Темежников Евгений Александрович: другие произведения.

The Military Balance 1986

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   The Military Balance 1985
   The Military Balance 1987


How to use The Military Balance / Как пользоваться Военным Балансом
Soviet Union / Советский Союз: Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact / Варшавский Договор
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey
Europe / Европа
Albania, Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Ireland, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East / Ближний Восток
Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libia, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen North, Yemen South.
Africa / Африка
Angola, Benin, Bostwana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, CAR, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambiqe, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegambia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somali, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zair, Zambia, Zimbabve.
China / Китай: China
Asia & Australia / Азия и Тихий океан
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Cambodia, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippine, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Latin America / Латинская Америка
Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican, Ecuador, Salvador, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua , Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Strategic Nuclear Balance / Стратегический Ядерный Баланс
Balance in Europe /
Баланс в Европе
Government Expenditure / Государственные расходы
Economic Trends / Экономические тенденции


   The Military Balance is updated each year to provide a timely, quantitative assessment of the military forces and defence expenditures of over 140 countries as at 1 July 1986.
   General Arrangement
   There are three main Sections in The Military Balance. The first groups the national entries geographically: the USA, the USSR, Europe (the Warsaw Pact, NATO, Other European Countries), the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Australasia (China, Other Asian and Pacific Countries), and Latin America. Each geographical group of entries is preceded by a short Introduction describing the international pacts, agreements and military aid, significant changes in defence posture and economic positions of the countries concerned. Inclusion of a particular political entity, or of a military organization connected to it, in no way implies legal recognition for, or Institute support for, such entities. The Table of Contents, which precedes this Preface, gives the pages on which this detail can be found.
   The second Section contains summary tables providing comparative information on nuclear delivery systems world-wide and in the European region, world-wide defence expenditures, military manpower levels, and major identified arms procurement contracts. In a third, analytical, Section there is an essay and table analysing the conventional European theatre balance. For estimating the strategic nuclear balance according to the 'rules' established by the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties, there is an essay and summary table. Economic studies include: an examination of changes in total government revenue and expenditure, and of the incidence of selected expenditure components, for eight countries over the period 1973-83; a graphic presentation of trends in the defence expenditure of the NATO countries, Japan and Sweden from 1972 to 1985; and a discussion of global defence spending and arms trade patterns. Maps, in polar stereographic projection, inserted with this edition give a new perspective on the strategic offensive and defensive force deployments of the two super-powers.
   National Entries
   Information on each country is given in a format as standard as the available information permits: economic data (GDP, growth, debt, inflation, defence budget and rate of exchange); population; military manpower, terms of service, Reserve strengths; the individual armed services; and para-military forces. In this edition footnotes will be found at the end of the national entry, rather than at the foot of the page.
   Economic and Demographic Data
   Economic data: We provide GDP figures but use GNP when necessary (GDP equals GNP minus net income from abroad). GDP figures are quoted at current market prices (at factor cost for East European and some other countries). Where available, published sources are used, but we do estimate figures when data is incomplete - and mark this with an V. GDP/ GNP growth rates cited are real growth in real terms. Inflation rates are based on available consumer price indices and refer to annual averages.
   Wherever possible the UN System of National Accounts, based on the latest available International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS), has been used. For Eastern Europe, data from Economic Survey of Europe in 1985-86 (New York: UN, 1986) and the World Economic Outlook (Washington DC: IMF, 1986) is used. Estimates for the USSR's GNP are based on commercial banking estimates; East European GDP/GNP figures at factor cost are derived from GNP. China's GDP/GNP is given by the IMF.
   Defence Expenditure: We quote the latest defence expenditure or budget data available as at 1 July 1986. Where possible, capital equipment budgets/expenditures have been added to recurrent/administrative cost. Figures may vary from previous years, often because of changes made by the governments themselves; the latest figures should be the more accurate. There is often wide variation between sources, but our experience has shown that data from the central banks is generally the most comprehensive and reliable. Some countries include internal and border security force expenditures in their defence budgets.
   The NATO countries use a 'standard definition' of defence expenditure which includes all spending on regular military forces, military aid (including equipment and training) to other nations, military pensions, host government expenses for NATO tenant forces, NATO infrastructure and civilian staff costs; but excludes spending on para-military forces (e.g., gendarmerie). Estimates showing the variation of opinion on Soviet expenditure are cited in the introduction to that country's entry. Foreign military aid figures are based on published data or, in some cases, estimates.
   Currency Conversion Rates: National currency figures have been converted into US dollars to permit comparisons. The rate is averaged for the national financial year (for 1986-7 figures, the mid-1986 rate is used). Wherever possible, exchange rates are taken from IFS, though they may not be applicable to commercial transactions. High inflation rates in some countries and dollar distortions affect conversions. For the USSR no adequate conversion ratio of roubles to dollars is available. For those East European countries which are not members of the IMF, and Hungary and Romania (which are), the conversion rates used are those described in T.P. Alton, 'Economic Growth and Resource Allocation in Eastern Europe', Reorientation and Commercial Relations of the Economies of Eastern Europe, Joint Economic Committee, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session (Washington DG: USGPO, 1974).
   Population: Total populations and the proportions of the population of military age are taken from World Population Projections 1984 (Washington DC: World Bank, 1984) and calculated trends.
   Military Data Military Formation Strengths: The table below gives the approximate average establishment strength of the major military formations in selected countries. The manning and structure of formations may vary.
   Divisional strengths cover organic units only. Support and service units outside the divisional structure may be included separately where known. The forces of Soviet allies and other Soviet-supported countries have organizations similar to those of the Soviet Union. NATO formations and squadrons not included in the table above have similar totals to those of Germany unless otherwise mentioned in the text. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have tended to follow American military organization, while Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore broadly use British patterns.
   Manpower. The 'Regular' total comprises all personnel on full-time duty, including conscripts, long-term assignments from the Reserves and para-military elements when so required by the national authority. The terms of service are given for conscripts where known. The 'Reserve' component entry includes all personnel, whether in formed units or not, who are committed to serve as ancillary or mobilization forces. The mobilization strength would normally be the total of the full-time and reserve strengths. However, some national reserve service obligations last almost a lifetime; in these cases our strength estimates of militarily effective reservists are based on the terms of service and the number of conscripts completing their training each year, multiplied by five (on the assumption that, after five years, medical and combat training standards decline sharply).
   Organization: Expressed in broad terms, data is intended to give the composition of the major Army formations down to and including battalion level; minor sub-units are shown only in the forces of smaller nations. Naval and Air operational groupings are given where known. We do not generally show logistics units, ancillary Naval vessels (such as tugs), or Air Force ground support equipment.
   Para-military: Many countries maintain organizations whose training and equipment goes beyond those required for civil police duties. Their constitution and control suggests that they may be usable in support, or in lieu, of regular military forces. Precise definitions as to what are or are not para-military forces are not always possible, and some degree of latitude must be allowed. When internal opposition forces appear to pose a significant threat to internal security of a state, they are shown separately after national para-military forces.
   Equipment: Holdings (by type and number) are shown by function. These represent the operational inventories. Where known, equipment in store is listed separately. Occasionally it is possible to list equipment in the Reserves; elsewhere the total shown is held to include items assigned to the Reserves.
   For naval vessels, national designation is shown, even though hull size, primary armament and mission could argue a different category in another fleet. Where appropriate, major missile systems are listed.
   Air Force squadron aircraft strengths vary; attempts have been made to separate total holdings from reported establishment strengths. When major equipment obtained from one foreign source may be confused with that from others, we list the country of origin.
   On Order: Major equipment being purchased either domestically or abroad is listed with the Services concerned. (Navy, Naval Air and Marine orders are generally combined.) These orders may be outstanding over several years; deliveries, particularly of larger equipment, are often slow. Where deliveries are proceeding, the word 'some' warns that the 'total' inventory and items remaining 'on order' may vary. Arms purchases reported during the year ending 1 July 1986 are recorded in Table 3 in Section 2, with details of contract dates, prices and delivery dates added where known. Expendable stores, such as anti-tank missiles, may be shown in total when on order, but are not shown in inventory because of the difficulty in assessing rates of usage. We do not include small arms or their ammunition. In general, we do not include air defence artillery or automatic weapons with calibres of less than 14.5mm.
   Estimates: Forecasts are made only where clear evidence indicates that changes in organization or inventory are taking place or are about to.
   Equipment listings are intended to show what is operational: a total generally well below total inventory figures. In general, 'some' means 'up to' and 'about' means 'the total could be slightly higher than given'. For some categories a total figure is given. Where possible, quantities of individual items are also given. A standard system of punctuation has been developed for such entries to aid comprehension of detail. Equipment inventories are difficult to assess, and we welcome informed amendments.
   Abbreviations and Definitions
   Space and tight production schedules force us to use abbreviations. These are taken from NATO sources and are commonly used in military circles. An alphabetical list of them can be found on p. 12. Punctuation is not used, and the abbreviation may have both singular or plural meanings, e.g., 'elm' = 'element' or 'elements'. Mathematical symbols are used in three instances: '(-)' means part of a unit is detached; '(+)' means the unit is reinforced; '(' means that a vessel is under 100 tons displacement. Abbreviations of national names (e.g., 'Ch' = 'Chinese'), are used to denote equipment sources. With regard to financial abbreviations, the $ sign refers to US dollars except where otherwise stated; the term billion (bn) equals 1,000 million (m). 'Combat aircraft' are those normally equipped and configured to deliver ordnance (bomber (bbr), fighter-bomber, fighter-ground-attack (FGA), strike (nuclear), interceptor, fighter (ftr), counter-insurgency (COIN) and armed trainer), reconnaissance (recce) aircraft (including maritime), armed helicopters (including ASW) and those aircraft in operational conversion units (OCU) assumed to be available at short notice for operations. Some helicopters used for troop transport in battle areas may be armed, and some flexibility in identification must be accepted.
   The Military Balance is an assessment of the numerical strengths of the world's armed forces. It is in no way an assessment of their capabilities. It does not evaluate the quality of units or equipment, nor the impact of geography, doctrine, military technology, deployment, training, logistic support, morale, leadership, tactical or strategic initiative, terrain, weather, political will or support from alliance partners.
   Nor is the Institute in any position to evaluate and compare directly the performance of items of equipment. Those who wish to do so can use the data provided to construct their own balances of forces on a bilateral or regional basis. We have done this only for conventional forces in Europe (see pp. 226-7).
   We would warn that such balances are extremely sensitive to assumptions about what forces to include from what countries, whether such forces can be assembled and brought to bear in a possible conflict, and their combat effectiveness. These balances at best can only be an approximation. They cannot predict the results of engagements.
   The Military Balance provides the actual numbers of nuclear and conventional forces and weapons as we know them, not the number that would be assumed for verification purposes in arms-control agreements.
   What all this points to is that great care must be taken in assembling the data presented here for specific purposes. We provide an up-to-date and detailed catalogue of military forces in as many dimensions as possible and in a way which we hope will be generally useful. We make no judgments here about quality or effectiveness or the political purposes underlying the aggregation of power.
   The data presented each year in The Military Balance reflect judgments based on information available to the Director and staff of the Institute at the time the book is compiled. Information in subsequent volumes may differ from previous editions for a variety of reasons, principally as a result of substantive changes in national forces (e.g. procurement of new equipment, loss or retirement of old). In other cases entries may differ from year to year as a result of our re-assessment of the evidence supporting past entries. Inevitably, over the course of time we come to believe that some information presented in earlier versions is erroneous, or insufficiently supported by reliable evidence. Hence, it is not always possible to construct valid time series comparisons on the basis of succeeding editions of The Military Balance.
   In an effort to provide the maximum accuracy, we are, beginning with this edition, providing a list of emendations to last year's entries, including corrections of typographical or editorial errors that materially affect the substance of the matter presented. These items (listed on p. 238) do not reflect changes as a result of substantive developments over the past year; rather, they are corrections of errors and revisions of estimates which we now believe to have been wrong.
   In addition, we wish to call to our readers' attention certain inconsistencies in last year's edition between material presented in Table 1 (Nuclear Capable Delivery Vehicles Worldwide, pp. G 158-65) and the matter in the two tables appended to the essay 'Estimating the Soviet-US Strategic Balance' (pp. 180-81). In several cases figures for the number of warheads associated with specific delivery systems or the yields of those warheads differ between the various tables, and in some instances there is a discrepancy between figures given in the tables and those in the accompanying footnotes. We regret any confusion this has created and have endeavored to clarify these inconsistencies in this year's presentation of Table 1. Given the difficulties associated with determining reliably the mix of warhead yields and loadings (which in any case vary depending on operational requirements) we have not included a table on equivalent megatonnage in this year's edition, although we have retained the table comparing estimated strategic nuclear warheads.
   The Institute owes no allegiance whatever to any government, group of governments, or any political or any other organization. Our assessments are our own, based on the material available to us from a wide variety of sources. The co-operation of nearly all governments has been sought and, in many cases, received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative, and some of the figures have necessarily been estimated. We take pains to ensure that these estimates are as professional and free from bias as possible. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have helped in compiling and checking material. The Director and the staff of the Institute assume full responsibility for the facts and judgments contained in this study. We would welcome comments and suggestions on the data presented in The Military Balance, since we seek to make it as comprehensive and accurate as possible.
   Readers may use items of information from The Military Balance as required, without reference to the Institute, on condition that the Institute is cited as the source in any published work. However, reproduction of all major portions of the work must be approved in writing by the Institute prior to publication.
   September 1986


   Военный баланс обновляется ежегодно в целях своевременной количественной оценки военных сил и расходов на оборону более чем 140 стран по состоянию на 1 июля 1986 года.
   Общие положения
   В военном балансе есть три основных раздела. Первые группы национальных записей географически: США, СССР, Европа (Варшавский договор, НАТО, другие европейские страны), Ближний Восток и Северная Африка, Африка к югу от Сахары, Азия и Австралия (Китай, другие страны Азии и Тихого океана), и Латинская Америка. Каждой географической группе позиций предшествует краткое введение, описывающее международные пакты, соглашения и военную помощь, значительные изменения в оборонной позиции и экономическом положении соответствующих стран. Включение конкретного политического образования или связанной с ним военной организации никоим образом не подразумевает юридического признания таких образований или оказания им поддержки. Оглавление, предшествующее этому предисловию, дает страницы, на которых можно найти эту деталь.
   Во втором разделе содержатся сводные таблицы, содержащие сравнительную информацию о системах доставки ядерного оружия во всем мире и в Европейском регионе, общемировых расходах на оборону, численности военного персонала и основных выявленных контрактах на закупку оружия. В третьем, аналитическом, разделе есть эссе и таблица с анализом традиционного баланса европейского театра. Для оценки стратегического ядерного баланса в соответствии с 'правилами' установленными договорами об ограничении стратегических вооружений, эссе и сводная таблица. Экономические исследования включают: изучение изменений в общих государственных поступлениях и расходах и распространенности отдельных компонентов расходов по восьми странам за период 1973-1983 годов; графическое представление тенденций в оборонных расходах стран НАТО, Японии и Швеции в период 1972-1985 годов; и обсуждение глобальных оборонных расходов и моделей торговли оружием. Карты в полярной стереографической проекции, вставленные вместе с этим изданием, дают новый взгляд на развертывание стратегических наступательных и оборонительных сил двух сверхдержав.
   Национальные Позиции
   Информация по каждой стране приводится в стандартном формате, насколько это позволяет имеющаяся информация: экономические данные (ВВП, рост, задолженность, инфляция, оборонный бюджет и обменный курс); численность населения; численность военнослужащих, условия службы, численность резерва; отдельные вооруженные силы; и полувоенные силы. В этом издании сноски можно найти в конце национальной записи, а не в конце страницы.
   Экономические и демографические данные
   Экономические данные: мы приводим данные о ВВП, но при необходимости используем ВНП (ВВП равен ВНП минус чистый доход из-за рубежа). Данные по ВВП приводятся в текущих рыночных ценах (по факторной стоимости для стран Восточной Европы и некоторых других стран). Там, где это возможно, используются опубликованные источники, но мы оцениваем цифры, когда данные являются неполными, и отмечаем это с помощью V. Темпы роста ВВП/ ВНП указаны как реальный рост в реальном выражении. Темпы инфляции основаны на имеющихся индексах потребительских цен и относятся к среднегодовым показателям.
   По мере возможности использовалась система национальных счетов ООН, основанная на последней имеющейся международной финансовой статистике (МФС) Международного валютного фонда (МВФ). Для Восточной Европы используются данные обзора экономического положения Европы за 1985-1986 годы (Нью-Йорк: ООН, 1986 год) и "World Economic Outlook" (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: МВФ, 1986 год). Оценки ВНП СССР основаны на расчетах коммерческих банков; показатели ВВП/ВНП Восточной Европы по факторным затратам рассчитаны на основе ВНП. ВВП/ВНП Китая определяется МВФ.
   Расходы на оборону: мы приводим последние данные о расходах на оборону или бюджете по состоянию на 1 июля 1986 года. Там, где это возможно, бюджеты/расходы на капитальное оборудование были добавлены к текущим/административным расходам. Цифры могут отличаться от предыдущих лет, часто из-за изменения самих правительств; последние цифры должны быть более точными. Между источниками часто существуют большие различия, однако наш опыт показывает, что данные центральных банков, как правило, являются наиболее полными и надежными. Некоторые страны включают расходы на внутренние и пограничные силы безопасности в свои оборонные бюджеты.
   Страны НАТО используют "стандартное определение" расходов на оборону, которое включает в себя все расходы на регулярные вооруженные силы, военную помощь (включая оборудование и подготовку) другим странам, военные пенсии, расходы правительства принимающей страны на войска-арендаторы НАТО, инфраструктуру НАТО и расходы на гражданский персонал; но исключает расходы на полувоенные силы (например, жандармерию). Оценки, показывающие различия во мнениях о советских расходах, приводятся во введении к вступлению этой страны. Данные об иностранной военной помощи основаны на опубликованных данных или, в некоторых случаях, оценках.
   Курсы пересчета валют: данные в национальной валюте были пересчитаны в доллары США для проведения сопоставлений. Ставка усредняется по национальному финансовому году (для 1986-1987 годов используется ставка середины 1986 года). Там, где это возможно, обменные курсы берутся из IFS, хотя они могут быть неприменимы к коммерческим сделкам. Высокие темпы инфляции в некоторых странах и долларовые диспропорции влияют на конверсию. Для СССР не существует адекватного коэффициента пересчета рублей в доллары. Для тех восточноевропейских стран, которые не являются членами МВФ, а также Венгрии и Румынии (которые являются), используются коэффициенты пересчета, описанные в T. P. Alton, "Экономический рост и распределение ресурсов в Восточной Европе", "Переориентация и торговые отношения экономик Восточной Европы", Объединенный экономический комитет, 93-й конгресс, 2-я сессия (Washington DG: USGPO, 1974).
   Численность населения: общая численность населения и доля населения призывного возраста взяты из мировых демографических прогнозов 1984 года (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: Всемирный банк, 1984 год) и рассчитанных тенденций.
   Данные численности воинских формирований: в таблице ниже приводится примерная средняя численность основных воинских формирований в отдельных странах. Численность и структура соединений могут различаться.
   Силы дивизий охватывают только органические подразделения. Вспомогательные и обслуживающие подразделения, не входящие в структуру дивизии, могут включаться отдельно, если это известно. Силы советских союзников и других стран, поддерживаемых Советским Союзом, имеют организации, аналогичные Советскому Союзу. Соединения и эскадрильи НАТО, не включенные в приведенную выше таблицу, имеют показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии, если в тексте не указано иное. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, следуют американской военной организации, в то время как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Малайзия и Сингапур широко используют британские модели.
   Живая сила. "Регулярная" общая численность включает весь персонал, постоянно служащий, включая призывников, долгосрочных сотрудников резервов и военнослужащих, когда это требуется национальным органом. Условия службы приводятся для призывников там, где это известно. "Резервный" компонент включает весь персонал, будь то в составе сформированных подразделений или нет, который призван служить вспомогательными или мобилизационными силами. Мобилизационная численность, как правило, представляет собой общую численность штатных и резервных сил. Однако некоторые обязательства Национальной резервной службы длятся почти всю жизнь; в этих случаях наши оценки численности эффективных в военном отношении резервистов основываются на сроках службы и количестве призывников, ежегодно проходящих обучение, умноженном на пять (исходя из предположения, что через пять лет стандарты медицинской и боевой подготовки резко снизятся).
   Организация: выраженные в общих чертах, данные предназначены для того, чтобы дать состав основных армейских формирований вплоть до батальонного уровня и включая батальонный уровень; незначительные подразделения показаны только в силах небольших стран. Военно-морские и воздушные оперативные группировки приводятся там, где это известно. Как правило, мы не показываем подразделения материально-технического обеспечения, вспомогательные морские суда (например, буксиры) или оборудование наземной поддержки ВВС.
   Полувоенные силы: во многих странах существуют организации, подготовка и оснащение которых выходят за рамки тех, которые требуются для выполнения функций гражданской полиции. Их конституция и контроль предполагают, что они могут использоваться для поддержки регулярных вооруженных сил или вместо них. Точные определения того, что является или не является полувоенными силами, не всегда возможны, и необходимо допускать определенную степень свободы действий. В тех случаях, когда внутренние оппозиционные силы, как представляется, представляют значительную угрозу внутренней безопасности государства, они показаны отдельно после национальных полувоенных сил.
   Вооружение: запасы (по типу и количеству) показаны по функции. Они представляют собой оперативные запасы. Где известно, оборудование на складах указано отдельно. Иногда можно перечислить вооружение в резервах; в других местах показанная общая сумма считается включающей предметы, отнесенные к резервам.
   Для военно-морских судов показано национальное обозначение, хотя размер корпуса, основное вооружение и миссия могут означать другую категорию в другом флоте. В соответствующих случаях перечисляются основные ракетные системы.
   Авиационная мощь эскадрилий ВВС различна; предпринимались попытки отделить общие запасы от заявленных сил. Когда основное вооружение, полученное из одного иностранного источника, можно спутать с оборудованием, полученным из других источников, мы перечисляем страну происхождения.
   Заказ: основное оборудование, приобретаемое внутри страны или за рубежом, перечисляется вместе с соответствующими услугами. (заказы флота, морской авиации и морской пехоты, как правило, объединены.) Эти заказы могут оставаться невыполненными в течение нескольких лет; поставки, особенно более крупного оборудования, часто происходят медленно. Когда поставки продолжаются, слово "некоторые" предупреждает, что "общий" инвентарь и предметы, оставшиеся "по заказу", могут отличаться. Закупки оружия, о которых сообщалось в течение года, закончившегося 1 июля 1986 года, отражены в таблице 3 Раздела 2 с указанием, где это известно, дат заключения контрактов, цен и сроков поставки. Расходуемые запасы, такие, как противотанковые ракеты, могут указываться в общей сложности, когда они заказываются, но не указываются в инвентарных запасах из-за сложности оценки норм использования. Мы не включаем стрелковое оружие или боеприпасы к нему. В целом мы не включаем артиллерию ПВО или автоматическое оружие калибром менее 14,5 мм.
   Оценки: прогнозы делаются только в тех случаях, когда имеются четкие доказательства того, что изменения в организации или инвентарных запасах происходят или вот-вот произойдут.
   Списки вооружения предназначены для того, чтобы показать, что является оперативным: общее число, как правило, значительно ниже общих инвентарных данных. В общем, " some " означает "до" и "about "означает "может быть немного выше, чем дано". Для некоторых категорий приводится общая цифра. Там, где это возможно, приводятся также количества отдельных предметов. Для таких записей была разработана стандартная система пунктуации, чтобы облегчить понимание деталей. Запасы вооружения трудно оценить, и мы приветствуем обоснованные поправки.
   Сокращения и определения
   Обширные и плотные сведения принуждают нас использовать сокращения. Они взяты из источников НАТО и обычно используются в военных кругах. С их алфавитным списком можно ознакомиться на стр. 12. Пунктуация не используется, и аббревиатура может иметь как единственное, так и множественное значение, например, "elm" = "element" или "elements". Математические символы используются в трех случаях: "(-)"означает, что часть блока отсоединена; "(+)" означает, что блок усилен;" <"означает, что судно имеет водоизмещение менее 100 тонн. Для обозначения источников оборудования используются сокращения национальных названий (например, "Ch" = "китайский"). Что касается финансовых сокращений, то знак "$"относится к долларам США, за исключением случаев, когда указано иное; термин "миллиард" (bn) равен 1000 миллионам (m). 'Combat aircraft' это нормально укомплектованные, и предназначенные, чтобы доставить боеприпасы (бомбардировщики (bbr), истребитель-бомбардировщик, истребителей-штурмовиков (FGA), ударные (ядерные), перехватчики, истребители (ftr), противоповстанческие (COIN) и вооруженные учебные), самолеты-разведчики (recce) (включая морские), боевые вертолеты (в том числе противолодочные) и учебно-боевые (OCU) которые можно на короткий срок привлекать для операций. Некоторые вертолеты, используемые для перевозки войск в районах боевых действий, могут быть вооружены, и необходимо проявлять определенную гибкость при идентификации.
   Военный баланс - это оценка численного состава Вооруженных сил мира. это никоим образом не оценка их возможностей. он не оценивает ни качество подразделений или техники, ни влияние географии, доктрины, военной технологии, развертывания, подготовки, материально-технической поддержки, морального духа, руководства, тактической или стратегической инициативы, местности, погоды, политической воли или поддержки со стороны партнеров по альянсу.
   Институт также не в состоянии непосредственно оценивать и сравнивать показатели работы вооружения. Желающие могут использовать представленные данные для построения собственного баланса сил на двусторонней или региональной основе. Мы сделали это только для обычных вооруженных сил в Европе (см. с.226-7)
   Мы хотели бы предупредить, что такие балансы чрезвычайно чувствительны к предположениям о том, какие силы включать из каких стран, могут ли такие силы быть собраны и задействованы в возможном конфликте, и их боевой эффективности. Эти балансы в лучшем случае могут быть лишь приближением. Они не могут предсказать результаты встреч.
   Военный баланс приводит фактическую численность ядерных и обычных сил и вооружений в том виде, в каком мы их знаем, а не ту численность, которая была бы принята для целей проверки в соглашениях о контроле над вооружениями.
   Все это указывает на то, что при сборе данных, представленных здесь для конкретных целей, необходимо проявлять большую осторожность. Мы предоставляем обновленный и подробный каталог вооруженных сил в максимально возможном количестве измерений, который, как мы надеемся, будет в целом полезен. Мы не делаем здесь никаких суждений о качестве или эффективности или политических целях, лежащих в основе объединения власти.
   Данные, ежегодно представляемые в военном балансе, отражают суждения, основанные на информации, имеющейся у директора и сотрудников института на момент составления книги. Информация в последующих томах может отличаться от информации в предыдущих изданиях по целому ряду причин, главным образом в результате существенных изменений в национальных силах (например, закупка нового оборудования, утрата или выход на пенсию старого). В других случаях записи могут отличаться из года в год в результате переоценки доказательств, подтверждающих прошлые записи. С течением времени мы неизбежно приходим к выводу, что некоторая информация, представленная в более ранних версиях, является ошибочной или недостаточно подкрепленной надежными доказательствами. Следовательно, не всегда возможно построить достоверные сравнения временных рядов на основе последующих изданий Военного Баланса.
   Список опечаток
   Стремясь обеспечить максимальную точность, мы, начиная с этого издания, предоставляем список исправлений к прошлогодним записям, включая исправления типографских или редакционных ошибок, которые существенно влияют на существо представленного вопроса. Эти пункты (перечислены на стр. Пункт 238) не отражают изменений, происшедших в результате существенных изменений за последний год; скорее, они представляют собой исправления ошибок и пересмотр оценок, которые, по нашему мнению, были ошибочными.
   Кроме того, мы хотели бы обратить внимание наших читателей на некоторые несоответствия в прошлогоднем издании между материалами, представленными в Таблице 1 (ядерные средства доставки по всему миру, стр. G 158-65) и вопрос в двух таблицах, приложенных к эссе "Оценка советско-американского стратегического баланса". В ряде случаев данные о количестве боеголовок, связанных с конкретными системами доставки, или о выходе этих боеголовок различаются между различными таблицами, а в некоторых случаях наблюдается расхождение между данными, приведенными в таблицах, и данными, приведенными в сопроводительных сносках. Мы сожалеем о возникшей путанице и попытались прояснить эти несоответствия в представлении таблицы 1 в этом году. С учетом трудностей, связанных с достоверным определением соотношения мощности и нагрузки боеголовок (которые в любом случае варьируются в зависимости от оперативных потребностей), мы не включили в издание этого года таблицу эквивалентных мегатонн, хотя сохранили таблицу, в которой сравниваются оценочные стратегические ядерные боеголовки.
   Институт не имеет никаких обязательств перед каким-либо правительством, группой правительств или какой-либо политической или иной организацией. Наши оценки являются нашими собственными, основанными на материалах, имеющихся в нашем распоряжении из самых различных источников. Почти ко всем правительствам мы обратились с просьбой о сотрудничестве, и во многих случаях оно было получено. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают друг с другом, и поэтому некоторые цифры оценочные. Мы прилагаем все усилия для обеспечения того, чтобы эти оценки были как можно более профессиональными и свободными от предвзятости. Институт в большом долгу перед рядом своих собственных членов и консультантов, которые помогли в сборе и проверке материалов. Директора и сотрудники Института несут полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в данном исследовании. Мы хотели бы получить комментарии и предложения по данным, представленным в военном балансе, поскольку мы стремимся сделать их как можно более всеобъемлющими и точными.
   Читатели могут использовать информацию из военного баланса по мере необходимости, без ссылки на институт, при условии, что Институт цитируется в качестве источника в любой опубликованной работе. Однако воспроизведение всех основных частей работы должно быть одобрено институтом в письменном виде до публикации.
   Сентябрь 1986 года



The United States

   Strategic and Non-strategic Nuclear Systems.
   In 1986 the United States will begin deployment of the ten-warhead MIRV LGM-118 Peacekeeper (MX) missile. The first two missiles are expected to be placed in modified Minuteman III silos in September; the first wing of 10 missiles should become operational in December. The US Congress has authorized the deployment of 50 MX missiles, which should be completed by 1988. So far Congress has actually funded 33 missiles (including test vehicles and spares).
   At the same time, the US continues the phased retirement of the single-warhead Titan II ICBM. During the last twelve months it withdrew a further 16 of these, leaving a total of 10 in inventory, with two more to be withdrawn by the end of 1986. lt intends to eliminate the Titan II completely by November 1987.
   The United States also plans to intitiate full-scale development of the proposed small ICBM (SICBM or Midgetman), and funds are requested in the current budget, but continued controversy over the weight of the missile, basing options and the number of warheads to be deployed may lead to delays.
   The US SLBM program has become bound up in the domestic debate over continued observance of the ungratified SALT II Treaty. During the past year the US increased from 6 to 8 the number of operational Ohio-class SSBN (one of which is still on sea trials). This deployment meant an increase of 48 Trident I (C-4) SLBM. Concurrently, a total of 48 Poseidon SLBM have been withdrawn, keeping the US within the SALT II ceilings (both for missiles with MIRV-equipped warheads and for combined MIRV-equipped warheads and heavy bombers with ALCM). The next year's budget includes funds to begin procurement of the first 21 Trident II (D-5) SLBM, scheduled to begin deployment at the end of the decade.
   Delivery of the B-1B strategic bomber began a year ago; by 1 July 1986 19 of these aircraft had been fielded. The first squadron will be fully operational in September 1986, while the second squadron will begin receiving its aircraft in January 1987. Funding has now been authorized for all the 100 planned B-1Bs; the US Air Force has no plans at present to purchase additional bombers of this type, looking instead to deployment of the ATB (or 'Stealth') bomber in the 1990s.
   The United States continues the process of converting B-52 strategic bombers to ALCM carriers, with the 131st B-52 to be converted scheduled to be ready by the end of 1986. If no compensating actions are taken, completion of this conversion will cause the US to exceed the SALT II limits for missiles with MIRV-equipped warheads and bombers with ALCM.
   The programme to improve detection and early warning systems continues. The upgrading of the BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) radar in Thule, Greenland is near completion, while work continues at Fylingdales, England (scheduled for completion around 1990). Construction of the fourth Pave Paws SLBM detection radar in Texas is expected to be completed in the coming year and work continues on converting the DEW (Distant Early Warning) line to the updated 'North Warning System', including new unmanned automatic systems.
   The catastrophic Challenger shuttle accident and the launch failures of two unmanned boosters has meant delay in launching a number of planned military and reconnaissance satellite systems, though the extent of the impact on US programmes and capabilities is difficult to state with certainty.
   The US Administration continues to place a high priority on strategic defence research, funding for which virtually doubled in the last year (from $1.4 billion to $2.7 billion).
   The United States has completed the replacement of Pershing IA SSM with the Pershing II, with the deployment of 108 missiles in West Germany and a training battalion and 42 launchers available in the United States as possible replacement or reinforcement systems. GLCM deployment in Western Europe continues, with 128 currently operational.
   Conventional Forces
   The US Army continues to examine its infantry divisional organization and equipment, and some further reorganization is reported to be under consideration for the air assault and airborne divisions. Equipment modernization programmes continue. The proportion of M-1 Abrams in the main battle tank inventory has risen from 21%to 33% at the expense of M-48 and M-60. There has been a 62% increase in the numbers of Bradley M-2/M-3 MICV in the year. The artillery presentation format has been changed in this edition in order to make identification of calibres and totals easier.
   The Navy shows an increase of six Los Angeles-class attack submarines. In the surface fleet there are two more Ticonderoga cruisers and five more Perry-class guided-missile frigates. The deployment of SLCM continues, both in the Los Angeles-class SSN (five of which carry 12 Tomahawk each) and in the battleships (all three of which carry 32). The missile will also be fitted in the Ticonderoga-class cruisers. The Near Term Prepostioning Force of supply vessels to support the US Marine Corps deployments abroad has been replaced by three squadrons of Maritime Pre-positioning Ships. The third squadron, which is now being loaded, will be deployed to the Philippines later in 1986. There has been a significant increase in naval combat aviation strength with the delivery of some 180 F/A-18. The US Marine Corps continues to upgrade its vehicle inventory, with deliveries of the LVT and LAV. Its 105mm light howitzers have been withdrawn, replaced by the 155mm. To augment the existing Marine Corps AV-8A/C Harriers, 30 AV-8B V/STOL attack aircraft have entered service.
   The US Air Force's most notable accession has been over 400 F-16, bringing the total of that type to 977. This increase has also benefited the Air National Guard (ANG) and the Air Force Reserve, both of which have received some of these aircraft. Procurement of the F-15 continues. The F-4 AD squadron in Iceland has been re-equipped with 18 of the type. The F-106 in Regular and Air National Guard interceptor duties remains, although replacement of F-106 with F-15 and F-16 has begun. The F-15 is being improved and the later 'dual role' E models (air superiority and interdiction) are planned to replace some of the earlier versions in the active forces. The Air Force also continues a multi-faceted airlift improvement programme, with completion of the re-winging of the C-5A inventory, initial deployment of the C-5B and continued full-scale engineering development of the C-17 intra- and inter-theatre cargo aircraft all expected in the next year.
   The US Coast Guard - whose expenditures fall outside the Department of Defense budget, but which, nevertheless, is legally a part of the Armed Forces - has made significant increases to its medium-endurance cutter and patrol craft inventories. Both programmes continue. There has also been some augmentation and improvement of its helicopter inventory. All these developments enhance the Coast Guard's capability to conduct anti-drug patrols, a task in which it is assisted by elements of the other Services.
   US Defence Budget
   After seven years of rising federal deficits reaching $212 billion in 1985, Congress and the Administration agreed to an automatic budget cutting plan to balance the US budget by 1991. The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (better known as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Plan) modified the congressional budgeting process and mandated radical domestic and defence spending reductions over the next five years. Senate conservatives and the Administration saw the law as a means to guarantee domestic spending cuts. House liberals agreed to the proposal as a means to slash the defence budget and pressure the Reagan Administration to raise taxes. Both liberals and conservatives viewed automatic across-the-board spending cuts as the worst-case scenario, should they fail to agree to an adequate revenue and spending plan to reduce the deficit.
   Most importantly, the Gramm-Rudman Act set specific deficit targets for the next five fiscal years; FY 1986 $172 bn; FY 1987 $144 bn; FY 1988 $108 bn; FY 1989 $72 bn; FY 1990 $36 bn; FY 1991 no deficit. If Congress and the President could not agree to a spending plan within $10 bn of the maximum deficit amounts, the Act required automatic spending cuts (known as sequestration) involving equal percentage reductions in all budget accounts, except for those exempted: social security, Medicaid, food stamps and interest on the federal debt, which are more than a third of the domestic budget. The Supreme Court eventually ruled the enforcement provisions unconstitutional, because they involved a congressional officer (the Comptroller General) rather than the Executive branch in making the spending cuts. The Congress is considering ways to meet the Supreme Court's technical objection, and broad public support exists for meeting the deficit targets.
   The new congressional budgeting process contained in the Gramm-Rudman legislation requires that the President submit his budget in early January. Congress subsequently must pass one budget resolution (rather than two) which contains specific spending instructions to the authorization and appropriations committees -known as reconciliation -and requires these committees to report bills that meet the spending limits set in the budget resolution. Previously the authorization and appropriations committees could ignore the recommended spending amounts in congressional budget resolutions. The President cannot veto the budget resolution but he may, as in the past, veto individual appropriation and authorization bills. The new budget process is being used in 1986 for the spending decisions for FY 1987.
   Changing Times at The Pentagon
   The Reagan Administration's defence build-up is over. Table I outlines how the final FY 1986 national defence spending total came about. Six months after Reagan's initial request, Congress and the Administration agreed to hold FY 1986 defence spending to 0% real growth, followed by 3% real growth in FY 1987 and FY 1988. Mid-term re-estimates of defence spending and the adoption of Gramm-Rudman further reduced Reagan's original request. The first round of automatic spending cuts, totalling $11.7 bn in federal outlays, were triggered on 1 March 1986. Defence spending for FY 1986 was cut by $5.4 bn in outlays and $14.1 bn in budget authority. For FY 1986 only, the Gramm-Rudman Act allows the Administration to shelter some military programmes from automatic reductions. The President chose to protect most military personnel accounts, SDI funding, and a few multi-year procurement contracts. The rest of the defence budget was uniformly cut by 4.9%. Despite these measures the current FY 1986 deficit may be close to $230 bn - leaving some doubt about future abilities to manage the deficit. Nearly all observers believe that it will be impossible for the government to continue increasing defence expenditure in the current political and economic environment. Major spending categories for the past decade are found in Table II. For FY 1987 the Reagan Administration requested $320.3 bn in BA and $282.2 bn in outlays, representing 7.9% and 2.0% real increases respectively. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that the request underestimates national defence outlays by almost $15 bn.
   The result of the current budget-cutting mood in Washington is that defence spending is being cut for fiscal rather than strategic reasons. Pentagon planners have already had to cut more than $250 bn from the $1.8 trillion FY 1987-91 defence plan.
In the next few months Congress and the Reagan Administration will need to make several strategic as well as budget-cutting decisions in order to accommodate a decreasing amount of defence resources. The cuts are such that merely deferring or cancelling a few controversial procurement programmes, such as the C-17 transport aircraft, the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) or the Bradley MICV will be enough. According to analyses by the Congressional Budget Office, radical cuts in the readiness accounts, including ammunition, flying time and manning levels, would save only $11-17 bn in outlays and BA for FY 1987. Cutting procurement levels to below replacement rates while preserving readiness accounts would offer long-term savings but fewer dividends in the short run (in the region of $10-15 bn in outlays and $54-62 bn in BA for FY 1987). Even if the Pentagon cancelled the major nuclear programmes and SDI, only about $7.0 bn in outlays and $18.0 bn in BA would be saved.
   Since his first inauguration, President Reagan's defence build-up has been pared down from the amounts initially planned. In his first comprehensive five-year defence plan submitted in 1982, the Administration projected FY 1986 national defence spending as $375.2 bn in BA and $324.4 bn in outlays, whereas it actually totalled much less. As shown in Table III, spending in all major categories has increased, but the biggest increase is the doubling of the procurement account. Both nuclear and conventional force modernization received early spending priorities which raised procurement expenditure to a higher plateau than envisaged by the previous Administration. All four services have benefited from the huge growth in the investment budget. In fact, the relative budget shares of the Navy, Army and Marine Corps have remained relatively static, although the Air Force share has grown recently as new strategic systems are funded.
   Historically, American defence spending has shown a series of surges and falls, while Soviet spending seems to follow a slow steady upward path. President Reagan has improved the United States military posture with new equipment. The question is whether the United States will be able to maintain defence expenditure at a high level or whether it will follow the pattern of the last forty years.

