of border troops in each of these MR.
Navy: 150,000 (including Naval Air Force and 28,000 Marines).
   1 submarine, G-class (with ballistic missile tubes*).(*China is not known to have any missiles for this boat.)
   32 fleet submarines, (Also about 10 older, training vessels.)
   3 coastal submarines.
   4 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   11 patrol escorts.
   24 submarine chasers.
   15 missile patrol boats.
   30 minesweepers.
   45 auxiliary minesweepers.
   220 MTB and hydrofoils (less than 100 tons).
   320 motor gunboats \ Many less than
   530 landing ships/landing craft 100 tons.
DEPLOYMENT:
   North Sea Fleet: 240 vessels. The main bases are at Tsingtao and Lushun.
   It is deployed along the coast from the mouth of the Yalu river in the north to Lienyunkang in the south.
   East Sea Fleet: 700 vessels. Bases are at Shanghai and Chou Shan.
   It is deployed along the coast from Lienyunkang in the north to Chaoan Wan in the south.
   South Sea Fleet: 300 vessels. Bases are at Huangpu and Chanchiang.
   It is deployed from Chaoan Wan in the north to the North Vietnamese frontier in the south.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 16,000; about 450 shore-based combat aircraft, including up to
   100 Il-28 torpedo-carrying light bombers and substantial numbers of MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters;
   Though under Navy command, the fighters are fully integrated into the air defence system.'
Air Force: 180,000 (incl 85,000 air-defence personnel); about 2,800 combat aircraft.
   About 30 Tu-16 and a few Tu-4 medium bombers.
   150 Il-28 light bombers.
   About 1,700 MiG-15 and MiG-17; up to 800 MiG-19 and a growing number of MiG-21 fighters.
   Some An-2, Il-14 and Il-18 transports and Mi-4 helicopters
   (these could be supplemented by about 350 aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau).
   There is an air-defence system, initially developed to defend the eastern seaboard of China and now greatly expanded,
   based on early warning/control radar, interceptor aircraft and some SA-2 SAM.
Para-Military Forces: About 300,000 security and border troops, including
   19 infantry-type divisions and 30 independent regiments stationed in the frontier areas;
   the public security force and a civilian militia with an effective element of probably not more than 5 million;
   production and construction corps in a number of MR, including those adjoining the northern frontier.
  
  

OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES AND AUSTRALASIA

   Multilateral Agreements
   In 1954 the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and
   Thailand signed the South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty, which came into force in 1955 and brought into being SEATO. They committed themselves to consult with a view to joint defence in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member country or against the so-called 'protocol states' of Cambodia, Laos and South Vietnam. However, since 1955 and 1956 respectively, Cambodia and Laos have not accepted the protection of SEATO.
   The treaty area is the general area of South-East Asia and the South-West Pacific, below latitude 21R 30' North.
   SEATO has no central command structure and forces remain under national control.
   In 1969 Britain ceased to declare ground forces to the contingency plans for the Organization and France has no forces declared. Pakistan has announced her progressive disengagement from the Alliance. All remain members.
   The United States, Australia, New Zealand and Thailand have troops serving in South Vietnam. This intervention was not the result of a decision by the SEATO Council, but these countries have, for the most part, justified this action in terms of their SEATO obligations.
   Australia, New Zealand and the United States are the members of a tripartite treaty known as ANZUS, which was signed in 1951 and is of indefinite duration. Under this treaty each agrees to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of armed attack on either metropolitan or island territory of any one of them, or on armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the Pacific.
   Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and Britain have agreed Five-Power defence arrangements relating to the external defence of Malaysia and Singapore, which will come into effect on 1 November 1971. Britain, Australia and New Zealand maintain forces in Malaysia and Singapore, with the land and naval components based in Singapore and Australia's air contribution mainly at Butterworth in the Malayan Peninsula. Until 1 November 1971, the British commitment is governed by the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement but this is to be replaced after that date by new Five-Power political arrangements. These arrangements envisage that in the event of any armed attack or threat of attack externally organized or supported against Malaysia or Singapore, the five governments would consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken, jointly or separately.
   Bilateral Agreements
   The United States has bilateral defence treaties with Japan, the Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and the Philippines. It has a number of military arrangements with other countries of the region. It provides significant military aid on either a grant or credit basis to the Republic of China, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand and South Vietnam. It sells military equipment to many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of China and Japan. For grant military assistance purposes, Cambodia, the Republic of Korea and the Republic of China are considered forward defence areas. Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and South Vietnam receive grant military assistance direct from the US Department of Defense budget, the only countries in the world to do so. There are military facilities agreements with Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Philippines. Major bases maintained in the region include Okinawa and Guam.
   The Soviet Union has treaties of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance with Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The validity of a similar treaty with the People's Republic of China must be in doubt. Military assistance agreements with Ceylon and the People's Democratic Republic of Vietnam reportedly exist. Important Soviet military aid is also given to Afghanistan and India and, on a small scale, to Pakistan.*
   (* On 9 August 1971 the Soviet Union and India signed a 20-year Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Co-operation in which each undertook to come to the assistance of the other in the event of a conflict with a third country.)
   China has non-aggression treaties with Burma, Afghanistan, and Cambodia, a treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance with North Korea; and a treaty of friendship with North Vietnam, which is thought to contain defence arrangements.
  

ДРУГИЕ АЗИАТСКИЕ СТРАНЫ И АВСТРАЛИЯ

   Многосторонние договора
   В 1954 году Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Великобритания, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины и Таиланд подписал договор о коллективной обороне Юго-Восточной Азии, который вступил в силу в 1955 году и привел к образованию SEATO. Они обязались проводить консультации в целях совместной обороны в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против страны-члена или против так называемых "протокольных государств" Камбоджи, Лаоса и Южного Вьетнама. Однако, в 1955 и в 1956 соответственно, Камбоджа и Лаос не приняли покровительство SEATO.
   Договорным районом является общая зона Юго-Восточной Азии и юго-западной части Тихого океана, расположенная ниже 21R 30 ' северной широты.
   SEATO не имеет центральной структуры командования, и силы остаются под национальным контролем.
   В 1969 году Великобритания перестала выставлять сухопутные войска на случай непредвиденных обстоятельств для организации, а Франция не объявила никаких сил. Пакистан объявил о своем постепенном выходе из союза. Все остаются членами.
   США, Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Таиланд имеют военнослужащих в Южном Вьетнаме. Это вмешательство не было результатом решения Совета SEATO, но эти страны, по большей части, оправдали это действие с точки зрения своих обязательств SEATO.
   Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Соединенные Штаты являются членами трехстороннего договора, известного как ANZUS, который был подписан в 1951 году и действует бессрочно. В соответствии с этим договором каждый из них соглашается "действовать в ответ на общую опасность" в случае вооруженного нападения на метрополию или островную территорию любого из них или на вооруженные силы, морские или воздушные суда в Тихом океане.
   Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия, Сингапур и Великобритания согласовали соглашения об обороне пяти держав, касающиеся внешней обороны Малайзии и Сингапура, которые вступят в силу 1 ноября 1971 года. Великобритания, Австралия и Новая Зеландия поддерживают силы в Малайзии и Сингапуре, с сухопутным и военно-морским компонентами, базирующимися в Сингапуре, и воздушным вкладом Австралии в основном в Баттерворте на Малайском полуострове. До 1 ноября 1971 года британское обязательство регулировалось англо-малазийским оборонным соглашением, но после этой даты оно будет заменено новыми политическими договоренностями с участием пяти держав. Эти договоренности предусматривают, что в случае любого вооруженного нападения или угрозы нападения, организованного или поддержанного извне против Малайзии или Сингапура, правительства пяти стран будут консультироваться друг с другом с целью принятия решения о том, какие меры следует принять совместно или по отдельности.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   США имеют двусторонние оборонные договоры с Японией, КНР, Республикой Корея и Филиппинами. Они имеют ряд военных соглашений с другими странами региона. Они предоставляет значительную военную помощь на безвозмездной или кредитной основе Китайской Республике, Камбодже, Индии, Индонезии, Республике Корея, Лаосу, Малайзии, Пакистану, Сингапуру, Таиланду и Южному Вьетнаму. Они продают военную технику во многие страны, в частности в Австралию, Китайскую Республику и Японию. Для целей предоставления военной помощи Камбоджа, Республика Корея и Китайская республика считаются передовыми районами обороны. Лаос, Камбоджа, Таиланд и Южный Вьетнам получают безвозмездную военную помощь непосредственно из бюджета Министерства обороны США, это единственные страны в мире, которые делают это. Имеются соглашения о военных объектах с Австралией, Республикой Корея, Филиппинами и Японией. Основные базы в регионе, включают Окинаву и Гуам.
   СССР заключила договоры о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Монголией и Корейской Народно-Демократической Республикой. Действительность аналогичного договора с Китайской Народной Республикой под сомнением. Согласно сообщениям, существуют соглашения о военной помощи с Цейлоном и Демократической Республикой Вьетнам. Важная советская военная помощь также предоставляется Афганистану и Индии и, в небольших масштабах, Пакистану.*
   (* 9 августа 1971 года СССР и Индия подписали 20-летний договор о мире, дружбе и сотрудничестве, в котором каждая обязывалась прийти на помощь другой в случае конфликта с третьей страной.)
   Китай имеет договоры о ненападении с Бирмой, Афганистаном и Камбоджой, договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Северной Кореей; и договор о дружбе с Северным Вьетнамом, который, как считается, содержит оборонные договоренности.
  