Соединенные Штаты Америки

   Стратегические и нестратегические ядерные системы
   В 1986 году США приступят к развертыванию десятиблочной ракеты MIRV LGM-118 Peacekeeper (MX). Первые две ракеты, как ожидается, будут размещены в модифицированных шахтах Minuteman III в сентябре; первое крыло из 10 ракет должно вступить в строй в декабре. Конгресс США санкционировал развертывание 50 ракет MX, которое должно быть завершено к 1988 году. До сих пор конгресс фактически финансировал 33 ракеты (включая испытательные и запасные части).
   В то же время США продолжают поэтапный вывод МБР Titan II с одной боеголовкой. За последние двенадцать месяцев они сняли еще 16 из них, оставив в общей сложности 10 в запасах, а еще два должны быть сняты к концу 1986 года. к ноябрю 1987 года Титан-II будет полностью уничтожен.
   Соединенные Штаты также планируют приступить к полномасштабной разработке предлагаемой малой МБР (SICBM или Midgetman), и в нынешнем бюджете испрашиваются средства, однако продолжающиеся споры по поводу веса ракеты, вариантов базирования и количества боеголовок могут привести к задержкам.
   Американская программа БРПЛ оказалась вовлеченной во внутренние дебаты по поводу дальнейшего соблюдения ненормированного договора ОСВ II. За прошедший год США увеличили с 6 до 8 количество действующих ПЛАРБ типа Ohio (одна из которых все еще находится на морских испытаниях). Это развертывание означало увеличение на 48 БРПЛ Trident I (C-4). Одновременно было выведено в общей сложности 48 ПЛАРБ Poseidon, что удержало США в пределах потолков SALT II (как для ракет с боеголовками, оснащенными MIRV, так и для комбинированных боеголовок, оснащенных MIRV, и тяжелых бомбардировщиков с ALCM). В бюджете на следующий год предусмотрены средства для начала закупки первых 21 БРПЛ Trident II (D-5), развертывание которых планируется начать в конце десятилетия.
   Поставка стратегического бомбардировщика B-1B началась год назад, к 1 июля 1986 года было выпущено 19 таких самолетов. Первая эскадрилья будет полностью введена в строй в сентябре 1986 года, а вторая эскадрилья начнет принимать свои самолеты в январе 1987 года. В настоящее время финансирование санкционировано для всех 100 запланированных B-1B; в настоящее время ВВС США не планируют приобретать дополнительные бомбардировщики этого типа, вместо этого переведя внимание на развертывание бомбардировщика ATB (или "стелс") в 1990-х годах.
   Соединенные Штаты продолжают процесс преобразования стратегических бомбардировщиков B-52 в носители ALCM, а 131-й B-52 планируется переоборудовать к концу 1986 года. Если не будут приняты компенсационные меры, завершение этой конверсии заставит США превысить пределы ОСВ II для ракет с боеголовками, оснащенными MIRV, и бомбардировщиков с ALCM.
   Продолжается осуществление программы совершенствования систем обнаружения и раннего предупреждения. В Туле, Гренландия, близится к завершению модернизация радиолокатора BMEWS (системы раннего предупреждения о баллистических ракетах), в то время как в Файлингдейлсе, Англия, продолжаются работы (которые планируется завершить примерно в 1990 году). Ожидается, что строительство четвертого Pave Paws SLBM detection radar в Техасе будет завершено в следующем году, и продолжаются работы по преобразованию линии DEW (Distant Early Warning) в обновленную "Северную систему предупреждения", включая новые беспилотные автоматические системы.
   Катастрофическая авария шаттла Challenger и неудачи запуска двух беспилотных ускорителей привели к задержке запуска ряда запланированных военных и разведывательных спутниковых систем, хотя степень воздействия на программы и возможности США трудно с уверенностью утверждать.
   Администрация США продолжает уделять приоритетное внимание стратегическим оборонным исследованиям, финансирование которых за последний год практически удвоилось (с $1,4 млрд до $2,7 млрд).
   Соединенные Штаты завершили замену БР Pershing IA на Pershing II, развернув 108 ракет в Западной Германии и учебный батальон и 42 пусковые установки, имеющиеся в Соединенных Штатах в качестве возможных систем замены или усиления. Развертывание GLCM в Западной Европе продолжается, и в настоящее время функционирует 128.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   Армия США продолжает изучать организацию и оснащение своих пехотных дивизий, и, как сообщается, рассматривается вопрос о дальнейшей реорганизации воздушно-штурмовых и воздушно-десантных дивизий. Продолжаются программы модернизации оборудования. Доля М-1 Abrams в основном боевом танковом инвентаре возросла с 21% до 33% за счет М-48 и М-60. В течение года наблюдалось увеличение на 62% числа БМП Bradley M-2/M-3. Формат презентации артиллерии был изменен в этом издании, чтобы облегчить идентификацию калибров и итогов.
   Флот показывает увеличение на шесть ударных подводных лодок класса Los Angeles. В надводном флоте добавилось еще два крейсера Ticonderoga и пять ракетных фрегатов класса Perry. Продолжается развертывание КРМБ как на ПЛА класса Los Angeles (пять из которых несут по 12 Tomahawk), так и на линкорах (все три несут по 32). Ракета также будет установлена на крейсерах класса Ticonderoga. В ближайшей перспективе силы снабжения судов для поддержки развертывания Корпуса морской пехоты США за рубежом были заменены тремя эскадрами морских судов предварительного позиционирования. Третья эскадра, которая сейчас загружается, будет развернута на Филиппинах позже в 1986 году. Было отмечено значительное увеличение численности морской боевой авиации с поставкой около 180 F/A-18. Корпус морской пехоты США продолжает модернизировать свой инвентарь транспортных средств с поставками LVT и LAV. Легкие гаубицы 105-мм были заменены на 155-мм. В дополнение к существующим истребителям AV-8A/C морской пехоты на вооружение поступило 30 штурмовиков ВВП AV-8B.
   Наиболее пополнением ВВС США было более 400 F-16, в результате чего общее количество этого типа составило 977. Это увеличение также пошло в Национальную гвардию ВВС (ANG) и резерв ВВС, которые получили некоторые из этих самолетов. Закупки F-15 продолжаются. Эскадрилья F-4 ПВО в Исландии была перевооружена на 18 таких самолетов. F-106 в регулярных ВВС и Национальной гвардии в роли перехватчика остаются, хотя замена F-106 на F-15 и F-16 началась. F-15 совершенствуется, а более поздние модели "двойной роли" E (превосходство в воздухе и перехват) планируется заменят некоторые из более ранних версий в активных силах. Военно-воздушные силы также продолжают осуществление многогранной программы совершенствования воздушных перевозок, в рамках которой, как ожидается, в следующем году будут завершены работы по переоснащению с С-5А на C-5В и продолжена полномасштабная инженерная разработка грузовых самолетов C-17 для перевозок внутри театра военных действий и между театрами военных действий.
   Береговая охрана США, расходы которой выходят за рамки бюджета Министерства обороны, но которая, тем не менее, юридически является частью Вооруженных сил, значительно увеличила свои силы катеров средней дальности и патрульных судов. Обе программы продолжаются. Кроме того, были внесены некоторые дополнения и улучшения в их вертолетный парк. Все эти события расширяют возможности береговой охраны по осуществлению патрулирования в целях борьбы с наркотиками, в чем ей помогают сотрудники других служб.
   Оборонный бюджет США
   После семи лет роста дефицита федерального бюджета, достигшего 212 миллиардов долларов в 1985 году, Конгресс и администрация согласились на автоматическое сокращение бюджета, чтобы сбалансировать бюджет США к 1991 году. Закон 1985 года о сбалансированном бюджете и контроле за чрезвычайным дефицитом (более известный как план Грэмма-Радмана-Холлингса) изменил бюджетный процесс Конгресса и предписал радикальное сокращение внутренних и оборонных расходов в течение следующих пяти лет. Сенатские консерваторы и администрация рассматривали закон как средство гарантировать сокращение внутренних расходов. Либералы Палаты представителей согласились с предложением сократить оборонный бюджет и оказать давление на администрацию Рейгана с целью повышения налогов. И либералы, и консерваторы рассматривали автоматическое повсеместное сокращение расходов как наихудший сценарий, если они не согласятся на адекватный план доходов и расходов для сокращения дефицита.
   Самое главное, закон Грэмма-Рудмана установил конкретные целевые показатели дефицита на следующие пять финансовых лет: FY 1986 $172 млрд; FY 1987 $144 млрд; FY 1988 $108 млрд; FY 1989 $72 млрд; FY 1990 $36 млрд; FY 1991 без дефицита. Если Конгресс и президент не могли договориться о плане расходов в пределах 10 млрд. долл. США от максимального дефицита, закон требовал автоматического сокращения расходов (известного как секвестр), предусматривающего равные процентные сокращения на всех бюджетных счетах, за исключением тех, которые освобождены: социальное обеспечение, медицина, продовольственные талоны и проценты по федеральному долгу, которые составляют более трети внутреннего бюджета. В конечном итоге Верховный суд признал положения об исполнении неконституционными, поскольку они предусматривали участие сотрудника Конгресса (генерального контролера), а не исполнительной власти в сокращении расходов. Конгресс рассматривает пути удовлетворения технических возражений Верховного суда, и широкая общественность поддерживает достижение целевых показателей дефицита.
   Новый бюджетный процесс Конгресса, содержащийся в законодательстве Грэмма-Радмана, требует, чтобы президент представил свой бюджет в начале января. Впоследствии Конгресс должен принять одну бюджетную резолюцию (а не две), которая содержит конкретные инструкции по расходованию средств комитетам по санкционированию и ассигнованиям - известную как выверка - и требует, чтобы эти комитеты представляли доклады о законопроектах, которые соответствуют лимитам расходов, установленным в бюджетной резолюции. Ранее комитеты по санкционированию и ассигнованиям могли игнорировать рекомендованные суммы расходов в бюджетных резолюциях Конгресса. Президент не может наложить вето на резолюцию по бюджету, но он может, как и в прошлом, наложить вето на отдельные законопроекты об ассигнованиях и санкционировании. Новый бюджетный процесс используется в 1986 году для принятия решений о расходах за 1987 финансовый год.
   Перемены в Пентагоне
   Укрепление обороны администрации Рейгана закончилось. В таблице I показано, как в 1986 году был получен итоговый общий объем расходов на национальную оборону. Через шесть месяцев после первоначального запроса Рейгана Конгресс и администрация согласились сохранить расходы на оборону на уровне 0% реального роста, за которым последовал 3% реального роста в 1987 и 1988 годах. Среднесрочная переоценка оборонных расходов и принятие Грэмма-Радмана еще больше сократили первоначальный запрос Рейгана. 1 марта 1986 года начался первый раунд автоматического сокращения расходов на общую сумму 11,7 млрд. долл. Расходы на оборону за 1986 финансовый год были сокращены на 5,4 млрд. долл. Только в 1986 финансовом году Закон Грэмма-Рудмана позволяет администрации укрывать некоторые военные программы от автоматического сокращения. Президент решил защитить большинство счетов военного персонала, финансирование SDI и несколько многолетних контрактов на закупки. Остальная часть оборонного бюджета была сокращена на 4,9%. Несмотря на эти меры, текущий дефицит FY 1986 может быть близок к $230 млрд, что оставляет некоторые сомнения в будущих способностях управлять дефицитом. Почти все наблюдатели считают, что правительство не сможет продолжать увеличивать расходы на оборону в нынешних политических и экономических условиях. Основные категории расходов за последнее десятилетие приводятся в таблице II. За 1987 финансовый год администрация Рейгана запросила $320,3 млрд в BA и $ 282,2 млрд в расходах, что составляет 7,9% и 2,0% реального увеличения соответственно. Бюджетное управление Конгресса считает, что запрос недооценивает расходы на национальную оборону почти на $ 15 млрд.
   В результате нынешнего настроения Вашингтона по поводу сокращения бюджета расходы на оборону сокращаются скорее по финансовым, чем по стратегическим причинам. Планировщикам Пентагона уже пришлось сократить более $250 млрд из плана обороны на $ 1,8 трлн.
В следующих нескольких месяцах Конгрессу и администрации Рейгана нужно будет принять несколько стратегических, а также бюджетных решений, чтобы учесть сокращение объема оборонных ресурсов. Сокращения таковы, что будет достаточно просто отложить или отменить несколько спорных программ закупок, таких как транспортный самолет C-17, усовершенствованная ракета средней дальности "воздух-воздух" (AMRAAM) или БМП Bradley. Согласно анализу Бюджетного управления Конгресса, радикальное сокращение счетов готовности, включая боеприпасы, летное время и численность персонала, сэкономит только 11-17 млрд. долл. Снижение уровня закупок до уровня ниже уровня замещения при сохранении счетов готовности обеспечит долгосрочную экономию, но меньшее количество дивидендов в краткосрочной перспективе (в районе $10-15 млрд в расходах и $ 54-62 млрд в BA за FY 1987). Даже если бы Пентагон отменил основные ядерные программы и СОИ, было бы сэкономлено только около $7,0 млрд в расходах и $18,0 млрд в BA.
   С момента его первой инаугурации, наращивание обороны президента Рейгана было сокращено от первоначально запланированных сумм. В своем первом всеобъемлющем пятилетнем плане обороны, представленном в 1982 году, администрация прогнозировала, что расходы на национальную оборону в 1986 году составят 375,2 млрд. долл. Как показано в таблице III, расходы по всем основным категориям возросли, однако наибольшее увеличение приходится на удвоение счета закупок. Как ядерная, так и обычная модернизация вооруженных сил получила ранние приоритеты расходов, которые повысили расходы на закупки до более высокого уровня, чем предполагалось предыдущей администрацией. Все четыре службы выиграли от огромного роста инвестиционного бюджета. Фактически относительная доля бюджета Военно-Морского Флота, армии и морской пехоты остается относительно неизменной, хотя доля Военно-Воздушных сил в последнее время возросла по мере финансирования новых стратегических систем.
   Исторически американские расходы на оборону демонстрировали ряд скачков и падений, в то время как советские расходы, похоже, медленно и неуклонно растут. Президент Рейган улучшил военную позицию Соединенных Штатов с помощью новой техники. Вопрос заключается в том, смогут ли Соединенные Штаты сохранить расходы на оборону на высоком уровне или же они будут следовать модели последних сорока лет.

GDP 1984: $3,619.2 bn; 1985e: $3,839.0 bn
growth 1984: 4.4% 1985: 2.2%
Inflation1984: 4.3% 1985: 3.6%
Debt 1985: $410.0 bn
Def bdgt 1985: $284.7 bn NATO defn $266.642 bn
   1986e: $292.553 bn NATO defn n.a.

Population: 240,900,000
   18-30 31-45
Men 27,500,000 26,600,000
Women 27,100,000 26,560,000

Regular: 2,143,955 (202,700 women).
Terms of Service, voluntary.
Active Reserves: 1,682,900.
   National Guard: 558,400; Army 450,500; Air 107,900.
   Reserve: 566,100: Army 285,600; Navy 142,000; Marines 43,000; Air Force 74,800; Coast Guard 20,700.
Individual Ready Reserves: 500,240. Army 319,000; Navy 85,000; Marines 52,000; Air Force 39,000; Coast Guard 5,240.
Standby Reserves: 86,613. Army 2,000; Navy 11,500; Marines 43,600; Air 28,700; Coast Guard 813.
   Duties pre-assigned on mobilization.
Retired: some 120,000 ex-Army would be available for recall.
   Civilians: 1,038,000 (to reduce to 1,024,000).

(1) Offensive
(a) Navy: 640 SLBM in 36 SSBN.
SSBN (incl 6 on refit):
   8 SSBN-726 Ohio (1 on trials) with 24 UGM-93A Trident I/C-4 (192 msls)
   12 SSBN-640 Franklin:
   6 with 16 Trident I/C-4 (96 msls)
   6 with 16 UGM-73A PoseidonC-3 (96 msls)
   8 SSBN-627 Madison:
   6 with 16 Trident I/C-4 (96 msls)
   2 with 16 Poseidon C-3 (32 msls)
   8 Lafayette with 16 Poseidon C-3 (128 msls) (1 more, no msls, to retire late 1986).
(On order (to FY 1986): 5 Ohio SSBN.)
(b) Strategic Air Command (SAC) (104,000): 2 Air Forces. 12 divs (1 trg/spt).
ICBM: 1,010. 9 strategic msl wings (1 reforming) (24 sqns); sqn has 5 launch control centres.
   3 wings (9 sqns) with 450 Minuteman II (LGM-30F).
   3 wings (11 sqns) with 550 Minuteman III (LGM-30G) (3 MIRV).
   2 wings with 10 Titan II (LGM-25C; 8 by late 1986, withdrawn by Nov 1987).
   Peacekeeper (MX; LGM-118A): 2 to be installed from September, wing (10 msls) operational in Dec 1986 in mod Minuteman silos.
Aircraft: some 345 combat ac (eqpt: see p. 27); 18 bomb wings (15 B-52/B-1B, 2 FB-111,1 trg).
Bbrs: 315.
   Long-range: 260.
   1 wing with 19 Rockwell B-1B. (1 sqn operational Sept 1986; 2nd sqn to receive ac Jan 1987.)
   4 wings (6 sqns) with 90 Boeing B-52H (converting to ALCM).
   10 wings (10 bbr sqns) with 151 B-52G:
   6 sqns (90 ac) with up to 20 AGM-86B ALCM or up to 20 AGM-69A SRAM
   4 sqns (61 ac) with up to 12 Harpoon (2 sqns (30 ac) operational in conventional role).
   Medium-range: 55.
   2 wings (5 sqns, 1 trg) with General Dynamics FB-111A.
Recce: 30.
3 wings: 4 sqns:
   1 with 9 Lockheed SR-71A/B, Northrop T-38A.
   1 with 7 Lockheed U-2CT/R.
   2 with 10 Lockheed TR-1A, 4 TR-1B (trg).
Comd: 41:
6 sqns:
   1 with 4 Boeing E-4B.
   5 with 21 Boeing EC-135A/C/G/L, 16 RC-135.
Tanker: 663:
6 wings: 1 gp: 50 sqns (1 trg):
   32 Regular with 487 KC-135.
   2 Regular with 48 McDonnell-Douglas KC-10A tanker/tpt.
   13 Air National Guard sqns (104 ac).
   3 Air Force Reserve sqns (24 ac).

(2) Defensive:
Space Command: Joint Service HQ, Colorado Springs; comds incl North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD),
   a joint US-Cdn org (HQ: Cheyenne Mountain, USA).
Warning Systems:
1. ICBM, SLBM, satellites:
(a) Space Detection and Tracking System (SPADATS):
(i) Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC). NORAD Combat Operation HQ, Cheyenne Mountain.
   Tracking, identification, cataloguing of all space objects; command, control and c ommunications to all space-associated commands and agencies;
   surveillance, protection, countering of satellites. (Replacement facility nearing completion.)
(ii) Satellites. Satellite Early Warning System (SEWS). Defense Meteorological Satellites (Defense Support Program; DSP).
   TRW Block 647: 1 each over Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; DSP infra-red surveillance and warning system.
   Control and tracking stations at Guam, Pine Gap and Nurrungar (Australia) (to get 6 mobile ground terminals).
   Will also control Global Positioning System, navigational satellite system and MILSTAR strategic and tactical satellite comms system.
(iii) Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). USAF 474N system with 3 stations: Clear, Alaska (AN/FPS-50, AN/FPS-92);
   Thule, Greenland (AN/FPS-50, AN/FPS-49A); Fylingdales Moor, England (AN/FPS-50, -49, being upgraded).
   12 radars detect and track satellites, ICBM and IRBM. 4,800-km range.
(iv) Spacetrack. USAF 496L system. FPS-17 detection, FPS-79 tracking radars at Pirinclik (Turkey); Cobra Dane, Shemya; FPS-85, BMEWS at Clear,
   Thule and Fylingdales; optical tracking systems in New Mexico, California, at St Margarets (NB, Canada), Pulmosan (S. Korea), San Vito (Italy),
   Maui (Hawaii), Mount John (New Zealand).
(v) Cobra Dane. Phased-array radar system at Shemya, Aleutians: 120R arc, range to 46,000 km (against space targets), augments BMEWS in Alaska.
   (Cobra Judy, a Pacific-based, shipborne phased-array radar (SPQ-11), supplements Shemya and research programmes,
   but is not part of SPADATS and has no early-warning function. Cobra Ball, a RC-135 airborne system, supports both.
(vi) Pacific Radar Barrier (PACBAR). Detection and tracking radars: 1 site at San Miguel, Philippines, 1 at Kwajalein Atoll, third to be selected.
(vii) Alternate Space Defense Center. 1 FPS-85 and 1 AN/FSS-7 station in Florida. Linked to Spacetrack and NAVSPASUR (see below)
   through NORAD HQ; also to identify and track fractional-orbit bombardment systems (FOBS). (To be retired when PavePaws completed.)
(b) USN Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR). 9 field stations in south-east US (3 transmitting, 6 receiving sites and civilian agencies).
(c) Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System (PARCS). 1 north-facing phased-array system (130R arc, 2,800-km range) at Grand Forks ND.
   Identifies and tracks individual re-entry vehicles, incl SLBM, in Central US, Arctic Ocean areas.
   (Was Army Safeguard system support; to be enhanced.)
(d) Miscellanous radars. US Army: Kwajalein Atoll (Pacific). USAF: Ascension Island (Atlantic), Antigua (Caribbean), Kaena Point (Hawaii);
   MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Westford, Mass.
(e) Integrated Operational Nuclear Detonation Detection System (IONDS).
   Detects and assesses nuclear detonations; linked to 18 NAVSTAR global positioning system satellites (8 now in service; 18 by 1988).
   Nuclear test ban moritoring and intelligence collection, potential damage assessment.
(f) Under development: Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance system (GEODSS):
   White Sands NM, Taegu (S. Korea) and Maui (Hawaii); 2 more planned, 1 in Portugal, one in Indian Ocean (Diego Garcia).
2. SLBM:
Pave Paws system. 1 phased-array radar (AN/FPS-115) each in Massachusetts and California; 5,500-km range.
   1 building in Georgia (south-east), 1 in Texas (south-west).
3. Intermittent programmed recce and EUNT satellites incl:
(a) USAF: KH-8 (Close Look), 80-220-mile orbit, photographic film return.
   KH-9 Big Bird replaced by KH-11: 160-400-mile polar orbit, digital imagery. KH-12 (Ikon).
(b) USN: Ocean Surveillance (OSUS). 4 satellites to detect ships by infra-red and radar.
(c) EUNT: Rhyolite, Ferret, Argus/Chalet, Magnum/Aquacade.
4. Anti-air(aircraft, cruise missile):
(a) Over-the-horizon-backscatter (OTH-B) radar system. Range 900 km (min) to 3,800 km; all altitude capability planned.
   One chain (3 sites: transmit, receive, control) in Maine, arc of cover under evaluation (to be operational 1987);
   1 planned for Oregon/N. California, another under consideration for southern US.
(b) North Warning System (under comd TAC; replacing DEW Line). 13 Seek Igloo AN/FPS-117 automated (minimally attended radar (MAR))
   systems in Alaska, 13 more in Canada to be supplemented by 39 auxiliary unmanned short-range radars (110-150 km),
   4 in Greenland, 1 in Scotland; 2 in Iceland (being upgraded) roughly along the 70RN parallel from Point Lay, Alaska to Greenland,
   then to Iceland and Scotland,
(c) Tactical Air Command (TAC):
(i) US-Cdn Joint Surveillance System (JSS). 7 Region Operations Control Centers (ROCC):
   5 in US (1 in Alaska), 2 in Canada. 5 E-3A AWACS ac assigned (1 each per US ROCC).
(ii) Radars. 60 in US (14 in Alaska), 24 in Canada: for co-ordination/control with Federal Aviation Authority facilities of military and
   civil air traffic, surveillance and tracking of objects in high- and medium altitude trans-polar flight,
(iii) Aircraft: 292 (AD).
(a) Regular: 94: 1 Air Force, 4 air divs: 4 (CONUS) sqns; 76 ac:
   3 with 58 F-15 (8 AAM).
   1 with 18 F-106.
   1 (Iceland) sqn with 18 F-15 (See Forces Abroad).
(b) Air National Guard (ANG): 198: 11 sqns:
   7 with 126 F-4C/D (8 AAM).
   1 with 18 F-15.
   3 with 54 F-106, T-33 (trg).
(c) Tactical Air Force augmentation: ac on call from naval, marine and air forces.
AAM: Super Falcon, Sidewinder, Sparrow.

ARMY: 770,904 (76,000 women).
7 Army HQ, 6 Corps HQ (1 AB).
4 armd divs (6 tk, 5 mech inf, 4 sp arty, 1 hel, 1 AD, 1 armd cav bns; spt units).f
6 mech divs (5 tk, 6 mech inf, 4 sp arty, 1 hel, 1 AD, 1 armd cav bns; spt units), t
2 inf divs (1 high-tech motor inf (trials)).t
4 lt inf divs, 12 bdes: (10,220 men; hy div have some 18,000); 2 divs have 3 regular bdes each, 2 have 2 regular, 1Reserve 'roundout' bdes each.f
1 air assault div: 3 bdes (each 3 bns), 3 arty bns, avn gp (4 bns: 1 attack, 3 tpt)
1 AB div: 3 bdes (each 3 para bns), 1 tk, 4 arty, 1 armed hel bns; 1 air cav sqn
1 indep armd bde (2 tk, 1 mech inf, 1 SP med arty bns).
1 indep mech bde (1 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP med arty bns).
2 indep inf bdes (1 tk, 2 inf, 1 lt arty bns).
3 armd cav regts.
9 arty bdes.
5 AA arty bdes.
Special Operations Command (10,200):
   8 Special Forces gps (4 Regular, 2 National
   Guard, 2 Reserve) each 3 bns.
   2 Special Ops avn bns.
   Delta Force, attack hel and tpt gp.
   1 Ranger inf regt (3 bns).
   4 Psychological Warfare gps (13 bns).
   1 Civil Affairs bn.
5 Pershing II SSM bns (4 bns with 144 launchers, 1 school bty with 6 launchers).
8 Lance SSM bns (in corps arty).
3 Patriot SAM bns (1 forming): each 6 btys each of 8 launchers, 4 msls, each with radars; planned total 13'/2 bns (81 btys).
Army Avn:
   1 Gp (4 bns; 60 attack, 200 tpt and utility hel).
   1 air assault bde: (hel-borne ATK) several corps avn (UH-l, CH-47) bns.
(Org still developing: planned to comprise 32 Regular, 2 National Guard attack hel bns, plus tac, tpt bns.)
MBT: 14,296: 1,478 M-48A5, 668 M-60, 7,352 M-60A3, 4,798 M-1 Abrams.
AFV: some 23,772.
   MICV: some 3,492 M-2/-3 Bradley.
   APC: some 20,280, incl 3,490 M-577, 2,150 M-901 with TOW, 12,690 M-113 (some with mor, TOW).
Arty: how: 5,450: 105mm: (?l,100): (?300) M-101, (?800) M-102; 155mm: 3,300: (?200) M-114, 900 M-198 towed, 2,200 M-109;
   203mm: 1,046 M-110A1/A2 SP.
   MRL: 227mm: 337 MLRS.
   mor: 7,400: 81mm: 3,200; 107mm: 4,200.
   SSM: 294: 150 Pershing II, 144 Lance launchers.
ATK: RCL: 1,000 90mm and 106mm.
   ATGW: some 600 Hellfire, 6,000 TOW, 10,000 Dragon launchers.
AD: guns: 220 M-167 Vulcan towed; 20mm: 380 M-163.
   SAM: Redeye, FIM-92A Stinger, 400 M-54 and M-48 SP Chaparral, 31 Roland SP, Nike Hercules, Improved HAWK,
   54 Patriot fire units, 8 Rapier.
Amph: combat spt craft: 268.
Avn: ac: some 526 incl 98 Grumman OV-1C/D, 9 Beech RU-21, 4 Short-330, 19 C-7 (DHC-4), 114 Beech C-12D, 37 Cessna U-3, 50 Beech U-8,
   10 UV-18A (DHC-6), 129 U-21A; 2 Cessna T-41, 54 Beech T-42.
   hel: some 8,970 incl some 900 Bell AH-1G/Q, 990 AH-IS, some 68 AH-64A Apache, 3,600 Bell UH-1 (being replaced),
   760 Sikorsky UH-60A (40 to be EH-60A ECM on conversion), 392 Boeing CH-47A/B/C, 61 -D, 63 Sikorsky CH-54 Tarhe,
   369 Hughes OH-6A, 1,800 Bell OH-58A/D.
AAM: MIM-92A Stinger (hel-mounted).
(trg): ac: incl about 50 Beech T-42. hel: 250 Hughes TH-55A.
(On order (authorized and funded): 840 M-1 Abrams MBT (total 7,467 planned); 655 M-2/-3 Bradley MICV (total 6,882 planned), 59 M-119 105mm how; 450 M-252 81mm mor; 44 MLRS MRL; 12,000 TOW, 136,000 Swe AT-4 84mm ATK RL; Stinger (incl POST optical seeker), Rapier, 113 Roland, 300 Chaparral, Improved HAWK (500? msls), 12 Patriot SAM launchers, 440 msls; 6 RC-12D ac; 8 CH/MH-53, some 144 AH-64A, 78 UH-60, 48 CH-47D, 11 EH-60D Quickftx, 44 OH-58D hel; 282 assault boats.)
DEPLOYMENT: See consolidated entry below.

(i) Army National Guard: 450,500 (22,500 women); 3,285 units; capable after mobilization of manning
   10 divs (2 armd, 2 mech, 5 hy, 1 lt inf);
   18 indep bdes (4 'Roundout' with Regular Army divs) (3 armd, 6 mech, 9 inf (3 lt));
   4 armd cav regts (2 to be hy bdes);
   1 inf gp (Arctic recce, 5 scout/mech bns);
   20 fd arty bde HQ;
   2 Special Forces gps (6 bns).
   Indep bns: 5 tk, 2 mech, 1 mountain inf, 50 arty, 4 ATK (TOW), 9 AD (1 Roland, 2 Chapparal SAM, 6 M-42 40mm SP AA arty),
   62 engr, 23 sigs, 141 spt. 760 minor units to fill regular formations/trg units. 105 air units, 150 sections; 2,580 ac.
(ii) Army Reserve: 285,600 (46,500 women);
   3,410 units; 12 trg divs, 3 trg bdes (1 cav, 1 fd arty, 1 military police).
   Indep combat bdes: 1 mech, 2 inf (1 'Roundout');
   67 indep bns, incl 1 tk, 2 inf, 15 arty, 53 engr.
   2 Special Forces gps (7 bns: ); 3,225 coys and dets incl 130 indep air units and sections with 566 ac.