   AFGHANISTAN
Population: 17,600,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 83,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.4 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 1,400 million afghanis ($31,100,000). 45 afghanis= $1.
Army: 80,000.
   1 armoured division.
   2 infantry divisions.
   1 infantry brigade (Royal Bodyguard).
   10 independent motorized battalions.
   10 independent infantry battalions.
   T-34 and T-54 medium tanks and Snapper ATGW.
Air Force: 3,000; 100 combat aircraft.
   3 light bomber squadrons with Il-28.
   2 interceptor squadrons with 30 MiG-21.
   1 interceptor squadron with 12 MiG-19.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with MiG-15/-17.
   1 Il-18, 25 Il-14, 10 An-2, 2 Twin Otter and 5 Anson transports.
   Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 13,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 12,775,000.
Two years' selective military service.
Total armed forces: 88,280.
Estimated GNP 1970: $US 34.4 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: $A1,149 million ($US1,261,120,000). $A1=$US1.12.
Army: 47,760.
   1 tank regiment.
   1 cavalry regiment
   9 infantry battalions.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment (PIR)
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   4 field artillery regiments.
   1 light anti-aircraft regiment.
   1 aviation regiment.
   5 signals regiments.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
   140 Centurion med tanks; 265 Ferret scout cars; 675 M-113 APC; 235 105mm howitzers;
   About 50 Sioux and Alouette III helicopters; 25 light aircraft.
DEPLOYMENT: A task force of 7,000 in South Vietnam (including 2 inf bns and supporting services);
   (Announced withdrawals will reduce this figure to 6,000 by the end of 1971.)
   1 bn gp and 1 sig regt in Singapore;
   2 PIR bns in Papua-New Guinea.
RESERVES: The Citizen Military Force of 36,000 is intended to form 24 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services.
Navy: 17,820.
   4 submarines.
   1 aircraft carrier (ASW).
   3 GM destroyers with Tartar SAM.
   5 destroyers.
   6 destroyer escorts.
   2 minehunters.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   20 patrol boats.
   1 fast troop transport.
   1 destroyer tender.
   Carrier-borne aircraft include:
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with A-4G Skyhawk,
   1 ASW squadron with S-2E Tracker and 1 helicopter squadron with Wessex.
RESERVES: Navy Citizen Military Force; 4,330.
Air Force: 22,700; 210 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with Canberra B-20.
   2 fighter squadrons with F-4E.
   4 interceptor/strike squadrons with Mirage III-O.
   1 MR squadron with 10 P-3B Orion and 1 MR squadron of 12 P-2H Neptune.
   64 MB-326 trainers.
   24 C-130, 10 HS-748, 24 Caribou, 22 C-47 tpts.
   2 helicopter squadrons with Iroquois.
DEPLOYMENT: 2 Mirage sqns in Malaysia/Singapore; 1 hel sqn in Vietnam.
RESERVES: 950 Citizen Air Force.
  
   BURMA
Population: 28,175,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 143,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $3.2 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 480 million Kyat ($100,600,000). 4.77 kyat= $1.
Army: 130,000.
   5 regional commands.
   3 infantry divisions.
   The army is largely an infantry force, with some artillery, engineer and signals regiments.
   It is organized chiefly for counter-insurgency and internal security duties.
   Comet med tanks; Humber armd cars; Ferret scout cars; mainly American, British and Yugoslav light arms.
Navy: 7,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 coastal escorts.
   5 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   34 river and patrol gunboats.
   7 motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   40 landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 6,500; 18 combat aircraft.
   12 AT-33 and 6 Vampire armed trainers.
   4 C-45, 12 C-47, 8 Otter and 2 Bristol 170 tpts.
   6 Sioux, 10 Huskie, 8 Alouette III and 10 Shawnee helicopters.'
Para-Military Forces: 25,000.
  
   CAMBODIA
Population: 7,000,000.
Voluntary military service. (*Conscription is authorized but not yet in force.)
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.91 billion.
Total armed forces: 179,000.
Defence budget 1971: 18,650 million riels ($336,000,000). 55.5 riels= $1.
Army: 175,000.
   200 infantry and commando battalions.
   1 tank regiment.
   1 armoured car battalion.
   3 parachute battalions.
   M-24 and AMX-13 lt tks: M-8 and M-20 armd cars; M-3 scout cars; BTR-152 APC;
   105mm howitzers and Soviet 76mm and 122mm guns; 40mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns.
Navy 1,600 (including 150 marines).
   2 patrol vessels.
   2 support gunboats.
   2 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 landing craft.
Air Force: 2,400; 7 combat aircraft.
   7 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   5 C-47, 5 An-2, and Il-14 transports.
   3 MiG-15 UTI, 11 Horizon and 4 Yak-18 trainers.
   4 Alouette II, 1 Mi-4 and 2 H-34 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 150,000.
  
   REPUBLIC OF CHINA (TAIWAN)
Population: 14,575,000.
Military service: Army 2 years; Navy and Air Force 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1970: $5.5 billion.
Total armed forces: 540,000.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971:24,500 million new Taiwan dollars ($601,250,000).
Army: 390,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   14 infantry divisions.
   6 light divisions.
   3 armoured cavalry regiments.
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   1 SAM bn and 1 SAM bty with Nike-Hercules.
   2 airborne brigades.
   4 Special Forces Groups.
   M-47 and M-48 med tks; M-24, and M-41 lt tks; M-18 tk destroyers.
DEPLOYMENT: 60,000 on Quemoy; 20,000 on Matsu.
Navy: 35,000.
   10 destroyers.
   6 destroyer escorts.
   12 frigates.
   12 submarine chasers.
   12 patrol vessels.
   3 fleet minesweepers.
   15 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   21 tank landing ships.
   9 medium landing ships.
   30 landing craft.
Marine Corps: 35,000.
   2 divisions.
Air Force: 80,000; 385 combat aircraft.
   80 F-100A/D fighter-bombers.
   70 F-5A tactical fighters.
   45 F-104G interceptors.
   150 F-86F interceptors.
   8 RF-104G and 4 RF-101 recce aircraft.
   About 95 C-46, C-47 and C-119 transports.
   10 UH-19 helicopters.
  
   INDIA
Population: 557,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 980,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $49 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 12,420 million rupees ($1,656 million). 7.5 rupees= $1.
Army: 860,000.
   1 armoured division.
   2 independent armoured brigades.
   13 infantry divisions.
   10 mountain divisions.
   6 independent infantry brigades.
   2 parachute brigades.
   About 20 AA artillery units.
   200 Centurion Mk 5/7, 250 Sherman, 450 T-54 and T-55 and 300 Vijayanta med tanks;
   150 PT-76 and 100 AMX-13 lt tanks; OT-62 and Mk.2/4A APC;
   about 3,000 artillery pieces, mostly 25-pounders, but including about 350 100mm and 140 130mm guns;
   SS-11 and Entac ATGW.
Navy: 40,000.
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet F-class).
   2 cruisers.
   3 destroyers.
   9 destroyer escorts (including 5 ex-Soviet Petya-class).
   1 general purpose frigate.
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   10 patrol boats (4 less than 100 tons).
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   1 landing ship.
   2 landing craft.
   9 seaward defence boats (6 less than 100 tons).
The naval air forces includes 35 Sea Hawk attack aircraft, 12 Alize maritime patrollers, and 2 Sea King and 10 Alouette III helicopters.
   10 Sea Hawks, 5 Alizes and 2 Alouettes can be carried on the aircraft carrier at any one time.
Air Force: 80,000; 625 combat aircraft. (8 to 25 aircraft in a combat squadron).
   3 light bomber squadrons with Canberra B(I).
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with Su-7.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with HF-24 Marut JA.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with Hunter F-56.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mystere-IV.
   7 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   8 interceptor squadrons with Gnat.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Canberra PR-57.
   1 maritime recce sqn with L-1049 Super Constellation.
   Transports include about 55 C-47, 60 C-119, 20 Il-14, 30 An-12, 25 Otter, 12 HS-748 and 15 Caribou.
   Helicopters include about 80 Mi-4, 150 Alouette III, 10 Bell-47 and a few Mi-8.
   About 50 SA-2 SAM complexes.
Para-Military Forces: About 100,000 in Border Security Force.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 114,500,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 319,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $11.6 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 103 billion rupiahs ($272,000,000). 378 rupiahs= $1.
Army: 250,000.
   15 infantry brigades, formed from about 100 infantry battalions.
   8 armoured battalions.
   1 paracommando regiment (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Reserve Command) consists of about 6 bdes and includes paratroops and armour, artillery and engineers.
   About one-third of the army is engaged in civil and administrative duties.
   Stuart, AMX-13 and PT-76 light tanks; Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; Saracen and BTR-152 APC;
   artillery includes Soviet 57mm AA guns and associated radar.
Navy:* 34,000 (incl 14,000 Marines). *(It is thought that only about one-third of the Navy is operational.)
   12 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   I cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class).
   4 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   11 frigates (including 7 ex-Soviet Riga-class).
   18 coastal escorts (14 ex-Soviet, 4 ex-USA).
   12 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   8 patrol boats.
   30 motor torpedo boats.
   6 fleet minesweepers.
   15 coastal minesweepers.
   18 motor gunboats.
   25 seaward defence boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
The Marines form 2 brigades.
Naval Air Arm
   20 MiG-19 and MiG-21 interceptors.
   5 HU-16 and PBY-5A ASW aircraft.
   About 12 S-55, S-58 and Mi-4 helicopters.
Air Force: 35,000; 122 combat aircraft (Only about 80 aircraft are thought to be fully operational.)
   22 Tu-16 bombers, some with Kennel ASM.
   10 Il-28 light bombers.
   5 B-25 light bombers.
   10 F-51D light-strike aircraft.
   About 20 MiG-15, 40 MiG-17 and 15 MiG-21 interceptors (mostly in storage).
   About 60 transports, including Il-14, C-130B, C-47, An-12 and Skyvan.
   About 30 helicopters, including Mi-4, Mi-6, Alouette II and Bell-204.
   At least 3 SA-2 sites.
Para-Military Forces: A police Mobile Brigade of about 20,000. About 100,000 Militia.
  
   JAPAN
Population: 104,600,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 259,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $195 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 670,900 million yen ($1,864 million). 360 yen= $1.
Army: 179,000.
   1 mechanized division.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 artillery brigade.
   1 signal and 5 engineer brigades.
   I helicopter brigade.
   3 SAM groups with HAWK.
   380 Type 61 and 120 M-4 med tanks; M-24 and 140 M-41 lt tanks; Type 60 APC;
   30 M-52 105mm and 10 M-44 155mm SP howitzers;
   203mm howitzers; Type 60 twin 106mm SP recoilless rifles; Type 64 -ATGW;
   120 aircraft and 220 helicopters.
RESERVES: 36,000.
Navy: 38,300.
   11 submarines.
   1 GM destroyer with Tartar SAM.
   37 ASW destroyers.
   1 frigate.
   20 submarine chasers.
   5 motor torpedo boats (2 less than 100 tons).
   2 minelayers.
   37 coastal minesweepers.
   3 tank landing ships.
   1 medium landing ship.
   6 landing craft.
   42 small landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Naval air component: 140 combat aircraft.
   4 maritime recce sqn with 2 PS-1, 60 P-2J and P2V-7.
   3 maritime recce sqn with 55 S2F-1.
   3 helicopter squadrons with HSS-2 and HSS-1N.
Air Force: 41,700; 375 combat aircraft. (18-25 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   7 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-86F.
   7 interceptor squadrons with F-104J.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-86F.
   (Deliveries of F-4FJ are due to begin during 1971.)
   3 transport squadrons with 30 C-46 and 10 YS-11.
   20 helicopters incl S-62 and V-107.
   360 trainers incl T-l, T-33, T-34 and F-104DJ.
   4 SAM bns with Nike-Hercules (100 launchers).
   A Base Air Defence Ground Environment with 24 control and warning units.
  
   KOREA--DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 13,975,000.
Military service: Army 3 years, Navy and Air Force 4 years.
Total armed forces: 401,000.
Defence budget 1971: 2,183 million won ($849,400,000). 2.57 won= $1.
Army: 360,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   20 infantry divisions.
   5 independent infantry brigades.
   15,000 men in 'special commando teams'.
   750 T-34 and T-54 med tanks; PT-76 lt tanks;
   950 BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APC;
   200 SU-76, SU-100 and ZSU-57 SP guns;
   2,000 AA guns;
   6,000 other guns and mortars up to 152mm calibre;
   about 30 SA-2 SAM sites (about 180 launchers).
Navy: 11,000.
   3 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   6 Komar- and 9 Osa-class FPB with Styx SSM.
   3 torpedo boats.
   40 high speed torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 fleet minesweepers.
   22 patrol vessels (4 less than 100 tons).
   11 motor gunboats.
Air Force: 30,000; 555 combat aircraft.
   70 Il-28 light bombers.
   380 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   100 MiG-21 interceptors.
   5 MiG-19 interceptors.
   About 40 An-2, Li-2, Il-12 and Il-14 transports.
   20 Mi-4 helicopters.
   70 Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15 and Il-28 trainers.
Para-Military Forces: 25,000 security forces and border guards;
   a civilian militia with a claimed strength of 1,250,000.
  
   KOREA--REPUBLIC OF KOREA (SOUTH)
Population: 32,700,000.
Military service: Army/Marines, 2 years; Navy/Air Force, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 634,250.
Estimated GNP 1970: $8.3 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 129,000 million won ($411,000,000). 314 won= $1.
Army: 560,000. .
   29 infantry divisions (10 in cadre only).
   2 armoured brigades.
   80 artillery battalions.
   1 SSM battalion with Honest John.
   2 SAM bns with HAWK and 1 with Nike-Hercules.
   M-4 and M-48 med tanks; Stuart and M-24 lt tanks; M-10 and M-36 tank destroyers;
   M-8 armd cars and M-113 APC; guns up to 155mm.
DEPLOYMENT: 2 infantry divisions and some engineer units are in South Vietnam.
Navy: 16,750.
   3 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   4 frigates.
   6 escort transports.
   11 coastal escorts.
   17 patrol boats.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   20 landing ships.
Marine Corps: 33,000.
   5 brigades
DEPLOYMENT: 1 brigade in South Vietnam.
Air Force: 24,500; 235 combat aircraft.
   18 F-4 fighter-bombers.
   110 F-86F fighter-bombers.
   77 F-5 tactical fighters.
   20 F-86D AWX (with Sidewinder AAM).
   10 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   35 transports including C-46, C-47 and C-54.
   Helicopters include 6 H-19.
Para-Military Forces: A local defence militia with a strength of 1 to 2 million is being formed.
  
   LAOS
Population: 3,030,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.2 billion. 500 kip=$l.
1. ROYAL LAO FORCES
Military service: conscription.
Total strength: 55,000.
Estimated defence expenditure: 10,800 million kip ($21,600,000).
Army: 52,600.
   58 infantry battalions.
   1 artillery regt of 4 bts.
   M-24 and PT-76 lt tanks; M-8 armd cars; M-3 scout cars; BTR-40 and M-113 APC;
   85mm guns and 75mm, 105mm and 150mm howitzers.
Navy: about 400.
   4 river squadrons consisting of:
   36 patrol craft and lighters, 10 landing craft (all under 100 tons, most not operational).
Air Force: 2,000; 75 combat aircraft.
   About 75 T-28 light-strike aircraft.
   20 C-47 and AC-47 transports and gunships.
   About 8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces and irregulars: 36,000.
2. PATHET-LAO FORCES:
   Total strength about 45,000 men (incl dissident neutralists).
   PT-76 lt tanks; BTR-40 armd cars; 105mm howitzers.
   The Pathet-Lao are believed to be integrated with about 75,000 regular North Vietnamese combat and logistics troops,
   and have received arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin.
   The Pathet-Lao and North Vietnamese control all the eastern half of Laos.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 11,200,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 50,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $3.95 billion.
Defence budget 1971: Mal.$570 million ($US186,000,000); 3.06 Malaysian dollars= $US1.
Army: 43,000.
   7 infantry brigades, consisting of: 24 infantry battalions.
   3 reconnaissance regiments.
   3 artillery regiments.
   1 Special Service unit.
   3 signal regiments.
   Engineer and administrative units.
   Ferret scout cars; 105mm howitzers.
RESERVES: About 50,000.
Navy: 3,000.
   2 ASW frigates (1 with Seacat SAM).
   4 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   24 other patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 coastal minesweepers.
RESERVES: 600.
Air Force: 4,000; 30 combat aircraft.
   10 CA-27 Sabre fighter-bombers.
   20 CL-41G Tebuan light training and strike aircraft.
   8 Herald and 12 Caribou transports.
   5 Dove, 2 HS-125 and 2 Heron liaison aircraft.
   24 Alouette III and 10 S-61A helicopters.
   (1 squadron of Mirage III are on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 50,000 -14 bns field police.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,315,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 29,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $0.63 billion.
   Estimated Defence expenditure 1971: 90 million tugrik ($22,500,000). 4 tugrik= $1.
Army: 28,000.
   2 infantry divisions.
   40 T-34 and 100 T-54/55 med tanks; 10 SU-100 tank destroyers;
   40 BTR-60 and 50 BTR-152 APC;
   130mm guns and 152mm guns/howitzers.
Air Force: 1,000 men; no combat aircraft.
   Operates in support of the Army, and employs some Soviet technical advisers.
   30 An-2, Il-14 and An-24 transports.
   Yak-11, Yak-18 and MiG-15UTI trainers.
   10 Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
   1 SAM battalion with SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: About 18,000 Security police.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,880,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service of 14 weeks for the Army).
Total armed forces: 12,750.
Estimated GNP 1970: $US 5.77 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: $NZ 110,450,000 ($US 123,704,000). $NZ 1=$US 1.12.
Army: 5,600.
   1 infantry battalion.
   1 artillery battery.
   Regular troops form the nucleus of a Combat Brigade Group, a Logistic Group and a Reserve Brigade Group.
   These units would be completed by the mobilization of Territorials.
   10 M-41 lt tanks; 9 Ferret scout cars; 40 M-113 APC; 28 105mm howitzers.
DEPLOYMENT: 1 infantry bn (less one company) in Singapore. 1 infantry company in South Vietnam.
RESERVES: 11,300 Territorials.
Navy: 2,900.
   1 general purpose (GP) frigate with Seacat SAM (a second is due to be delivered in 1971).
   2 ASW frigates with Seacat SAM.
   2 escort minesweepers.
   12 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
   2 Wasp hel (1 operates from the GP frigate).
RESERVES: 600 men, 5 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 4,250; 27 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 10 A-4K and 4TA-4K Skyhawk.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 8 Vampire FB-5.
   5 P-3B Orion maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   5 C-130 Devon and 9 Bristol Mark 31 med transports.
   14 Iroquois and 13 Sioux helicopters.
DEPLOYMENT: 1 transport squadron in Singapore.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 126,300,000.
   2 years selective military service.
Total armed forces: 392,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $16 billion. Defence budget 1971-72: 3,400 million rupees ($714,000,000). 4.76 rupees = $1.
Army: 365,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   2 armoured divisions.
   12 infantry divisions (2 more being raised).
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   1 air defence brigade.
   100 M-47, 100 M-48, 100 T-54, 50 T-55 and 225 T-59 med tanks; 200 M-24, 75 M-41 and 20 PT-76 lt tanks;
   300 M-113 APC;
   about 900 25-pounder guns, 105mm and 155mm howitzers; 200 130mm guns; Cobra ATGW;
   20 H-13 helicopters.
Navy: 10,000.
   4 submarines.
   1 light cruiser/training ship.
   2 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 fast frigates.
   4 patrol boats.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   2 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 UH-19 air-sea rescue helicopters.
Air Force: 17,000; 285 combat aircraft. (With the exceptions noted, combat squadrons have 16 aircraft).
   1 light bomber squadron with Il-28.
   2 light bomber squadrons with B-57B.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage IIIE.
   8 fighter-bomber/Interceptor squadrons with F-86.
   4 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19.
   1 interceptor squadron with 6 F-104A.
   1 recce squadron with 4 RT-33A and 2 RB-57.
   Transports include 8 C-130B and 1 F-27. '
   40 Sioux, Huskie, Alouette III and Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 280,000.
   30,000 frontier corps; 250,000 militia.
   A new force is being raised - the East Pakistan Civil Armed Force.
  