NAVY: 570,973 (48,000 women): 4 Fleets: 97 attack subs, 222 principal surface combatants.
   A further 9 SSN, 24 major surface combat ships are in active reserve and storage.
Subs, attack: 97 (incl 10 on refit):
85 nuclear (SSN) with SUBROC ASW:
   35 SSN-688 Los Angeles (all with 4 Harpoon, 5 with 12 Tomahawk SSM).
   35 SSN-637 Sturgeon (24 with 4 Harpoon, 1 with 8 Tomahawk).
   13 SSN-594 Permit (7 with 4 Harpoon).
   1 SSN-685 Lipscomb.
   1 SSN-671 Narwhal
12 (8 SSN, 4 diesel (SS)) without SUBROC:
   5 SSN-585 Skipjack.
   3 SSN-578 Skate.
   3 SS-580 Barbel.
   1 SS-576 Darter.
SSN, other roles: 6:
   2 Sturgeon deep SAR spt.
   2 SSN-608 Allen tpt.
   1 SSN-597 Tullibee.
   1 SSN-575 Seawolf '(retiring 1986).
Principal Surface Combatants: 222.
Aircraft carriers: 14 (incl 3 on refit).
Nuclear (CVN): 4:
   3 CVN-68 Nimitz (91,400 tons) (1 more in 1986).
   1 CVN-65 Enterprise (89,600 tons).
Conventional (cv): 10 (1 on long refit):
   3 CV-63 Kitty Hawk (78/80,800 tons).
   1 CV-67 Kennedy (82,000 tons).
   4 CV-59 Forrestal (76/79,000 tons).
   2 CV-41 Midway (51/62,000 tons).
All normally carry 1 air wing (average 86 ac) consisting of (e.g.):
   2 ftr sqns (with 21 F-14A, 3 RF-14 recce; or (Midway-class) 24 F-4N/S).
   3 attack sqns: 2 lt with 24 F/A-l 8 or 24 A-7E. 1 med with 10 A-6E.
   2 ASW sqns: 1 with 10 S-3A ac. 1 with 6 SH-3H hel.
   1 ECM sqn with 4 EA-6B.
   1 AEW sqn with 4 E-2C; 4 KA-6D tankers.
Battleships (BBG): 3 BB-61 Iowa with 4 quad Harpoon, 8 quad Tomahawk SSM.
Cruisers: 31 (incl 3 on refit) all with 2 quad Harpoon SSM:
CGN (nuclear powered):
   4 CGN-38 Virginia with 2 twin Standard/ASROC SAM/ASW, 1 SH-2F hel (to get SH-60B Seahawk).
   2 CGN-36 California with 2 Standard SAM, 1 octuple ASROC ASW.
   1 CGN-35 Truxtun with 1 twin Standard/ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel.
   1 CGN-9 Long Beach with 2 twin Standard/Terrier SAM, 1 octuple ASROC.
   1 CGN-25 Bainbridge with 2 twin Standard, 1 octuple ASROC.
CG: 22:
   4 CG-47 Ticonderoga (to get Tomahawk SSM), 2 twin Standard/ASROC, 2 SH-2F hel
   9 CG-26 Belknap with 1 twin Standard ER, 1 SH-2D LAMPS hel.
   9 CG-16 Leahy with 2 twin Standard ER/Terrier
Destroyers: 68:
GW (DDG): 38 (incl 5 on refit):
   4 DDG-93 Kidd with 2 quad Harpoon, 2 twin Standard, 2 octuple ASROC, 2 SH-2Fhel.
   21 with 2 quad Harpoon, 1 octuple ASROC:
   8 DDG-37 Farragut with 1x10 Standard.
   13 DDG-2 Adams with 1 twin or single Tartar SAM.
   12 with 1 octuple ASROC:
   2 DDG-37 Farragut with 1 twin Standard.
   10 DDG-2 Adams with 1 twin or single Tartar SAM.
   1 DDG-983 Spruance with 1 twin Tomahawk, 2 quad Harpoon, 1 octuple Sea Sparrow, 1 octuple ASROC, 1 hel.
ASW (DD): 30 DD-963 Spruance (incl 5 on refit) with 2 quad Harpoon, 1 octuple Sea Sparrow, 1 octuple ASROC, 1 SH-3 or 2 SH-2F hel
   (to get Tomahawk SSM).
Frigates: 106:
GW (FFG): 53 (incl 1 on refit):
   47 FFG-7 Perry with 1 Harpoon/Standard, 2 SH-2/-60 hel (9 in Reserve trg, 1 on refit, 5 in reserve).
   6 FFG-1 Brooke with 1 Tartar/Standard, 1 octuple ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel.
Gun (FF): 53 (incl 8 on refit) with 1 octuple ASROC:
   40 FF-1052 Knox with 2 quad Harpoon SSM (30 with Sea Sparrow Mk 5 BPDMS, 1 with Sea Sparrow Mk 29 SAM), 2 SH-2F hel (6 in Reserve).
   10 FF-1040 Garcia.
   1 FF-1098 Glover.
   2 FF-1037 Bronstein.
Minor Surface Combatants: some 89.
Patrol craft: some 77:
GW hydrofoils: 6 PHM-1 Pegasus with 2 quad Harpoon.
Inshore/river: 4 Asheville, some 67 other (in Reserve).
MCMV (Reserve trg):
   3 MSO-422 Aggressive ocean minesweepers.
   1 MCM-1 Avenger.
   7 inshore boats (MSB).
Amph Forces: 60 ships, 54 craft.
Ships: 60:
   Comd (LCC): 2 Blue Ridge.
   LHA: 5 LHA-1 Tarawa with 4 LCU and mix of AV-8A ac (4 only) or 12 CH-46, 4 CH-53, 3 UH-1N, 4 AH-1T hel.
   LPH: 7 LPH-2 Iwo Jima (mix of 6 AV-8A, 4 OV-10 ac or 2 CH-46, 10 CH-53, 1 UH-1N hel).
   LPD: 13: 11 LPD-4 Austin, 2 LPD-1 Raleigh.
   LSD: 10: 2 LSD-41 Whidbey, 5 LSD-36 Anchorage, 3 LSD-28 Thomaston.
   LST: 18 LST-1179 Newport.
   LKA (amph cargo ships): 5 LKA-113 Charleston.
Craft: 54: 51 Type 1610, 3 Type 1466.
   Many smaller (LCM-5/-6, 22 'Mini'), numerous Misc LCVP, 2 landing craft air cushion (LCAC)); others with US Army.
Special Operations Forces:
4 Navy Special Warfare Groups (7 units):
   6 SEAL teams.
   2 SEAL delivery veh teams.
   2 Special Boat sqns (6 units).
   2 lt assault sqns (Marine Corps Reserve).
   3 dry-deck shelter-capable subs (2 SSN-608).
4 Civil Affairs gps (Marine Corps Reserve).
Active Auxiliary ships: 84: 12 ammunition (AE-21/-23/-25), 7 stores (AFS), 4 underway replenishment (AOE), 14 oilers (AO-5/-177, AOR),
   9 destroyer tenders (AD), 12 sub tenders (AS/AGDS), 5 repair (AR/AR2), 15 salvage/rescue, 2 comd (ARS/ASR/ATS),
   1 carrier (trg; no ac assigned), 1 ocean surveillance (AGOS), 1 research sub (AGSS), 1 missile test ship (AVM).
Strategic sealift: 353: 183 dry cargo, 170 tankers.
Military Sealift Command: 36:
   1 ammunition ship, 4 stores (AFG), 3 cargo (AFK), 11 oilers (AO), 7 ocean surveillance (AGOS), 3 cable repair (ARC), 7 tugs (ATF).
Mobility enhancement: 7 cargo ships (AK)/cargo barges (AKB), 3 vehicle (AKR), 5 oilers (AOT); 5 more (1 cargo, 4 vehicle cargo) in reserve.
Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS): 11 vehicle cargo ships (TAKR, 1 more on order) org in 3 sqns: 1 Atlantic,
   1 Indian Ocean (Diego Garcia), 1 to deploy Western Pacific late 1986.
Ready Reserve (RRF): 65: 53 cargo, 2 vehicle cargo, 5 gasoline tankers (AOG), 4 oilers, 1 crane.
National Defense Reserve Fleet (NRF): 1 DD-945 Hull, 5 FFG-7, 6 FF-1052, 18 MSO-422, 2 LST, 2 salvage.
Ships on refit (incl Service life Extension Program (SLEP)) incl
   6 SSBN (5 more planned to 1987), 10 SSN, 1 battleship (BB), 3 CV, 3 CGN, 5 DDG, 5 DD, 1 FFG, 8 FF, 1 LPH, 1 LPD-4, 3 LST.
Ships in inactive reserve in storage incl
   9 SSN, 4 CV (2 attack carriers (CVA), 2 ASW (CVS-12), 2 cruisers, 3 DDG, 10 DD, 4 LSD, 3 LST,
   1 destroyer tender, 1 sub tender, 1 oiler, 7 tpts, 1 salvage, 1 hospital ship.
Maritime Administration: 160: 52 cargo, 6 tankers, 102 'Victory'.
   (183 'national flag' cargo ships and 170 tankers are potentially useful for auxiliary sea lift; of these 24 cargo and 58 tankers are under US control).
Msls: ASW: nuclear RUR-5 ASROC, UUM-44 SUBROC.
   SSM: Standard (SM-1), RGM-84 Harpoon, BGM-109B Tomahawk SLCM.
   SAM: RIM-7 Sea Sparrow, RIM-24 Tartar, RIM-2 Terrier, RIM-66/-67 Standard.
(On order (authorized and funded): 5 SSBN, 24 SSN, 3 CVN, 1 BBG, 15 CG-47, 1 DDG-51 Arleigh Burke, 5 FFG, 4 MCM-1,
   1 MSH-1 Cardinal coastal MCMV, 1 landing helicopter dock ship (LHD-1), 5 LSD, 14 landing craft, 2 LCU-1610, 10 LCAC,
   2 Seafox special warfare craft, 7 TAO-187 fleet oilers, 3 surveillance, 24 supply, 4 salvage ships;
   324 BGM-109 Tomahawk, 439 Harpoon SSM, 1,100 Standard SAM, 27 Phalanx, 321 Sea Sparrow AD systems.)

NAVAL AVIATION: 13 attack carrier air wings.
Ftr: 22 sqns with Grumman F-14A.
FGA: 43 sqns:
   13 med with Grumman A-6E, KA-6D (tanker).
   20 lt with Vought A-7E.
   10 with McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18A.
ELINT: 2 sqns with Douglas EA-3, Lockheed EP-3.
EWng: 9 sqns with EA-6B.
MR: 37 (13 Reserve) land-based sqns with Lockheed P-3B, P-3C, P-3C III.
ASW: 10 sqns with Lockheed S-3A.
AEW: 13 sqns with Grumman E-2C.
Comd: 2 sqns with Lockheed EC-130Q (TACAMO).
Misc: 14 spt sqns with C-130F, LC-130F/R, EC-130G/Q, Grumman C-2A, Rockwell CT-39, Convair C-131, Beech UC-12B ac; and hel (see below).
Trg: 5 'Aggressor' sqns with F-21A Kfir, Northrop F-5E/F, T-38, McDonnell-Douglas A-4.
   18 trg sqns: 2 with F/A-18B, 16 with Rockwell T-2B/C, Beech T-34C, Rockwell T-39, Beech T-44 ac; and hel (see below).
OCU: 16:
   4 ftr/strike (2 with F-14, 2 with F-1 8).
   4 attack with TA-7C, A-7E, A-6.
   3 EWng with EA-6B, EA-3.
   2 MR with P-3B/C.
   2 AEW with E-2B/C.
   1 ASW with S-3A.
ASW: 23 sqns:
   4 with Sikorsky SH-60B.
   6 with Kaman SH-2F.
   13 with Sikorsky SH-3H.
MCM: 2 sqns with Sikorsky RH-53D.
OCU: 9 with SH-2/-3/-60B, UH-1, CH-46, CH-53.
Misc: 6 spt sqns with SH-3, 4 with Vertol UH-46, 1 with CH-53E.
Trg: 2 sqns with Bell TH-57A/B/C.
Equipment combat: some 1,746 ac; some 286 hel.
   F-14A Tomcat: 300 (210 ftr, 30 recce, 60 OCU).
   F/A-18 Hornet 196 (120 FGA (11 with Navy Reserve), 54 OCU, 22 F/A-18B trg).
   F-5A Freedom Fighter/T-38 Talon: 16.
   F-21A Kfir: 12 ('Aggressor' trg).
   A-4/TA-4F/J Skyhawk: 210 (18 OCU/trg).
   A-6 Intruder: 230: -E: 120 (FGA, OCU); EA-6B Prowler: 58 (EWng); KA-6D: 52 (tanker).
   A-7E Corsair. 262 (FGA); TA-7C(OCU).
   E-2C Hawkeye: 64: 52 (AEW); -B/C: 12 (OCU).
   EA-3 Skywarrior: 21 (ELINT).
   P-3 Orion: 375: -B/-C/-CIII: 322 (MR); 40 (OCU); EP-3: 13 (ELINT). (30 to convert to CP-3A tpt.)
   S-3A Viking: 140 (110 ASW, 30 OCU).
   C-130 Hercules: 28. -Q: 15 (comd); -F/LC-130F/R: 13 (misc).
   CT-39: 9 (misc). C-117 (C-47): 4 (misc). C-9B (DC-9): 27 (tpt). UC-12A: 38 (misc).
   T-2/B/C: 178 (trg). US-3: 6 (tpt). T-34C: 296 (trg). T-44: 46 (trg).
   RH-53D Sea Stallion: 22 (MCM).
   SH-60B Sea Hawk: 59 (ASW).
   SH-2F Sea Sprite: 103 (ASW, OCU).
   SH-3D/H Sea King: 102 (ASW, OCU; to be replaced by SH-60F).
   CH-46: Sea Knight: 76 (tpt, OCU).
   T/UH-1L Iroquois: 24 (trg).
   AAM: AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-54A/C Phoenix, AIM-9 Sidewinder.
   ASM: RIM-66 Standard ARM, AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88A HARM (anti-radiation); AGM-84 Harpoon.

(On order (authorized and funded): 18 F-14C/N ftrs, 11 A-6E attack, 6 E-2C AEW, 9 P-3C MR, 12 EA-6B ECM, 8 C-2A tpt, 15 Citation T-47A (on lease); 12 F-21A (Kfir) ftr/trg, 12 T-45AGoshawk (BAe Hawk) trg; 2 C-130Q comd ac; 6 SH-2F, 32 MH-53 MCM, some 18 SH-60B; 187 Harpoon SSM; 265 AIM-54C Phoenix, 1,695 AGM-65F Maverick, 825 HARM ASM; 1,551 AIM-7 Sparrow,2,120 AIM-9 Sidewinder AAM.)
DEPLOYMENT: See consolidated entry below.

Trg ships: 42 (assigned from active fleet):
   1 DD, 9 FFG-7, 6 FF-1052, 16 ocean MCMV (incl 2 MSO-509 Acme), 2 LST, 4 fleet tugs, 4 salvage ships. 10 more FFG, 2 FF,
   12 'craft of opportunity' harbour protection vessels authorized
Avn: 23,000; 400+ ac.
2 carrier wings: 17 sqns:
   6 attack (5 with 60 Vought A-7E; 1 with 12 McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18).
   4 ftr (2 with Grumman F-14; 2 with 24 McDonnell-Douglas F-4S).
   1 lt photo recce with RF-8G.
   2 AEW with 12 Grumman E-2C.
   2 ECM with Grumman EA-6A.
   2 tanker with Douglas KA-3B.
2 MR wings: 13 sqns with 117 Lockheed P-3A/B.
1 tac spt wing: 13 sqns:
   2 composite with McDonnell-Douglas TA-4J, A-4E, -F.
   11 spt with McDonnell-Douglas C-9B (DC-9).
1 hel wing: 11 sqns:
   5 ASW (2 with 12 Sikorsky SH-3D, 3 with Kaman SH-2F).
   2 lt attack with 16 Bell AH-1J.
   3 lt ASW forming with SH-60.
   1 SAR with SH-3.
   2 combat spt sqns to form.
(To form: aircrew augmentation units: 2 for 18 F-14, 2 for 13 A-6E, 2 for 12 E-2C, 1 for 2 SA-3, 2 for 10 SH-3H).
Misc units:
Naval Construction: 2 bdes: 9 regts, 19 bns.
2 construction spt, 2 maintenance units; 6 cargo handling bns, 2,100 other units.
MARINE CORPS: 196,273 (9,700 women).
3 divs, each of 9 inf, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1engr, 1amph, 3 arty bns.
Tks: 716 M-60A1.
AFV: APC: some 2,400 LVT-7/-7A1 (all types), some 468 lt armd vehicles (LAV) (25mm gun, mor, TOW), amph: 4 LCAC.
Arty: guns: 175mm SP (to be replaced).
   how: 155mm: 210 M-198/M-114 towed; 100 155mm, 203mm SP.
   mor. 216 81mm.
ATK: ATGW: TOW, Dragon.
AD: SAM: Redeye, Stinger.

AVIATION: 3 active air wings (27,000), (62 combat sqns, 42 spt elm gps/sqns, 450 ac).
Ftr: 12 sqns:
   7 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4 (being replaced).
   5 with McDonnell-Douglas F-18 (1 more forming 1986).
FGA: 13 sqns:
   8 lt (2 with McDonnell-Douglas AV-8C; 2 with AV-8B (BAe Harrier); 4 with McDonnell-Douglas A-4).
   5 med with Grumman A-6.
Recce: 1 sqn with 21 RF-4.
ECM: 1 sqn with 15EA-6B.
Forward air control: 2 sqns with Rockwell OV-10.
Comd: 2 sqns with McDonnell-Douglas OA-4/TA-4.
Tanker: 3 sqns with KC-130 Hercules.
Trg: 7 sqns + 2 elms.
Hel: 30 sqns:
attack: 6 with Bell U/AH-1.
tpt: 3 lt with UH-1,12 med with Vertol CH-46, 9 hy with Sikorsky CH-53.
Equipment: combat: 629 ac, 104 armed hel
   F-4 Phantom: 162. -N/S: 141 (ftr (84 Regular)); RF-4B: 21 (recce).
   F/A-18 Hornet 60.
   AV-8 Harrier: 77. -A/C: 36 (30 FGA, 6 trg). -B: 41 (30 FGA, 11 trg).
   A-4 Skyhawk 186. -E/F/M: 153 (138 FGA (76 Regular), 15 trg); 0A-4M/TA4F: 33 (27 comd, 6 trg).
   A-6 Intruder. 86. -E 67 (60 FGA, 7 trg); EA-6A/B Prowler.19 (ECM (15 Regular)).
   OV-10A/D Bronco: 58 (forward air control (36 Regular), 4 trg).
   KC-130F/о: 54 (tanker (36 Regular), 6 trg).
   AH-U/T/W Sea Cobra: 104 (92 attack (72 Regular), 12 trg).
   UH-1E/N (Bell 204, 212): 102 (tpt (72 Regular), 8 trg).
   CH-46E: 224 (assault (180 Regular)).
   CH-53-A/D: 132 (assault (96 Regular), 18 trg);-E: 58 (assault (48 Regular)).
   SAM: 3 bns with Improved HAWK; 3 btys with Stinger.
   AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder.
   ASM: Maverick.
(On order (authorized and funded): 240 LVT-7A1, some 290 LAV-25 Piranha APQ M-109 SP 155mm how, 180 Mk-19 40mm grenade launchers; SMAW 83mm RL; TOW-2 ATGW; 9,359 Stinger SAM. 71 F/A-18, 6 EA-6B, 210 AV-8B ftr, 16 A-6 E 45 CH-53E, 118 MV-22 Osprey hel; 2,375 AGM-65E Maverick, 512 Sidearm ASM.)
DEPLOYMENT See consolidated entry below.

RESERVES: 43,000 (1,446 women).
Equipment listed with Regular units.
1 Marine div: 3 inf, 1 arty regts; 22 combat and spt bns.
1 air wing: 100 combat ac, 8 combat hel.
Ftr: 3 sqns with McDonnell-Douglas F-4S.
FGA: 5 sqns with McDonnell-Douglas A-4E/M.
EWng: 1 sqn with Grumman EA-6A.
Forward air control: 1 sqn with Rockwell OV-10.
Tanker: 2 tkr/tpt sqns with KC-130 Hercules.
Spt: 14 units.
Attack: 1 sqn with Bell AH-1J.
Assault tpt: 3 sqns (2 med with Vertol CH-46C/D, 1 hy with Sikorsky CH-53).
Utility: 4 sqns with Bell UH-1E.
SAM: 1 bn with HAWK, 1 bty with Stinger.
Spt: 23 units.
AIR FORCE: 605,805 (69,000 women); some 4,358 combat ac.
Strategic: (organization: see p. 20).
Tactical: 26 active combat wings, comprising 109 sqns (sqn may be 18 or 24 ac).
Ftr: 36 sqns (also have FGA commitment):
   17 with McDonnell-Douglas F-15.
   19 with General Dynamics F-16.
FGA: 46 sqns:
   17 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4.
   10 with General Dynamics F-111.
   14 with Fairchild A-10.
   5 Wild Weasel (I trg) with F-4.
Recce: 8 sqns with RF-4C.
EWng: 1 Airborne Warning and Control wing; 7 sqns:
   4 AWACS (1 trg) with Boeing E-3.
   3 EWng with Lockheed EC-130, Boeing EC-135, EF-111.
Forward air control: 9 tac air control sqns:
   8 with Rockwell OV-10/Cessna O-2.
   1 with Sikorsky CH-3 hel.
Special Ops: 1 air div: 1 wing 5 sqns:
   3 with Lockheed MC-130.
   1 with AC-130.
   1 with Sikorsky CH3/HH-53/UH-1 hel.
   1 det with Bell UH-1 H hel.
   2 Reserve gps.
OCU: 18: 1 with F-1 11; 1 with F-16; 7 with F-4; 1 with Northrop F-5; 2 with F-15; 2 with Convair F-106; 3 with A-10; 1 with RF-4.
Trg: 4 aggressor sqns with F-5E/T-38.
   30 trg sqns with F-16, Lockheed T-33, Cessna T-37, Northrop T-38, Rockwell T-39, Cessna T-41, Boeing T-43, UV-18 (DHC-6),
   Schweizer 2-37, Lockheed C-5, Beech C-12, C-130, Lockheed C-141 ac and Sikorsky UH-60, HH-3, HH-53, Bell U/TH-1 hel.
Tpt: 31 sqns:
   17 strategic: 4 with C-5; 13 with C-141.
   14 tac airlift with C-130.
   Units with KC-10, C-135, Boeing C-137, Lockheed C-140, Beech C-6, C-12, Gulfstream C-20, Gates C-21, C-23 Sherpa, Rockwell CT-39.
SAR: 8 sqns (inc SAC msl spt) with C-130 ac, Sikorsky HH-3, Sikorsky HH-53, Bell UH-1, Sikorsky UH-60 hel.
Medical: 3 medical evacuation sqns with McDonnell-Douglas C-9 (DC-9).
Weather recce: 3 sqns with WC-130, WC-135.
Trials/weapons trg units with F-4, F-5, F-15, F-16, T-38, C-141 ac, UH-1 hel.
Strategic: some 345combat ac.
   B-52 Stratofortress: 241. -G: 151(90with ALCM, 61 with Harpoon); -H: 90 strike (30 with ALCM).
   A number will be out of service under going mod.
   B-1B: 19 (strike).
   FB-111A: 60(55 strike, trg;5 reserve).
   SR-71A/B Blackbird: 9 (recce).
   U-2CT/R: 7 (recce).
   TR-1: 14.-A: 10 (recce); -B: 4 (trg).
   E-4 (Boeing 747): 4. -A: 1; -B: 3; (comd/control).
   C-135 (Boeing 707): 650: RC-135: 16 (comd/control); EC-135A/C/G/L 21 (comd/control);
   KC-135R: 613 (tankers; (487 Regular, 102 Air National Guard, 24 Air Force Reserve)) (see Tactical, below).
   KC-10A (McDonnell-Douglas DC-10): 48 (tanker).
Tactical: combat: 4,505 ac, 37 hel.
   F-4 Phantom: 1,212 (incl 741 (FGA), 150 (OCU); -G: 72 (Wild Weasel); RF-4C: 249 (233 recce, F-16R to replace; 160 CU)).
   F-15 Eagle: 757 (incl 40 OCU, 72 AD).
   F-16 Falcon: 977(incl 29 OCU, 65 trials).
   F-111: 336. -A/D/E/F: 280(FGA); -A: 20 (OCU); EF-111A: 36 (ECM).
   F-5: 101 (trg).
   F-106 Delta Dart: 22 (18 AD, 4 trg).
   A-7D/K Corsair: 371 (FGA).
   A-10A Thunderbolt: 565(460 FGA, 105 OCU).
   E-3A Sentry: 34 (AEW, 24 to convert to -3B).
   OA-37B Dragonfly: 86 (forward air control).
   OV-10 Bronco/O-2A Skymaster. 145 (forward air control).
   C-9A/C (DC-9) Nightingale: 23 (medical).
   C-141B Starlifter. 269 (234 strategic tpt, 19tpt 12 trg,4-A trials).
   C-5A Galaxy: 70 (65 strategic tpt, 5 trg. (8 with Air Force Reserve)).
   KC-10A Extender. 36 (tkr/tpt).
   C-130 Hercules: 733(370Reserve); 216 (tpt); 28 (OCU). AC-130H: 20 (special). EC-130E/H: 15 (ECM). HC-130H/N/P: 50(45SAR, 5 trg).
   MC-130E: 14 (special). WC-130E/H: 20(weather recce).
   C-135 (Boeing 707): 153.8 (tpt). KC-135A/Q: 129 (tanker). EC-135K: 11 (ECM). WC-135B: 5 (weather recce).
   C-137 (Boeing 707): 6. -B: 3 (707-153, VIP tpt). -C: 3 (707-320B, VIP tpt).
   MiG-21: 24 (trg). MiG-23: 4 (trg). C-12: 80 (liaison). C-18 (Boeing 707-323Q: 8 (advanced range instrumentation ac (ARIA)).
   C-20A (Gulfstream): 3 (tpt). C-21A (Learjet): 80. C-22 (Boeing 727): 5 (tpt). C-23A (Sherpa): 18 (tpt). C-123K (Air Force Reserve).
   T-33A: 153(trg). T-37B: 608 (trg). CT-39 (Sabreliner): 14 (tpt). T-39: 4 (trg). T-38: 812 (trg). T-41A/C: 100 (trg). T-43A: 18 (trg).
   Boeing 737A: 15 (trg). UV-18A (Twin Otter): 2 (trg). Schweizer 2-37: 8 (trg).
   HH-3: 53 (SAR, trg). CH-3: 28 (forward air control, sperial).
   HH-53: 44: -B: 8 (SAR). -C: 27 (SAR, trg). -H Pave Low. 9 (special).
   UH-1: 105. -N (Bell 212): 9 (special). -H(Bell 205): 96 (86 SAR, 10trg).
   UH-60A: 12(SAR).
   AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.
   ASM: perhaps 1,170 AGM-69A SRAM, 1,380 AGM-86B ALCM. Maverick, Standard ARM, Shrike, HARM, GBU-15 glide bomb.
   GLCM: BGM-109G.
(Oh order (authorized and funded; all branches): 23 MX ICBM, 52 B-1B bbrs (100 planned), 6 TR-1A recce ac (2 -1B trg), 8 KC-10A tankers;
   240 AGM-86B ALCM. 180 F-16 (incl 60-D), 48 F-15 ftrs, 16 C-5B; 8 C-20A Gulfstream lt tpt;
   95 BGM-109 GLCM; 1,450 HARM, 2,600 AGM-65D Maverick ASM.)
DEPLOYMENT: See consolidated entry below.
(i) Air National Guard (ANG): 107,900: 24 wings, 67gps, 91 sqns (56 tac); 1,043 combat ac.
Ftr: 11 AD interceptor sqns; 198 ac (see p. 21).
FGA: 35 sqns.
   1 with F-15; 2 with 25 F-16; 12 with 188 F-4C/D/E (1 OCU with 20 - Q ; 1 Wild Weasel with 12 F-4G;
   14 with 347 A-7D/K (1 OCU with A-7, F-16); 5 with 107 A-10A.
Recce: 6 sqns with 105RF-4C.
ECM: 1 sqn with 8 EC-130.
Forward air control: 3 sqns with 53 OA-37B.
Tpt 20 sqns: 19 tac (Military Airlift Command; MAC) with 182 C-130A/B/D/E/H; 1 strategic with 12C-5.
Tanker: 13 sqns with 102KC-135.
SAR: 2 sqns with 8 HC-130 ac, 11 HH-3E hel.
Trg: ac incl 4 T-39, 40 T-33, 4 T-43A.
(ii) Air Force Reserve: 74,800. 19 wings, 57 sqns (36 with ac); 237 combat ac.
FGA: 11 sqns (Tactical Airlift Comd; TAC): 1 with 26 F-16; 5 with 112 F-4D; 5 with 99 A-10.
Tpt: 16 sqns (MAC): 15 tac with 143 C-130A/B/E/H, 4 C-123K; 1 strategic with 5 C-5A.
Tanker: 4 sqns: 3 (SAC) with 24 KC-135; 1 with 10 KC-130A.
Special: 2 sqns (TAC): 1 with 10 AC-130A ac, 1 with 6 CH-3E hel.
Weather: 1 recce sqn with 7 WC-130H.
SAR: 3 sqns with 14 HC-130H ac, 8 HH-3E, 10 UH-1H/N hel.
Associate: 21 sqns (personnel only):
   MAC: 4 sqns for C-5, 13 for C-141, 1 aero medical for C-9.
   SAC: 3 sqns for KC-10.
   Non-flying spt units: 172.
(iii) Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF): 294 long-range commercial ac (numbers fluctuate):
   227 passenger (Boeing 747, L-1011, DC-8/-10), 67 cargo (Boeing 707, 747, DC-8/-10). 26 short-range commercial (Boeing 727, DC-9).
Planned Force Structure:
(a) US Readiness Command (REDCOM): 3 corps HQ, all CONUS-based active units.
(b) Initial reinforcement, Europe: 1 corps HQ, 2 armd, 3 mech divs, 1 armd cav regt4
(c) US Central Command (USCENTCOM): (1,100): forces, incl naval and air, apportioned for planning purposes.
   Full deployment could involve 290,600 assigned from existing units and support elements on mobilization.
   HQ: 1 army; 1 corps (131,000): 1 mech (-), 2 inf, 1 AB, 1 air assault divs, 1 air cav bde, special forces, Rangers.
   Naval Force: 1 (112,300 incl 70,000 Marines): 3 carrier battle gps, 1 surface action gp, 3 amph ready gps (3-5 amph ships), 5 ASW patrol sqns,
   17 prepositioned depot ships.
   Marine Force: l 1/3 Amph Forces (MAF) (1 div, 1 air wing, 1 Force service spt gp), 1 Marine Amph Bde (MAB: 1 regt landing team, 1 air gp,
   1 bde service spt gp).
   Air Force: 1 (33,000): 1 div: 2 bbr wings (4 sqns) B-52H, 9 wings and 2 gps tac fighters, 3 wings and 1 gp strategic and 1 tac recce,
   1 airborne warning and control div, strategic and SAR, tac airlift, 1 refuelling sqn (KC-135A/KC-10A).
(i) Continental United States (CONUS); 5 Army, 3 corps HQ. 2 armd, 4 mech, 3 inf, 1 AB, 1 air mobile divs.
   (a) Alaska (7,650): 1 lt inf div (plus 1 Army National Guard inf gp (5 Scout bns)).
   (b) Panama (9,330): 1 inf bde (6,600); Naval sqn (490): patrol boats; Marines (155); 1 air div (2,100): A-7, C-130 ac.
(ii) Hawaii (18,900): WESTCOM: 1 lt inf div (3 Regular odes), 1 lt inf bde (Reserve).
(iii) Abroad: Europe: 217,100.
   (a) Germany 204,700: 1 army, 2 corps HQ; 2 armd, 2 mech divs; 1 armd, 1 mech bdes; 2 armd cav regts; 7 fd arty bdes, 4 indep arty gps;
   9 SSM bns, 3 with 108 Pershing II, 6 with 108 Lance. 30 AD btys with HAWK; 2 bns with Patriot SAM (each 6 btys each 8 quad msls);
   5,000 MBT.ї
   (b) West Berlin: 4,300. HQ elms, 1 inf bde.
   (c) Greece: 470.
   (d) Italy: 3,950.
   (e) Netherlands: 930.
   (f) Turkey: 1,200.
   (g) Belgium: 1,160.
   (h) Other 390.
(iv) Pacific: 32,150.
   (a) South Korea 29,750: 1 army HQ; 1 inf div (13,900).
   (b) Japan 2,400: 1 corps HQ; base and spt personnel.
(v) Middle East Egypt: 1,200.
(vi) Caribbean/Latin America: 6,730.
Bases; average strength of major combat ships, incl ships on refit:
(i) Atlantic/Mediterranean.
   SSBN: 29; Cruisers: 13
   SSN/SS: 55; Destroyers: 39
   Carriers: 7; Frigates: 53
   Battleships: 1; Amph: 29
   Bases: CONUS: Norfolk (HQ), Mayport, Roosevelt Roads (Puerto Rico), Charleston, New London, Newport, New York (Brooklyn), Boston,
   New Orleans, Bangor, Kings Bay.
   Bases: abroad: Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) 2,100; Bermuda 1,500; Iceland (Keflavik) 1,900; Britain (Holy Loch and other) 2,300;
   other NATO assigned personnel 14,850.
(a) Atlantic (Second Fleet): 31 SSBN, 50 attack subs, 4 carriers, 93 principal surface combatants, 24 amph.
(b) Mediterranean (27,200). Sixth Fleet: typically up to 4 SSN, 2 carriers, 12 surface combatants, 11 spt ships; 1 Amph Ready Gp (3-5 ships MAU.//
   Maritime pre-positioning sqn (MPS); 5 depot ships.
   Italy (Gaeta (HQ), Naples, Sigonella, La Maddalena) 5,250, Spain (Rota) 3,600.
(ii) Pacific/Indian Ocean.
   SSBN: 7; Cruisers: 18
   SSN/SS: 42; Destroyers: 29
   Carriers: 6; Frigates: 47
   Battleships: 2; Amph: 31
(a) Eastern Pacific (Third Fleet):
   Bases: Pearl Harbor (HQ), San Francisco, Alameda, San Diego, Long Beach, Bangor, Bremerton, Adak (Alaska).
   5 SSBN, some 25 SSN, 4 carriers, 72 principal surface combatants, 26 amph, 32 spt.
(b) Western Pacific (41,400), Seventh Fleet.
   Bases: Japan (Yokosuka; HQ) 7,400. Philippines (Subie Bay) 5,300; Guam, Midway 4,900 incl Marine det; Australia some 600.
   Some 15 SSN and SS: 2 carriers (1 hel), 23 surface combatants, 6 amph (1 MAU embarked), 8 spt ships; 1 MPS (4 ships) deploying 1986.
(c) Indian Ocean. Dets from Seventh/Second Fleets 11,000.
   Base. Diego Garcia (1,300).
   1 carrier battle gp (6 surface combatants).
   5 MPS (eqpt for one MAB).
(d) Middle East Force (Persian Gulf/Bahrain): 1 comd ship, 4 destroyers/ frigates.
(i) CONUS: 2 Marine Amphibious Forces (MAF), (1 East, 1 West coast) each with 1 div, 1 air wing, 1 sptgp.//
(ii) Hawaii: 1 amph bde (MAB), service spt gp, ac gp.
(iii) Abroad: 42,500.
(a) Caribbean: Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) 435; 1 reinforced marine coy.
(b) Europe: 1,300.
(c) Middle East (afloat: Mediterranean (6th Fleet): 1,900; 1 MAU//).
(d) Pacific
   (i) Japan/Okinawa: 38,150; 1 MAF (1 div (-), 1 air wing, 1 log spt gp).
   (ii) Philippines (7th Fleet): 660; 1 MAU deployed intermittently.//
(e) Indian Ocean: 660; 1 MAU deployed intermittently.
(i) CONUS:
(a) Tactical Air Command (TAQ incl AD ac) (104,412):
   2 Air Forces; 12 air divs; 28 wings (15 combat): 36 combat sqns (30 ftr, 3 tac recce (converting to ftr/recce), 3 tac air control); 6 tac trgsqns.
(b) Alaskan Air Command (10,830):
   1 ftr wing (AD: 1 sqnwithF-15, 1 withT-33), 1 composite wing (1 sqn with A-10, 1 with O-2A),
   1 control (warning) gp, 13 radars (being modernized), 2 combat spt gps, 1 strategic recce wing; 1 air base gp, 2 sqns.
(c) Military Airlift Command (MAC) (78,055):
   3 Air Forces; 3 airlift divs; 27 wings (4 tac, 8 strategic, 1 military airlift spt, 3 air base, 1 SAR, 1 SAR/weather recce, 1 medical, 1 special ops,
   6 weather, 1 trg); 19 gps (2 tac, 3 strategic, 3 military airlift, 1 spt, 9 air base, 1 airlift/trg). Ac deployed as required, world-wide.
(d) Spt Elm Comas (171,500): Comms, Log, Systems, Trg, Electronic Security.
(ii) Europe 92,700: US Air Force, Europe (USAFE), 3 Air Forces, 2 Air Divs, 9 tac ftr, 2 tac recce, 3 tac msl wings; airlift spt
   Some 734 combat ac, 128 GLCM
(a) Belgium 1,500; 1 tactical msl wing, 16 GLCM.
(b) Britain: 27,500; 290 combat ac, 32 GLCM. 1 Air Force HQ:
   3 tac ftr (AFM) wings; 14 sqns (7 with 150 F-111E/F, 1 with 12 EF-111 Raven, 6 with 108 A-10).
   1 tac recce wing; 3 sqns (1 with 18 RF-4C, 1 with 19 F-5E, 1 with 2 TR-1A (SAC)).
   1 tac tpt wing with 16 C-130 (MAC); 29 KC-135,4EG135H(SAC). 1 SAR sqn with 5 HC-130, 5 HH-53. 1 tactical missile wing, 96 GLCM.
   2 Air Base Gps.
(c) Germany 41,100: 328 combat ac. 1 Air Force HQ: 2 Air Divs.
   4 tac ftr wings: 11 sqns (3 with 72 F-16A/B, 4 with 96 F-4E (2 to get F-16), 1 with 24 F4G, 3with72F-15C/D).
   1 tac recce wing, 1 sqn with 18 RF-4C.
   1 electronic combat, 2 combat spt, 1 tac air control wings and 1 gp of 3 sqns (2 with 42 OV-10A ac, 1 with 7 CH-53C hel).
   1 tpt wing (MAC) 4 sqns (incl 18 C-23A Sherpa, 16C-130E).
   1 special operations sqn (MAC) with 4 MC-130R
   2 Air Base Gps.
(d) Netherlands 2,000: 1 tac ftr sqn with 24 F-15C/D.
(e) Spain 5,300: 1 Air Force HQ:
   1 tac wing of 3 sqns with 72 F-16A/B.
   1 ftr trg wing (no ac assigned).
   1 Air Base Gp.
   1 SAR det (MAC) with 3 UH-1N hel.
   (1 TAC fighter wing (F-4E) in US on call as reinforcements.)
(f Italy 5,800: 1 tac, 1 air base gps, 1 tac msl wing (16 GLCM).
(g) Greece 2,700: 2 air base gps.
(h) Turkey 3,800: HQ, 1 tac, 1 air base gps.
(i) Other areas: 1,700. Iceland (TAC, 1,300):
   1 AD sqn with 18 F-15,4 T-33,1-3 E-3AAWACS.
   1 SAR det (MAC) with 3 HH-3.
(iii) Pacifier. Pacific Air Forces (PACAF): 37,000: Hawaii; 2 Air Force HQ:
   3 air divs; 5 tac ftr wings and 2 indep ftr sqns; 1 tac control gp; 2 air base wings and 1 indep sqn.
(a) Hawaii: 1 air div, 1 air base, 1 weather wing (attached from MAC), 1 AWACS sqn, 1tac tpt sqa Army National Guard AD direction centre.
   ANG: 1 AD sqn with F-4 (8 AAM).
(b) Japan 16,200: 1 Air Force HQ: 1 div:
   2 wings (3 sqns) with 72 F-15C/D, 2 F-16, 18 RF-4C, T-39A ac, UH-1E/F hel.
   1 sqn (TAC) with 3 E-3A AWACS ac.
   1 tac tpt wing with 16 C-l 30 ac.
   1 strategic wing with KC-135 tankers.
   1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 4 HC-130 ac, 5 HH-53 hel.
   See Korea, below.
(c) Korea 11,200: 1 div: 2 wings:
   5 sqns (2 with 36 F-4E/RF-4E, 2 with 48 F-16, 1 with 24 A-10).
   1 tac control gp with 24 OA-37.
   1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 6 HH-3.
(d) Philippines 9,300: 1Air Force HQ: 1 div:
   1 wing 2 ftr sqns (1 with F-4E, 1with F-4FG); 1 special operations sqn (MAC) with 4 MC-130E.
   1 tac airlift wing (MAC)with 16 C-l 30 ac, 1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 5 C/HH-3 hel.
   1 trg gp with 15 F-5E, T-33, T-39A).
(e) Guam 4,200: 1 SAC Air Div HQ:
   1 strategic bbr wing with 1 B-52 sqn.
   1 refuelling wing with KC-135.
   1 tpt sqn, 1 weather sqn (MAC).
(f) Australia: 250.

Forces Abroad: 525,600, incl 64,400 afloat
(i) By Area.
Europe 354,000 (27,200 afloat).
Pacific/Far East 143,800 (33,000 afloat).
Caribbean/Latin America: 19,300 (incl Bermuda 1,600);
   Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) 2,500; Honduras garrison 120; Puerto Rico 3,600; Panama 9,300 (900 afloat).
Middle East/N. Africa 7,000 (3,000 afloat):
   Sinai (MFO) 1,100; Egypt 1,300; Saudi Arabia 390 (USAF: 4 E-3A, 3 KC-135, 1 KC-10, spt staff); Diego Garcia 1,300..
Other areas 1,500 (300 afloat),
(ii) By Service:
   ARMY: (257,500).
   NAVY: (92,000) (56,500 afloat).
   MARINES: (38,200X7,900 afloat).
   AIR FORCE: (135,100).
Coast Guard (by law a branch of the Armed Forces; in peacetime under the Department of Transportation):
   Budget 1985: BA$2.564 bn, outlay $2.539 bit 1986: BA$2.199 bn, outlay $2.453 bn
   Strength: 38,837 (2,374 women).
243 cutters (incl 15 high-endurance (2,600- 3,000 tons), 41 med-endurance (1,000+ tons; 8 more ordered)), 5 ocean icebreakers,
   8 icebreaking tugs (1 more ordered), 93 patrol craft (11 more ordered), 3 surface effects ships, 28 ocean buoy tenders, 93 other vessels;
   some 2,000 small craft;
560 shore installations; 68 ac (41 HU-25A (Dassault Falcon-Gardian), 25 HC-130H (Lockheed Hercules), 1 VC-4A (Gulfstream I),
   1 VC-11A (Gulfstream II)); 126 hel (22 HH-65A, 37 HH-3F Pelican, 67 HH-52A (Sikorsky S-62;
   to be replaced by 96 HH-65A (AS-365G Dolphin 2)).
Coast Guard Reserve. 20,691. Selected: 15,590, Ready 5,240; Standby 813; Retired 2,000.
   194 port security units in 48 ports, 65 general spt units, 63 reserve gps, 85 small craft
Coast Guard Auxiliary. 35,500 civilian volunteer force; augment regular force in emergencies.
Civil Air Patrol (CAP): 65,771 (23,960 cadets); HQ, 8 geographical regions, 52 wings, 1,900 units, 566 CAP ac plus 9,430 private ac.
   Roles: (a) emergency services, SAR, disaster relief, dvil defence, communications (b) aerospace education, (c) cadet trg, motivation.
State Militias: 11,500: volunteer groups org as cadre military units, lightly armed and equipped, active in some sixteen States incl
   California, Indiana, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Washington, and in Puerto Rico.
   3 of the remaining 34 States report varying degrees of interest and support Intended to provide personnel for Home Guard,
   internal security and disaster relief assistance in support of or replacement for Army National Guard or Civil police forces.
* Manpower incl in Army, Navy, Air Force totals.
t 1 National Guard or Reserve bde is incorporated in each of 1armd, 2 mech and 2 inf divs.
t 1 armd, 3 mech divs, 1armd cav regt have hy eqpt stockpiled in FRG. Storage facilities for 2 more divs being built
ї Incl those stockpiled for the Strategic Reserve formations. The armd and mech bdes are from the divs in the US earmarked to reinforce 7th Army.
// Marine Amphibious Units (MAU) are light combat forces, comprising 1,900 marines, 490 Underwater Demolition (UDT) and Sea-Air-Land teams (SEALS) and 100 Naval spt personnel, capable of establishing and defending a bridgehead for a brief period unsupported. Based on a marine inf bn with specialist and log spt elms, MAU hy eqpt incl 5 tks, 8 155mm how, 12 LVCP-7, composite air sqn (incl hel),4 CH-53 hy, 12 CH-46 med and assault 4 AH-1T attack and 2 UH-IN utility hel. 6 AV-8 VSTOL attack ac could spt. This force is lifted in 3-5 amph ships.
Only 1 MAU in Mediterranean and 1 in Pacific are regularly constituted.
A Marine Amphibious Bde is 3-5 inf, 1arty bns, tk coy, spt tps incl air, 16,950 personnel.
A Marine Amphibious Force varies in size from less than 1 div to more than 2; with an aircraft wing or wings.
A divisional force would total some 55,000 men, 156combat ac, 24 attack hel, 70 tks, 208 APC, 120 how to 203mm.
Marine divs, air wings and spt forces when deployed are called Marine Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTF).

The Soviet Union

   Strategic Forces
   After the apparent pause noted in The Military Balance 1985-1986, reports on the Soviet Strategic Forces show major developments in all major weapon categories. Though the number of ICBM launchers remains at 1,398, 72 of the earliest version of the SS-11 have been replaced by the SS-25, which is being deployed in units of 9 launchers in former SS-7 ICBM sites. The single warhead of the SS-11 had an estimated yield of 950 KT; the SS-25 also has one warhead but with an estimated 550-KT yield. The loss of some 28.8 MT in yield is more than compensated for by the increased accuracy of the SS-25: reported as 200 metres, compared with 1,400 metres for the SS-11 mod 1. The SS-25 uses solid fuel, giving it a shorter launch time, and is road mobile. A second new ICBM, the SS-X-24 is undergoing tests and may be deployed shortly.
   The USSR introduced a new SLBM, the SS-N-23 in 1985. This liquid-fuelled missile is said to have a range similar to the SS-N-20 (8,300 km), a CEP of less than 900 metres and a payload of 10 MIRV warheads, each of perhaps 200 KT yield.
   Two Delta IV boats (32 SLBM) are now in service. A fourth Typhoon (with 20 SS-N-20) has also entered service, and two Y-I boats have been withdrawn. The SSBN total therefore remains at 77, and the number of missiles rises by four to 983 (using SALT counting rules the totals are 62 SSBN and 944 SLBM). The SS-N-23 is replacing the SS-N-6, which carried two MRV warheads, with yields variously estimated at 500 KT to 1 MT. With its MIRV warheads the SS-N-23 has the potential to engage ten times the number of targets at some 2.75 times the range of its predecessor.
   The Strategic Bomber Force shows a significant drop in the number of Mya-4 Bison, from 45 to 20. No alternative use for this 30-year-old aircraft has yet been reported. The equally elderly Tu-95 Bear design is back in production, with some 40 'H' models, each equipped with 6 AS-15 air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM), fifteen more than were reported last year. The AS-15 ALCM has a range of some 1,800 km, a speed of about Mach 0.6 and a single warhead with a yield of 250 KT.
   The SS-4 MRBM is also being phased out. Holdings as of 1 July 1986 are believed to be 112, down by 8 from last year. The SS-20 IRBM inventory now stands at 441, an increase of 18 over the same period. There appears to have been a small re-deployment from Central Asia of some 36 missiles. These, and the additional 18 that have been deployed in the past 12 months, have together significantly increased the deployment of missiles which can strike targets anywhere in Europe to 270. The Asian deployment stands at some 171 missiles, comprising the 162 already deployed in the Far East and the 9 missiles probably remaining in Central Asia.
   General-Purpose Forces
   The Soviet system of seniority is: Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF), Ground Troops (Army), Air Defence, Air Force and Navy. The Ground Forces are reported to have added a motor rifle division and two air assault brigades to the Order of Battle. lt is now confirmed that the Army has taken over from the Air Forces of the Soviet Union all combat helicopters used in support of the Ground Forces. This has made a difference to the respective numbers of troops shown for each Service. The heavy equipment list shows increasing numbers of T-80 main battle tanks and the new BTR-80 APC now in service. There is probably a trend towards more modern artillery pieces at the expense of the earlier models; insufficient data precludes analysis of the numbers involved. The earlier reportage of the SS-22 as a replacement for the SS-12 presumed that there were significant visual (as well as technical) differences between the two weapons. External differences are minor, and we have accordingly listed the new SSM as 'SS-12 (mod)'. No further information has come to light concerning the SSC-X-4 ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM), reported last year. A NATO name for the SA-11 SAM -Gadfly -is noted. The SA-14 is now beginning to replace the SA-7, and the SA-X-12, an apparent replacement for the SA-4, may come into service soon.
   Notwithstanding a number of additional items of information, we still have been unable to clarify the organization and structure of the Soviet Air Defence Service. That some air defence aircraft are deployed within the Air Forces of the Military Districts is an added complication. Modest increases in the numbers of MiG-29 and MiG-31 interceptors appear to be the only changes of note. Reports continue to suggest that the elderly SA-1 is still in service, although replacement by the SA-10 continues. The number of SA-10 SAM has increased by about 50% over the past year.
   Organization of the respective Military District Air Forces has been separated from the aircraft inventories. Readers will find approximate figures in the Deployment section, but it is not yet possible to provide an overall summary of the number of regiments by role. The Military Transport arm has equipment assigned outside its direct control to Strategic and other Air Commands.
   The Navy continues to test the combination of Yankee-class SSGN with the new SS-NX- 24 submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM). We do not have any information that this SLCM is in service, and the deletion of the 'X' in last year's edition was in error. The USSR is also testing the SS-NX-21, which is similar in performance to the US Tomahawk cruise missile. There are now three Oscar-class boats (SSGN), one more than in 1985. Retirement of a Charlie and an Echo SSGN, and Juliet, W-Long Bin and Foxtrot diesel boats (one of each) has taken place. New production Kilo-class SS will replace at least some of these later types. The fourth Kiev-class carrier, shown as on trials last year, appears not yet to be in service. The second Slava cruiser may only just be coming into service. Two more Sovremennyy DDG and Udaloy ASW destroyers are reported; some of the Kanin and Kotlin destroyers may have retired. The Naval Aviation inventory shows an increase of some 20 Tu-22M Backfire and more Tu-16 Badger. Procurement includes a number of amphibious warfare ships.
   Our estimate of possible deployments remains much as it was in 1985. Again, we would welcome comment. In summary, however, we see the Soviet Union as generally maintaining its forces' procurement programmes, which are leading to a steady improvement in quality. There appear to be no major breakthroughs, although more complex weapon systems, such as aircraft, continue to show increasing sophistication.
   Defence Expenditure
   Defence spending in the Soviet Union, as officially announced by the government, held steady or decreased slightly in the 1970s. From 1981-84, it was frozen at 17.054 bn roubles ($23.065 bn). But in September 1984, Soviet Finance Minister Vasily Garbuzov announced an 11.8% increase in official defence spending for 1985 to 19.063 bn roubles ($22.257 bn). Although the purpose of the USSR's largest peace-time military budget is, in Garbuzov's words, 'to increase the combat readiness of our Armed Forces which are capable of giving a crushing rebuff to any aggressor', the Soviet leadership did not reveal which military programmes required additional funds. This largest annual spending increase in defence spending in twenty-five years was portrayed as a measured response to recent increases in American defence expenditure. In 1986, however, the USSR froze the level of official defence spending at 19.063 bn roubles; in combination with the arms control offers in 1986, this not only reflects Moscow's new foreign-policy approach but also looks like an economic signal that its defence burden must not increase.
   Nearly all Western observers believe that the one-line official Soviet defence figures underestimate actual expenditure by a factor often or more, and that the USSR has consistently outspent the US for the last decade. Most observers believe that actual military spending represents 12-17% of the Soviet GDP. Some unclassified defence expenditure estimates are listed in the Table on the next page. The majority of those who produce estimates or 'time-series' assume stable, persistent growth in total defence expenditure in the range of 2-4% since the mid-1970s. Recent American and British estimates suggest that total annual defence expenditure grew by 4-5% before 1976, decelerated to a 2% annual rate in 1976-82 and rose at a rate of 3-5% in 1982-85.
   There is widespread disagreement over what programmes should be included in the definition of Soviet defence expenditure. Many Western observers believe that the USSR includes the civilian space programme, internal security forces, military construction troops and civil defence as part of its concept of 'national defence'. But estimates based on that wider definition (which are not included in the Table below) are not comparable to definitions of Western defence expenditures and will tend to show higher Soviet defence spending.
   Western sovietologists use two basic methodologies to calculate Soviet defence outlays. Some non-government analysts examine the published budget documents and add military related expenditures in non-defence line items. Most analysts - including those of the US CIA, the US DIA and the British MoD - estimate Soviet procurement, RDT&E, O&M, personnel costs, etc. individually in either roubles or dollars and then convert to the other. Roubles are used to indicate the defence burden on the Soviet economy, and dollars facilitate a comparison with American programmes. The methodologies for making these government estimates are rarely made public. Both the CIA and DIA collect raw data and have developed indirect economic analyses in order to calculate the costs to the USSR of producing material for defence items in dollars and in roubles.
   For procurement, they estimate production runs and then estimate the level of spending from what it would cost in dollars to produce a similar weapon in the West. For example, the unit price and production estimates for a T-80 tank are $1.2-1.6 m (1982: 400 units); for a T-72 tank $1.0-1.3 m (1982: 1,000 units); and for a BMP-2 MICV $0.3-0.45 m (1982: 4,000 units). There are obvious difficulties with this method. Production statistics must be based primarily on photographie reconnaissance, and many gaps in information exist. Information is lacking on weapons exports as well as the structure of reserve stocks. Production cost estimates cannot accurately reflect true procurement spending patterns, because resource costs and dollar/rouble conversions are difficult to quantify and, more importantly, Soviet procurement objectives are set in real unit terms without a strict requirement for money prices to coincide with the real costs of goods and services.
   Manpower costs have reportedly grown at 2% per year for the last ten years. For manpower costs, estimates are derived from known military salary rates, rank structure and ration scales. These are fairly reliable; but it is difficult to estimate manpower-support costs. Soviet R&D accounts are, in the CIA's words, 'the least reliable' and estimates are roughly derived from Soviet budgetary allocations to science. The Academy of Sciences administers - and presumably funds -military R&D, with planning, development and production steered by complex interdepartmental communication between the Ministry of Defence, GOSPLAN, the Academy of Sciences, the Council of Ministers and the production ministries. RDT&E programmes are thought to be on the scale of American efforts, including space-based defence and ground-based ABM technology. O&M accounts are usually estimated as a function of procurement and manpower estimates; precise fuel and maintenance costs are unavailable. Estimated O&M costs have grown by 3-4% annually since 1976, but the published data for RDT&E and O&M accounts is minimal.
   Difficulties surrounding estimates of exchange rates were examined in previous editions of The Military Balance. Most observers believe that current methodologies are tainted by an element of institutional bias, a tendency to assume mirroring micro-economic phenomena, limited understanding of the USSR's budgeting process and military-industrial policy, and the limited number of Soviet studies programmes outside the intelligence community.*
   Since the CIA first released its estimates of Soviet defence spending in 1974, it has revised its methodology on three occasions, and these revisions have caused some confusion in the media. In 1976, as a result of new information indicating that levels of output in the defence industries were much lower than had been assumed, it re-evaluated Soviet rouble defence production costs. As a result, its estimate of Soviet defence costs in roubles was doubled, though the dollar estimates were unaffected. In the second revision in 1983 (part of a re-evaluation of 1979-81 estimates, which had previously suggested that Soviet defence spending was growing at a rate of 4-5% annually), the CIA revised its methodology, having decided that the rate of equipment accession was lower then expected. As a result, both the dollar and rouble spending estimates were revised to reflect a growth rate of 2% annually. This year the CIA updated its price base from 1970 to 1982 price levels. The new pricing system does not fundamentally alter the agency's estimates of Soviet defence spending; the only difference is that military spending in 1982 prices reflects a greater share of the economy (15-17%) than in 1970 prices (13-16%). The new estimate of the defence burden is compatible with DIA analyses and suggests that inflation in the military sector is greater than in the general economy.
   DIA dollar and rouble estimates are stated in current, rather than constant, currency terms. The DIA believes that Soviet defence spending roughly doubled between 1970 and 1981, and in its latest reports suggests that Soviet defence spending has increased at about 5% annually since 1983. Both CIA and DIA caution that any estimate of currency spending will be subject to revision, and that there is approximately a five-year lag before current estimates can be fully confirmed and evaluated.
   The DIA and CIA agree that the Soviet budget for procurement increased by 1% annually between 1975 and 1981. The DIA's procurement estimate, which is based on pricing of 250 major weapons systems, concludes that spending on procurement increased by 3-5% annually in 1981-86. The CIA, whose estimates measure total procurement, argues that recent procurement resources are stagnant. Based on these latest estimates, American spending on procurement overtook Soviet procurement spending in 1984. Some observers have noted with a touch of irony that, despite major (but narrowing) technology differences between Soviet and American systems, the USSR managed to produce more than twice as much as the US using a much smaller rate of procurement growth.
   Defence and the Soviet Economy under Gorbachev
   On coming to power Mikhail Gorbachev inherited a number of strengths in the world's second largest economy: petroleum and iron ore extraction, steel and cement production and a machine tools sector, all of which exceed American output.
   GNP growth in 1985f was 2.6% for the second year running. The year began with one of the coldest winters on record which caused major transport and production bottlenecks. Industrial output picked up in the second half to finish at a 2.8% annual rate. However, agricultural losses dragged down the rest of the economy despite greatly increased investment. Consumer shortages persisted. In fact, consumer output actually fell, despite Gorbachev's calls for greater labour productivity. The new leadership has been quick to make senior-level personnel changes but has been loth to challenge the long-term interests of the powerful bureaucracies in its economic programme. As a first step Gorbachev has stepped up the worker productivity campaign, begun by his predecessors, in an attempt to stimulate the economy. He replaced a number of economic ministers, including the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the chiefs of the construction, service and machine building sectors. Many of his new economic managers have been recruited from the defence sector, including the Ministerial Chairman Ryzhkov.
   The above short-term measures are intended to be followed by an ambitious plan to replace one third of the capital stock by 1990. Over 200 bn roubles in capital investment has been committed between 1986 and 1990 for 'modernizing and technically re-equipping production'. Gorbachev has hinted at some organizational changes, none of which is widespread, nor do they challenge major bureaucratic interests.
   Gorbachev's first Five Year Plan (1986-90) calls for 3.5% annual growth in National Income (a measure similar to GNP used by Soviet economists). A 7-8% growth rate in the machine building sector (focused primarily on the electronics, computer and machine tool industries) is intended to boost total industrial output by 4.5% each year. Ryzhkov announced major investment increases for the energy and machine building sectors, and lesser increases for agriculture and consumer investment. Apparently, the Politburo has not finalized the difficult allocation choices. Most of the planned increases in fixed investment are scheduled for 1986. Gorbachev intends to increase investment in civilian machinery and energy by 30% in 1986. lt is unlikely that these rates can be sustained for very long. In the wake of the Chernobyl disaster, the leadership may be forced to spend even more than planned on its nuclear energy programme. The collapse of prices for petroleum, which the USSR produces mostly from relatively low-cost Siberian oil fields, cut foreign earnings used for investment by $5-7 billion.
   In the near term (1986-9) the lack of investment should not restrain defence production, according to several American and European studies. A study released by the Joint Economic Committee states, 'in view of the immense sunk costs for plant and installed equipment in the defence production facilities, and the fact that these cannot be readily converted to civilian use, the industrial modernization goals are unlikely significantly to impede the completion of the major deployments of strategic weapons that the Soviets have programmed through the 1980s'. Full-scale production lines are producing the newest generation of Soviet weapons systems including, T-80 tanks, cruise missiles, Su-27 fighters, the Blackjack bomber, and the SS-25 ICBM.
   The Soviet military appears to support Gorbachev's economic plans, because it will ultimately benefit from any technological advances. The Deputy Minister for military procurement has complained that the poor performance of the civilian economy is a threat to military procurement objectives. lt appears that investment allocations will only affect defence at the margins over the next few years. Therefore it seems that the Soviet Union is likely to be well placed to continue its vigorous military modernization programme up to the end of the decade by means of qualitative change, without major new investment, while simultaneously expanding and improving the civilian sector.

* For further background see R. Kaufmann, S. Rosefielde, H. Schaeffer, in Joint Economic Committee, Congress of
the USA, Hearings (annual); also previous editions of The Military Balance.
? NMP growth 3.2% in 1984 and 3.0% in 1985.
For further details please refer to: R. E. Foelber, Estimates of Soviet Defence Expenditures: Methodological Issuesand Policy Implications (Washington DC Congressional Research Service, 1985); Joint Economic Committee (CIA and DIA presentation), The Soviet Economy Under a New Leader (Washington DC: JEC 1986); A. S. Becker, Sitting on Bayonets: The Soviet Defense Burden and the Slowdown of Soviet Defense Spending (Santa Monica, CA: RAND 1985), R. Hutchings, The Soviet Budget (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983); R. Kaufman 'Causes of the Slowdown in Soviet Defence', Soviet Economy, vol. I, no. 1; and previous editions of The Military Balance, M. Gorbachev, Political Report of the CPSU Central Committee to the 27th Party Congress.(Moscow: Novosti Press Agency, 1986).

Cоветский Союз

   Стратегические силы
   После кажущейся паузы, отмеченной в Военном балансе 1985-1986 годов, доклады о советских стратегических силах показывают основные события во всех основных категориях вооружений. Хотя число пусковых установок МБР остается на уровне 1398, 72 из самых ранних версий SS-11 были заменены на SS-25, которые развертываются в подразделениях по 9 пусковых установок на бывших объектах МБР SS-7. Одна боеголовка SS-11 имела расчетную мощность 950 КТ; SS-25 также имеет одну боеголовку, но с расчетной мощностью 550 кт. Снижение на около 28,8 МТ в мощности более чем компенсируется возросшей точностью SS-25: как сообщается 200 метров, по сравнению с 1400 метров для SS-11 mod 1. SS-25 использует твердое топливо, что дает ему более короткое время запуска, и является мобильной. Вторая новая МБР, SS-X-24 проходит испытания и может быть развернута в ближайшее время.
   В 1985 году СССР ввел новую БРПЛ, SS-N-23. Эта ракета на жидком топливе, как утверждается, имеет дальность, аналогичную SS-N-20 (8300 км), КВО менее 900 метров и полезную нагрузку в 10 боеголовок MIRV, каждая из которых, возможно, 200 кт.
   В настоящее время на вооружении находятся две лодки Delta IV (32 БРПЛ). Четвертый Typhoon (с 20 SS-N-20) также поступил на вооружение, и две лодки Y-I были списаны. Таким образом, общая сумма ПЛАРБ остается на уровне 77, а количество ракет увеличивается на четыре до 983 (с использованием правил подсчета ОСВ общие суммы составляют 62 ПЛАРБ и 944 БРПЛ). SS-N-23 заменяет SS-N-6, который нес две боеголовки MRV, с мощностью, по разным оценкам, от 500 кт до 1 МТ. С боеголовками MIRV SS-N-23 имеет потенциал для поражения в десять раз больше целей на примерно в 2,75 раза большей дальности своего предшественника.
   Стратегическая бомбардировочная авиация показывает значительное снижение численности M-4 с 45 до 20. Об альтернативном использовании этого 30-летнего самолета пока не сообщалось. Не менее старая конструкция Ту-95 вернулась в производство, выпущено примерно 40 модели "Н", каждая из которых оснащена 6 крылатыми ракетами AS-15 (КРВБ), на пятнадцать больше, чем сообщалось в прошлом году. КРВБ AS-15 имеет дальность действия около 1800 км, скорость около 0,6 Маха и одну боеголовку мощностью 250 КТ.
   БРСД SS-4 тоже сворачивается. По состоянию на 1 июля 1986 года их насчитывалось 112, что на 8 меньше, чем в прошлом году. В настоящее время численность БРСД SS-20 составляют 441, что на 18 больше, чем за тот же период. Как представляется, из Центральной Азии было осуществлено небольшое переразвертывание примерно 36 ракет. Эти и дополнительные 18 ракет, которые были развернуты за последние 12 месяцев, в совокупности значительно увеличили развертывание ракет, которые могут поражать цели в любой точке Европы, до 270. Азиатское развертывание насчитывает около 171 ракеты, включая 162 уже развернутые на Дальнем Востоке и 9 ракет, которые, вероятно, остаются в Центральной Азии.
   Силы Общего Назначения
   Советская система старшинства: стратегические ядерные силы (СНС), Сухопутные войска (армия), ПВО, ВВС и военно-морской флот. Сообщается, что Сухопутные войска добавили в боевой порядок мотострелковую дивизию и две штурмовые бригады. в настоящее время подтверждено, что армия забрала у ВВС Советского Союза все боевые вертолеты, используемые для поддержки сухопутных войск. Это повлияло на соответствующую численность войск, показанную для каждой службы. В списке тяжелой техники указано увеличение количества основных боевых танков Т-80 и новых БТР-80. Вероятно, наблюдается тенденция к созданию более современных артиллерийских орудий на смену более ранним моделям; недостаточные данные не позволяют анализировать соответствующие цифры. Более ранний репортаж о SS-22 в качестве замены SS-12 предполагал наличие значительных визуальных (а также технических) различий между двумя видами оружия. Внешние различия незначительны, и мы соответственно перечислили новый ОТБР как "SS-12 (mod)". Никакой дополнительной информации относительно крылатой ракеты наземного базирования SSC-X-4 (КРНБ), о которой сообщалось в прошлом году, не поступало. Натовское название для SA-11 SAM- Gadfly - введено. В настоящее время SA-14 начинает заменять SA-7, а SA-X-12, явная замена SA-4, может скоро вступить в строй.
   Несмотря на ряд дополнительных сведений, мы до сих пор не смогли прояснить организацию и структуру советской службы противовоздушной обороны. То, что некоторые самолеты ПВО дислоцируются в составе Военно-Воздушных Сил военных округов, является дополнительным осложнением. Незначительное увеличение числа перехватчиков МиГ-29 и МиГ-31, по-видимому, является единственным примечательным изменением. Сообщения по-прежнему свидетельствуют о том, что старый SA-1 все еще находится в эксплуатации, хотя замена SA-10 продолжается. За последний год количество ЗРК SA-10 увеличилось примерно на 50%.
   Организация соответствующих Военно-Воздушных Сил округов была отделена от авиационных запасов. Читатели найдут приблизительные цифры в разделе развертывания, но пока не представляется возможным представить общую сводку о количестве полков по ролям. Военно-транспортное вооружение имеет оборудование, переданное вне его прямого контроля стратегическому и другим воздушным командованиям.
   Военно-морской флот продолжает испытания комбинации ПЛАРК класса Yankee с новой крылатой ракетой подводного базирования SS-NX-24 (SLCM). У нас нет никакой информации о том, что этот КРМБ находится в эксплуатации, и удаление "X" в прошлогоднем выпуске было ошибкой. СССР также проводит испытания SS-NX-21, который по своим характеристикам аналогичен американской крылатой ракете Tomahawk. В настоящее время существует три лодки класса Oscar (ПЛАРК), на одну больше, чем в 1985 году. Состоялась отставка Charlie и Echo ПЛАРК, а также Juliet, W-Long Bin и дизельных лодок Foxtrot (по одной из них). Новое производство ПЛ Kilo-class SS заменит по крайней мере некоторые из этих более поздних типов. Четвертый авианосец класса Киев, показанный на испытаниях в прошлом году, похоже, еще не в эксплуатации. Второй крейсер Слава, возможно, только вступает в строй. Сообщается еще о двух эсминцах: ракетный Современный и противолодочный Удалой; некоторые из эсминцев Kanin и Kotlin, возможно, сняты. Военно-морские авиационные силы увеличились на 20 Ту-22М и более Ту-16. Закупка включает в себя ряд боевых кораблей-амфибий.
   Наша оценка возможного развертывания остается такой же, как и в 1985 году. И вновь мы хотели бы получить комментарии. В целом, однако, мы видим, что Советский Союз в целом поддерживает программы закупок своих сил, которые ведут к неуклонному повышению качества. Как представляется, крупных прорывов не произошло, хотя более сложные системы вооружения, такие, как самолеты, продолжают демонстрировать все большую изощренность.
   Оборонные расходы
   Расходы на оборону в Советском Союзе, официально объявленные правительством, в 1970-е годы оставались стабильными или несколько сократились. В 1981-1984 годах они были заморожена на уровне 17,054 млрд рублей (23,065 млрд долларов). Но в сентябре 1984 года министр финансов СССР Василий Гарбузов объявил об увеличении на 11,8% официальных расходов на оборону за 1985 год до 19,063 млрд рублей (22,257 млрд долларов). Хотя целью крупнейшего в мирное время военного бюджета СССР является, по словам Гарбузова, "повышение боеготовности наших Вооруженных сил, способных дать сокрушительный отпор любому агрессору", советское руководство не раскрывало, какие военные программы требуют дополнительных средств. Это крупнейшее ежегодное увеличение расходов на оборону за последние двадцать пять лет было представлено как взвешенная реакция на недавнее увеличение американских расходов на оборону. Однако в 1986 году СССР заморозил уровень официальных расходов на оборону на уровне 19,063 млрд рублей.; в сочетании с предложениями по контролю над вооружениями в 1986 году это не только отражает новый внешнеполитический подход Москвы, но и выглядит как экономический сигнал о том, что ее оборонное бремя не должно увеличиваться.
   Почти все западные наблюдатели полагают, что однострочные официальные данные советской обороны часто недооценивают фактические расходы в несколько раз, и что СССР последовательно опережает США в течение последнего десятилетия. Большинство наблюдателей считают, что фактические военные расходы составляют 12-17% от советского ВВП. Некоторые несекретные сметы расходов на оборону приводятся в таблице на следующей странице. Большинство тех, кто производит оценки или "временные ряды", предполагают стабильный, устойчивый рост общих расходов на оборону в диапазоне 2-4% с середины 1970-х годов. Согласно последним американским и британским оценкам, общие годовые расходы на оборону выросли на 4-5% до 1976 года, замедлились до 2% в 1976-1982 годах и выросли на 3-5% в 1982-1985 годах.
   Широко распространены разногласия относительно того, какие программы следует включить в определение советских расходов на оборону. Многие западные наблюдатели считают, что СССР включает гражданскую космическую программу, силы внутренней безопасности, военно-строительные войска и гражданскую оборону в свою концепцию "национальной обороны". Но оценки, основанные на этом более широком определении (которые не включены в нижеследующую таблицу), не сопоставимы с определениями западных оборонных расходов и будут, как правило, показывать более высокие советские оборонные расходы.
   Западные советологи используют две основные методологии для расчета советских оборонных расходов. Некоторые неправительственные аналитики изучают опубликованные бюджетные документы и включают военные расходы в статьи, не связанные с обороной. Большинство аналитиков - в том числе ЦРУ США, РУМО США и британского Министерства обороны - оценивают советские закупки, RDT&E, O&M, расходы на персонал и т. д. индивидуально в рублях или долларах, а затем конвертировать в другой. Рубли используются для обозначения оборонной нагрузки на советскую экономику, а доллары облегчают сравнение с американскими программами. Методологии составления таких правительственных оценок публикуются редко. Как ЦРУ, так и РУМО собирают исходные данные и проводят косвенный экономический анализ для расчета затрат СССР на производство материалов для оборонных объектов в долларах и рублях.
   Что касается закупок, то они оценивают объемы производства, а затем оценивают уровень расходов исходя из того, сколько будет стоить производство аналогичного оружия на Западе в долларах. Например, удельная цена и оценка производства танка Т-80 составляют 1,2-1,6 млн долл. (1982: 400 шт.); танка Т-72 1,0-1,3 млн долл. (1982: 1000 шт.); БМП-2 0,3-0,45 млн долл. (1982: 4000 шт.). С этим методом возникают очевидные трудности. Производственная статистика должна основываться в первую очередь на фотографической разведке, и существует много пробелов в информации. Отсутствует информация об экспорте оружия, а также о структуре резервных запасов. Оценки производственных затрат не могут точно отражать истинную структуру расходов на закупки, поскольку затраты на ресурсы и конверсию доллара в рубль трудно поддаются количественной оценке и, что более важно, советские цели закупок устанавливаются в реальном выражении без строгого требования, чтобы денежные цены совпадали с реальными затратами на товары и услуги.
   Сообщается, что за последние десять лет затраты на личный состав выросли на 2% в год. Что касается расходов на личный состав, то они рассчитаны на основе известных ставок окладов военнослужащих, структуры званий и шкал пайков. Они достаточно надежны, но трудно оценить затраты на поддержку личного состава. Советские отчеты о НИОКР являются, по словам ЦРУ, "наименее надежными", а оценки примерно основаны на советских бюджетных ассигнованиях на науку. Академия наук управляет военными НИОКР и, предположительно, финансирует их, а планирование, разработка и производство осуществляются на основе сложных межведомственных связей между Министерством обороны, Госпланом, Академией наук, Советом Министров и производственными министерствами. Считается, что программы НИОКР соответствуют масштабам американских усилий, включая космическую оборону и наземную технологию ПРО. Счета НИОКР обычно оцениваются в зависимости от оценок закупок и людских ресурсов; точные расходы на топливо и техническое обслуживание отсутствуют. С 1976 года оценочные затраты на НИОКР ежегодно увеличивались на 3-4%, однако опубликованные данные по счетам НИОКР и НИОКР минимальны.
   Трудности, связанные с оценками обменных курсов, рассматривались в предыдущих изданиях Военного баланса. Большинство наблюдателей считают, что современные методологии запятнаны элементом институциональной предвзятости, тенденцией к зеркальному отражению микроэкономических явлений, ограниченным пониманием бюджетного процесса СССР и Военно-промышленной политики, а также ограниченным числом советских исследовательских программ за пределами разведывательного сообщества.*
   С тех пор как ЦРУ впервые опубликовало свои оценки советских расходов на оборону в 1974 году, оно трижды пересматривало свою методологию, и эти изменения вызвали некоторую путаницу в средствах массовой информации. В 1976 году в результате получения новой информации, свидетельствующей о том, что объемы производства в оборонной промышленности были значительно ниже, чем предполагалось, была произведена переоценка затрат на оборону в советских рублях. В результате его оценка советских расходов на оборону в рублях была удвоена, хотя долларовые оценки остались неизменными. Во втором пересмотре в 1983 году (часть переоценки оценок 1979-1981 годов, которая ранее предполагала, что советские расходы на оборону растут со скоростью 4-5% в год) ЦРУ пересмотрело свою методологию, решив, что темпы поставок вооружения были ниже, чем ожидалось. В результате как долларовые, так и рублевые оценки расходов были пересмотрены с учетом темпов роста в 2% в год. В этом году ЦРУ обновило свою ценовую базу с 1970 по 1982 годы. Новая система ценообразования принципиально не меняет оценки агентством советских оборонных расходов; разница лишь в том, что военные расходы в ценах 1982 года отражают большую долю экономики (15-17%), чем в ценах 1970 года (13-16%). Новая оценка оборонной нагрузки совместима с анализом РУМО и предполагает, что инфляция в военном секторе выше, чем в экономике в целом.
   Долларовые и рублевые оценки РУМО указываются в текущих, а не постоянных валютных показателях. РУМО считает, что советские оборонные расходы примерно удвоились между 1970 и 1981 годами, и в своих последних отчетах предполагает, что советские оборонные расходы увеличивались примерно на 5% ежегодно с 1983 года. Как ЦРУ, так и РУМО предупреждают, что любая оценка валютных расходов будет подвергнута пересмотру и что существует приблизительно пятилетний ЛАГ, прежде чем текущие оценки могут быть полностью подтверждены и оценены.
   РУМО и ЦРУ согласны, что советский бюджет на закупки ежегодно увеличивался на 1% с 1975 по 1981 год. По оценкам РУМО, основанным на ценах на 250 основных систем вооружения, расходы на закупки в 1981-1986 годах ежегодно увеличивались на 3-5%. ЦРУ, оценки которого измеряют общий объем закупок, утверждает, что в последнее время закупочные ресурсы стагнируют. Исходя из этих последних оценок, американские расходы на закупки превзошли советские расходы на закупки в 1984 году. Некоторые наблюдатели с некоторой иронией отмечают, что, несмотря на значительные (но сужающиеся) технологические различия между Советской и американской системами, СССР удалось произвести более чем в два раза больше, чем США, используя гораздо меньшие темпы роста закупок.
   Оборона и советская экономика при Горбачеве
   Придя к власти, Михаил Горбачев унаследовал ряд сильных сторон второй по величине экономики в мире: нефтедобычу и добычу железной руды, производство стали и цемента, станкостроение - все это превосходит американскую продукцию.
   Рост ВНП в 1985f составил 2,6% второй год подряд. Год начался с одной из самых холодных зим в истории, которая выявила серьезные транспортные и производственные узкие места. Промышленное производство выросло во втором полугодии до 2,8% годовых. Однако, несмотря на значительное увеличение инвестиций, сельскохозяйственные потери затянули остальную экономику. Дефицит потребителей сохранялся. На самом деле потребительский выпуск фактически упал, несмотря на призывы Горбачева к повышению производительности труда. Новое руководство быстро осуществило кадровые изменения на высоком уровне, но не бросило вызов долгосрочным интересам могущественной бюрократии в своей экономической программе. В качестве первого шага Горбачев активизировал кампанию производительности труда, начатую его предшественниками, в попытке стимулировать экономику. Он сменил ряд министров экономики, в том числе председателя Совета Министров и начальников секторов строительства, обслуживания и машиностроения. Многие из его новых экономических руководителей были набраны из оборонного сектора, в том числе председатель Совета Министров Рыжков.
   Вышеуказанные краткосрочные меры предполагают осуществление амбициозного плана по замене одной трети основного капитала к 1990 году. В период 1986-1990 годов на "модернизацию и техническое перевооружение производства" было выделено свыше 200 млрд рублей капиталовложений. Горбачев намекнул на некоторые организационные изменения, ни одно из которых не является широко распространенным, и они не бросают вызов основным бюрократическим интересам.
   Первый пятилетний план Горбачева (1986-1990 годы) предусматривает ежегодный рост национального дохода на 3,5% (показатель, аналогичный ВНП, используемому советскими экономистами). Темпы роста 7-8% в машиностроительном секторе (ориентированном в первую очередь на электронику, компьютерную и станкостроительную промышленность) призваны ежегодно увеличивать общий объем промышленного производства на 4,5%. Рыжков объявил о значительном увеличении инвестиций в энергетику и машиностроение, меньшем - в сельское хозяйство и потребительские инвестиции. По-видимому, Политбюро не завершило сложный выбор распределения. Большая часть запланированного увеличения инвестиций в основной капитал запланирована на 1986 год. Горбачев намерен увеличить инвестиции в гражданскую технику и энергетику на 30% в 1986 году. Маловероятно, что эти темпы могут сохраняться очень долго. После Чернобыльской катастрофы руководство может быть вынуждено потратить на свою ядерно-энергетическую программу даже больше, чем планировалось. Обвал цен на нефть, которую СССР добывает в основном из относительно недорогих сибирских нефтяных месторождений, сократил иностранные доходы, используемые для инвестиций, на 5-7 миллиардов долларов.
   В ближайшей перспективе (1986-1989 годы) отсутствие инвестиций не должно сдерживать оборонное производство, согласно ряду американских и европейских исследований. В исследовании, опубликованном Объединенным экономическим комитетом, говорится: "ввиду огромных затрат на установку оборудования на объектах оборонного производства и того факта, что они не могут быть легко преобразованы в гражданское использование, цели промышленной модернизации вряд ли существенно помешают завершению крупных развертываний стратегических вооружений, которые советы запрограммировали до 1980-х годов". Полномасштабные производственные линии выпускают новейшее поколение советских систем вооружения, включая танки Т-80, крылатые ракеты, истребители Су-27, бомбардировщик Blackjack и МБР SS -25.
NMP 1984e: r 565 bn; 1985e: r582bn
growth 1984: 3.3% 1985: 3.0%
GNP 1984e: $1,480-1,958 bn; 1985e: $1,520-2,010 bn
Inflation 1984: -0.9% 1985: -1.6%
Debt 1984: $26 bn 1985: $27 bn
Est def exp and exchange rate: see text above.