   PHILIPPINES
Population: 39,800,000.
   Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 34,600.
Estimated GNP 1970: $5.9 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: 871 million pesos ($135,500,000). 6.43 pesos = $1. (Before 21 February 1970-3.9 pesos=$l.)
Army: 17,600.
   2 light infantry divisions (under strength).
   2 infantry brigades.
   15 engineer construction battalions.
   M-4 med tanks; M-24 and M-41 lt tanks; M-113 APC.
Navy: 8,000 (including naval engineers).
   1 destroyer escort.
   4 coastal escorts.
   7 patrol vessels.
   47 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   11 landing ships.
   1 marine battalion.
   5 engineer construction battalions.
Air Force: 9,000; 57 combat aircraft.
   20 F-5 fighter/ground-support aircraft.
   8 T-28 ground support aircraft.
   26 F-86F day-fighters.
   3 T-33 armed trainers.
   Transports include 28 C-47 and 1 F-27.
   About 16 helicopters, incl UH-1H and H-34.
Para-Military Forces: 23,500 Philippine Constabulary and about 400 armed civilian self-defence units.
  
   SINGAPORE
Population: 2,100,000.
Military service: 24-36 months.
Total armed forces: 16,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $US 1.82 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: S$484 million ($US 158,170,000). 3.06 Singapore dollars= $1.
Army: 14,000.
   2 brigades, which include 1 armoured regiment,
   6 infantry battalions, 1 artillery battalion, 1 engineer battalion, 1 signals battalion.
   (A third brigade is being formed.)
   50 AMX-13 tanks; M-706 Commando APC;
   25-pounder guns; 120mm mortars; 32 106mm recoilless rifles.
RESERVES: 7,000, planned to increase to 9,000 by the end of 1971.
Navy: 500.
   1 seaward defence boat.
   3 fast patrol boats (and 3 more on order).
Air Force: 1,500; 36 combat aircraft.
   1 GA sqn with 16 BAC-167 and 4 Hunter.
   1 interceptor/recce sqn with 16 Hunter.
   1 tpt/liaison sqn with 8 Cessna-172 and 2 Airtourer.
   1 helicopter squadron with 4 Alouette III.
   28 Bloodhound SAM launchers.
Para-Military Forces: 2 police companies.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 35,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 175,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: 86.1 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 5,413,800,000 baht ($260,300,000). 20.8 baht= $1.
Army: 130,000.
   4 infantry divisions (including 3 tank battalions).
   1 regimental combat team.
   1 SAM battery with HAWK.
   M-24 and M-41 lt tanks; M-2 and M-16 armd half-tracks; M-8 armd cars; M3A1 scout cars;
   about 200 M-113 APC; 105mm and 155mm howitzers;
   16 FH-1100 and 6 OH-23F hel.
DEPLOYMENT: 11,250 in South Vietnam*. (*All due to be withdrawn by February 1972.)
Navy: 21,500 (including 6,500 marines).
   1 destroyer escort.
   3 frigates (and 3 on order).
   1 escort minesweeper.
   17 submarine chasers.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 coastal minelayers.
   11 gunboats (1 less than 100 tons).
   3 patrol gun boats.
   8 landing ships.
   8 landing craft.
   1 maritime recce squadron with HU-16 and S-2.
Air Force: 23,500; 144 combat aircraft.
   11 F-5A and F-5B fighter-bombers.
   20 F-86F day fighters.
   2 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   55 T-28D, 40 T-6 and 16 OV-10 COIN aircraft.
   25 C-47 and 13 C-123B transports.
   About 60 hel, including 35 CH-34 and 23 UH-1H.
   4 battalions of airfield defence troops.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000 Volunteer Defence Corps; 8,000 Border Police.
  
   VIETNAM--DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 22,675,000.
Military service: 3 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 492,000.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 2,150 million dong($584 million). 3.68 dong= $1.
Army: 480,000.
   14 infantry divisions.* (* Infantry divisions normally total about 12,000 men including 3 infantry and 1 support regiment.)
   1 artillery division (of 10 regiments).
   2 armoured regiments.
   About 20 independent infantry regiments.
   50 T-34 and 60 T-54 med tanks; 300 PT-76 lt tanks;
   BTR-40 APC; SU-76 and JSU-122 SP guns;
   75mm, 105mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm artillery;
   57mm, 75mm, 82mm and 107mm recoilless rifles;
   82mm, 100mm, 107mm, 120mm and 160mm mortars;
   107mm, 122mm and 140mm RL;
   6,000 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns.
   35 SAM battalions (each with 6 SA-2 launchers).
DEPLOYMENT: about 90,000 in South Vietnam, 75,000 in Laos and 40,000 in Cambodia.
Navy: 3,000.
   2 ex-Soviet coastal escorts.
   4 ex-Chinese motor gunboats.
   About 24 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   About 3 ex-Chinese 3 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   About 12 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 9,000; 165 combat aircraft.
   10 ex-Soviet Il-28 light bombers.
   40 ex-Soviet MiG-21F/PF interceptors with Atoll AAM.
   25 ex-Chinese MiG-19 interceptors.
   60 ex-Soviet and 10 ex-Chinese MiG-17 interceptors.
   10 ex-Soviet and 10 ex-Chinese MiG-15 interceptors
   8 An-2, 3 An-24, 10 Il-14 and 20 Li-2 transports.
   20 Mi-4 and 2 Mi-6 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 20,000 Frontier, Coast Security and People's Armed Security Forces;
   about 425,000 regional armed militia.
  
   VIETNAM--REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (SOUTH)
Population: 18,800,000.
Military service: 2 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 500,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $4.0 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 155,000 million piastres ($564,000,000). 275 piastres = $1 (before 4 Oct 1970, 117.5= $1).
Army: 414,000.
   10 infantry divisions.
   6 independent armoured cavalry regiments.
   3 independent infantry regiments.
   18 ranger battalions.
   1 Special Forces Group.
   35 artillery battalions.
   1 airborne division (3 brigades).
   (With normally 3 regiments, each of 4 battalions, to an infantry division, there are some 150 infantry battalions in the regular army,
   but most units are below establishment; the actual strength of a battalion averages 500, and a regiment 2,000.)
   M-24, 200 M-41 and 40 AMX-13 lt tanks;
   250 Commando and Greyhound armd cars; M-3 scout cars; M-59 and M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm SP guns.
DEPLOYMENT: about 23,000 in Cambodia.
Navy: 31,000.
   1 destroyer.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   6 patrol escorts.
   2 patrol vessels.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
   70 fast patrol boats.
   20 motor gunboats.
   23 landing ships.
   About 200 landing craft. (most less than 100 tons)
   About 600 river patrol boats.
   About 350 motorized coastal defence junks.
Marine Corps: 15,000.
   1 division.
Air Force: 40,000; 275 combat aircraft. (Combat squadrons have from 15-20 aircraft.)
   1 tactical fighter squadron with F-5.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with A-37.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with Skyraider.
   Some RC-47 reconnaissance aircraft.
   80 O-1 armed light aircraft.
   20 AC-47 armed transport aircraft.
   25 C-47 and 25 C-119 transports.
   35 Choctaw, 230 UH-1 and 10 CH-47 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 555,000.
   Regional Forces - 285,000, forming about 1,700 rifle companies, at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces - 250,000, a home guard of about 7,500 platoons, with light arms.
   Police Field Force - 20,000, including special internal security units with armd vehicles and helicopters.
   There is also a People's Self Defence Force of about 1,500,000
  

TABLES

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   a. China is not included in this table. Her ability to deliver nuclear weapons appears to be limited to some Tu-16 and Tu-4 medium-range bombers, Il-28 short-range bombers and a few MRBM.
   b. Including those in IRBM/MRBM fields.
   c. In addition, there are about 300 Tu-16 Badgers in the Naval Air Force, configured for attacks on shipping, which could deliver nuclear weapons.
   d. These aircraft are dual-capable and could have a non-nuclear role.
   e. These became operational on 2 August 1971.
   f. These missiles and aircraft are operated by a number of countries but may have non-nuclear roles.'
  
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   NOTES
   a. ICBM=inter-continental ballistic missile (range 4,000+ miles);
   IRBM=intermediate-range ballistic missile (range 1,500-4,000 miles);
   MRBM=medium range ballistic missile (range 500-1,500 miles);
   SRBM=short-range ballistic missile (range under 500 miles); SLBM=submarine-launched ballistic missile.
   b. L=liquid; SL=storable liquid; S=solid; J=ram- or turbojet; HE=high explosive.
   c. Operational range depends upon the payload carried; use of maximum payload may reduce range by up to 25 per cent below maximum.
   d. MT=megaton=million tons of TNT equivalent (MT range=l MT or over); KT = kiloton=thousand tons of TNT equivalent (KT range=less than 1 MT).
   e. The majority of Polaris A3 missiles, if not all, have been modified to carry three warheads of about 200KT each.
   f. Numerical designations for Soviet missiles (e.g. SS-9) are of US origin; names (e.g. Scarp) are of NATO origin.
   g. SS-9 missiles have also been tested (i) with three warheads of 4-5 MT each, (ii) with a modified payload for use as a depressed trajectory ICBM (DICBM) or fractional orbit bombardment system (FOBS).
   h. A mobile IRBM (SS-XZ Scrooge) has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   i. A mobile solid-propellant missile (SS-14 Scapegoat), apparently with MRBM range, has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   j. Launched only from the surface.
   k. Possibly small propellant.
   l. Long-range bomber=maximum range over 6,000 miles; medium-range bomber=maximum range 3,500-6,000 miles, primarily designed for bombing missions.
   m. Theoretical maximum range, with internal fuel only, at optimum altitude and speed. Ranges for strike aircraft assume no weapon load. Especially in the case of strike aircraft, therefore, range falls sharply for flights at lower altitude, at higher speed or with full weapons load (e.g. combat radius of A-7, at operational height and speed, with typical weapons load, is approximately 620 miles).
   n. Mach 1 (M= 1.0)=speed of sound.
   o. ASM=air-to-surface missile.
   p. F-104 are no longer in active service as strike aircraft with the US Air Force but remain in service with other NATO air forces.
   q. Names of Soviet aircraft (e.g. Bear) are of NATO origin.
   r. Naval Air Force versions of the Tu-16 carry 2xKelt or 2xKennel ASM for anti-shipping use.
  