Population: 279,500,000
   18-30 31-45
Men 31,380,000 25,518,000
Women 30,300,000 25,890,000

Regular 5,130,000 (perhaps 2,620,000 conscripts).*
   (* Excl KGB, MVD (570,000), but incl some 1,471,000 railroad construction labour, comd and general spt tps not otherwise listed.)
   Soviet forces comprise, in order of seniority: Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF); Ground Troops (Army); Air Defence (AD), Air Force and Navy.
Terms of Service. SNF/Army/AD/Air Force 2 years; Navy/Border Guards 3 years. Women with medical and other special skills may volunteer.
Reserves: total 6,265,000 with conscript service within last 5 years. SNF 540,000; Army 3,500,000; AD 840,000; Air Force 825,000; Navy 560,000.
   Males have a Reserve obligation to age 50; total: some 25,000,000. (Regular retirees could add to the above totals.)
STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES COMMAND: 298,000 (plus 112,000 assigned from Air and Navy).
   (70-75% conscripts 7217,000); under direct operational control of the Supreme High Command (VGK).
(a) Sea-launched msls SLBM: (Navy: 17,000).
983 in 77 subs (944 SLBM, 62 subs come under SALT; 39 SLBM, 15 subs are outside it).
SSBN: 63:
   4 Typhoon with 20 SS-N-20 (80 msls).
   2 D-IV with 16 SS-N-23 (32 msls).
   14 D-III with 16 SS-N-18 (224 msls).
   4 D-II with 16 SS-N-8 (64 msls).
   18 D-I with 12 SS-N-8 (216 msls).
   1 Y-II with 12 SS-N-17 (12 msls).
   19 Y-I with 16 SS-N-6 (304 msls).
   1 H-III with 6 SS-N-8 (trials).
SSB: 14:
   1 G-III with 6 SS-N-8 (6 msls).
   13 G-II with 3 SS-N-5 (39 non-SALT theatre msls).

(b) Ground-launched msls: 298,000:
6 rocket armies, org in divs, regts, bns and btys of 1 msl launcher, 28 'fields', 300 launch control HQ, 3 msl test centres.
ICBM: 1,398.* (*Figures may fluctuate slightly during conversion.)
   SS-11 Sego: 448 mod 1; mods 2/3 (at some 8 fields, SS-25 is replacing).*
   SS-13 Savage. 60 (at 1 field, SS-25 may replace).
   SS-17: 150 (at 2 fields; mod 3, 4 MIRV).*
   SS-18: 308 (at 6fields; mostly mod 4, 10 MIRV).
   SS-19: 360 (at 4fields; mostly mod 3, 6 MIRV).*
   SS-X-24: under test; may be rail mobile.
   SS-25: 72: mobile msl replacing SS-11 and may replace SS-13; in groups of 9 on former SS-7 sites; 20 bases, each for 9 msls,
   reported under conversion.
   (*SS-11, SS-17, SS-19 and perhaps SS-25 have variable range capability, enabling them to be used for theatre support.)
IRBM/MRBM: 553: 382 in western, rest in central and eastern USSR.
   SS-20: 441 mobile IRBM (3 MIRV) (270 within range of Europe, 162 in Far East, 9 in Central Asia)); 9 launchers in each operating base.*
   (*Reload capacity has been reported.)
   SS-4 Sandal: 112 MRBM in western USSR (being retired).

(c) Air-launched: (95,000 Air Force personnel).
STRATEGIC AVIATION: 5 Armies; about 1,690 combat ac.
1 Army may be for intercontinental roles, 4 for Theatre spt.
Bbrs: 1,120.
Long-range: 160:
   140 Tupolev Tu-95 Bear A/B/C/G/H (some 80 B/C/G have AS-3/-4 ASM, 40 H have up to 6 AS-15 (ALCM)).
   20 Myasishchev Mya-4 Bison.
   (Blackjack strategic bomber under development.)
Medium-range: 510: 140 Tu-22M Backfire B/C (AS-4 ASM);
   240 Tu-16 Badger G (in regts each with 2 sqns, 36-48 Tu-16, plus 1 composite sqn: 2-4 Badger H, 1-2 J, 3-6 Tu-16A tankers);
   130 Tu-22 Blinder A/B.
Short-range: some 450 Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer.
Recce: 116: 4 Tu-95 Bear E, 15 Tu-16 Badger F, 15 Tu-22 Blinder C, 40 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-25 Foxbat B/D, 42 Yakovlev Yak-28 BrewerD.
Ftrs: (base defence): some 300 MiG-23 Flogger B/G, MiG-21 Fishbed J/K/L/N.
ECM: 160: 100 Tu-16 Badger H/J/K, 60 Yak-28 Brewer E.
Tankers: 50: 30 Mya-4 Bison A, 20 Tu-16 Badger.
ASM: AS-3 Kangaroo, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingfish. ALCM: AS-15.
(On order Blackjack, Tu-22M Backfire bbrs, Tu-95 Bear H (ALCM mod), AS-15 ALCM.)
GROUND FORCES: 1,991,000 (perhaps 1,400,000 conscripts).
5 Major Theatres (TVD), 1 Strategic Reserve Theatre.
51 tk divs (Type: 3 tk, 1 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 SAM AA regts; 1 SSM, 1 MRL bns; spt units).
142 motor rifle divs (Type: 3 motor rifle, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 SAM regts; 1 SSM, 1 ATK, 1 MRL bns; spt units).
7 AB divs (each 3 para, 1 arty regts; 1 AA bn).
Front and Army tps:
   Some 10 air assault bdes (each 4 inf bns (2 with BMD); arty, SAM, ATK; spt tps).
   16 arty divs, Front: (Type: 3-4 bdes (11 bns): 3 bns each 24 152mm guns, 3 each 24 152mm gun/how, 3 each 24 220mm MRL,
   1 of 12 203mm how and 1 of 12 240mm mor (nuc)).
   Arty bdes, Army: (Type: 4 bns: 1 of 24 152mm guns, 1 of 24 152mm gun/how, 2 each of 24 152mm SP guns).
   Tk, arty, SSM, ATK, AD (SAM and arty), engr bdes; sigs, electronic warfare, hy tk tpt regts; NBC defence, CW bns; spt services.
   Special forces (Spetsnaz): 16 bdes, 3 regts.
Army Avn: regts and sqns assigned to division and above; some 20 regts are assigned as 'attack' with 60+ Mi-8 and Mi-24 armed hel.
Ministry of Defence tps (all Services):
HQ tps.
Rear Services (finance, justice, log, maintenance, medical, procurement, repair, supplies, transportation, veterinary).
Troops of Civil Defence: (150,000 permanent staff, 16,000,000+ on mobilization).
   Nationwide programme down to city/rural/industrial level incl some 75 comd posts within 120 km of Moscow, 1,500 hardened deep shelters;
   accommodation for at least 175,000 officials, and local urban hardened shelters for essential work-force and some of the general population.
Divs have 3 categories of combat readiness:
   Category 1, full strength on 24 hours notice, eqpt complete;
   Category 2, 50-75% strength, complete with fighting vehicles, full manning planned to take 3 days, fully operational in 30 days;
   Category 3, cadre (some 20% strength), combat eqpt possibly complete, older models, planned to be fully manned in some 8-9 weeks.
   To man these Cat 2 and 3 divs would require some 2,100,000 men.
The system may now be changing, with some units in a formation being at full strength, others at cadre only.
   'Second Generation' divs, using key personnel from the active divs and older reservists and eqpt, could be mobilized and retrained in some months.
   Some 13 of these are reported to exist.
The 30 tk and motor rifle divs and 1 arty div in the four Groups of Soviet Forces in Eastern Europe (see Deployment below),
   the 7 AB divs and the 10 air assault bdes all are at Cat 1.
   Perhaps 15 of the 65 divs in the West and South-West European USSR are in Cat 1 or 2.
   60% of the remaining 148 divs, 83 of them in the Far Eastern, Central and Southern USSR, are likely to be Category 3.
   Tk divs in Eastern Europe have up to 328 MBT, motor rifle divs up to 271; holdings elsewhere may be lower.
MBT: some 53,000: some 19,900 T-54/-55, 13,700 T-62, some 9,300 T-64, 8,500 T-72 and 1,400 T-80 (most fitted for deep fording).
   lt: 1,200 PT-76.
AFV: some 63,000 active plus 20,000 reserve:
   recce: 6,300: incl BRDM-2, many with ATGW.
   MICV: some 27,500: some 25,000 BMP-1/-2/-3 with 30mm gun; some 2,500 BMD (AB).
   APC: some 29,000: some 26,000 BTR-50P/-60P/-70/-80/-152 (BMP-2 replacing -50/-60); 2,900 MT-LB (withSA-9/-13).
Arty: some 29,000 (some 4,580 SP):
   guns: 122mm: D-74; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: ?l,500 M-1976, ?2,100 7M-1979 (2-S5) SP; 180mm: 7180 S-23 towed,
   gun/how: 152mm: ?2,500 M-1937/M-1955 (D-20) towed, 3,500+ M-1973 (2-S3) SP.
   how: 120mm: M-1981 SP; 122mm: M-1938/D-30 towed, M-1974 (2-S1) SP; 203mm: 7200 M-1975SP.
   MRL 6,745: 122mm: M-1964 (BM-21)/M-1972 (RM-70) 40-tube, M-1975 12-tube, M-1976 36-tube; 140mm: BM-14-16/-17 16/17-tube,
   RPU-14 16-tube; 220mm: M-1977 (BM-27) 16-tube; 240mm: BM-24 12-tube.
   mor: 11,100 120mm, 160mm and (7200) 240mm M-1975 SP.
   SSM (nuclear-capable): some 1,570 launchers (units organic to formations), incl some 800 FROG/SS-21, 635 Scud/SS-23, 130 SS-12 (mod).
   GLCM: SSC-X-4 reported under development.
ATK: RU 73mm: RPG-16/-18; 82mm: RPG-7. RCL73mm: SPG-9.
   guns: 7,250: 57mm: ASU-85 SP; 76mm; 85mm: D-44/SD-44, ASU-85 SP; 100mm: T-12/-12A/M-55 towed.
   ATGW: AT-2 Swatter, AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-6 Spiral.
AD: guns: 21,000: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 30mm: (incl ZSU-30-6 trials); 37mm; 57mm: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP;
   85mm; 100mm: KS-19; 130mm towed.
SAM: 4,300 crew-served field mobile systems; (some 440 units):
   SA-4 Ganef (twin): 1,400 (Army/Front weapon).
   SA-6 Gainful (triple): 875 (at div).
   SA-7 Grail (man-portable): perhaps 20,000 (unit weapon, being replaced by SA-14).
   SA-8 Gecko (2 twin or 2 triple): 745 (at div).
   SA-9 Gasten (2 twin): 545 (at regt).
   SA-11 Gadfly (quad): 80 (at div, being introduced).
   SA-13 Gopher(2 twin): 755 (replacing SA-9).
   SA-14 Gremlin 75,000 (replacing SA-7).
   SA-X-12 (to replace SA-4 from 1986).
   (i) Surveillance: Long Track (SA-4/-6), P-50 Bar Lock.
   (ii) Height-finden Thin Skin.
   (iii) Missile control: Pat Hand (SA-4), Straight Flush (SA-6), Land Roll (SA-8).
   (iv) AA arty fire control: Gun Dish (ZSU-23-4), Fire Can (57mm, 85mm), Whiff, Fire Wheel (57mm, 130mm).
Avn: some 4,400 hel:
   Armed: 1,350; 150 Mil Mi-8 Hip E, 1,200 Mi-24 Hind. Mi-28 Havoc reported under development.
   Tpt: some 2,150; some 1,400 Mi-8 Hip C, 250 Mi-17 Hip H (assault); 470 Mi-6 Hook; 18 Mi-26 Halo A (hy).
   EWng/ECM: 175 Mi-8 Hip J/K.
   General purpose: some 740: 690 Mi-2 Hoplite, 25 Mi-4 Hound; 725 Mi-8 Hip D/G (comms).
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (VPVO): 371,000 (70-75% conscripts: ?335,000).
5 Air Defence District Commands: Air regts and indep sqns; AD regts; 14 specialist schools.
ABM: 100 launchers.
   ABM-1B Galosh: 32: range 320+ km, warheads nuclear, 3 MT. 8 sites in 4 complexes around Moscow.
   SH-04 exoatmospheric: 68.
   SH-08 supersonic endoatmospheric.
Aircraft: (Aviation of Air Defence -APVO):
Interceptors: 1,300: some 430 Mikoyan Guryevich MiG-23 Flogger B/G (6 AAM); 300 MiG-25 Foxbat E (4 AAM); 58 MiG-29 Fulcrum (6 AA-10);
   100 MiG-31 Foxhound A (4 AA-9); 200 Sukhoi Su-15 Flagon E/F (2AAM); 90 Yakovlev Yak-28P Firebar (2 AA-5);
   90 Tupolev Tu-28P Fiddler B (4 AA-5).
Airborne Warning and Control: 7 Tu-126 Moss; 4 Ilyushin I1-76 Mainstay (replacing Moss).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-3 Anab, AA-5 Ash, A-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid,AA-9, AA-10.
SAM: strategic role; some 9,300 launchers in some 1,200 sites:
   SA-1 Guild: 2,540 (being replaced by SA-10).
   SA-2 Guideline. 2,730 (SA-10 may be replacing);
   SA-3 Goa: 1,250 (2 or 4 launcher rails, over 300 sites, low- to med-altitude intercept).
   SA-5 Gammon: 2,050 launchers (130 complexes, long-range intercept);
   SA-10: some 735 (quad, some 70 complexes (20 more building); 40 with a strategic role near Moscow).
Warning Systems: 7,000, incl satellites and EWng and ground control intercept radars.
   9 with highly elliptical semi-synchronous orbits (anti-ICBM/SLBM launch detection capability).
   Others incl 9 EWng, 6 ELINT, 2-4 recce, 1 launch detection.
Over-the-horizon (backscatter): 3: 2 near Minsk and Nikolayev (Caucasus), targeted on the US and polar areas;
   1 near Nikolayev-na-Amur, targeted on China.
Long-range early-warning:
(a) ABM-associated:
   (1) 6 phased-array systems at Lyaki, Krasnoyarsk (under construction), Saryshagan, Pechora, Mishelevka; 1 other (reported but not identified).
   (2) 11 House (Hen)-series; range 6,000 km, 6 locations covering approaches from the west and south-west, north-east and south-east
   and (partially) south Linked to intermediate-range Dog House (range 2,800 km) and Cat House and Try Add msl control radar.
   (3) Flat Twin; Pawn Shop (ABM-3/SH-04/-08).
(b) AD-associated: Tall King, few hundred, range 600 km (SA-5); P-12 Spoon Rest, 275 km (SA-2).
Search, surveillance/target-acquisition: (2,000; 1,300 sites): Back Trap; P-15 Flat Face/Squat Eye, 200 km (SA-3); P-35 Bar Lock,
   P-80 Back Net, 320 km (SA-5).
Height Finder: Cake-series (e.g., Rock Cake), 200 km; Side Net, 180 km; Odd Pair, Odd Group.
Missile control: Yo-Yo (SA-1); Fan Song A to E (SA-2); Low Blow (SA-3); Square Pair (SA-5); Flap Lid (SA-10).
Civilian air control equipment
AIR FORCE: 453,000 (70-75% conscripts: 7330,000). Strategic (95,000; p. 36) Military Transport Aviation (VTA (44,900)).
Air Forces of the Soviet Union: 17 MD and Groups of Forces Air Forces (315,000).
Combat: some 5,150 ac; Forces' strengths vary, mostly org in divs of 3 regts of 3 sqns, total 135 ac; the regts' roles incl AD, interdiction, recce, tac air spt.
Div roles maybe mixed.
FGA: some 2,375: 135 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21 Fishbed L, 810 MiG-27 Flogger D/J, 80 Sukhoi Su-7 Fitter A, 900 Su-17 Fitter D/H/K,
   250 Su-24 Fencer (450 more with Strategic Air), 200 Su-25 Frogfoot.
Ftrs: 2,000: 370 MiG-21 J/K/L/N, 1,500 MiG-23 Flogger B/G, 130 MiG-25 Foxbat A/E, (Su-27 Flanker entering service).
Recce: 540: 170 MiG-25 Foxbat B/D, 50 MiG-21 Fishbed H, 130 Yakovlev Yak-28 Brewer D, 170 Su-17 Fitter H/K, 20 Su-24 Fencer D.
ECM: ac: 30 Yak-28 Brewer E.
Trg: some 1,000 ac; some 200 combat capable (OCU).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, AA-9.
ASM: AS-7 Kerry, AS-10. hel-borne: AT-2 Swatter, AT-6 Spiral.
MILITARY TRANSPORT AVIATION (VTA): (44,900); 5 divs, each 3 regts, each 30 ac;some indep regts.
Eqpt: 623 ac. 260 Antonov An-12 Cub,310 Ilyushin Il-76M/MD Candida (replacing Cub), 50 An-22 Cock, 3 An-124 Condor (in production).
   (I1-76 med tanker under development.)
Additional ac (VTA augmentation force): Tpt ac in other Air comds (not in VTA): org in indep regts and sqns:
   1,250: 265 An-2 Colt, An-24 Coke, An-26 Curl, I1-14 Crate.
Civilian Aeroflot fleet: 1,600 med- and long-range passenger ac, incl some 200 Cub and Candid.
NAVY: 451,000 (some 75% conscripts 7338,000), incl
   Strategic (17,000), Naval Air Force (68,000), Naval Infantry (18,000), Coastal Artillery and Rocket Troops (13,000).
Subs: 360 (374-see other roles, below):
Cruise missile: 63:
   Nuclear (SSGN): 48.
   1 Y-class test boat with 12 SS-NX-24 SLCM.
   3 O-class with 24 SS-N-19.
   1 P-class with 10 SS-N-9 Siren.
   16 C-class: 10 C-I with 8 SS-N-7; 6 C-II with 8 SS-N-9.
   27 E-II: some 17 with 8 SS-N-3a; some 10 with 8 SS-N-12.
   Diesel (SSG): 15: 15 J-class with 4 SS-N-3a.
Attack: 200 (214 if all Y-I and H-2 converting from SSBN were incl):
   Nuclear (SSN): 70: 6 A, 12 N, 1 Akula, 1 M, 1 S, 14 V-I, 7 V-II, 20 V-III, 3 E-I, 1 Y, 4 H.
   Apart from the older N and E, most SSN probably carry SS-N-16 and/or SS-N-15 nuclear ASW weapons,
   and some may be intended to carry SS-NX-21 SLCM.)
   Diesel (SS): 130: 11 K, 18 T, 45 F (K to replace), 5 R, 50 W, 1 Z.
Other roles: 98:
   Comd conversion: 1 H-II; comms: 3 G-I; trg: 4 B; rescue: 2 I; research: 3: 1 U SSN, 1 X, 1 L; 1 G-V (SLBM).
   Reserve: 84: 15 F, 4 Z, 65 W.
   Converting to other roles incl SSN: 14: 12 Y-I, 2 H-II ex-SSBN.
   A new naval cruise msl, SS-NX-21, is under development.
Principal Surface Combatants: 269. (See also 'additional in Reserve'. For KGB units see Para-Military).
Carriers: 5:
   3 Kiev (37,000-ton; 1 more on trials) with 4 twin SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 2 twin SA-N-3 and 2 twin SA-N-4 SAM (or(in 1) 12 SA-NX-9),
   1 twin SUW-N-1 (FRAS-1) ASW, 13 Yakovlev Yak-38 Forger A/B V/STOL ac,
   16 Kamov Ka-25 Hormone A/Ka-27 Helix A ASW, Hormone B/Helix B target acquisition, Hormone C/Helix SAR hel.
   2 Moskva (17,000-ton) with 2 twin SA-N-3 SAM, 1 twin SUW-N-1 (FRAS-1) ASW, 18 Hormone A hel.
Cruisers: 36:
   CGN: 2 Kirov with 20 SS-N-19 SSM, 12 SA-N-6, 2 twin SA-N-4 SAM, 1 twin SS-N-14 Silex ASW or 16 SA-NX-9 SAM, 3 Ka-25 Hormone B hel.
   CG/ASW: 26:
   1 Slava (2 on trials, 1986) with 8 twin SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 8 SA-N-6, 2 twin SA-N-4 SAM, 1 Ka-27 hel;
   7 Kara with 2 quad SS-N-14 ASW, 2 twin SA-N-3, 2 twin SA-N-4 SAM (1 trials with 1 sextuple SA-N-6 replacing twin SA-N-3), 1 Ka-25 Hormone A hel;
   10 Kresta-II with 2 quad SS-N-14, 2 twin SA-N-3, 1 Ka-25 Hormone A hel;
   4 Kresta-I with 2 twin SS-N-3b SSM, 2 twin SA-N-1 SAM, 1 Ka-25 Hormone B hel;
   4 Kynda with 2 quad SS-N-3b, 1 twin SA-N-1.
   CL (lt): 8 Sverdlov (2 command with 1 twin SA-N-4, 1 Ka-25 hel).
Destroyers: 61:
   DDG: 12:
   6 Sovremennyy with 2 quad SS-N-22 SSM, 2 SA-N-7 SAM, 1 Ka-25 Hormone B hel;
   6 mod Kashin with 4 SS-N-2C, 2 twin SA-N-1.
   ASW: 33:
   7 Udaloy with 2 quad SS-N-14, 2 Ka-27A Helix A hel, 8 SA-NX-9 SAM;
   13 Kashin (12 with 2 twin SA-N-1, 1 with SA-N-7 (trials));
   6 Kanin with 1 twin SA-N-1;
   7 SAM Kotlin with 1 twin SA-N-1.
   DD: 16: 10 Kotlin, 5 Skory, 1 Kildin.
Escorts: 167:
   FFG: 32: 21 Krivak-I, 11 -II, all with 1 quad SS-N-14, 2 twin SA-N-4.
   FF: 35: 1 Koni, 34 Riga.
   FFL (corvettes): 100: 50 Grisha-I, -III, -V all with 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM; 18 Mirka-I,-II; 32 Petya.
Minor Surface Combatants: 762.
Patrol combatants: 391:
   FLG (GW patrol boats): 45: 1 Tarantul II with 2 twin SS-N-22 (trials); 2-I, 16 -II all with 2 twin SS-N-2c;
   26 Nanuchka-I/-III with 2 triple SS-N-9 (Siren), 1 twin SA-N-4.
   FAC: 218:
   FAC(G): 84 Osa (52 -I, 32 -II, all with 4 SS-N-2); 17 hydrofoil (1 Sarancha with 2 twin SS-N-9, 1 twin SA-N-4; 16 Matka with 2 SS-N-2c).
   FAC(T): 115: 20 Pauk with 1 quad SA-N-5 (some KGB); 55 Poti, 10 Shershen, 30 Turya hydrofoils.
   research: 2: 1 Slepen, 1 Babochka hydrofoil.
Patrol: 118:
   ships: 7: 3 T-58, 4 T-43;
   large craft: 16 SO-1 (some KGB);
   river: 95: 15 Yaz, 80 Shmel.
Radar pickets: 10: 3 T-58, 7 T-43/PGR.
Mine warfare: 371:
Minelayers: 3 Alesha.
MCMV: (ocean): 127: 35 Natya-I, -II, 45 Yurka, 41 T-43, 4 mod Polnocny B, 2 Andryusha (Ttrials);
   (coastal): 178: 55 Sonya, 3 Zhenya, 5 Sasha, 70 Vanya, 45 Evgenya;
   (inshore): 65: 10 Ilysha, 5 Olya, 20 TR-40, 30 K-8.
Amph: 197.
Ships: 77:
   LPD: 2 Ivan Rogov with 1 twin SA-N-4, 4 quad SA-N-5, 2 - 3 Ka-27 hel.
   LST: 33: 19 Ropucha, some with 4 quad SA-N-5; 14 Alligator (some with 3 twin, 1 with 2 twin SA-N-5).
   LSM: 42 Polnocny, some with 2 or 4 quad SA-N-5.
Craft: 120:
   LCU: 30: 15 Vydra, 15 SMB-1.
   LCM: 16 Ondatra.
   Surface Effect Ships (SES): 74: 20 Aist, 20 Lebed, 31 Gus, 2 Utenok, 1 Tsaplya, (+1 Ekranoplan experimental).
(Additional amph vessels could be provided by merchant fleet.)
Principal auxiliary ships: 372:
Tankers: 74: 28 replenishment, 32 spt, 14 special liquid; numerous harbour.
Spt: 298: msl: 22: 15 spt, 7 range instrumentation; 8 supply, 86 cargo; 18 submarine tenders, 36 repair, 2 hospital; 21 submarine rescue,
   28 salvage/rescue, 10 trg, 7 icebreakers, 60 barrack ships.
Merchant fleet (auxiliary/augmentation): 1,900 ocean-going, incl 81 ramp-fitted and roll-on/roll-off (RO-RO), incl rail-fitted,
   3 roll-on/floatoff (RO-FLO) and 7 float-on/float-off (FLO-FLO) barge carriers, (17 Arctic service), 64 passenger liners; 50 icebreakers,
   700 river ships.
Fishing fleet: sophisticated electronic eqpt, many with naval crews.
Intelligence collection vessels (AGI): 62: 4 with 3 quad, 29 with 2 quad, 1 with 1 quad SA-N-5 SAM.
Research: some 456: 41 naval, some 75 civilian oceanographic, some 110 naval survey; some 200 fishery, 19 civilian survey,
   11 space-associated vessels.
Additional in reserve: 4 Sverdlov CL (1 with 1 twin SA-N-2 SAM);2 Kanin DDG, 1 SAM Kotlin; 8 Kotlin, 7 Skory DD; 10 Riga FL; 8 Petya FFL,
   5 T-43, 5 Sasha MCMV.
(On order 3-4 Typhoon, 2 D-IV SSBN; O-class SSGN; Akula, S-class SSN; K-class SS; 2 65,000-ton carriers, 1 Kiev CV (trials 1986); 1 Kirov CGN; 2 57ava CG; 5 Sovremennyy, 4 Udaloy DDG; Krivak III FFG, Grisha-III FFL; Tarantul, Nanuchka FLG; Pauk: FAC(T); Sonya coastal MCMV; Ropucha LST; y4to SES; Balzam AGI, 1 nuclear-powered 32,000-ton barge-carrier, 9 RO-RO, 9 ramp spt merchant ships; 3 icebreakers.)

NAVAL AVIATION: 68,000; some 915 combat ac, 300+ combat hel.
Four Fleet Air Forces; org in air divs, each with 2-3 regts of HQ elements and 2 bns of 9-10 ac ach; recce, ASW, tpt/utility org in indep regts or sqns.
Bbrs: some 395 ac:
   6 regts of some 120 Tupolev Tu-22M Backfire (AS-4 ASM);
   7 regts of some 240 Tu-16 Badger C/G/G-mod (AS-5/6 ASM);
   2 regts of some 35 Tu-22 Blinder B.
FGA: 145:
   70 Yakovlev Yak-38 Forger A/B V/STOL (in carriers);
   75 Sukhoi Su-17 Fitter C.
ASW: ac: 205: 60 Tu-142 Bear F, 50 Ilyushin 11-38 May, 95 Beriev Be-12 Mail.
   hel: some 275: 105 Mil Mi-14 Haze A, 115 Kamov Ka-25 Hormone A, 55 Ka-27 Helix A.
MR/ECM: ac: 170: 40 Tu-16 Badger D/E/F/K (MR), 40 H/J (ECM), 20 Tu-22 Blinder C, 45 Tu-95 Bear D, 25 Antonov An-12 Cub C/D.
   hel: 25 Ka-25 Hormone B.
MCM: some Mi-14 Haze B, some Mi-8 Hip hel.
Tankers: 75 Tu-16 Badger.
Tpt/trg: ac: 405: incl An-12 Cub A, An-26 Curl, I1-14 Crate, I1-18 Coot, An-4 Coke, I1-76 Candid; hel: Mi-6/-8 Hook/Hip.
ASM: AS-2 Kipper, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingfish, AS-7 Kerry.
NAVAL INFANTRY (Marines): (18,000).
Div HQ: 1: (2 regts), 3 indep bdes (each 5 bns).
   (Type regt: 3,000; 3 inf, 1 tk, arty, ATK bns; 31 MBT, 10 lt tk/MICV, 30 122mm SP how, 6 MRL, 6 ATK MICV, 4 SP AA guns, 4 SP SAM.)
4 naval Special Forces (Spetsnaz) bdes (one in each Fleet).
Indep units: 20:
Tks: 200 T-54/-55; lt: 110 PT-76.
AFV: 1,075: recce: 30 BRDM-2/Sagger ATGW. APC: 1,045: BTR-60P/PA/PB.
Arty: how: 175 122mm SP. MRL: 42 BM-14 17-tube 140mm or BM-21 40-tube 122mm. mor: 82mm, 42 120mm.
ATGW: 115 AT-3/-5.
AD: guns: 20 ZSU-23-4 SP. SAM: SA-7, 20 SA-9, MTB-LB/SA-13 SP.
Avn: hel: Mi-8 Hip E.
SES: 71: 20 Aist, 20 Lebed, 31 Gus (from naval inventory).
1 coastal arty div (role: protects approaches to naval bases and major ports).
Arty: guns: incl SM-4-1 130mm.
SSM: ?100 SS-C-lb Sepal (similar to SS-N-3).
DEPLOYMENT (all Services):
Soviet strategic planning envisages three major Strategic Theatres (GTVD: Western, Southern, Far Eastern), comprising 5 regional Theatres (TVD: North-Western Western, South-Western; Southern: Far Eastern); perhaps 4 associated Oceanic Theatres (OTVD: Atlantic, Arctic; Indian, Pacific); 3 Sea Theatres (Baltic, Black Sea and Mediterranean); and a Central Reserve. Forces within these Theatres are centrally controlled and co-ordinated, integrating all the elements assigned to the operational mission. The deployments shown for strategic SLBM, ICBM and strategic bomber forces and for AB divs reflect their physical location, but control of them is exercised centrally by the Supreme High Command. A possible assignment, of necessity speculative, of known forces follows (average strengths, excl units, ships and ac in reserve; eqpt strengths based on typical organizational establishments):
(HQ Kiev): 3 subordinate continental (TVD), 2 oceanic theatres (OTVD).
NORTH-WESTERN TVD (with Arctic OTVD): (HQ Petrozavodsk):
Strategic Forces (under central command):
   SLBM: 580: Northern Fleet: 39 subs (SLBM strengths in parentheses):
   4 Typhoon (80); 22 D (316: 9 D-I (108), 4 D-II (64), 7 D-III (112), 2 D-IV (32)); 10 Y-I (160); 1 Y-II (12); 1 H-III (6); 1 G-III (6).
   ICBM: Plesetsk test site only.
   Bbrs: nil.
Air Defence Forces:
   EWng systems: major site near Kovdov, W.Kola, detail deployments unknown.
AD District: (HQ Arkhangelsk; incl Kola Peninsula):
   Ftrs: 180 (some dual-role FGA): 2 regts Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23 Flogger, MiG-25 Foxbat, 2 regts MiG-31 Foxhound, Sukhoi Su-15 Flagon.
   AEW: 6 Tupolev Tu-126 Moss (some 4 Ilyushin I1-76 Mainstay replacing).
   SAM: over 100 complexes: SA-2/-3/-5/-10.
Ground Forces: Leningrad MD (HQ Leningrad):
   9 motor rifle, 1 AB divs, plus 1 arty div and 1 air assault bde.
Mobilization could field 1 Front, 2 all-arms armies with
   2,000 MBT; 2,100 arty, MRL, hy mor; 36 FROG/SS-21, 50 Scud/SS-23, 12 SS-12 (mod) SSM;
   Hel: 20 Mil Mi-24 Hind attack; 20 Mi-8 Hip C assault; 10 Hip J ECM; 90 Mi-8 Hip, Mi-6 Hook, Mi-2 Hoplite tpt.
Tactical Aviation: Leningrad MD Air Force (HQ Leningrad): 240 combat ac.
   FGA: 3 regts (135 ac) MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-27 Flogger, Su-17 Fitter C/D.
   Ftr: 45 Su-17, MiG-23.
   Recce: 3 sqns (30 ac) MiG-21/-25; Su-17 Fitter H.
   Tpt: 30 ac.
Navy: Northern Fleet (HQ Severomorsk): Bases: Kola Inlet, Motovskiy Gulf, Gremikha, Polyarny.
   Subs: 117: SSGN/SSG: 32; SSN/SS: 85. (8-10 normally deployed to Mediterranean.)
   Principal surface combatants: 73: 1 carrier, 12 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 18 frigates, 24 corvettes; dets to Mediterranean sqn.
   (See South-Western TVD below.)
   Minor surface combatants: 45.
   MCMV: 65.
   Amph: 14 ships, 9 craft.
   Auxiliaries: 119 principal.
Naval Aviation: combat: 325 ac, 70 hel.
   Bbrs: 60 Tupolev Tu-16 Badger C, 35 Tu-22 Blinder B.
   Ftr/FGA: 20 Yakovlev Yak-38 Forger.
   ASW: 160: ac: Tu-142 Bear F, Ilyushin I1-38 May, Beriev Be-12 Mail;
   hel: (afloat): Kamov Ka-25 Hormone, (ashore): Ka-25, Ka-27 Helix, Mil Mi-14 Haze.
   Recce/MR/ECM: 85: Tu-16 Badger, Tu-95 Bear, Tu-22 Blinder.
   Tankers/tpt: 40 ac incl Tu-16, perhaps 60 hel.
Naval Infantry: Bde: 3,000: 5 bns.
WESTERN TVD (with Atlantic OTVD): (HQ Legnica):
Strategic Forces (msls and ac under central command):
   SLBM: 18: Baltic Fleet: 6 G-II SSB.
   ICBM: (?50): SS-17 (1 field; ?theatre role).
   IRBM: 180: SS-20 (6 fields).
   MRBM: 112: SS-4.
   Bbrs: 1 Air Army (HQ: Legnica): some 210 Su-24 Fencer strike.
Air Defence Forces:
EWng systems: 2 OTH(B) near Minsk, 1 major complex near Tallinn; details unknown.
   Ftrs: See Tactical Aviation (MDs).
   SAM: 6,500 SA-2/-3/-5/-10; 175 complexes and sites.
Ground Forces: (HQ Legnica):
   3 Groups of Soviet Forces, Baltic, Belorussian, Carpathian MDs;
   63 divs (31 tk, 30 motor rifle, 2 AB), plus 6 arty divs.
Europe: 3 Gp, 8 Army HQ; 14 tk, 12 motor rifle divs.
East Germany (GSFG): (HQ Zossen Wiinsdorf): (380,000):
   1 Gp, 5 Army HQ; 10 tk, 9 motor rifle plus 1 arty divs; 1 air assault, 1 SS-12 (mod), 2 SS-23, 5 arty bdes;
   5 attack hel regts: some 600 Mi-8 Hip C/E; some 420 Mi-24 Hind D/E attack/assault; 5 Mi-8 Hip ECM, some 20 tpts.
Poland (NGF): (HQ Legnica): (40,000);
   1 Gp, 1 Army HQ; 2 tk divs; 1 Scud/SS-23 bn; 1 attack hel regt: 120 Mi-8 Hip C/E, Mi-24 Hind D/E.
Czechoslovakia (CGF): (HQ Tabor): (80,000):
   1 Gp, 2 Army HQ; 2 tk, 3 motor rifle divs; 1 air assault bn; 1 SS-12 (mod), 2 Scud/SS-23, 1 arty bdes;
   2 attack hel regts: 100 Mi-8 Hip D/E, Mi-24 Hind D/E.
Soviet Union: 17 tk, 18 motor rifle, 2 AB.
Baltic MD: (HQ: Kaliningrad):
   3 tk, 6 motor rifle, 2 AB plus 2 arty divs, 1 air assault bde: 80 Mi-8 Hip/-24 Hind.
Belorussian MD: (HQ Minsk):
   10 tk, 4 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs, 1 air assault bde: 200 Mi-8 Hip/-24 Hind.
Carpathian MD: (HQ Lvov):
   3 Army HQ, 4 tk, 8 motor rifle, plus 2 arty divs, 1 air assault bde: 50 Mi-8 Hip E, 10 Mi-24 Hind, 100 other hel.
Mobilization of the divs in the TVD could produce five Fronts, 13-14 Armies (which would also command the 31+ non-Soviet Warsaw Pact formations).
Equipment: up to 19,500 MBT; 14,000 arty, MRL, mor larger than 120mm; 265 FROG/SS-21, 265 Scud/SS-23, 65 SS-12 (mod) SSM; 2,500 SAM);
   some 1,220 hel, perhaps 420 armed.
Tactical Aviation: some 1,680 combat ac.
East Germany: Air Forces of the Group of Soviet Forces Germany (HQ ZossenWiinsdorf): some 690 combat ac.
   FGA: 440 Su-17 Fitter D/H/K, Su-24 Fencer, Su-25 Frogfoot,MiG-27 FloggerD/J.
   Ftrs: 180: MiG-21 Fishbed UN, MiG-25 Foxbat E, MiG-27 FloggerB/G.
   Recce: 50 Su-17 Fitter H, MiG-25 Foxbat B/D.
   ECM: 20 Yak-28 Brewer.
   Tpt: some 40 ac.
Poland: Air Forces of the Northern Group of Forces (HQ Legnica): no combat ac.
   Tpt: 10 ac.
Czechoslovakia: Air Forces of the Central Group of Forces (HQ Lvov): 105 combat ac.
   FGA: 45 MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   Ftrs: 45 MiG-27 Flogger B.
   Recce: 15 Su-17 Fitter H.
   Tpt: 5 ac.
Baltic MD Air Force (HQ Kaliningrad): some 288 combat ac.
   FGA: 90: 2 regts: MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-27 Flogger B/J.
   Ftrs: 135.
   Recce: 48: MiG-25 Foxbat; Su-17 Fitter.
   ECM: 15.
   Tpt: 5 ac.
Belorussian MD Air Force (HQ Minsk): 278 combat ac.
   FGA: 135: Su-17 Fitter, MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   Ftrs: 95 MiG-21 Fishbed J/K/L; MiG-23 Flogger B/G.
   Recce: 48 MiG-21 Fishbed H, MiG-25 Foxbat B/D.
   Tpt: n.a.
Carpathian MD Air Force (HQ Vinnitsa): 320 combat ac.
   FGA: 180: 4 regts with MiG-27 Flogger, Su-17 Fitter.
   Ftrs: 90: 2 regts MiG-21 Fishbed/MiG-23 Flogger.
   Recce: 30.
   ECM: 20.
   Tpt: 25 ac.
Navy: Baltic Fleet (HQ Kaliningrad): Bases: Kronshtadt, Paldiski, Liepaya, Baltiysk, Riga.
(Probably has dual role:
   (a) to support Soviet operations in Central Europe by sea control and amph operations against the German coast;
   (b) to support a North-Western TVD operation against Scandinavia.)
   Subs: 34: 3 SSG, 31 SS.
   Principal surface combatants: 45: 2 cruisers; 11 destroyers; 15 frigates; 17 corvettes.
   Minor surface combatants: 105.
   MCMV: 120.
   Amph: 20 ships, 30 craft.
   Auxiliaries: 58 principal.
Naval Aviation: combat: 129 ac, 30 hel.
   Bbrs: 2 regts: 40 Tu-22M Backfire.
   FGA: 1 regt: 30 Su-17 Fitter.
   ASW: 45: 10 11-38 May, 10 Be-I2G Mail ac; 30 Ka-25 Hormone, Ka-27 Helix, Mi-4 Hound hel.
   EW/recce: 14 ac.
   Utility: 45 ac and hel.
Naval Infantry: Bde: 1: 5 bns; 3,000.
Coast Defence:
   SSM: 1 div: 6 bns: some 100 SS-C-lb Sepal.
   Arty: 11 bns: some 72 130mm guns.
Strategic Forces:
   SLBM: nil.
   ICBM: (?180) SS-19 (2 fields).
   Bbrs: 1 Air Army (HQ Vinnitsa): some 210 Su-24.
AD Forces:
   Ftrs: 120.
   SAM: 120 SA-2/-3/-5/-10 sites.
Ground Forces (HQ Vinnitsa): 1 Group of Forces, 2 MDs; 26 divs (9 tk, 16 motor rifle, 1 AB), plus 3 arty.
Hungary (SGF): (HQ Budapest) (65,000):
   1 Army HQ: 2 tk, 2 motor rifle divs, 1 air assault bde: 65 Mi-8 Hip, Mi-24 Hind hel.
Kiev MD (HQ Kiev):
   7 tk, 6 motor rifle plus 2 arty divs; 30 Mi-8 HipE.
Odessa MD (HQ Odessa):
   8 motor rifle, 1 AB, plus 1 arty divs, 1 air assault bde: 80 Mi-8 Hip, Mi-24 Hind assault/attack; some Mi-2 Hoplite, Mi-6 Hook tpt hel.
Mobilization of all these forces (and those of Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania) could produce 4 Fronts plus perhaps 5 all-arms Armies.
Soviet equipment: up to 7,000 MBT; 4,800 arty, MRL, mor larger than 120mm; 85 FROG/SS-21, 110 Scud SSM; 900 SAM;
   175 armed and perhaps 160 other hel.
Tactical Aviation: (HQ Vinnitsa): some 480 combat ac.
Hungary: Air Forces of the Southern Group of Forces (HQ Budapest): 197 combat ac.
   FGA: 90: 2 regts: Su-17 Fitter, Su-24 Fencer.
   Ftrs: 90: 2 regts: MiG-23Flogger.
   Recce: 12: 1 sqn: Su-17 Fitter K.
   ECM: 5 ac.
   Tpt: 20 ac.
Kiev MD Air Force: (HQ Kiev): some 90 combat ac.
   FGA: 45 MiG-27 FloggerD/J.
   Ftrs: 45 MiG-23 Flogger G.
   Tpt: 5.
Odessa MD Air Force (HQ Odessa): 192 combat ac.
   FGA: 90: 1 regt MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   Ftrs: 90: MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-23 Flogger B/G.
   Recce: 12: 1 sqn: Su-17 Fitter H.
   Tpt: some.
Navy: (Black Sea Fleet) (HQ Sevastopol): Bases: Sevastopol, Balaclava, Poti, Odessa.
(Fleet primary mission probably to support operations in Thrace with Mediterranean Sqn; secondary role, sea control off Turkish coast)
Subs: 34: 2 SSG, 32 SS.
   Principal surface combatants: 69: 2 ASW hel carriers, 7 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 13 frigates, 29 corvettes (4 in Caspian).
   Minor surface combatants: 105 (5 in Caspian).
   MCMV: 90 (25 in Caspian).
   Amph: 25 ships, 40 craft (28 in Caspian).
   Auxiliaries: 67 principal (7 in Caspian).
Naval Aviation: combat: ?260 ac; 40 hel.
   Bbrs: 100: 1 regt Tu-22M Backfire, 2 regts Tu-16 Badger C/G.
   FGA: (?65): afloat Yak-38 Forger, ashore: 35 Su-17 Fitter.
   Recce/EW: 45: 2 regts+ Tu-22 Blinder, Tu-16 Badger, 11-38 May, Be-12 Mail, An-12 Cub.
   ASW: (?50): 2 regts: Tu-142 Bear, 11-38 May.
   ASW hel: 40: Ka-25 Hormone A.
Naval Inf: 3,000: bde: 5 bns.
(Mediterranean Squadron (HQ Afloat): elms of Northern and Black Sea Fleets; average composition):
Subs: 6-8.
Principal surface combatants: 4-8.
MCMV: 1.
Amph: 2.
Auxiliaries: 17; AGI: 2.
SOUTHERN STRATEGIC THEATRE (GTVD): (HQ Tashkent): (also may be called 'Near Eastern'):
SOUTHERN TVD: (HQ Tashkent):
North Caucasus, Trans-Caucasus, Turkestan MDs, Afghanistan).
Strategic Forces (under central control):
   IRBM: 45 SS-20 (2 fields).
Air Defence Forces:
   EWng System: 1 site: Lyaki (Trans-Caucasus).
   AD area (see MD Air Forces, below).
Ground Forces: 3 MDs: 30 divs (1 tk, 28 motor rifle, 1 AB) plus 2 arty divs; 2 indep motor rifle, 1 air assault bdes.
North Caucasus MD (HQ Rostov):
   1 tk, 7 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs.
Trans-Caucasus MD (HQ Tbilisi):
   12 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs. 620 hel incl 60 Mi-24 Hind, Mi-8 Hip, Mi-6 Hook, Mi-2 Hoplite.
Turkestan MD (HQ Tashkent):
   6 motor rifle divs.
Afghanistan: (HQ Kabul):
   1 Army HQ, 3 motor rifle, 1 AB divs; 2 motor rifle, 1 air assault bdes.
   Some 270 combat hel: 140 Mi-24 Hind (?and Mi-28 Havoc), 130 Mi-8 Hip assault/tpt, Mi-6 Hook, Mi-2 Hoplite.
Perhaps 1 or 2 divs Cat 1,2 or 3 Cat 2, rest Cat 3 -except in Afghanistan, where units will be Cat 1 but divs may lack such eqpt as SAM.
   Mobilization could put 2-3 Fronts, perhaps 9 all-arms armies, in the field.
Perhaps: 5,500 MBT; 7,200 arty, MRL, mor larger than 120mm; 115 FROG, 75 Scud SSM; 1,100 SAM, some 400 combat hel.
Tactical Aviation (HQ Tashkent): 600 combat ac.
Trans-Caucasus MD Air Force (HQ Tbilisi): 453 combat ac.
   FGA: 315: 7 regts: Su-17 Fitter, MiG-27 Flogger D/J, Su-24 Fencer,Su-25Frogfoot.
   Ftrs: 90: 2 regts: MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-23 Flogger B/G, MiG-25 Foxbat A.
   Recce: 48: 1 regt: Su-17 Fitter H, MiG-25 Foxbat B/D.
   Tpt: 20 ac.
Afghanistan: 1 Air Army (HQ Kabul (Bagram)): 147 combat ac.
   FGA: 90 Su-25 Frogfoot.
   Ftrs: 45 MiG-23 Flogger B/G.
   Recce: 12 Su-17 Fitter.
   Tpt: VTA and Aeroflot ac from USSR in spt.
Navy: (Caspian Flotilla) (HQ Baku):
   Principal combatants: 4 corvettes.
   Minor combatants: 3.
   MCMV: 25.
   Amph: 25 craft.
   Auxiliaries: 7 principal.
Strategic Forces (under central command):
   SLBM: nil.
   ICBM: ?788: SS-11 (4 fields, (188) msls), SS-13 (1 field, 60 msls), SS-17 (1 field, ?100 msls), SS-18 (3 fields, ?188 msls),
   SS-19 (2 fields, 180 msls), SS-25 (some 72 msls).
   IRBM: 45: SS-20 (1 field).
   Bbrs: 530: 2 Air Armies:
   (HQ Moscow): 160: 4 divs: 20 Mya-4 Bison, 140 Tu-95 Bear.
   (HQ Smolensk): 370: 100 Tu-22M Backfire, (?100) Tu-22 Blinder, 140 Tu-16 Badger, perhaps 1 bn (30 ac) Su-24 Fencer.
   Recce/ECM: 137.
   Tpt: 90 ac.
Air Defence Forces:
   EWng systems: major sites near Pechora, Pushkino; detailed deployments unknown.
   AD Area: (HQ Moscow).
   Ftrs: 240: 6 regts: MiG-25 Foxbat, MiG-31 Foxhound; MiG-23 Flogger,Su-15 Flagon.
   ABM: Moscow complexes: 2 Galosh; 7 new missile sites reported under construction.
   SAM: 135 SA-2/-3/-5, 40 SA-10 complexes and sites.
Ground Forces: 3 MDs; 18 divs (3 tk, 14 motor rifle, 1 AB).
   Roles would be to protect Moscow and to provide first-line reinforcement.
   All 7 AB divs are centrally controlled, though deployed to TVDs as shown.
Moscow MD (HQ Moscow):
   2 tk, 6 motor rifle, 1 AB divs; 80 Mi-8 Hip and Mi-24 Hind hel (?50 armed).
Ural MD (HQ Sverdlovsk):
   1 tk, 4 motor rifle divs.
Volga MD (HQ Kuybyshev):
   4 motor rifle divs.
Perhaps 2 divs, plus the AB,Cat 1 ; rest Cat 2 or cadre. On mobilization could field 4,500 MBT; 2,300 arty, MRL, mor larger than 120mm;
   75 FROG, 35 Scud, 15 SS-12 SSM.
Tactical Aviation: Moscow MD Air Force (HQ Moscow): some 145 combat ac.
   FGA: 45: 1 regt Su-17 Fitter.
   Ftrs: 90: 2 regts MiG-23/-27 Flogger, (?12) MiG-29 Fulcrum.
   Recce: 12 ac.
   Tpt: some 20
FAR EASTERN STRATEGIC THEATRE (GTVD) (HQ Irkutsk): (with Pacific, Indian Ocean OTVDs):
FAR EASTERN TVD: (HQ Irkutsk): Central Asian, Siberian, Transbaykal, Far Eastem MDs, Mongolia.
Strategic Forces (under central command):
   SLBM: 385: Pacific Fleet: 32 subs: 9 D-I (108), 7 D-III (112), 9 Y-I (144), 7 G-II (21).
   ICBM: (?380): SS-11(4 fields, ?260 msls, could have theatre role), SS-18 (3 fields, ?120 msls).
   IRBM: 171: SS-20 (4 fields, 19 sites).
   Bbrs: perhaps 170: 1 Air Army (HQ Irkutsk): 5 regts: 2 with 40 Tu-22M Backfire, 3 with (?30) Tu-22 Blinder, 100 Tu-16 Badger.
   Spt: perhaps 79 recce/ECM: ?4 Tu-95 Bear E, 15 Tu-16 Badger F; 45 Tu-16 Badger H/J/K, 15 Tu-22 Blinder C.
   Tkrs: some 9 Tu-16 Badger A.
Air Defence Forces:
   EWng systems: 40 in areas: Kamchatka, Nikolayev-na-Amur, Mishelevka, Abalakova, Sary-shagan.
   AD areas: 3: 1 in Transbaykal, 2 in Far East MDs (see MD Air Forces, below).
   SAM: 215 SA-2/-3/-5, 10 SA-10 complexes and sites.
Ground Forces: 4 MDs: 53 divs (7 tk, 45 motor rifle, 1 AB) plus 4 arty divs; 2 air assault bdes.
Central Asian MD (HQ Alma Ata):
   1 tk, 6 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs, 1 air assault bde; 145 hel incl 70 Mi-8, Mi-24.
Siberian MD (HQ Novosibirsk):
   6 motor rifle plus 1 arty divs.
Transbaykal MD (HQ Chita):
   2 tk, 8 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs. 225 hel incl Mi-8 Hip, Mi-24 Hind.
Far Eastern MD (HQ Khabarovsk):
   2 tk, 22 motor rifle, 1 AB, plus 1 arty divs, 1 air assault bde; some 670 hel.
Mongolia (HQ Ulan Bator):
   1 Army HQ, 2 tk, 3 motor rifle divs. (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
Div readiness: 35% at Cat 1 or 2. Mobilization could put 4 Fronts, perhaps 12 Armies (4 tk), into the field.
   Eqpt: perhaps 14,900 MBT; 10,000 arty, MRL, mor larger than 120mm; 225 FROG, 100 Scud, 38 SS-12 (mod) SSM; 1,800 SAM, some 1,000 hel.
Tactical Aviation (HQ Irkutsk): (150,000): some 1,350 combat ac.
Central Asian MD Air Force, (HQ Novosibirsk, incl Siberian MD): 228 combat ac.
   FGA: 90 MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   Ftrs: 90 MiG-21 Fishbed, MiG-23 Flogger.
   ECM/recce: 48 MiG-25 Foxbat B/D.
   Tpt: 100ac.
Transbaykal MD Air Force (HQ Chita, incl Mongolia): 420 combat ac.
   FGA: 270: 2 divs, MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   Ftrs: 90: 2 regts: MiG-21 Fishbed J/K; MiG-21 Fishbed UN, MiG-25 Foxbat A/E, MiG-23 Flogger B/G.
   Recce: 4 bns: 60 Yak-28 Brewer D.
Far-Eastern MD Air Force (HQ Khabarovsk): control centres: Petropavlovsk, Yuzhno Sakhalinsk; some 703 combat ac.
   FGA: 315: 7 regts: MiG-21 Fishbed L, MiG-27 Flogger D/J, Su-7 Fitter A, Su-17 Fitter D/H/K.
   Ftrs: 270: MiG-23 Flogger, MiG-25 Foxbat A, MiG-31 Foxhound.
   Recce: 108: Yak-28 Brewer D, MiG-21 Fishbed H, MiG-25 Foxbat B/D.
   ECM: 10 Yak-28 Brewer E.
Navy (Pacific Fleet): (HQ Vladivostok): Bases: Vladivostok, Petropavlovsk, Sovyetskaya Gavan.
Subs: 77: 25 SSGN/SSG, 52 SSN/SS.
   Principal surface combatants: 82: 2 carriers, 15 cruisers, 14 destroyers, 21 frigates, 30 corvettes.
   Minor surface combatants: 136.
   MCMV: 96.
   Amph: (incl 1 Rogov LPD) 18 ships, 41 craft.
   Auxiliaries: 128 principal.
Detachments (average 3 subs, 4 principal, 12 minor surface combatants, 2 amph, 12 spt ships) are normally deployed in the Indian Ocean and
   South China Sea; facilities also in Vietnam (Cam Ranh Bay), South Yemen (Aden, Socotra) and Ethiopia (Dahlak Is, Asmara).
Naval Air (Pacific Fleet Air Force): (HQ Sovetskaya Gavan): combat: some ac, some 105 hel.
   Bbrs: 160: 1 regt Tu-22M Backfire, 4 regts Tu-16 Badger C/G.
   FGA: 30: (afloat): 2 bns Yak-38 Forger A/B.
   ASW: 175. ac: 70: Tu-142 Bear, 11-38 May, Be-12 Mail. hel: (afloat): 2 bns Ka-25 Hormone A; (ashore): 1 bn Ka-27 Helix, 2 bns Mi-14 Haze.
   MR/EWng/ECM: some 35 ac.
   Utility: 65.
Naval Infantry: Div HQ, 2 regts.
Afghanistan (Southern GTVD): 118,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB).
Mongolia (Far Eastern GTVD): 65,000.
Vietnam: (7,000); detachments average 20-25 vessels (incl some 3 subs, 4 principal, 12 minor combat vessels, 2 amph auxiliaries),
   8 Tu-95 Bear, 16 Tu-16 Badger D/K MR or ASW, 1 sqn of MiG-23 Flogger ftr ac, AA, SAM, electronic monitoring station.
Other: Algeria 1,000; Angola 1,500, plus 6 ships, MR ac; Congo 100;
   Cuba some 8,000 (1 bde (2,800), advisers (?3,100) plus some 2,100 ELINT technicians);
   Ethiopia 1,500 (plus MCMV, dry-dock, I1-38 ac, naval inf det);
   India 200; Iraq 600; Kampuchea 200; Laos 500; Libya 2,000; Mali 200; Mozambique 300; Nicaragua 50; Peru 160; Syria 4,000;
   Vietnam 2,500; N. Yemen 500; Africa (remainder) 900.
KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti): 230,000 (70-75% conscripts: ?167,000):
   border tps (incl Maritime Border Guards, 23,000), Kremlin Guard; Special Guard; Special Sigs unit (40,000 tps).
   Equipment: tks, SP guns, AFV, ac and ships (2 Krivak-III (2 twin SA-N-4 SAM), 10 Grisha-II, 1 Purga frigates; some Pauk FAC(T);
   105 Stenka FAC(P); 8 Muravey, 4 Pchela hydrofoils; 30 Zhuk, some SO-1, 10 T-58, 14 T-43 patrol craft; 8 Susanin ice-breakers (6 armed));
   11 Sorum, 40 Okhtensky armed tugs.
MVD (Ministerstvo Vrutrennikh Del): 340,000: internal security tps; some 30 divs with tks and AFV. By law part of armed forces of USSR.
DOSAAF (Dobrovalnoe Obshchestovo Sodeistviya Armii, Aviastii I Flotu)
   (part-time military, air, naval training organization; 5 million are instructors/activists);
   330,000+ units: flight training, shooting, parachuting and 140 hours of pre-military training for those aged 15 and over in schools,
   colleges and workers' centres.
Young Pioneer (ages 8-15), some trg.


The Alliances and Europe



   There are indications that a degree of modernization is taking place within the East European armies. Though numbers are not available, Czechoslovakia and East Germany are reported as having begun to receive SS-21 to replace their FROG-7. Bulgaria and East Germany appear to have received additional Scud SSM. Bulgaria and Hungary show increases in their T-72 MBT holdings and the Romanian M-77 variant of the T-55 is now believed to be in the inventory in significant numbers. Bulgaria is now thought to have the SA-13 SAM. We include the Polish Internal Security Forces - a 'Home Guard' element in this year's presentation. This force has been known to exist for some time but its size and relationship with the rest of the defence establishment was not clearly understood.
   There have been a number of minor changes in the respective naval inventories. Poland's SAM Kotlin destroyer is reported to be out of service; East Germany has added a third Rostock (Koni-class)frigate. The six elderly Hai patrol craft in the East German Navy have been retired and partially replaced by three Tarantul which carry four SS-N-8 SSM. Some of the oldest East German and Polish fast attack craft were being withdrawn. East Germany has retired three Osa-I missile boats and Poland one. Each has also retired, respectively, one Libelle and thirteen Pilica torpedo boats.
   The East European Air Forces entries have also shown changes. Bulgaria and East Germany now have a full squadron of Mi-14 ASW helicopters each. Bulgaria is reducing its MiG-17 inventory and has increased its MiG-23 FGA and fighter fleets by almost two squadrons-worth. Its MiG-21 interceptor inventory has also been enlarged. Czechoslovakia appears slowly to be phasing out its Su-7; its Su-25 Frogfoot squadron is now believed to be operational (this is one of two non-Soviet Pact deployments of this type). East Germany has phased out its MiG-17 FGA, replacing them with Su-20. Total numbers are lower as the new types are phased in. East Germany also appears to have reduced its numbers of interceptors. As in most of the Pact fighter/interceptor forces it has been difficult to assess the numbers of squadrons by type and, while we believe modernization is taking place, its extent is not easy to determine. Earlier assessments of the Hungarian holdings of MiG-23 interceptors may have been too high. That Air Force, however, has taken on a new role with the introduction of a squadron of Su-25 Frogfoot, the second such deployment within the Pact. Poland, also, is reducing its inventory of MiG-17; the replacement is the Su-22. The exception to this pattern is Romania, which seems to have increased its MiG-17 FGA inventory; it also appears to have added to its MiG-23 interceptor total.
   This modernization, though modest, does represent an enhancement of the overall capabilities of the forces concerned. They still, however, remain significantly less well equipped than the Soviet Union's Forces in Eastern Europe.
   Economic Trends in 1985
   In 1984 economic growth in the six Warsaw Pact countries rose by over 5%, a substantial improvement over the 2% fall in Net Material Product (NMP) in 1981, but the performance was not repeated in 1985 when NMP grew by only 3.5%. Furthermore, the growth rate of industrial output declined from 4.8% in 1984 to around 4% in 1985. This modest fall suggests that the largest sector of these economies did not perform as badly as many Western observers claimed.
   The unusually severe winter of 1984/5 affected electricity and coal production and disrupted transport services. Czechoslovakia and the GDR apart, all countries had energy shortages of varying degrees (Romania was badly affected for the second year running) and this was reflected in a particularly poor performance by the six in the first quarter of 1985.
   The shortfall in energy supply and the adverse climatic conditions -in addition to the effects of cold, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania were also affected by drought -translated into a decline in manufacturing and a more marked drop in agricultural output, which led in turn, to a reduction of surplus goods available for export and so to a shortfall of hard currency for imports. Furthermore, the East European countries met greater competition in world markets from third-world producers, and the decline in economic activity in Western economies also had a negative effect on export opportunities. The slower growth in domestic production was paralleled by a smaller increase in imports. lt also appears that trade amongst East European countries grew at a slower pace, which might partly reflect attempts by the Soviet Union to reduce its balance of trade surplus with its partners.
   The factors mentioned above had an inhibiting effect on Warsaw Pact economies in the short run, but in the medium and long term additional problems affect them. East European industrial output is characterized by very high energy/raw material/labour inputs per unit of output, a slow growth in the rate of labour productivity, and diminishing capital productivity (as measured by NMP/fixed assets).
   The new dawn expected by Western observers as a result of the changed leadership in Moscow will be a long time coming, though it is considered to be an essential prerequisite for economic advancement and improving living standards. The Soviet Union appeared to be making progress in this direction in the first quarter of 1986, and it is clear that substantial encouragement has been given to its partners to improve the quality and level of their output, and to achieve a greater degree of integration and specialization in production. Of paramount importance is the better utilization of capital resources, including the creation of new plant where necessary (though, more importantly by modernizing existing plant), and trying to hasten the introduction of new technologies and production methods.
   The Chernobyl disaster in late April 1986 will have negative repercussions on Warsaw Pact economies and will delay the ambitious plans set out in the latest Five Year Programmes (FYPs). All these countries have been affected by restrictions imposed on their agricultural exports and are likely to suffer from a decrease in tourist flows - an increasingly important source of hard currency, particularly for the Balkan countries.
   The achievements of the different countries over the FYP 1981-85 were varied. Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia came close to their NMP targets -and the former's performance might have been substantially better, had it not been for the bad winter of 1984/5 and poor agricultural returns both in 1983 and 1985. Romania, surprisingly, was the second best achiever (to the GDR) in NMP terms, but Hungary only attained half the annual NMP growth rate prescribed in the FYP. Poland's results were in line with the FYP for 1983-85, but (for all that this represented an improvement over the crisis years of 1978-82) NMP in 1985 was still below that of 1978. The German Democratic Republic continues to outperform the other economies, with a steady annual rate of NMP growth, as opposed to its partners' oscilating records.
   The new set of FYPs aims at major increases in output, to be gained by more efficient resource allocation - energy, raw materials, plant and labour - moving from extensive towards intensive economic development by means of changes in management and planning structures.
   Leaders have called for investment growth above that of consumption and the rebuilding and upgrading of existing plant, rather than investment in new productive equipment. In the short run, most Warsaw Pact countries, including the Soviet Union, could make important gains by improving existing infrastructure. It has been suggested that this 'modernization' process will require increased Western technology imports, but these will be limited by the availability of convertible currencies. These countries may prefer joint projects with Western firms, with a view to exporting part of the output to obtain hard currency. They are likely also to expand intra-Pact co-operation in industrial production aimed at improving standardization and quality of output.
   Improvements in standards of living have been emphasized in the new batch of FYPs and clearly are a pivotal part of the medium- and long-term economic and social development strategies of Warsaw Pact countries. If the generally perceived degree of inefficiency believed to pertain in the East European economies actually exists, then small but pervasive changes to managerial practices and planning methods should go a long way towards achieving the improvements sought over the next five years.