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   NOTES
   This table lists major agreements on a firm-to government and on a government-to-government basis, and covers both credit and cash sales. Costs to recipients may include spares, support, etc., and reflect the value of goods taken in part-exchange where applicable. Payees may include sub-contractors in the purchasing country, as well as prime contractors in the supplying country.
   No licensing agreements are included.
   American, Soviet and Chinese military aid to Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Korea, and Soviet deliveries to members of the Warsaw Pact are excluded.
  
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   NOTES
   * Countries other than the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France which are considered to be primary producers,
   SS = Supersonic.
   P=Arms of producer country's own design.
   L=Arms produced or assembled, not of own design.
   Most aircraft come in this category because the engines are licensed.
   a. All fighter, bomber or COIN aircraft except where indicated.
   b. Includes ASW missiles.
   c. Includes MCM and landing ships.
   d. Includes landing craft.
   e. Includes armoured car, scout car and APC.
   f. Includes Tu-16 medium bomber.
   g. Includes Japanese designed MR aircraft.
  

APPENDIX: The Military Balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact

   (Excluding Strategic Forces*)
   Any assessment of the military balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact involves comparison of the strengths of both men and equipment, consideration of qualitative characteristics such as geographical advantages, deployment, training and logistic support, and differences in doctrine and philosophy. These are the factors-and there are others as well, including notably the performance of weapons systems - that are at the heart of military security and will have to be taken into account by both sides when considering Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR), so as not to be placed, as a result of changes, at a disadvantage.! (Most of these factors are variables and may change over time but the geographical asymmetry is not: this point is critical to any negotiations.)
   Military considerations are, however, only part of the problem; political questions are of first importance. These include the extent to which reductions should consist of stationed or indigenous forces and their equipment; the impact on confidence of the measures for verification and control of force reductions ; and the effect on relationships within alliances of any agreements reached. While the appraisal which follows touches on many matters central to MBFR, drawing attention as it does to asymmetries which now exist, it is military only and thus one-dimensional. It should be regarded as primarily a quantitative guide since there are difficulties in giving values, in so short a space, to qualitative factors and deciding on their relevance. Furthermore the situation is not a static one: any single presentation must have inadequacies. The comparisons necessarily over-simplify what is by its nature a complex problem.
  
   Приложение: военный баланс между NATO и Варшавским договором
   (За Исключением Стратегических Сил*)
   Оценка военного баланса между NATO и Варшавским договором предполагает сопоставление сил сторон как живой силы, так и техники, рассмотрение качественных характеристик, таких как географические преимущества, развертывание, подготовка и материально-техническое обеспечение, а также различия в доктрине и философии. Таковы факторы - и есть и другие, включая, в частности, эффективность систем оружия, - которые лежат в основе военной безопасности и должны будут учитываться обеими сторонами при рассмотрении вопроса о взаимном и сбалансированном сокращении вооруженных сил (MBFR), с тем чтобы не оказаться в результате изменений в невыгодном положении.* (*Большинство этих факторов являются переменными и могут меняться с течением времени, однако географическая асимметрия не является таковой: этот момент имеет решающее значение для любых переговоров.)
   Однако военные соображения являются лишь частью проблемы; политические вопросы имеют первостепенное значение. К ним относятся: степень, в которой сокращения должны включать внешние или местные силы и их снаряжение; воздействие на доверие мер по определению и контролю за сокращением сил; и влияние на отношения в рамках союзов любых достигнутых соглашений. Оценка, которая касается многих вопросов, наиболее важных для MBFR, обращает внимание, на асимметрию, которая сейчас существует, военная и одномерная. Ее следует рассматривать в первую очередь как руководство по количественным показателям, поскольку существуют трудности с определением ценностей, если говорить вкратце, качественным факторам и с определением их актуальности. Кроме того, ситуация не является статичной: любая презентация должна иметь недостатки. Сравнения неизбежно чрезмерно упрощают то, что по своей природе является сложной проблемой.
  
   Land and air forces
   The three NATO major subordinate commands, Northern, Central and Southern Europe, at first seem to offer a convenient basis for making a direct comparison with the opposing forces of the Warsaw Pact but there are problems. The Northern European Command covers not only Norway but also the Baltic area including Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. It is not possible to make precise calculations as to the Soviet formations that would be committed to the Baltic area rather than towards the NATO Central European Command. In both land and air forces there is a considerable degree of flexibility to do either: for the Warsaw Pact this sector is a coherent front. For this reason, Northern and Central Europe are grouped together in the tables which follow and Southern Europe is shown separately. Such a grouping conceals, however, a marked imbalance in North Norway.
  
   Сухопутные и воздушные силы
   Три главных подчиненных командования NATO - Северная, Центральная и Южная Европа - поначалу кажутся удобной основой для проведения прямого сравнения с противостоящими силами Варшавского договора, но есть проблемы. Североевропейское командование охватывает не только Норвегию, но и Прибалтику, включая Данию, Шлезвиг-Гольштейн и Балтийские проходы. Невозможно произвести точные расчеты в отношении советских формирований, которые были бы выделены Балтийскому региону, а не центрально-европейскому командованию NATO. Как в сухопутных, так и в воздушных силах существует значительная степень гибкости: для Варшавского договора этот сектор является согласованным фронтом. По этой причине Северная и Центральная Европа объединены в нижеследующий таблице, а Южная Европа показана отдельно. Однако такая группировка скрывает заметный дисбаланс в Северной Норвегии.
  
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   * A detailed comparison of the strategic nuclear forces of the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies was given on pp. 85-90 of The Military Balance 1970-71. Comparative strategic strengths are shown in Table 1 on pp. 55-56.
   t MBFR has historical antecedents in the various arms control plans of the 1950s and 1960s but more recently a precise proposal was made at the NATO Ministerial Meeting in Reykjavik in June 1968. In Spring 1971 there were indications of willingness by the Soviet Union to discuss the proposal.
   abc See facing page for footnotes.
  
   If French formations (not part of NATO's integrated commands) are included they would add two mechanized divisions to the NATO totals. The appropriate forces of all of the Warsaw Pact countries are included, though the military values of some of them may be suspect for political reasons.
   In Norway there are only Norwegian forces in peacetime, a brigade group being located in the north. The Soviet forces facing them or which could be brought against them from North-Western Russia, probably amount to at least four divisions. This wide disparity highlights the problem of the defence of North Norway against surprise attack. To meet this difficulty a system of self defence, based on a powerful Home Guard and rapid mobilization, has been designed, to take maximum advantage of the ruggedness of the country and the poor road and rail communications, but it is clear that defence against attack of any size depends on timely external assistance.
   Two further imbalances are worth noting. The first, a legacy from the post-war occupation zones, is a certain mal-deployment in the NATO Central European Command, where the well-equipped and strong American formations are stationed in the southern part of the front, an area which geographically lends itself to defence, while in the north German plain, across which the routes to allied capitals run, where there is little depth and few major obstacles, certain of the forces are less powerful. The second is that the whole of the Italian land forces, which are included in the table under Southern Europe, are stationed in Italy and thus are at some distance from the areas of potential confrontation.
  
   Если бы французские формирования (не входящие в состав интегрированных командований NATO) были включены, они добавили бы две механизированные дивизии к общим показателям NATO. Включены соответствующие силы всех стран Варшавского договора, хотя военные ценности некоторых из них могут быть сомнительными по политическим причинам.
   В Норвегии есть только норвежские силы в мирное время, бригадная группа находится на севере. Советские войска, стоящие перед ними или которые могут быть привлечены против них из Северо-Западной России, вероятно, составляют не менее четырех дивизий. Это большое неравенство является проблемой защиты Северной Норвегии от внезапного нападения. Для решения этой проблемы была разработана система самообороны, основанная на мощном ополчении и быстрой мобилизации, с тем, чтобы в максимальной степени использовать в своих интересах укрепление страны и плохое состояние автомобильных и железнодорожных коммуникаций, однако ясно, что защита от нападений любого масштаба зависит от своевременной помощи извне.
   Следует отметить еще два дисбаланса. Первый, унаследованный от послевоенных оккупационных зон, развертывание в Центрально-европейском командовании NATO, где хорошо оснащенные и сильные американские формирования, дислоцированы на южном участке фронта, в районе, который территориально благоприятен для обороны. В то время как в Северогерманская низменность, на которой расположены столицы союзников, небольшой глубины и малым числом серьезных препятствий, силы менее мощные. Вторая заключается в том, что все итальянские сухопутные войска, которые включены в таблицу по Южной Европе, дислоцированы в Италии и, таким образом, находятся на некотором расстоянии от районов потенциальной конфронтации.
  