   Есть признаки того, что в восточноевропейских армиях происходит определенная модернизация. Несмотря на отсутствие цифр, Чехословакия и Восточная Германия, по сообщениям, начали получать SS-21 взамен своего FROG-7. Болгария и Восточная Германия, по-видимому, получили дополнительные БР Scud. Болгария и Венгрия демонстрируют увеличение числа танков Т-72, а румынский вариант Т-55 М-77 в настоящее время, как полагают, находится на службе в значительном количестве. В настоящее время считается, что Болгария имеет ЗРК SA-13. Мы включаем польские силы внутренней безопасности - элемент "внутренней охраны" в презентацию этого года. Известно, что эти силы существуют уже в течение некоторого времени, однако их численность и взаимоотношения с остальной частью сил обороны не были четко определены.
   В соответствующих Военно-Морских Силах произошел ряд незначительных изменений. Сообщается, что польский эсминец SAM Kotlin выведен из состава; Восточная Германия добавила третий фрегат Rostock (класса Koni). Шесть старых патрульных кораблей ВМС Восточной Германии были выведены и частично заменены тремя Tarantul, которые несут четыре SSM SS-N-8. Некоторые из старейших восточногерманских и польских быстроходных ударных кораблей были выведены. Восточная Германия сняла три ракетных катера Osa-I, а Польша - один. Каждый из них также снял, соответственно, один Libelle и тринадцать торпедных катеров Pilica.
   Восточноевропейские ВВС также продемонстрировали изменения. Болгария и Восточная Германия теперь имеют полную эскадрилью противолодочных вертолетов Ми-14 каждая. Болгария сокращает численность МиГ-17 и увеличивает число Миг-23 и истребительный флот почти на две эскадрильи. Увеличен и арсенал перехватчиков МиГ-21. Чехословакия, по-видимому, постепенно сворачивает свой Су-7; ее эскадрилья Су-25 теперь считается действующей (это одно из двух развертываний этого типа, не связанных с Советским пактом). Восточная Германия отказалась от своих МиГ-17, заменив их Су-20. По мере постепенного внедрения новых типов общее число уменьшается. Восточная Германия, по-видимому, также сократила число перехватчиков. Как и в большинстве истребительных сил пакта, было трудно оценить количество эскадрилий по типам, и, хотя мы считаем, что модернизация происходит, ее масштабы нелегко определить. Более ранние оценки венгерских перехватчиков МиГ-23, возможно, были слишком высоки. Эта авиация, однако, взяла на себя новую роль с введением эскадрильи Су-25, второго такого развертывания в рамках пакта. Польша также сокращает свои МиГ-17; на замену идет Су-22. Исключением из этой схемы является Румыния, которая, по-видимому, увеличила число МиГ-17; она также, по-видимому, добавила к своему общему количеству перехватчиков МиГ-23.
   Эта модернизация, хотя и скромная, представляет собой укрепление общего потенциала соответствующих сил. Однако они по-прежнему значительно хуже оснащены, чем силы Советского Союза в Восточной Европе.
   Экономические тенденции 1985 года
   В 1984 году экономический рост в шести странах Варшавского договора вырос более чем на 5%, что является существенным улучшением по сравнению с 2% падением чистого материального продукта (NMP) в 1981 году, но показатели не повторились в 1985 году, когда NMP вырос всего на 3,5%. Кроме того, темпы роста промышленного производства снизились с 4,8% в 1984 году до около 4% в 1985 году. Это скромное падение говорит о том, что самый крупный сектор экономики этих стран показал себя не так плохо, как утверждали многие западные наблюдатели.
   Необычно суровая зима 1984/5 года сказалась на производстве электроэнергии и угля и нарушила работу транспортных служб. Если не считать Чехословакии и ГДР, все страны испытывали в той или иной степени нехватку энергии (Румыния серьезно пострадала второй год подряд), и это нашло отражение в особенно плохих показателях шести стран в первом квартале 1985 года.
   Нехватка энергоресурсов и неблагоприятные климатические условия - в дополнение к последствиям холодов на Болгарию, Венгрию и Румынию также повлияла засуха - привели к сокращению производства и более заметному сокращению сельскохозяйственного производства, что, в свою очередь, привело к сокращению излишков товаров, доступных для экспорта, и, таким образом, к дефициту твердой валюты для импорта. Кроме того, восточноевропейские страны сталкиваются с усилением конкуренции на мировых рынках со стороны производителей из стран третьего мира, а снижение экономической активности в западных странах также негативно сказывается на экспортных возможностях. Замедление роста внутреннего производства сопровождалось меньшим увеличением импорта. Представляется также, что торговля между восточноевропейскими странами росла более медленными темпами, что может частично отражать попытки Советского Союза сократить сальдо торгового баланса со своими партнерами.
   Упомянутые выше факторы в краткосрочной перспективе оказали тормозящее воздействие на экономику стран Варшавского договора, однако в среднесрочной и долгосрочной перспективе на них влияют дополнительные проблемы. Промышленное производство в Восточной Европе характеризуется очень высокими затратами энергии/сырья/рабочей силы на единицу продукции, медленным ростом производительности труда и снижением производительности капитала (измеряемой NMP/основными средствами).
   Новый рассвет, ожидаемый западными наблюдателями в результате смены руководства в Москве, наступит еще не скоро, хотя он считается важной предпосылкой для экономического прогресса и повышения уровня жизни. Советский Союз, как представляется, добился прогресса в этом направлении в первом квартале 1986 года, и очевидно, что его партнерам была оказана существенная поддержка в повышении качества и уровня их продукции, а также в достижении большей степени интеграции и специализации в производстве. Первостепенное значение имеет более эффективное использование капитальных ресурсов, в том числе создание нового завода там, где это необходимо (хотя, что более важно, модернизация существующего завода), и попытка ускорить внедрение новых технологий и методов производства.
   Чернобыльская катастрофа в конце апреля 1986 года будет иметь негативные последствия для экономики стран Варшавского договора и приведет к задержке осуществления амбициозных планов, изложенных в последних пятилетних программах. Все эти страны пострадали от ограничений, введенных в отношении их сельскохозяйственного экспорта, и, вероятно, пострадают от сокращения туристических потоков - все более важного источника твердой валюты, особенно для балканских стран.
   Достижения различных стран за период 1981-1985 годов были различными. Болгария и Чехословакия приблизились к своим целям NMP - и результаты первого могли бы быть значительно лучше, если бы не плохая зима 1984/5 и плохая сельскохозяйственная отдача как в 1983, так и в 1985 годах. Румыния, как это ни удивительно, была второй страной, добившейся наилучших результатов (по сравнению с ГДР) в плане NMP, однако Венгрия достигла лишь половины ежегодных темпов роста NMP, предписанных в пятилетнем плане. Результаты Польши соответствовали пятилетнему плану за 1983-1985 годы, но (при всем том, что это представляло собой улучшение по сравнению с кризисными годами 1978-1982 годов) NMP в 1985 году все еще был ниже 1978 года. Германская Демократическая Республика по-прежнему опережает другие страны с устойчивыми годовыми темпами роста ВНП, в отличие от рекордных показателей своих партнеров.
   Новый комплекс пятилетних планов нацелен на значительное увеличение объема производства, которое должно быть достигнуто за счет более эффективного распределения ресурсов - энергии, сырья, растений и рабочей силы - путем перехода от экстенсивного к интенсивному экономическому развитию посредством изменений в структурах управления и планирования.
   Лидеры призвали к росту инвестиций выше уровня потребления и восстановлению и модернизации существующих предприятий, а не к инвестированию в новое производственное оборудование. В краткосрочной перспективе большинство стран Варшавского договора, включая Советский Союз, могли бы добиться значительных успехов путем улучшения существующей инфраструктуры. Было высказано предположение, что этот процесс модернизации потребует увеличения импорта западных технологий, но они будут ограничены наличием конвертируемых валют. Эти страны могут предпочесть совместные проекты с западными фирмами в целях экспорта части продукции для получения твердой валюты. Они, вероятно, также расширят сотрудничество внутри пакта в области промышленного производства, направленное на повышение стандартизации и качества продукции.
   Повышение уровня жизни было подчеркнуто в новой серии пятилетних планов и, несомненно, является одним из ключевых элементов среднесрочных и долгосрочных стратегий экономического и социального развития стран Варшавского договора. Если общепризнанная степень неэффективности, которая, как считается, присуща восточноевропейским странам, действительно существует, то небольшие, но всепроникающие изменения в управленческой практике и методах планирования должны в значительной степени способствовать достижению желаемых улучшений в течение следующих пяти лет.

NMP 1984e: leva 24.80 bn; 1985e: leva 25.50 bn; growth 1984: 4.6% 1985: 1.8%
GNP 1984e: $27.0-37.0 bn; 1985s: $25.0-55.0 bn
Inflation 1984: 1.0% 1985e: 1.3%
Debt 1984: $2.25 bn 1985: $2.10 bn
Def exp* 1984e: leva 969 m ($1.491 bn); 1985e: leva 1.010 bn ($1.656 bn)
   (* Defence expenditures estimated, since budgets have not been available for over ten years.)
$l=leva 1984: 1.007 (off.) 0.65 (adj.); 1985: 1.050 (off.) 0.61 (adj.)

Population: 8,996,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 834,500 929,800
Women: 797,400 926,800
Regular: 148,500 (94,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army and Air Force 2 years, Navy 3 years.
Reserves: 195,000. Army 150,000 (600,000 more have a reserve liability); Navy (to age 55, officers 60 or 65) 25,000; Air (to age 60) 20,000 (AD 15,000).
ARMY: 105,000 (73,000 conscripts).
3 Military Districts:
8 motor rifle divs (3 at Cat 3 = cadre).
5 tk bdes.
3 SSM bdes with Scud.
4 arty regts.
3 AA arty regts.
2 SAM regts.
1 para regt.
Special commando coys.
Tks: 1,950: 400 T-34, 1,400 T-54/-55, some 150T-72.
AFV: recce: 250 BRDM-1/-2. MICV: some 60 BMP-1. APC: 1,000 BTR-50/-60, 35 OT-62, MT-LB.
Arty: 1,400: guns: 85mm: 50 D-44 and SD-44 SP; 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: 700 M-1931; 130mm: M-46.
   gun/how: 152mm: M-1937, M-1955/(D-20).
   how: 122mm: 100 M-1938 (M-30), D-30.
   MRL: 122mm: 100 BM-21, 130mm: M-51. SSM: 40 FROG-7, 36 Scud.
   mor: 82mm, 350 120mm and 160mm.
ATK: RCL: 73mm: 150 SPG-9. guns: 76mm: 100 M-1942. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP).
AD: guns: 400: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: S-60; 85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19 towed. SAM: 45 SA-4/-6; SA-13.
NAVY: 8,500 (3,000 conscripts); 3 combat hel.
Bases: Varna, Burgas, Sozopol, Atiya.
Subs: 3 R-class.
Frigates: 2 Riga.
Corvettes: 3 Poti.
FAC(G): 6 with Styx SSM: 3 Osa-о,3 Osa-Il.
Patrol craft: 13: 6 SO-1 large, 7 Zhuk coastal.
MCMV: 33: 2 T-43 ocean; 3 Sonya, 6 Vanya coastal; 4 Yevgenya, 18 PO-2 inshore<.
Amph: LCU: 19 Vydra; LCA: 4 MFP D-3.
Spt: 1 underway replenishment, 3 coastal tankers.
Hel: 2 sqns: 1 ASW with 12 Mil Mi-14; 1 SAR with 2 Mi-2, 6 Mi-4.
Coastal arty: 2,100: 2 regts, 20 btys: ?150 100mm, SM-4-1 130mm, 150mm guns; 1 bty with 6 SSC-2b Samlet SSM.
Naval Guard: (?500): 3 coys.
AIR FORCE: 35,000 (18,000 conscripts); some 275 combat ac, some 25 armed hel.
1 air division: 7 combat regts:
FGA: 2 regts (6 sqns) with 50 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, 45 MiG-23BM.
Interceptor/ftr: 4 regts (?8 sqns): some 35 MiG-23 Flogger B; 115 MiG-21PFM.
Recce: 1 regt with 30 MiG-17/-21.
Tpt: 1 regt with 5 Antonov An-12, 5 Ilyushin I1-14, 4 An-24, 2 Tupolev Tu-134, 9 An-2.
Hel: 1 regt with 10 Mi-2, 30 Mi-4/-8, 25 Mi-24 (attack).
Trg: incl 80 Aero L-29, Yakovlev Yak-11/-18, L-39, 30MiG-15UTI.
AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex.
1 para regt.
1 AD div: (?4,500): 3 zones: 30 SAM sites; some 210 SA-2/-3.
Ministry of Interior border guards 15,000; 16 regts.
Security police: 7,500.
People's Territorial Militia 150,000.
'Voluntary Organization for Co-operation in National Defence'.

NMP 1984e: Kcs 525.78 bn; 1985e: Kcs 549.88 bn
growth 1984: 3.5% 1985: 3.1%
GNP 1984e: Kcs $73.0-128.0 bn; 1985s: Kcs $67.0-125.0 bn
Inflation 1984: 1.0% 1985: 2.3%
Debt 1984: $3.50 bn 1985: $2.80 bn
Def bdgt* 1985s: Kcs 25.7 bn (4.849 bn); 1986: Kcs 27.0 bn (4.426 bn) (*Incl police and security budget.)
$1=Kcs 1985: 6.95 (off.) 5.30 (adj.); 1986: 6.00 (off.) 4.50 (adj.)
Kcs = koruny

Population: 15,631,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,534,000 1,629,200
Women: 1,474,900 1,612,200
Regular: 201,000 (118,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army 2 years, Air force 3 years.
Reserves: 280,000. Army 250,000 (295,000 more with liability to age 50 (men) or 60 (officers)); Air 30,000.
ARMY: 145,000 (100,000 conscripts).
2 Military Districts:
5 tk divs (1 at Cat 1, 2 each Cats 2/3).
5 motor rifle divs (3 at Cat 1, 1 each Cats 2/3).
1 arty div: 2 arty, 3 Scud SSM bdes, 2 ATK regts (6 bns).
1 AB regt.
6 engr bdes.
Civil Defence Troops (2,000): 5 regts.
Tks: 3,500 T-54/-55/-72.
AFV: recce: 1,250: OT-65, BRDM.
   MICV: 1,100 BMP. APC: 2,500 OT-62/-64/-810.
Arty: guns: 100mm: 250 M-53; 122mm: 100 M-1931/37; 130mm: 75 M-46. gun/how: 152mm: 90 M-1937.
   how: 105mm: 250 D-30; 122mm: M-30 towed, M-1974 SP; 152mm: 150 DANA (Tatra 813 truck-mounted) SP.
   MRL: 122mm: 200 RM-70; 130mm: 120 M-51. SSM: 40 FROG/SS-21, 27 Scud.
   mor: ?12 240mm M-240.
ATK: grenade launcher: P-27 112mm. RCL: 100 82mm. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel.
AD: guns: 400: 57mm: S-60 towed, 30mm: M-53/59 SP. SAM: SA-4/-6/-7/-8/-9/-13.
AIR FORCE: 56,000 (18,000 conscripts); 444 combat ac, some 24 armed hel.
2 air armies: 5 air divs: 15 combat regts.
FGA: 10 sqns:
   3 with 50 Sukhoi Su-7BM/U;
   3 with 40 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23M;
   3 with 30 MiG-21/-21U;
   1 with 12 Su-25 Frogfoot.
Interceptor: 18 sqns with 275 MiG-21/-21U/-23 (about half AD, half battlefield spt).
Recce: 3 sqns: 2 with 25 MiG-21RF; 1 with 12 Aero L-29.
Tpt: 2 regts: 2 Antonov An-12, 6 An-24, 40 Ilyushin I1-14 (replacing with An-26), 1 Tupolev Tu-134, 2 LET L-410M.
Hel: 1 regt: 3 indep sqns: attack: 24 Mil Mi-24. tpt: (med): 35 Mi-8, 75 Mi-4. (lt): 40 Mi-2, 25 Mi-1.
Trg: L-29, 24 L-39, Zlin 526.
Liaison ac incl Zlin Z-43.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
AD: Comd HQ: 3 divs: 6 SAM regts: some 40 sites; 250 SA-2/-3.
Border Troops 11,000; 7 bdes, AFV, ATK weapons.
Militia 120,000.
'Association for Co-operation with the Army'.

NMP 1984e: DMO 221.66 bn; 1985e: DMO 240.89 bn
growth 1984: 5.50%; 1985:4.80%
GNP 1984e: $90.0-164.0 bn; 1985e: $82.0-170.0 bn
Debt 1984e: $12.19 bn 1985: $12.00 bn
Def bdgt* 1985: 18.069 bn (7.981 bn); 1986: 19.430 bn (6.865 bn)
   (*Incl DMO 5.028 bn (1985), 5.384 bn (1986) for internal, border security and justice administration.)
$1=DMO 1985: 2.944 (off.) 2.30 (adj.); 1986: 2.264 (off.) 2.83 (adj.)
DMO = ostmarks

Population: 16,783,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,778,000 1,678,000
Women: 1,693,000 1,633,000
Regular: 179,000 (94,500 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army, Air Force 18 months; Navy (sea-going) 36 months.
Reserves: 400,000.
   Army 330,000, up to 6 months call-up per year to total 24 months (250,000 more have Reserve commitment to 50 men or 60 (officers));
   Navy 40,000; Air 30,000.
ARMY: 123,000 (71,500 conscripts).
2 Military Districts, 2 Army HQ:
2 tk divs (each 3 tk, 1 motor rifle regt).
4 motor rifle divs (each 1 tk, 3 motor rifle regts).
(All divs Cat.1.)
2 SSM bdes with Scud.
2 arty, 2 AA arty regts.
8 AD regts: 2 with SA-4; 5 with SA-6; 1 with SA-8 SAM.
2 amph regts (naval command).
3 sigs regts.
1 Special Forces bde (8 bns).
3 engr regts.
2 pontoon bridge regts.
1 railway construction regt.
2 ATK bns.
1 AB bn.
Tks: 2,800: about 1,800 T-54/-55/-62/-72 (1,000 more (incl T-34) in storage).
AFV: recce: 1,000 BRDM-1/-2.
   MICV: 900 BMP-l/-2.
   APC: 1,000 BTR-50P/-60P/-152, 300 BTR-70, 150 MT-LB.
Arty: 900: guns: D-44, SD-44 SP; 122mm: M-1931/37; 130mm: 144 M-46. gun/how: 152mm: 144 2-S3 SP, M-1955/(D-20).
   how: 122mm: D-30, M-1938 (M-30), 90 M-1974 SP; 152mm: M-1973 SP.
   MRL: 122mm: 108 BM-21, Cz RM-70; 240mm: BM-24. SSM: 24 FROG-7/SS-21, 24 Scud B. mor: 25O 120mm.
ATK: guns: 100mm: 120 T-12. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot.
AD: guns: 23mm: ZU-23, 96 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: ZSU-57-2. SAM: SA-4/-6/-7/-8/-/9.
NAVY: 16,000 (8,000 conscripts) incl Coastal Border Bde; 13 combat hel.
Bases: Peenemunde, Warnemunde, Dransk-Bug, Sassnitz, Wolgast, Tarnewitz, Barhoft, Stralsund.
Frigates: 3 Rostock (Koni) with 1 twin SA-N-4SAM.
Corvettes: 20: 16 Parchim with 2 quad SA-N-5 SAM; 4 Tarantul I (4 SS-N-8).
FAC(G): 12 Osa-I with 4 Styx SSM.
FAC(T): 48: 18 Shershen; 30 Libelle< (1 unarmed, trials).
MCMV: 25 Kondor-II coastal (3 trg).
Amph: LST: 12 Frosch I (some with 2 40x122mm MRL).
Intelligence vessels (AGI): 3: 2 mod Kondor-I, 1 Darss-class.
Spt: 6 Darss-class spt, 4 supply ships, 4 spt tankers, 2 Frosch II lt tpts, 3 Kondor-II trials vessels.
Hel: 1 sqn with 20 Mil Mi-8F tpt (7 Mi-8 Hip C SAR), 13 Mi-14 Haze ASW.

Coastal Border Bde (GBK; 4,000) administered by Frontier tps:
   12 beach patrol bns, 3 afloat 'divs': 8 boat gps (recce); ?5 btys coastal arty; ?3 btys SS-C-3;
   (?65 vessels incl 10 Bremse, 18 Kondor-I; some 30 harbour/river patrol craft; ?30 152mm guns; ?18 SS-C-3 Shaddock SSM).
AIR FORCE: 40,000 (15,000 conscripts); 337 combat ac, some 70 armed hel.
2 air divs:
FGA: 2 regts: 5 sqns: 2 with 24 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23MF; 3 with 25 Sukhoi Su-22.
Recce: 1 sqn with 18 MiG-21.
Tpt: 1 regt: 3 sqns: 18 Antonov An-26, 15 Tupolev Tu-134, An-2/-14/-26B, some 6 LET L-410.
Hel: 3 regts: 9 sqns: 3 attack with 30 Mil Mi-24; 3 assault/tpt with 36 armed Mi-8; 3 tpt with some 45 Mi-8.
AD Command: (26,000): 2 AD districts:
Air: 6 regts: 15 sqns with 220 MiG-21F/MF/PF/U; 3 sqns with 50 MiG-23.
SAM: 7 regts: some 30 sites with 200 SA-2/-3.
Radar: 2 regts.
Trg: incl Yakovlev Yak-11, Aero L-39, Zlin 226, MiG-15UTI, MiG-21U.
Liaison: ac incl Zlin Z-43.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll. ASM: AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
Forces Abroad: Algeria 250, Angola 500, Ethiopia 550, Guinea 125, Iraq 160, Libya 400, Mozambique 100, S. Yemen 75, Syria 210,
   Zambia (some instructors reported).
PARA-MILITARY: 77,500 Regulars, perhaps 1 million in an emergency.
Ministry of Defence. Frontier Troops (49,000): 18 border, 2 indep, 1 special, 6 trg regts;
   guns: 50 85mm, 18 130mm; gun/how: 36 122mm. 1 boat section; 24 patrol craft.
Ministry for State Security. 1 Guard regt (Berlin) (7,500): 6 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 trg bns;
   PSZH-IV APC, 120mm mor, 85mm, 100mm ATK, ZU-23 AA guns, hel.
Ministry of Interior. People's Police Alert Units (13,000): 21 bns; BTR-40/-152 APC, 82mm mor.
   Transport Police (8,500): 16 coys; small arms, RPG-7 RL.
Workers' Militia: 3,000 Regulars, 500,000 potential: 15,000 combat groups; AFV incl SK-1 APC, 82mm mor, 76mm ATK, 23mm, 37mm AA guns.
Society for Sport and Technology (youth aged 16-18): 450,000, 75% active: 1 central, 14 regional subordinate district gps, some 15,000 units;
   small arms; trg ac (civil).

NMP 1984: f 804.10 bn
growth 1984 2.5% 1985: -1.0%
GDP 1984e: $20.368-77.0 bn; 1985e: $20.800-76.0 bn
Inflation 1984: 8.5% 1985: 6.9%
Debt 1984: $9.1 bn. 1985: $9.7 bn
Def bdgt 1985: f 37.228 bn (2.402 bn); 1986e: f 40.745 bn (2.440 bn)
$1=f 1985: 50.090 (off.) 15.5 (adj.); 1986: 46.003 (off.) 16.7 (adj.)

Population: 10,789,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 964,000 1,161,000
Women: 921,000 1,157,000
Regular: 105,000 (58,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army (incl Border Guard) 18 months; Air Force 24 months.
Reserves: 135,000 (Army and Navy); Air 8,000 (to age 55).
ARMY: 83,000 (50,000 conscripts) incl Danube Flotilla.
1 tk div (at Cat. 2).
5 motor rifle divs (2 at Cat. 2, 3 at 3).
1 arty bde, 1 SSM bde with Scud.
1 AA arty, 4 SAM regts (1 indep with SA-4, 3 with SA-6 in divs).
1 AB bn.
Tks: some 1,200 T-54/-55, 60 T-72. lt: 100 PT-76.
AFV: recce: some 350 BRDM-2, 400 FUG (OT-65). MICV: 350 BMP-1. APC: 1,000 PSZH-IV and MT-LB.
Arty: gun/how: 152mm: 120: 100 D-20, 20 M-1973(2S3)SP. how: 122mm: 315: 225 M-1938, 90 M-1974 SP; 152mm: 50 M-1943.
MRL 122mm: 50 BM-21. SSM: 24 FROG-7, 9 Scud. mor: 82mm: 300; 120mm: 100 M-43.
ATK: RCL 73mm: 125 SPG-9. guns: 85mm: 100; 100mm: 50 T-12. ATGW: 100 AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), 100 AT-4 Spigot.
AD: guns: 23mm: ZU-23, 75 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: 100 S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 100mm: KS-19.
   SAM: 30 SA-4, 60 SA-6, 350 SA-7, 50 SA-9.
Danube Flotilla (700); 26 25-ton minelayers/sweepers, 5 Nestin river MCMV, 15 10-ton patrol craft, 5 small LCU, small tp tpts, river icebreakers.

AIR FORCE: 22,000 (8,000 conscripts); some 155 combat ac, 12 armed hel.
1 air div:
AD: 3 ftr regts (9 interceptor sqns) with 120 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21F7PF/bis/U, 10 MiG-23M.
FGA: 1 sqn with 15 Sukhoi Su-25.
Recce: 1 sqn with (?12) Su-22.
Tpt: 1 regt (2 tpt sqns): 24 Antonov An-24/-26, 2 Ilyushin I1-14.
Hel: 1 regt (3 hel sqns): 20 Mil Mi-24, 30 Mi-8, 25 Kamov Ka-26 (trg/civil duties).
Trg: incl Aero L-29, MiG-15UTI.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
AD: 1 div: 3 SAM regts, some 20 sites: 120 SA-2/-3.
Border guards 16,000 (11,000 conscripts); 11 districts.
Part-time Worker's Militia 60,000.
'Sport Association for National Defence'.
NMP 1984e: z 5,950.00 bn; 1985e: z 7,140.00 bn
growth 1984: 5.6% 1985: 3.0%
GDP 1984e: z $95.0-228.0 bn; 1985e: z $90.0-208.0 bn
Inflation 1984: 14.5%; 1985: 15.0%
Debt 1984: $27.5 bn; 1985: $25.8 bn
Def bdgt 1985: z 307.00 bn(7.309 bn); 1986: z 347.80 bn (7.729 bn)
$1=z 1985: 158.23 (off.) 42 (adj.); 1986: 165.17 (off.) 45 (adj.)
z = zlotys

Population: 37,839,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,986,700 3,894,800
Women: 3,853,500 3,863,600

Regular 402,000 (251,000 conscripts; incl Internal Defence troops (see Para-Military)).
Terms of service. Army, internal security forces, Air Force 2 years; Navy, special services, afloat 3 years, ashore 2 years.
Reserves: 501,000: Army some 415,000; Navy some 55,000 (to age 50); Air some 31,000 (to age 60).
ARMY: 295,000 (215,000 conscripts) (incl 65,500 Internal Security troops).
3 Military Districts:
5 armd divs (all at Cat 1).
8 mech divs (3 at Cat 1, 5 at 3).
1 AB div (Cat 1).
1 amph assault div (Cat 1).
4 arty bdes, 1 arty regt.
3 ATK regts.
4 SSM bdes with Scud.
1 AD bde with SA-4; 8 AD regts: 6 with SA-6, 2 with SA-8 SAM.
Tks: 3,400 T-54/-55, 70 T-72. lt: 100 PT-76.
AFV: 4,500: recce: 800 FUG/BRDM-2; APC: 900 BMP-1, 2,100 SKOT/SKOT-2AP, 600 TOPAS/TOPAS-2AP.
Arty: ?2,100: guns: 122mm: some 400 M-1931/37; 130mm: M-46. gun/how: 152mm: 230 ML-20, D-1.
   how: 122mm: 850 M-1938, D-30 towed, M-1974 SP; 152mm: 145 M-1943. MRU 360: 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14, (?30) WP-8.
   SSM: 56 FROG-3/-5/-7, 32 Scud B. mor 750 82mm; 120mm.
ATK: guns: 100mm: some 70 T-12. RCL 73mm. ATGW: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot.
AD: guns: 800: 23mm: ZU-23, 150 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: S-60. SAM: 250 SA-4/-6/-8/-9; SA-7.
NAVY: 19,000 (6,000 conscripts).
Bases: Gdynia, Hel, Swinoujscie, Kolobrzeg, Ustka; Gdansk (Coastguard).
Subs: 3 W-class.
Corvettes: 2 Tarantul I with twin SS-N-2C SSM, 1 quad SA-N-5 SAM.
FAC(G): 12 Osa-I with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
FAC(T): 4 Wisla.
Patrol craft: 8 mod Obluze large.
MCMV: 52: 12 Krogulec, 11 T-43 ocean, 4 Notee, 2 Leniwka coastal, 23 K-8 boats.
Amph: LCT: 23 Polnocny, LCA: 15 Eichstaden.
Intelligence vessels (AGI): 2 B-10 (mod Moma).
Radar picket: 1 T-43.
Spt: 7 tankers.

Naval Aviation: 1 div (2,300); 44 combat ac.
Attack: 1 regt: 3 sqns: 34 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17.
Recce: 1 sqn with 5 Ilyushin I1-28, 5 MiG-17.
Hel: 1 regt; 3 sqns: 10 Mil Mi-2, 20 Mi-4, 5 Mi-8.
(On order 1 Kaszug frigate, 2 Tarantul I corvettes.)

Coast Defence: arty: ?6 bns; SSM: ?3 bns.
Engrs: reported.
Equipment: (7M-1937) 152mm gun/how, AT-3 Sagger ATGW, SS-C-2B Samlet SSM.
AIR FORCE: 88,000 (30,000 conscripts); 675 combat ac, some 12 armed hel.
6 air divs (incl AD):
FGA: 240: 3 divs; 6 regts; 18 sqns:
   3 with some 40 Sukhoi Su-7/-7U; 3 with some 40 Su-20; 3 with some 40 Su-22; 9 with 120 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17.
Interceptors: 3 divs; 11 regts; 33 sqns: 400 MiG-21/U/-23.
Recce: 3 sqns: 35 MiG-21RF.
Tpt: 2 regts: 9 Antonov An-2, An-12, 12 An-26, 12 Ilyushin I1-14.
Comms/liaison: 1 sqn with 2 Tupolev Tu-134A, 6 Yakovlev Yak-40, I1-18.
Hel: 3 regts: 100 Mil Mi-2, 12 Mi-4, 25 Mi-8 (some may be armed), 12 Mi-24 (attack).
Trg: 300 ac: PZL TS-8 Biesl-11 Iskra, MiG-15/-21UTI, Su-7U, PZL-130 Orlik.
AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll.
Air Defence Command: (48,000).
SAM: 10 regts: 300 SA-2/-3.
(On order PZL-130 Orlik trg ac.)
Forces Abroad: Syria (UNDOF): 157.
Ministry of Defence: Internal Defence troops (65,500): tks, AFV, ATK guns.
Ministry of Interior troops and border guard: (24,000): 3 Provincial Commands:
   8 bdes; some 70 patrol craft incl 5 Obluze, 18 Pilica, 3 KP-131, 1 Oksywie, 12 Wisloka, 21 K-8, 9 Gdansk.
Zomo (Police anti-riot units): 28,000.
'League for National Defence' (Citizen's Militia): some 200,000 active.

NMP 1984e: lei 706.2 bn; 1985e: lei 749.1 bn
growth 1984: 7.7% 1985: 5.9%
GNP 1984e: lei $60.0-117.0 bn 1984e: lei $60.0-120.0 bn
Inflation 1984: 1.5% 1985: 0.2%
Debt 1984: $8.00 bn 1985: $6.09 bn
Def bdgt 1985: lei 12.278 bn (1.395 bn); 1986: lei 12.208 bn( 1.327 bn)
$1=lei 1985: 17.141 (off.) 8.8 (adj.); 1986: 16.892 (off.) 9.2 (adj.)

Population: 23,500,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,207,000 2,241,000
Women: 2,123,400 2,201,000
Regular: 189,700 (108,500 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army, Air Force 16 months; Navy 24 months.
Reserves: 565,000; Army 500,000+ (300,000 with service in last 5 years); Navy 20,000 (to age 50); Air 45,000 (to age 60).
ARMY: 150,000 (95,000 conscripts).
4 Army Areas:
2 tk divs (1 at Cat. 1, 1 at 2).
8 motor rifle divs (1 Cat. 1, 3 at 2, 4 at 3).
3 mountain bdes/regts.
2 arty bdes; 4 arty regts.
1 ATK bde (5 regts).
2 AA bdes; 2 AA arty, 3 AD (SA-6) regts.
2 Scud SSM bdes.
2 AB regts.
Tks: 200 T-34, 1,000 T-54/-55, some 200 M-77, 30 T-72.
AFV: recce: 325 BRDM-1/-2. APC: 3,000 BTR-50/-60 and TAB-72, TAB-77.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 50 M-1942, 75 SU-76 SP; 85mm: 50 D-44; 100mm: M-1944, 175 SU-100; 122mm: M-1931/37.
   gun/how: 152mm: 150: M-1937, M-1955 (D-20). how: 600: 122mm: M-1938, D-30; 152mm: M-1938.
   MRL: 122mm: 175 BM-21/RO; 130mm: 150 M-51 (Z3L). SSM: 30 FROG, 15 Scud. mor: 700 82mm, 200 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 73mm, 260 76mm and 82mm. guns: 57mm: M-1943. ATGW: 120: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 300 30mm, 37mm, 250 57mm, 85mm, 100mm. SAM: SA-6/-7.
NAVY: 7,700 (3,500 conscripts).
Bases: Mangalia, Constanta; Danube: Braila, Giurgiu, Sulina, Tulcea.
Black Sea Fleet, Danube Sqn, Coastal Defence.
Destroyer: 1 Muntenia-class (4 twin SS-N-2C SSM) (Kashin-type DDG).
Frigates: 3 Tetal.
Corvettes: 3 Poti.
FAC(G): 6 Osa-I with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
FAC(P/ASW): 25 Ch Shanghai.
FAC(T): 42: 14 Epitrop, 22 Ch Huchwan< hydrofoils, 6 Sov P-4<.
Patrol craft: 3 Kronshtadt large, 41 river incl 1 Brutar-class, 18 VB-76 monitors.
MCMV: 38 minesweepers: 4 GDR M-40 Democratia coastal; 12 Sov T-301 (7 in reserve), 22 VD-141 inshore<; 2 Cosar MCM spt ships.
SAR hel: 4 Mi-4.

Coastal Defence (2,000): HQ Constanta.
4 sectors:
10 coastal arty btys with some 100 130mm, 150mm and 152mm guns; 1 SSM bn with SS-C-2B Samlet, observer post tps, radar, naval engineers.
Some 8 btys of AA arty reported; eqpt unknown.
Would get 2 regts of naval inf on mobilization.
(On order 1 Muntania-class DDG, Brutar-class river monitors.)
AIR FORCE: 32,000 (10,000 conscripts); 378 combat ac.
3 air divs (incl AD): 4 combat regts:
FGA: 6 sqns: 90 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, some 30 SOKO/CIAR IAR-93.
Interceptor: 12 sqns: 1 with 40 MiG-23; 11 with 200 MiG-21F/PF/U.
Recce: 1 sqn with 18 Ilyushin I1-28.
Tpt 1 regt with 4 I1-14, 3 I1-18, 2 I1-62, 11 Antonov An-24, 8 An-26, 4 Lisunov Li-2 (DC-3 type), 1 Boeing 707.
Hel: 1 regt with 10 Mil Mi-4, 25 Mi-8, 45 IAR-316B (Alouette III), 30 IAR-330 (Puma).
Trg: 40 Aero L-29, 20 MiG-15UTI, (710) L-39ZA, 10 IAR-28MA lt.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
AD: 1 div: 18 SAM sites with 108 SA-2.
(On order some 125 IAR-93B FGA ac.)
Border guards (17,000); 12 bdes.
Ministry of Defence security troops (20,000); AFV, ATK guns.
Local Defence: some 900,000 Patriotic Guard (perhaps 12,000 full time).
Youth Homeland Defence: 650,000.
'Voluntary Sports Association'.