   MANPOWER
   A comparison of formations is not by itself sufficient however, since NATO formations are much larger than those of the Warsaw Pact.* It is necessary to take account of this difference in size and also of the combat troops in formations higher than divisions and those men who directly support them. Figures calculated on this basis - and the calculation can only be an approximate and arbitrary one - give the following comparison for forces in peacetime (figures are in thousands):
  
   ЛИЧНЫЙ СОСТАВ
   Однако сравнение формаций само по себе не является достаточным, поскольку формирования NATO намного крупнее, чем те, что представлены в Варшавском договоре.* Необходимо учитывать эту разницу в численности, а также в составе боевых формирований выше дивизий и тех бойцов, которые непосредственно их поддерживают. Цифры, рассчитанные на этой основе - а расчет может быть только приблизительным и произвольным - дают следующее сравнение для сил в мирное время (цифры в тысячах):
   0x01 graphic
   If French forces are counted, including those stationed in France, the NATO figure for Northern and Central Europe might be increased by perhaps 120,000."
  
   a. Includes, on the NATO side, the commands for which AFCENT and AFNORTH commanders have responsibility (see introduction to NATO section). France is not included nor are any allied ground forces in Portugal or Britain. On the Warsaw Pact side it includes the command for which the Pact High Commander has responsibility, but excludes the armed forces of Bulgaria and Rumania. Soviet units normally stationed in western USSR and such troops as might be committed to the Baltic theatre of operations have, however, been included on the Warsaw Pact side.
   b. Includes, on the NATO side, the Italian, Greek, and Turkish land forces (including those in Asian Turkey) and such American and British units as would be committed to the Mediterranean theatre of operations, and on the Warsaw Pact side, the land forces of Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania, and such Soviet units normally stationed in Hungary and southern USSR as might be committed to the Mediterranean theatre.
   c. These are the two divisions stationed in Germany. There are four more in France.
   d. Formation strengths are given on page facing the Preface
   a. Включает, со стороны NATO, командования, за которые несут ответственность командования AFCENT и AFNORTH (см. введение в раздел NATO). Франция не входит и союзнические сухопутные войска в Португалии или Великобритании. Со стороны Варшавского договора включает командование, за которое отвечает Верховный Главнокомандующий пактом, но исключает вооруженные силы Болгарии и Румынии. Советские части, обычно размещенные в западном СССР, и такие войска, которые могли бы быть направлены на Балтийский театр военных действий, были, однако, включены в Варшавский договор.
   b. Включает, со стороны NATO, итальянские, греческие и турецкие сухопутные силы (в том числе в азиатской части Турции), и такие американские и британские подразделения, как на Средиземноморском театре операций, и со стороны Варшавского договора сухопутные войска Болгарии, Венгрии и Румынии, и такие советские подразделения, которые расположены в Венгрии и на юге СССР как могли быть брошены на Средиземноморском ТВД.
   c. Это два подразделения, дислоцированные в Германии. Во Франции есть еще четыре.
   d. Силы дивизий приведены на странице перед предисловием
  
   REINFORCEMENTS
   The mobilization of first line reserves and the movement of reinforcements to the theatre would materially alter the above figures. The immediate mobilization capacity of the Warsaw Pact is greater than that of the West: it has been estimated that the force of 31 Soviet divisions in Central Europe might be increased to 70 in well under a month, if mobilization were unimpeded. The Soviet Union, a European power and operating on interior lines, can bring up reinforcements overland, with heavy equipment, far faster than can the United States across the Atlantic. American ability to bring back quickly by air the dual-based brigades whose equipment is in Germany has been demonstrated and the C-5 aircraft, the first of which, are now in service, will greatly increase the airlift. But this lift depends on a secure air environment, safe airfields to fly into, and the willingness to reinforce in a crisis situation at the risk of heightening tension by doing so. And reinforcing divisions would need sealift to move their heavy equipment.
   Implicit in Western defence plans is the concept of political warning time, that there will be sufficient warning of a possible attack to enable NATO forces to be brought to a higher state of readiness and for reinforcement and mobilization to take place. Advantage here will always lie with an attacker, who can start mobilization first, hope to conceal his intentions and achieve some degree of tactical surprise. The point of attack can be chosen and a significant local superiority built up. The defender is likely to start more slowly and will have to remain on guard at all points.
   A fair summary of the reinforcement position might be that the Warsaw Pact is intrinsically capable of a faster build up in the early stages, particularly if local or general surprise is achieved; that NATO can only match such an initial build up if it has, and takes advantage of, sufficient warning time; that the subsequent rate of build up favours the Warsaw Pact unless the crisis develops slowly enough to permit full reinforcement; in this last case the West would be in a position much more resembling equality. Alliance countries maintain more men under arms than the Warsaw Pact. For Army/Marines the figures(in thousands) are: NATO 3,409 (including France 329); Warsaw Pact 2,778. Of course large numbers of these men are outside Europe, as for example American forces in Asia and Soviet forces on their Far Eastern frontier.
  
   ПОДКРЕПЛЕНИЯ
   Мобилизация резервов первой линии и переброска подкреплений в театр существенно изменили бы вышеуказанные цифры. Непосредственный мобилизационный потенциал Варшавского договора больше, чем у Запада: по оценкам, силы 31 советской дивизии в Центральной Европе могли бы быть увеличены до 70 в течение месяца, если бы мобилизация была беспрепятственной. Советский Союз, европейская держава и работает на внутренних линиях, может привезти подкрепления по суше, с тяжелой техникой, гораздо быстрее, чем Соединенные Штаты через Атлантику. Американская способность быстро возвращать по воздуху бригады двойного базирования, оборудование которых находится в Германии, была продемонстрирована, и самолеты C-5, первый из которых, в настоящее время на вооружении, значительно увеличат воздушные перевозки. Но эта переброска зависит от безопасности воздушной среды, безопасности аэродромов для полетов и готовности усиливаться в кризисной ситуации, рискуя тем самым усилить напряженность. И усиления дивизий потребуется транспорт для перемещения тяжелого оборудования.
   В западных оборонных планах имплицитно заложена концепция времени политического предупреждения о том, что будет достаточно предупреждения о возможном нападении, чтобы силы НАТО могли быть приведены в более высокую степень готовности, а также для усиления и мобилизации. Преимущество здесь всегда будет у напавшего, который может начать мобилизацию первым, надеясь скрыть свои намерения и добиться тактической внезапности. Место атаки можно выбрать и создать значительное местное превосходство. Обороняющийся, скорее всего, начнет медленнее и должен будет оставаться на страже во всех точках.
   Выводом может быть, что Варшавский договор, по сути, способен быстрее создать превосходство на начальных этапах, особенно если местная или общая внезапность будет достигнута; и то, что НАТО может только начать наращивать силы, и добиться преимущества, если есть достаточное время предупреждения. В последующем в темпах наращивания он опередить Варшавский договор можно, если кризис будет развиваться достаточно медленно, чтобы позволить полностью вооружиться; в этом последнем случае Запад окажется в положении гораздо более напоминающее равенство. Страны Североатлантического союза имеют больше вооруженных людей, чем Варшавский договор. Для армии/морской пехоты цифры (в тысячах): НАТО 3409 (включая Францию 329); Варшавский договор 2778. Конечно, большое количество этих людей находится за пределами Европы, как, например, американские войска в Азии и советские войска на дальневосточной границе.
  
   EQUIPMENT
   In a comparison of equipment one point stands out: the Warsaw Pact is armed almost completely with Soviet or Soviet-designed material and enjoys the flexibility, simplicity of training and economy that standardization brings. NATO forces have a wide variety of everything from weapons systems to vehicles, with consequent duplication of supply systems and some difficulties of inter-operability. As to numbers of weapons, there are some notable differences, of which tanks are perhaps the most significant. The relative tank strengths are as follows:
   ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
   При сравнении вооружения выделяется один момент: Варшавский договор практически полностью вооружен советским или советской разработки оружием и пользуется гибкостью, простотой обучения и экономичностью, которые приносит стандартизация. Силы НАТО имеют широкий спектр всего, от систем вооружения до транспортных средств, с последующим дублированием систем снабжения и некоторыми трудностями оперативной совместимости.
   Что касается количества оружия, то есть некоторые заметные различия, из которых танки, пожалуй, являются наиболее значительными. Численность танков выглядит следующим образом:
  
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   e. These are tanks with formations and exclude those in reserve or storage.
  
   It will be seen that NATO has little more than a third as many operational tanks as the Warsaw Pact in Northern and Central Europe, though NATO tanks are generally more modern (except for the T-62, now in service in the Pact forces in some numbers). This relative weakness in tanks reflects NATO's essentially defensive role and is offset to some extent by a superiority in ground anti-tank weapons. NATO probably also has more effective airborne anti-tank weapons, such as the missiles carried by fighter aircraft and helicopters. In conventional artillery both sides are about equal in strength: NATO is, though, likely to have superior fire-power because of the greater lethality of its ammunition and the logistic capability to sustain higher rates of fire. This capability stems from a significantly higher transport lift, about half as high again in a NATO division as compared with a Warsaw Pact one. NATO has, however, an inflexible logistic system, based almost entirely on national supply lines with little central co-ordination. It cannot now use French territory and has many lines of communication running north to south, near the area of forward deployment. .
   Видно, что в Северной и Центральной Европе у НАТО в два раза меньше танков, чем у Варшавского договора, хотя танки НАТО, как правило, более современные (за исключением Т-62, в настоящее время поступающего на вооружение в силы договора). Эта относительная слабость в танках отражает по существу оборонительную роль НАТО и в некоторой степени компенсируется превосходством в наземных противотанковых вооружениях. НАТО, вероятно, также обладает более эффективным воздушным противотанковым оружием, таким как ракеты на истребителях и вертолетах. В обычной артиллерии обе стороны примерно равны по силе: НАТО, однако, вероятно, будет иметь превосходящую огневую мощь из-за большей летальности своих боеприпасов и материально-технического потенциала для создания более высоких темпов огня. Этот потенциал обусловлен значительно более высокой транспортной грузоподъемностью, примерно в два раза выше в подразделении НАТО по сравнению с подразделением Варшавского договора. В НАТО, однако, негибкая система логистики, основана почти исключительно на национальных линиях снабжения с небольшой центральной координацией. В настоящее время оно не может использовать французскую территорию и имеет много линий связи, проходящих с севера на юг, вблизи района передового развертывания.
  
   AIRCRAFT
   If NATO ground formations are to be able to exploit, by day as well as by night, the mobility they possess, they must have a greater degree of air cover over the battlefield than they now have. Such cover is provided by a combination of rapid warning and communications systems, surface-to-air weapons and fighter aircraft. In much of this ground-air environment NATO is well prepared, but in numbers of aircraft it is markedly inferior:
  
   АВИАЦИЯ
   Для того чтобы наземные формирования НАТО могли пользоваться как днем, так и ночью мобильностью, которой они обладают, они должны иметь большую степень прикрытия с воздуха над полем боя, чем сейчас. Такое прикрытие обеспечивается сочетанием быстрого оповещения и связи, зенитного оружия и истребителей. Во многом эта воздушно-наземное обеспечение НАТО хорошо подготовлено, но по количеству самолетов оно заметно уступает:
    []
  
   The division into the categories shown is only approximate since some aircraft can be adapted to more than one kind of mission. In general NATO has a higher proportion of multi-purpose aircraft of good performance over their full mission profiles, especially in range and payload. Both sides are modernizing their inventories but the Warsaw Pact has recently introduced new types, such as the MiG-23, possibly superior to any interceptor that NATO has in operational service. The two air forces have, however, different roles: long range and payload may have lower priority for the Warsaw Pact. NATO, for example, has maintained a long-range deep-strike tactical aircraft capability; the Soviet Union has chosen to build a MRBM force which could, under certain circumstances, perform analogous missions.
   The Warsaw Pact also enjoys the advantage of interior lines of communication which make for ease of command and control and logistics. They have a relatively high capability to operate from dispersed natural airfields serviced by mobile systems, have far more airfields with more shelters and the great advantage of standard ground support equipment which stems from having only Soviet-designed aircraft. These factors make for much greater flexibility than NATO, with its many national sources of aircraft and wide variety of support equipment. NATO probably has some superiority in sophistication of equipment, the capability of its aircrews, which have in general higher training standards and fly more hours, and the versatility of its aircraft. The NATO countries also have a world-wide inventory of aircraft far greater than that of the Warsaw Pact and in a situation where total reinforcement can be taken into account would have the greater capability. With all these different factors the relative capabilities are not measurable in precise terms but the Warsaw Pact advantage in numbers remains a very real one.
  
   Разделение на указанные категории является лишь приблизительным, поскольку некоторые самолеты могут быть приспособлены для выполнения более чем одной миссии. В целом НАТО имеет более высокую долю многоцелевых самолетов, и лучшие самолеты НАТО превосходят самолеты Варшавского договора, особенно по дальности и полезной нагрузке. Но у двух военно-воздушных сил разные роли: большая дальность и полезная нагрузка имеют более низкий приоритет для Варшавского договора. НАТО, например, сохранила потенциал дальней тактической авиации глубокого удара; Советский Союз решил создать силы БРСД, которые могли бы, при определенных обстоятельствах, выполнять аналогичные миссии.
   Варшавский договор также пользуется преимуществами внутренних линий связи, которое облегчают командование, контроль и материально-техническое обеспечение. Они обладают относительно высокой способностью работать с разрозненных полевых аэродромов, обслуживаемых мобильными системами, имеют гораздо больше аэродромов и большое преимущество стандартного наземного вспомогательного оборудования, которое связано с наличием только советских самолетов. Эти факторы обеспечивают гораздо большую гибкость, чем НАТО, с ее многочисленными национальными поставщиками самолетов и широким спектром вспомогательного оборудования. НАТО, вероятно, имеет некоторое превосходство в совершенности техники, в возможностях своих летных экипажей, которые имеют в целом более высокие стандарты подготовки и летают больше часов, и в универсальности своих самолетов. Страны НАТО также располагают во всем мире гораздо большим количеством самолетов, чем в Варшавский договор, и в ситуации, когда может быть произведена полная мобилизация, они будут иметь больший потенциал. С учетом всех этих различных факторов, относительные возможности не поддаются точной оценке, однако численное преимущество Варшавского договора остается весьма реальным.
  
   THEATRE NUCLEAR WEAPONS
   NATO has some 7,000 nuclear warheads, deliverable by a variety of vehicles, some 2,250 in all, aircraft, short-range missiles and artillery.
   (These nuclear weapons are in general designed for use within the battlefield area or directly connected with the manoeuvre of combatant forces, which could be described as a 'tactical' use. The figure of 7,000 warheads includes however, a substantial number carried by, for example, aircraft such as the F-4 or F-104, which could be delivered on targets outside the battlefield area or unconnected with the manoeuvre of combatant forces and thus be put to 'strategic' use. There is inevitably some overlap when describing delivery vehicles, aircraft and missiles, capable of delivering conventional or nuclear warheads, as 'tactical' or 'strategic'. The total of 7,000 also includes nuclear warheads for certain air-defence missiles.)
   There are also nuclear mines. Yields are in the kiloton range. The ground based missile launchers and guns are in formations down to divisions and are operated both by American and allied troops, but in the latter case warheads are under double key. The figure for Soviet warheads is probably about 3,500, delivered by roughly comparable aircraft and missile systems. Some of the delivery vehicles, but not the warheads, are in the hands of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact forces.
   This comparison of nuclear warheads must not be looked at in quite the same light as the conventional comparisons preceding it, since on the NATO side the strategic doctrine is not and cannot be based on the use of such weapons on this sort of scale. These numbers were accumulated to implement an earlier, predominantly nuclear, strategy and an inventory of this size now has the chief merit of affording a wide range of choice of weapons, yield and delivery system if controlled escalation has to be contemplated. A point that does emerge from the comparison however is that the Soviet Union has the ability to launch a battlefield nuclear offensive on a massive scale if it should choose, or to match any NATO escalation with broadly similar options.
   ЯДЕРНОЕ ОРУЖИЕ
   НАТО имеет около 7000 ядерных боеголовок, которые могут быть доставлены различными носителями, всего около 2250 единиц авиации, ракет малой дальности и артиллерии.
   (Ядерное оружие, предназначенное для применения в зоне боевых действий или непосредственно связано с маневром боевых сил, можно характеризовать как "тактическое". Однако цифра в 7000 боеголовок включает значительное число, несомых, например, самолетами типа F-4 или F-104, которые могут доставляться по целям за пределами района боя или не связанным с маневром боевых сил и, таким образом, использоваться в "стратегических целях". При описании средств доставки, самолетов и ракет, способных доставлять обычные или ядерные боеголовки, как "тактических" или "стратегических" неизбежно возникает определенное дублирование. В общее число 7000 включены также ядерные боеголовки для некоторых ракет ПВО.)
   Есть и ядерные мины. Мощность в килотонном и суб-килотонном диапазона. Наземные ракетные установки и орудия органичны для соединений вплоть до дивизий и управляются как американскими, так и союзными войсками, но в последнем случае под двойным ключом. Число советских боеголовок, вероятно, составляет около 3500, доставляемых примерно сопоставимыми самолетами и ракетными системами. Некоторые из средств доставки, но не боеголовки, находятся в руках несоветских сил Варшавского договора.
   Это сопоставление ядерных боеголовок не должно рассматриваться в том же свете, что и предшествующие ему обычные сопоставления, поскольку со стороны НАТО стратегическая доктрина не основывается и не может основываться на применении такого рода оружия в таких масштабах. Эти запасы были накоплены для осуществления более ранней, преимущественно ядерной, стратегии, и в настоящее время главным достоинством наличие такого числа является предоставление широкого спектра выбора оружия, средств и систем доставки, если необходимо предусмотреть контролируемую эскалацию. Однако из сравнения следует, что Советский Союз имеет возможность начать ядерное наступление на поле боя в массовом масштабе, если он это выберет, или сопоставить эскалацию НАТО с подобным вариантом.
  
   CHANGES OVER TIME
   The comparisons above are not very different from those of a year ago, but over a longer time-span the effect of small and slow changes can be marked and the balance can alter. In 1962 the American land, sea and air forces in Europe totalled 434,000; now the figure is 300,000. There were 26 Soviet divisions in Eastern Europe in 1967; now there are 31. The numbers and quality of surface-to-air missiles in the Warsaw Pact forces have steadily grown, presenting now a most formidable defence, and Soviet tactical aircraft numbers have grown with them. The general pattern over the years has been a gradual shift in favour of the East.
  
   ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ СО ВРЕМЕНЕМ
   Вышеприведенные сопоставления не сильно отличаются от сопоставлений годичной давности, однако в течение более длительного периода времени можно отметить эффект незначительных и медленных изменений баланса. В 1962 году американские сухопутные, морские и воздушные силы в Европе насчитывали 434 000 человек; сейчас эта цифра составляет 300 000 человек. В 1967 году в Восточной Европе насчитывалось 26 советских дивизий, сейчас - 31. Количество и качество ракет класса "земля-воздух" в войсках Варшавского договора неуклонно росли, представляя сейчас самую грозную оборону, и вместе с ними росло и количество советских тактических самолетов. Общая картина с годами постепенно менялась в пользу Востока.
  
   Naval forces
   To compare the maritime strengths of the two sides, particularly on a regional basis, offers many difficulties. Naval power is highly flexible; ships move between fleets, fleets move over great distances: strategic and tactical functions are often speedily interchangeable. It is far from easy and often inappropriate to set ships off against each other numerically. The requirement for destroyers, for example, is not related to the numbers of enemy destroyers but to the need to escort surface vessels against submarine or air threat; in anti-submarine warfare, surface vessels, submarines and maritime aircraft must all be seen together as combined teams.
   Given these and many, other reservations, some touched on later, the relative strengths of the more significant ships in the North Atlantic, Baltic and Mediterranean/Black Sea areas are listed below. The figures must not be regarded as indicating any fixed or optimum fleet dispositions, but simply a typical strength; transfers to and from the Soviet or American Pacific fleets can and do take place (though the size of the Soviet Pacific Fleet will be dictated not only by the number of American ships in that area but also by the navies of China and Japan).
   The figures do not include the French Navy which, as will be seen on p. 18, is a substantial force and quantitatively stronger than the Soviet Mediterranean squadron normally is.
  
   Военно-Морские Силы
   Сопоставление морских преимуществ обеих сторон, особенно на региональной основе, сопряжено со многими трудностями. Военно-морская мощь обладает высокой гибкостью; корабли перемещаются между флотами, флоты перемещаются на большие расстояния: стратегические и тактические функции часто быстро взаимозаменяемы. Это далеко не просто и часто неуместно противопоставлять корабли друг против друга численно. Требование к эсминцам, например, связано не с количеством эсминцев противника, а с необходимостью защиты надводных судов от подводной или воздушной угрозы; в противолодочной войне надводные суда, подводные лодки и морские самолеты должны рассматриваться как объединенные команды.
   С учетом этих и многих других оговорок, некоторые из которых были затронуты позднее, ниже перечислены относительные количества кораблей основных классов в Североатлантическом, Балтийском и Средиземном/Черном морях. Цифры не должны рассматриваться как указывающие на какое-либо фиксированное или оптимальное расположение флота, а просто как типичная сила; переводы в и из советского или американского Тихоокеанских флотов происходят (хотя размер советского Тихоокеанского флота будет диктоваться не только количеством американских кораблей в этом районе, но и военно-морскими силами Китая и Японии).
   Цифры не включают французский флот, который, как будет видно на p. 18, является существенной силой и количественно сильнее, чем советская средиземноморская эскадрилья обычно.
  
    []
   g. Ships have not been divided between the three fleet areas but typical strengths for these fleets were given in The Military Balance 1970-71, pp. 96-7.
   h. These ships have significant anti-ship weapons, in the Soviet case long-range SSM.
   i. The missiles carried by these ships are primarily or exclusively for air defence (SAM).
  
   The comparisons show marked and well known asymmetries. The United States Navy has powerful carrier-strike forces, with aircraft and missiles for air defence and anti-submarine warfare and with long range aircraft for the strike role against surface vessels and land targets, nuclear-armed if appropriate.
   The Soviet Navy, by contrast, has no attack carriers and relies on land-based aircraft for both air cover and strike, supplemented by ship-borne SAM and, of course, by the long-range SSM which a large number of Soviet vessels carry and for which there is no Western equivalent. This lack of carrier-borne aircraft would in war or in time of tension effectively limit the radius of action of Soviet surface fleets, despite the fact that they are in other ways becoming increasingly self-sufficient, and means that they do not have a true world-wide maritime capability.
   The Soviet Union has had to develop a counter to the strategic threat posed by strike carriers and missile submarines in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and has built large numbers of submarines for this purpose. Because of this the West has paid great attention to anti-submarine warfare and is probably ahead in this field, but this does not offset the sheer numbers of submarines that the Soviet Union deploys; to find and engage nuclear-powered boats is particularly difficult. This imbalance is the more important because the West depends on major naval surface ships and on the carriage by sea of basic commodities: it is more vulnerable to submarine attack than is the Soviet Union.
   The long-range SSM on Soviet cruisers, destroyers and submarines have some limitations and the horizon-range systems now entering service present a more serious problem. The short-range SSM on the patrol boats are most effective and are backed up by missiles carried by more aircraft and in shore batteries. The SSM systems pose a particular threat to naval forces without carriers, dependent for their own long range strike on land-based aircraft.
   Any assessment of an overall balance is difficult to make. The differing roles in wartime must be taken into account: the Soviet fleets would be largely strategically-defensive, meeting the threat posed by Western carrier strike forces and missile submarines (though there would be large numbers of Soviet submarines left available for offensive purposes). The nature of the main deployment areas must also be considered. In the Mediterranean, for example, Soviet re-supply and reinforcement to and from the naval squadron could be extremely difficult. Of great importance would be the degree of availability to the Soviet Union of airfields in the Mediterranean countries. In the North Atlantic the United States can readily draw on reinforcements from the home base; the Soviet Union, by contrast, is much more limited in its strategic movement.
   The biggest imponderable is that of the nature and duration of any future conflict. If extended, then Soviet submarine strength would be a menace to Western shipping, world-wide, whereas the Soviet Union is much more self-sufficient. If short, then naval action is unlikely to be dominant; the outcome would be decided on land. There are too many variables to allow of comprehensive judgments but it seems fair to say that while the sea is still an area in which the West has superiority, the Soviet fleets are now able to offer a challenge at every level of military or politico-military action.
  
   Сравнения показывают заметные и хорошо известные асимметрии. ВМС США имеют мощные авианосные ударные силы, с авиацией и ракетами для ПВО и противолодочной обороны и дальней авиации против надводных кораблей и наземных целей, ядерным оружием в случае необходимости.
   Советский флот, напротив, не имеет ударных авианосцев и полагается на наземную авиацию как для прикрытия, так и для нанесения ударов, дополняемую корабельным ЗРК и, конечно же, дальним ракетами, который несет большое количество советских кораблей и для которых нет Западного эквивалента. Такое отсутствие авианосных самолетов в условиях войны или в напряженное время фактически ограничило бы радиус действия советских надводных флотов, несмотря на то, что они другими способами становятся все более самодостаточными, а значит, не обладают истинным мировым морским потенциалом.
   Советскому Союзу пришлось разработать противодействие стратегической угрозе, создаваемой ударными авианосцами и ракетными подводными лодками в Атлантике и Средиземном море, и для этой цели было построено большое количество подводных лодок. Из-за этого Запад уделял большое внимание противолодочной войне и, наверное, опережает в этой области, но это не компенсирует само количество подводных лодок, которые разворачивает Советский Союз; найти и уничтожить атомные лодки особенно сложно. Этот дисбаланс тем более важен, что Запад зависит от крупных надводных кораблей ВМФ и от перевозки морем основных товаров: он более уязвим для подводного нападения, чем Советский Союз.
   Дальние ракеты советских крейсеров, эсминцев и подводных лодок имеют ряд ограничений и загоризонтное наведение представляет собой серьезную проблему. Ближние ракеты на патрульных катерах наиболее эффективны и подкрепляются ракетами, несущимися большим количеством самолетов и береговых батарей. Системы ПКР представляют особую угрозу для военно-морских сил без авианосцев, зависящих от их собственного дальнего удара по наземной авиации.
   Трудно дать какую-либо оценку общему балансу. Необходимо принимать во внимание различия в ролях в военное время: советские флоты будут в значительной степени стратегически оборонительными, отвечающими угрозе, создаваемой западными ударными силами и ракетными подводными лодками (хотя для наступательных целей останется большое количество советских подводных лодок). Необходимо также учитывать характер основных районов развертывания. В Средиземноморье, например, советское снабжение и подкрепление военно-морской эскадры может быть чрезвычайно сложным. Большое значение имела бы степень доступности Советскому Союзу аэродромов в средиземноморских странах. В Северной Атлантике Соединенные Штаты могут использовать подкрепления с баз базирования; Советский Союз, напротив, гораздо более ограничен в своем стратегическом движении.
   Самая большая трудность заключается в характере и продолжительности любого будущего конфликта. Если он расширится, то советские подводные силы будут представлять угрозу для западного судоходства во всем мире, в то время как Советский Союз гораздо более самодостаточен. Если коротко, то военно-морские действия вряд ли будут доминирующими; исход будет решаться на суше. Есть слишком много переменных, чтобы позволить всеобъемлющие суждения, но кажется справедливым сказать, что в то время как море все еще является областью, в которой Запад имеет превосходство, советские флоты теперь могут бросить вызов на каждом уровне военных или военно-политических действий.
  
   NEW CONSTRUCTION
   This challenge has emerged in recent year and is the result of a Soviet shift to a more forward deployment rather than more rapid naval building in the East than the West. The following table, which lists the deliveries of new ships over 1,000 tons, of major conversions and of ocean-going submarines in the last ten years, to the Warsaw Pact' and NATO navies, excluding France, helps to show this. It certainly brings out the Soviet emphasis on the building of submarines, particularly marked since 1968, but as far as surface naval vessels are concerned it also shows that the NATO countries have generally been outbuilding the Warsaw Pact, quantitatively and often qualitatively. Whether, under pressure from rising costs, each will continue to devote the same proportion of resources to their navies is another matter. Furthermore the ships to be delivered in the next few years will be the result of decisions taken some years ago and shipbuilding in individual NATO countries tends in any case to be somewhat of a cyclical affair. The pattern revealed by this table may not necessarily be maintained.
   f. In fact the Soviet Union, since the other Warsaw Pact countries received no new ships in the period.
  
   НОВОЕ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО
   Эта проблема возникла в последний год и является результатом Советского перехода к более передовому развертыванию, а не к более быстрому военно-морскому строительству на Востоке, чем на Западе. Следующая таблица, в которой перечислены поставки новых кораблей водоизмещением более 1000 тонн, крупных обычных и океанских подводных лодок за последние десять лет в ВМС Варшавского договора и НАТО, за исключением Франции, показывает это. Безусловно, виден советский акцент на строительство подводных лодок, особенно отмеченный с 1968 года, но что касается надводных военно-морских кораблей, также видно, что страны НАТО в целом обгоняли Варшавский договор, количественно и часто качественно. Другое дело, будет ли каждый из них под давлением растущих расходов продолжать выделять одинаковую долю ресурсов своим флотам. Кроме того, корабли, которые будут поставлены в ближайшие несколько лет, станут результатом решений, принятых несколько лет назад, и судостроение в отдельных странах НАТО, как правило, носит циклический характер. Закономерность, выявленная в этой таблице, не обязательно может быть сохранена.
   f. Фактически Советский Союз, как и другие страны Варшавского договора, не получил новых кораблей в этот период.
  
    []
   NOTES
   a. The Soviet Navy has no attack carriers. The Moskva class (see below) is an ASW cruiser.
   b. Kynda, Kresta and Krupny classes. There is no comparable cruiser in NATO fleets,
   c. Moskva class. One of the NATO SAM cruisers has a similar but smaller capability but the remainder are not really comparable.
   d. This NATO category covers a wide range of destroyers, the largest of which, the DLG, is classified by some navies as a light cruiser.
   e. The small size of these Soviet escorts limits their world-wide value. Of the NATO ships compared here the greater proportion qualify in many respects for the heavier category E.
   f. Soviet ships are much smaller and hardly comparable.
   g. The Soviet building rate is now about 7 a year; the US figure is 6.
   h. Over 700 tons only. NATO has built a further 35 between 450-600 tons. About 25 of the Soviet submarines carry cruise missiles, usable against ships or land targets.
   j. The Soviet building rate is about 7-8 a year. The US Polaris programme ended in 1967.
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