   Many European NATO nations show a slight decline in uniformed manpower compared with 1985. The exceptions are West Germany, Greece and Turkey which have increased overall. With regard to the ground forces, British, Canadian, French and West German forces, combine to show a slight rise in the total for Northern Europe. Increases by both Greece and Turkey show a more marked enhancement in the south. That increase is due more to the dispute between them than to NATO requirements.
   Minor changes in the divisional structures have led to small increases in the divisional totals; these are largely organizational and do not reflect any greater capability.
   Main Battle Tank strength in the Northern and Central sectors has increased by perhaps 2%. The retirement of the elderly British carrier Hermes is noted, as is the commissioning of Italy's Garibaldi; the inter-service dispute over the aircraft the latter is to carry has not yet been resolved. Totals for all other categories of surface vessels show slight reductions. Combat aircraft totals, on the other hand, show significant increases in all categories, marking the progress of a number of major procurement programmes.
   Budgetary constraints continue to have a major impact on defence, not least because they are forcing governments toward greater international collaboration, as a way of getting better value for money. A number of new joint programmes have been announced. These include studies into a 12-country Precision Guided Missile project; a 7-country Modular Stand-Off Weapon; a multi-function information distribution systems; a common NATO Identification System (11 countries); computer language commonality; Stand-Off Radar; Surveillance and Target Acquisition; and some 13 others. Standardization makes only slow progress but agreement has been reached on a common fuel for jet aircraft. Although such agreements are often confined to minor systems and support functions, joint arrangements are in hand for a new European fighter aircraft (EFA), ASW helicopters, and Tripartite Mine Counter-Measures vessels (MCMV) and there are signs of movement toward common European combat and transport helicopter programmes.
   NATO anticipates European production in 1986 of 500 tanks, some 400 other Armoured Fighting Vehicles, 100 artillery and field rocket pieces, 550 Milan and TOW ATGW and 800 SAM for the ground forces. New European naval procurement plans include a carrier, three submarines, four destroyers, ten mine warfare vessels, one landing ship and six landing craft. The Tornado and F-16 programmes continue, with a total of 180 planned; procurement of 70 other aircraft include tankers and Airborne Early Warning (AEW).
   Following the severe recession of the early 1980s, NATO Europe continues to enjoy modest GDP growth, averaging 2.3% in 1985. The GDPs of Canada, Norway and Turkey grew at a rate of over 4%, while Great Britain followed with about 3.5%; France (1.0%), Greece (1.5%), and Belgium (1.7%) did less well, with the others ranging between 2 and 3%. (The United States also achieved 2.3%, but this represented a significant decline from the 6.6% growth achieved in 1984.)
   Europe's success in fighting inflation is uneven. Inflation in 1985 ranged from 2.2% in West Germany and the Netherlands to as high as 45% in Turkey. Greece and Portugal had rates approaching 20%. The other states showed figures of 4.9% (Belgium and Denmark), 5.7% and 5.8% (Norway and France), 6.1% (Britain) and almost 9% (Spain). This relative success is due in part to monetary and fiscal policies but in part also to the decline in the prices of oil and other key commodities.
   Most western countries face increasing government debt and mounting interest rates, incurred in part because of the oil price rises in the late 1970s and increasing military outlays in the 1980s. In 1979 NATO countries had committed themselves to an annual real increase of 3% in defence outlays, but only a few states have managed to sustain the commitment. After the recession of 1980-82 (when GDP growth rates were in most cases either negative or negligible), real defence growth in the face of spiralling social costs became for many countries politically unsustainable. Despite this, half of NATO's members were able to increase defence outlays until 1986, when Britain and West Germany and even the US were forced to reduce their defence outlays - in the case of the latter two countries to zero or even negative real growth.
   On the positive side, the drastic decline in oil prices and the appreciation of the European currencies against the US dollar has had a stimulating effect on European economies. If oil prices remain at $10-15 a barrel, many European economies should experience a GDP increase of 3-4%. Britain, however, may experience a serious short-term current account deficit, while Norway (dependent on oil sales for 22% of government income) seems likely to experience serious fiscal problems.
   In the face of these trends, it is most unlikely that the major European NATO members will significantly increase their defence outlays.


   Многие европейские страны НАТО демонстрируют небольшое сокращение численности военнослужащих по сравнению с 1985 годом. Исключение составляют Западная Германия, Греция и Турция, которые в целом увеличились. Что касается сухопутных войск, то британские, канадские, французские и западногерманские силы, объединившись, демонстрируют незначительный рост общей численности в Северной Европе. Увеличение как Греции, так и Турции свидетельствует о более заметном увеличении на юге. Это увеличение объясняется скорее спором между ними, чем требованиями НАТО.
   Незначительные изменения в структурах отделов привели к незначительному увеличению общих показателей по отделам; они носят в основном организационный характер и не отражают каких-либо больших возможностей.
   Численность основных боевых танков в Северном и Центральном секторах увеличилась, возможно, на 2%. Отмечается списание старого британского авианосца Hermes, а также ввод в эксплуатацию итальянского Garibaldi; спор между службами по поводу самолета, который последний должен нести, еще не решен. Общие данные по всем другим категориям надводных судов свидетельствуют о незначительном сокращении. С другой стороны, общее количество боевых самолетов значительно возросло по всем категориям, что свидетельствует о прогрессе в осуществлении ряда крупных программ закупок.
   Бюджетные ограничения по-прежнему оказывают серьезное воздействие на оборону, не в последнюю очередь потому, что они вынуждают правительства расширять международное сотрудничество в целях повышения эффективности использования средств. Был объявлен ряд новых совместных программ. К их числу относятся исследования по проекту создания 12-ю странами высокоточной управляемой ракеты; 7-ю странами модульного боевого оружия; многофункциональных систем распространения информации; общей системы идентификации НАТО (11 стран); общности компьютерного языка; автономного радиолокатора; наблюдения и обнаружения целей; и еще 13 исследований. Стандартизация идет медленными темпами, но достигнута договоренность об общем топливе для реактивных самолетов. Хотя такие соглашения часто ограничиваются незначительными системами и вспомогательными функциями, имеются совместные договоренности в отношении нового европейского истребителя (EFA), вертолетов противоминной обороны и трехсторонних судов противоминной обороны (MCMV), а также имеются признаки продвижения к осуществлению общеевропейских программ боевых и транспортных вертолетов.
   НАТО ожидает, что в 1986 году в Европе будет произведено 500 танков, около 400 других боевых бронированных машин, 100 артиллерийских и полевых ракетных установок, 550 ПТРК Milan и TOW и 800 зенитных ракет для сухопутных войск. Новые планы европейских военно-морских закупок включают в себя авианосец, три подводные лодки, четыре эсминца, десять боевых минных судов, один десантный корабль и шесть десантных судов. Программы Tornado и F-16 продолжаются, В общей сложности запланировано 180; закупка 70 других самолетов включает танкеры и самолеты раннего предупреждение (AEW).
   После тяжелой рецессии начала 1980-х годов в Европе НАТО продолжает наблюдаться умеренный рост ВВП, составивший в 1985 году в среднем 2,3%. ВВП Канады, Норвегии и Турции вырос более чем на 4%, в то время как Великобритания-примерно на 3,5%; Франция (1,0%), Греция (1,5%) и Бельгия (1,7%) добились меньших успехов, а остальные страны-от 2 до 3%. (Соединенные Штаты также достигли 2,3%, но это представляло собой значительное снижение по сравнению с ростом 6,6%, достигнутым в 1984 году.)
   Успех Европы в борьбе с инфляцией неравномерен. Инфляция в 1985 году колебалась от 2,2% в Западной Германии и Нидерландах до 45% в Турции. В Греции и Португалии ставки приближались к 20%. Другие государства дали показатели 4,9% (Бельгия и Дания), 5,7% и 5,8% (Норвегия и Франция), 6,1% (Великобритания) и почти 9% (Испания). Этот относительный успех обусловлен отчасти денежно-кредитной и фискальной политикой, а отчасти и снижением цен на нефть и другие ключевые сырьевые товары.
   Большинство западных стран сталкиваются с растущим государственным долгом и ростом процентных ставок, отчасти из-за роста цен на нефть в конце 1970-х годов и увеличения военных расходов в 1980-х годах. В 1979 году страны НАТО взяли на себя обязательства по ежегодному реальному увеличению расходов на оборону на 3%, но лишь нескольким государствам удалось сохранить это обязательство. После рецессии 1980-1982 годов (когда темпы роста ВВП в большинстве случаев были либо отрицательными, либо ничтожно малыми) реальный рост обороноспособности перед лицом спирали социальных издержек стал для многих стран политически неустойчивым. Несмотря на это, половина членов НАТО смогла увеличить расходы на оборону до 1986 года, когда Великобритания, Западная Германия и даже США были вынуждены сократить свои расходы на оборону - в случае последних двух стран до нуля или даже отрицательного реального роста.
   С положительной стороны, резкое снижение цен на нефть и повышение курса европейских валют по отношению к доллару США оказали стимулирующее воздействие на европейские экономики. Если цены на нефть останутся на уровне 10-15 долларов за баррель, то ВВП многих европейских стран должен увеличиться на 3-4%. Британия, однако, может столкнуться с серьезным краткосрочным дефицитом текущего счета, в то время как Норвегия (зависящая от продажи нефти на 22% государственного дохода), похоже, столкнется с серьезными финансовыми проблемами.
   С учетом этих тенденций маловероятно, что основные европейские члены НАТО значительно увеличат свои расходы на оборону.
GDP 1984 fr 4,486.0 bn ($77,634 bn); 1985e: fr 4,772.0 bn ($80,366 bn)
growth 1984: 1.5% 1985: 1.7%
Inflation 1984: 6.3% 1985: 4.9%
Debt 1984: $31.8bn 1985: $36.5 bn
Def exp 1985: fr 106.665 bn ($1,796bn); NATO defn $2.69 bn.
Def bdgt 1986: fr 110.0 bn ($2,405 bn); NATO defn n.a.
$1=fr (1983): 51.132 (1984): 57.784 (1985): 59.378 (1986): 45.745
fr = Belgian francs

Population: 9,902,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,041,000 1,024,000
Women: 1,001,000 981,000
Regular 91,428 (3,600 women, 30,300 conscripts).
Terms of service. 8 or 10 months.* (* Conscripts serve 8 months if posted to Germany, 10 months if serving in Belgium.)
Reserves: 258,940. Army 180,489 (Medical Service 32,600), to age 45; Navy 9,346; Air 36,510.
ARMY: 67,400 (incl separate Medical Service; 25,400 conscripts).
1 Corps HQ,2 Div HQ.
1 armd bde (2 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bns, spt units).
3 mech inf bdes each with 1tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty, 1 ATK bns, spt units.
1 para-cdo regt (3 para-cdo bns, armd recce and spt units).
2 recce bns.
2 tk bns.
2 mot inf bns (territorial def).
4 arty bns (3 SP).
1 SSM bn with Lance.
4 AD bns: 2 SAM with 36 Improved HAWK;
2 AA each with 27 Gepard.
4 engr bns (2 fd, 1 bridge, 1 eqpt).
4 lt avn sqns.
RESERVES: some on immediate recall status; 1 mech, 1 mot inf bdes; combat, combat spt, log spt tps.
   Territorial defence: 11 mot inf regts, 4 mot inf bns.
Tks: 334 Leopard 1; lt: 133 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 153 Scimitar. MICV: 136 AIFV-B. APC: 1,272 incl 305 M-113, 262 Spartan, AMX-VCI, M-75(to Reserves).
Arty: how: 155mm: 168: 26 M-109A3, 15 M-109 (being upgraded to A3), 127 M-109A2 SP; 203mm: 11 M-110 SP (being upgraded to A2);
   SSM: 5 Lance.
ATK: guns: 80 JPK-90mm SP. ATGW: 420 Milan, 43 Striker AFV with Swingfire.
AD: guns: 20mm: 46; 35mm: 54 Gepard SP. SAM: 39 Improved HAWK.
Avn: ac: 12Islander, hel: 64Alouette II.
(On order: 378 AIFV, 220 M-113A2 APC.)
NAVY: 4,500 (1,140 conscripts).
Bases: Kallo, Ostend, Zeebrugge.
Frigates: 4 E-71 with 4 Exocet MM-38 1 octuple Sea Sparrow SAM.
MCMV: 6 US Aggressive, 1 Aster (Flower tripartite) ocean, 6 US Adjutant coastal; 14 Herstal inshore; 2 log spt/comd ships.
Patrol craft, river: 2.
Auxiliaries: 6 (+1 survey vessel).
(On order: 9 Flower (tripartite) MCMV.)
AIR FORCE: 19,528 (3,760 conscripts).
FGA: 5 sqns: 3 with Dassault Mirage 5BA/BD; 2 getting General Dynamics F-16A/B.
AD: 2 ac sqns with F-16A/B; 4 SAM sqns with Nike Hercules (modernized); 1 NADGE command reporting centre, associated radar.
Recce: 1sqn with Mirage 5BR.
Tpt: 2 sqns with Lockheed C-130H Hercules, Boeing 727QC, BAe/HS-748, Fairchild Merlin IIIA, Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20.
Liaison: 1 flt with CM-170 Magister.
Trg: 3 sqns: 1 with SIAI-Marchetti SF-260MB; 2 with Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet.
SAR hel: 1 sqn with Westland-Sikorsky Sea King Mk 48.
Equipment: 144 combat ac (plus 37 in store).
   Mirage: 72: 5BA/BD: 52 (FGA). 5BR: 20 (recce).
   F-16: 72 (109): -A: 53 (27 FGA, 26 AD), plus 37 in store. -B: 19 (9 FGA, 10 AD).
   C-130: 12 (tpt).
   Boeing 727: 2 (tpt). HS-748: 3 (tpt). Merlin IIIA: 5 (tpt). Mystere-Falcon 20: 2 (tpt). CM-170: 21 (liaison).
   SF-260: 31 (trg). Alpha Jet: 31 (trg).
   Sea King: 5 (SAR).
SAM: 36 Nike Hercules.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.
(On order: 44 F-16A/B ftr ac.)
Forces Abroad: Germany: 28,500 (to be reduced by some 400);
1 corps HQ, 1 div HQ, 1 armd, 1 mech inf bdes; 2 recce, 2 tk, 3 arty, 1 SSM, 2 Gepard AA, 2 SAM, 3 engr bns,
   240 MBT; 3 aviation sqns; 4 Nike SAM sqns.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie15,900; 62 FN, 4 RM/62F armd cars, 5 Alouette II, 3 Puma hel.

GDP 1984: £318.090 bn ($399.664 bn); 1985e: £348.860 bn ($480.607 bn)
growth 1984: 1.8% 1985: 3.4%
Inflation 1984: 5.0% 1985: 6.1%
Debt 1984: $62.0 bn 1985: $96.5 bn
Def exp 1985/6e: £18.059 bn ($24.879 bn); NATO defn $25.356 bn
def bdgt 1986/7: £18.479 bn ($28.011 bn); NATO defn $28.705 bn
$1=£ (1983/4): 0.6710 (1984/5): 0.7959; (1985/6): 0.7259 (1986): 0.6597

Population: 56,132,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 5,737,000 5,596,000
Women: 5,511,000 5,531,000
Regular: 323,800 incl 16,100 women and some
9,840 enlisted outside Britain.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: 305,030.
   Army: 239,300. Regular 153,000; Territorial Army (TA) 77,000+ (to be 86,000 by 1990); Ulster Defence Regt UDR) 6,500 (3,700 part-time);
   Home Service Force some 2,800 (to be 4,700).
   Navy: 31,670. Regular 23,340; Volunteer 5,530 (to be 7,800); Auxiliary Service 2,800 (to be 3,000).
   Marines: 3,460. Regular 2,250; Volunteer 1,210.
   Air: 30,600. Regular 29,600; Volunteer 1,000.
SLBM: 4 Resolution SSBN, each with 16 Polaris A3TK msls.
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales (to be upgraded).
ARMY: 162,100 (incl 6,600 women and 9,450 enlisted outside Britain, of which some 8,100 are Gurkhas).
1 corps, 3 armd, 1 inf divs, 27 bdes (incl 1 arty, 1 sigs), 1 Field Force HQ.
14 armd regts (2 trg).
5 armd recce regts.
53 inf bns (6Gurkha).
3 para bns (1 in inf, 2 in para role).
1 Special Air Service (SAS) regt.
1 SSM regt with Lance (3 btys, each 4 msls).
18 arty regts: 1 hy (203mm), 2 'depth of fire' (175mm), 8 SP, 6 fd (1 cdo), 1 locating;
4 indep SAM btys (2 Blowpipe, 2 Javelin).
3 SAM regts with Rapier. 2 of 3 btys (36 launchers), 1 of 4 btys (2 SP) (48 launchers).
13 engr regts: 11 fd (1 Gurkha), 1 armd, 1 amph.
4 army aviation regts; 16 sqns (1 cdo), 5 indep fits; 2 trg sqns, 6 fits.
RESERVES: 2 armd, 3 lt recce regts, 40 inf bns, 2 SAS, 2 fd, 1 arty recce, 4 AD, 7 engr regts (4 airfield repair sqns, 2 more forming), 1 hel sqn.
   Ulster Defence Regiment: 9 bns (internal security role in Northern Ireland only in peace-time).
   Home Service Force: some 42 coys (to be 47).
Tks: some 250 Challenger, 900 Chieftain (210 in reserve); lt: 271 FV 101 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 290 FV 107 Scimitar, 1,070 Ferret, some 200 Fox.
   APC: 2,338 FV 432, some 60 FV 603 Saracen, 500 FV 103 Spartan, some 200 AT-105 Saxon, some 12 MCV-80 (trials).
Arty: guns: 260: 105mm: 220: 100 towed, 120 FV 433 Abbot SP; 5.5-in. (140mm): 4 trg; 175mm: 36M-107SP.
   how: 155mm: 173: 72 FH-70 towed, 101 M-109/A2/A3 SP. 203mm: 16 M-110 SP. MRL: 4 MLRS 227mm (trials).
   SSM: 12 Lance. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 120mm. ATGW: Milan (to get FV 103 Spartan SP), Swingftre (incl FV 102 Striker, FV 438 SP).
SAM: Blowpipe, Javelin; 120 Rapier (some 48 SP).
Avn: ac: .9 DHC-2 Beaver AL-1.
   hel: 40 Westland Scout, 9 SA-315 Alouette IIC, 159 SA-341 GazelleAH-1,110 Westland Lynx AH-1 (some with TOW), 4 Agusta A-109.
Landing craft: 39: 2 Ardennes, 2 Arromanches log, 2 90-ton -109, 6 small, 1 munitions; 2 tugs, 32 other service vessels (Royal Corps of Transport).
(On order: some 125 Challenger MBT; some 1,048 MCV-80 Warrior MICV; some 320 AT-105 Saxon APC; LAW-80 RL, Milan, TOW ATGW; some 30 SP Rapier, Javelin, 48 Blowpipe SAM; 5 Gazelle, 10 Lynx AH-5 hel (some with TOW), 3 LCM, 3 patrol craft, 12 combat spt craft.)

DEPLOYMENT (see also Forces Abroad, below):
United Kingdom Land Forces (UKLF): 42,100: Reinforcements for 1 Br Corps, Germany: 1 inf div HQ, 4 inf bdes (2 Regular, 2 TA).
United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF): 1 air portable inf bde and log spt gp.
Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (LAND) (AML(L)): 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce, 1 sigs sqns, 1 arty bty, 1 log bn; 1 avn fit.
Home Defence: 10 inf, 1 AB bdes.
HQ Northern Ireland: (some 10,200): 2 inf bde HQ, up to 10 major units in inf role (6 resident, 4 temporary inf bns), 1 SAS, 1 engr sqn, 2 sqns,
   army aviation regt.
NAVY: 68,300 (incl Air, Marines, 3,500 women and 390 enlisted outside Britain).
Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA): (2,350 civilians) man major spt vessels.
Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service (RMAS): (2,880).
(Reserves): 6 HQ units, 11 Sea Trg Centres (STC), 12 Comms Trg Centres (CTC), 1 MCM sqn: 9 MSF, 2 MCMV, 9 MCM, 8 patrol,
   72 auxiliary service units.
Bases: Devonport, Faslane, Portland, Portsmouth, Rosyth.
Subs (attack): 29:
SSN: 14 (3 Trafalgar, 6 Swiftsure, 2 Valiant, 3 Churchill).
SS: 15 (13 Oberon, 2 Porpoise (to retire 1987)).
Principal Surface Combatants: 59 (incl 2 LPD):
Carriers: 3 Invincible ASW, each 5 Sea Harrier V/STOL ac, 9 Sea King hel, 1 twin Sea Dart SAM, 20mm Phalanx AD system.
Destroyers: 15 GW:
   2 County with 1 twin Seaslug, 2 quad Seacat SAM, 4 Exocet SSM, 1 Westland Lynx HAS-2 hel.
   1 Bristol with 1 twin Sea Dart SAM (to get Phalanx AD system).
   12 Sheffield (Type-42) with 1 twin Sea Dart, 1 Lynx hel.
Frigates: 39:
   7 Broadsword (Type-22) with 4 Exocet SSM, 2 sextuple Sea Wolf SAM, 2 Lynx hel; 1 trg.
   6 Amazon (Type-21) with 4 Exocet SSM, 1 quad Seacat SAM, 1 Lynx hel.
   23 Leander (1 trg) with 1 Wasp/Lynx:
   6 with Ikara ASW, 2 quad Seacat,
   12 with Exocet SSM and SAM (4 with 2 quad Seacat, 3 with 3 quad Seacat, 5 with 1 sextuple Sea Wolf).
   5 with 1 quad Seacat.
   3 Rothesay with 1 quad Seacat, 1 Wasp hel.
Minor Surface Combatants: 72:
MCMV: 43: 10 Hunt, 23 Ton (3 reserves, 7 fishery patrol), 10 River (reserves); 1 Abdiel spt ship.
Patrol vessels: 29: 1 Endurance, 5 Peacock, 7 Island, 2 Castle, 5 Bird (2 trg), 3 Protector, 4 Fleet tenders (trg); 2 32-metre.
   LPD: 2: each 4 LCU, 4 LCVP, 4 quad Seacat SAM.
   logistic (LSL) (RFA): 6 (1 leased commercial). See also Army.
Spt (all RFA): fleet replenishment ships: 4;
   tankers: 14: 4 large, 5 spt, 5 small fleet;
   repair: 2 hel spt, 1 forward repair ships.
Misc: 1 Royal Yacht (hospital ship), 1 sub tender, 9 survey vessels, 1 seabed ops vessel.
RMAS (see above): 8 coastal trg craft (1 mooring and salvage vessel, 1 twin unit tractor tug).
Incl in above refitting or in reserve are: 1 SSBN, 2 SSN, 4 diesel subs, 1 carrier, 1destroyer, 5 frigates, 4 MCM, 1 patrol vessel, 1 LPD, 2 survey ships.
AD/attack ac: 3 sqns with BAe Sea Harrier FRS-1, 1 T-4N.
ASW hel: 7 sqns: 6 with Westland-Sikorsky Sea King HAS-2/-5; 1 with Westland Wasp HAS-1 (in indep fits).
ASW/attack hel: 2 sqns with Westland Lynx HAS-2/-3 (in indep fits).
AEW hel: 1 sqn with Sea King AEW-2.
Cdo/assault rpt hel: 3 sqns: 2 with Sea King HC-4; 1 with Westland-Sikorsky Wessex HU-5.
Spt/SAR hel: 2 sqns with Wessex HU-5.
Trg: 2 sqns: 1 with BAe Jetstream ac; 1 with SA-341 Gazelle HT-2 hel, Chipmunk T-10 ac.
Fleet spt: BAe Canberra T-18/-22, BAe Hunter T-7/-8, GA-11, 3 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20.
Liaison: BAe/HS-125 (VIP), DH Sea Heron, DH Sea Devon.
Equipment: 26 combat ac, 154 med hel.
   Sea Harrier/Harrier: 26. Sea Harrier FRS-1: 23 (15 ftr, 8 trg); T-4N: 2 (trg). Harrier T4: 1 (trg).
   Canberra: 10 (spt). Hunter: 24 (spt). HS-125: 2 (VIP tpt). Mystere-Falcon 20: 3 (spt).
   Jetstream: 20; T-2: 16 (trg). T-3: 4 (trg). Sea Heron: 4 (liaison).
   Sea Devon: 2 (liaison). Chipmunk: 13 (trg).
   Sea King: 113. HAS-2/-5: 83 (61 ASW, 22 trg), HC-4: 26 (cdo). AEW-2: 4.
   Lynx: 75. HAS-2: 55. HAS-3: 20. Wasp HAS-1: 32 (22 ASW/survey, 10 trg). Wessex: 41. HU-5: 21 cdo, 7 SAR, 3 spt, 10 trg. Gazelle: 19 (trg).
Missiles: ASM: Sea Skua. AAM: AJM-9 Sidewinder.
1 cdo bde: 3 cdos; 1 cdo arty regt + 1 bty (Army); 2 cdo engr sqns (1 Regular, 1 Reserve), 1 log regt (tri-Service); 1 lt hel sqn.
1 Special Boat Sqn: 3 assault sqns (2 raiding, 1 landing craft tps: 6 landing craft).
(Reserve): 1 assault tp.
Arty: guns: 18 105mm. mor 18 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav. ATGW: Milan.
SAM: Javelin, Blowpipe.
Hel: 12 SA-341 Gazelle AH-1, 6 Lynx AH-1.
(On order RN: 1 Vanguard SSBN, 4 Trafalgar SSN, 4 Upholder (Type-2400) SS; 3 Duke (Type-23), 7 Type-22 frigates (1 for delivery 1986/7); 3 Hunt, 2 River (1986/7), 1 450-ton single-role minehunter, 7 coastal trg craft; 1 landing ship (logistic), 1 hel carrier trg auxiliary ship, 1 replenishment oiler, 1 coastal survey vessel; 2 salvage ships; 72 Trident II SLBM, 15 Goalkeeper 30mm AD systems, Harpoon SSM, Seawolf SAM; 2000 Stingray torpedoes.
FAA: 23 Sea Harrier FRS-1, 4 Jetstream Mk 3 ac; 14 Sea King (5 HAS-5, 9 HC-4); 7 Lynx HAS-3 hel; Sea Eagle ASM.
Marines: 18 Mk 4 LCVP, 3LCU.)
AIR FORCE: 93,400 (incl 6,000 women).
Strike: 11 sqns: 9 with Panavia Tornado GR-1; 2 with BAe Buccaneer S-2A/B (assigned maritime, with Sea Eagle ASM).
FGA: 5 sqns: 3 with BAe Harrier GR-3/T-4; 2 with Jaguar.
AD: 9 sqns: 2 with BAe Lightning F-6/F-3/T-5; 7 with McDonnell-Douglas Phantom (7 sqns Tornado F-2 to be formed).
Recce: 2 sqns with Jaguar GR-1; 1 fit with BAe Canberra PR-9.
MR: 4 sqns with BAe Nimrod MR-1/-1A/-2 (Harpoon ASM, Sidewinder AAM being fitted).
AEW: 1 sqn with BAe Shackleton AEW-2.
Tanker: 4 sqns: 2 with BAe Victor K-2; 1 with BAe VC-10 K-2/-3; 1 with Lockheed Tristar K-l.
Tpt: 5 sqns: 1 strategic with VC-10 C-1/Tristar-1-500; 4 tac with C-130H/-HC3 Hercules.
Liaison: 2 comms sqns with BAe (/HS-125, /HS-748 Andover, Pembroke), Piper Chieftain. Queen's Fit: BAe/HS-146-100 Andover.
ECM: 3 ECM/target facility/calibration sqns with Canberra, Nimrod MR-1, Andover E-3/C-1.
Trg: 12 OCU: Tornado GR-1/F-2, Buccaneer S Mk 2, Phantom FGR-2, Jaguar GR-1/T-2, Harrier GR-3/T-4, Nimrod, Canberra B-2/T-4,
   C-130H, Victor K-2.
2 tac weapons units: Hunter F-6/GA-9/T-7, BAe Hawk T-1, BAe Jet Provost.
Trg units: Hawk T-1, Jet Provost, BAe Jetstream T-l, BAe Bulldog T-1, Chipmunk T-10, HS-125 Dominie T-1 (all BAe); Beagle Husky T-1.
Tac hel: 5 sqns: 1 with Westland-Sikorsky Wessex; 2 with Westland-Aerospatiale Puma HC-1; 2 with Chinook HC-1 (Boeing CH-47).
SAR hel: 9 fits: 5 with Wessex HC-2; 4 with Westland-Sikorsky Sea King HAR-3.
Trg hel: Wessex, Westland-Sikorsky Whirlwind, SA-341 Gazelle.
AD: 2 SAM sqns with Bloodhound 2, 1 Royal Auxiliary AF sqn with 12x2 35mm Oerlikon AA guns with Skyguard (see also RAF Regt).
Equipment: some 635 combat ac.
   Tornado: some 204: GR-1: 189 (148 strike, 19 in tri-national trg sqn (Cottesmore), 22 in weapons conversion unit); F-2: 15 (OCU).
   Buccaneer: 52 (25 attack, 9 OCU, 18 reserve).
   Jaguar. 75 (12 FGA, 24 close spt, 24 recce, 15 OCU).
   Harrier. 52 (32 close spt, 20 OCU).
   Phantom: 150. FG-1: 36; F-3 (F-4J): 12 (ftr); FGR-2: 102 (48 FGA, 18 OCU, 36 reserve).
   Lightning: 22 (ftr).
   Hunter. 5 (tac weapons unit).
   Hawk: 117 (72 tac weapons unit (Sidewinder capable), 45 trg).
   Canberra: 38. 31 (ECM/target facility/ calibration); PR-9: 3 (recce); B-2/T-4: 4 (OCU).
   Nimrod: 34. 3 (ECM); 3 (ocu); MR-1/-1A/-2: 28 (MR).
   Shackleton: 10 (5 AEW, 5 reserve).
   Victor: 23(16 tanker, 7 OCU).
   Tristar: 9. 2 (tanker/cargo, to be 6), 7 (strategic tpt, to be 3).
   VC-10: 20. C-1: 11 (strategic tpt); K-2: 5 (tanker); K-3: 4 (tanker, to be 5).
   C-130: 45 (40 tac tpt, 5 OCU).
   Andover: 12 (5 ECM/target facility/ calibration, 3 Queens Ht, 4 comms). HS-125: 25; T-1: 19 (trg); CC-1/-2: 6 (comms).
   Pembroke: 6 (comms). BAe-146: 1 (comms). Jet Provost: 147 (2 tac weapons unit, 145 trg). Jetstream: 11 (trg). Chieftain: 3 (comms).
   Bulldog: 11 (trg). Chipmunk: 60 (trg). Husky: 1 (trg).
   Wessex: 56 (20 tac tpt, 18 SAR, 4 OCU, 14 trg).
   Chinook: 32 (27 tac tpt, 5 OCU).
   Puma: 31 (26 tac tpt, 5 OCU).
   Sea King: 14 (SAR).
   Gazelle: 22 (trg). Whirlwind: 5 (trg).
AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow, Red Top, Firestreak, Sky Flash. ASM: Martel, Harpoon, Sea Eagle.
SAM: 64 Bloodhound.
(On order, Harrier GR-3/T-4, 62 Harrier II (AV-8B = GR-5), Tornado (some 30 GR-1, 150 F-2), 11 Nimrod AEW-3, HS-125-700, BAe-146-100 (VIP), 3 VC-10 K-2/-3, 130 Short/Embraer Tucano trg; Sea King HAR hel; AIM-9L Sidewinder, Rapier SAM, Sky Flash AAM, 750 ALARM, Sea Eagle ASM.)
5 Wing HQ.
5 lt armd sqns.
9 SAM sqns (Rapier).
36 Scorpion lt tks; 90 Spartan APC; 72 Rapier SAM.
(Reserves (Royal Auxiliary Air Force)): 1 air movements sqn; 6 fd def sqns; 1 lt AA gun sqn with 12x2 35mm Oerlikon and Skyguard.
Strike Command: 3 Gps; operational home command responsible for the UK Air Defence Region and Near and Far East;
   overseas command (RAF Germany, Belize and Falklands).
Support Command: training, supply and maintenance support of other commands.
Forces Abroad: 93,164 (1985). Army 70,641, Navy/Marines 5,321, Air Force: 17,202.
Antarctica: Navy: 1 ice patrol ship.
Ascension Island: RAF: Hercules C-1P tanker (C-130Hmod) dets.
Belize: 1,500. Army: some 1,200; 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce tp, 1 fd arty bty, 1 engr sqn, 1 hel fit (4 GazelleAH-1).
   RAF: 200; 1 fit (4Harrier GR-3 FGA, 4 Puma hel), 1 Rapier AD det (4 fire units) RAF Regt.
Brunei: Army: some 900: 1 Gurkha inf bn, 1hel fit (3 ac).
Canada: Army: training and liaison unit.
Cyprus: 4,664. Army: 3,253: UNFICYP (741): 1 inf bn less 2 coys, 1 armd recce sqn, 1 hel fit, engr and log spt;
   Garrison: 1 inf bn plus 2 inf coys, 1 armd recce, 1 engr spt sqns, 1 hel fit.
   RAF: 1,393: 1 hel sqn, dets of Phantom, Lightning ac, 1 lt armd sqn RAF Regt. Navy/Marines: 18.
Egypt (Sinai MFO): 38 technical and admin personnel.
Falkland Islands: some 2,000 (being reduced).
   Army: 1 inf bn gp, 1 AD bty, 1 engr fd sqn, 1 sqn army air.
   Navy: 1 SSN/SS, 2 escorts, 3 patrol, spt and auxiliary ships.
   RAF: 1 Phantom sqn (9), 6 HerculesK-l, 3 Sea King HAR-3, 6 Chinook hel, 1 sqn RAF regt (Rapier SAM). (Details may vary through the year.)
Germany: 69,548. Army (BAOR): 55,977;
   1 corps HQ; 3 armd divs incl 8 armed, 1 air mobile (trials) inf bdes; 1 arty bde (11 armd, 2 recce, 12 arty (1 msl), 2 AD, 7 engr,
   3 army air (10 air sqns, 2 indep fits) regts; 13 inf bns).
   Berlin Inf Bde: 3,000; 3 inf bns, one armd sqn.
   RAF: 10,571; 13 ac, 2 hel sqns: 2 Phantom FGR-2, 6 Tornado, 1 Jaguar (recce), 2 Harrier, 1 Pembroke (comms); 1 Puma, 1 Chinook (tpt).
   RAF regt 2 Wing HQ; 4 Rapier SAM, 1 lt armd sqns.
Gibraltar 1,947. Army: 771; 1inf bn, 1 engr team, 1 arty surveillance tp.
   Navy/Marines: 720; 1 escort, 1 spt ship; Marine dets, 2 twin Exocet launchers (coast defence). Base unit.
   RAF: 456; periodic Jaguar ac dets.
Hong Kong: 8,945: Army: 8,017 (British 1,917, Gurkha 4,765, Hong Kong Regt 1,335);
   Gurkha Field Force with 1 Br, 4 Gurkha inf bns, 1 each Gurkha engr, sigs, tpt regts,
   1 hel sqn (-) with 10 Scout AH-1, spt units, 3 small landing craft, 3 other vessels.
   Navy: 650 (378 locally enlisted); 5 Peacock patrol craft, (12 patrol boats in local service), 1 Marine Raiding sqn.
   RAF: 278; 1 Wessex hel sqn (10 HC-2).
India/Nepal: Army: 1,330 locally enlisted personnel.
Indian Ocean: Navy: 1 destroyer/frigate, 1 spt ship; Diego Garcia, 1 naval party, 1 Marine det.
West Indies (see also Belize): Navy: 2 destroyers/frigates, 2 survey vessels, 2 RFA Military Advisers: 662 in 30 countries.

GDP 1984: $C 436.08 bn ($US 330.48 bn); 1985e: $C 469.78 bn ($US 340.90 bn)
growth 1984: 4.2% 1985: 2.5%
Inflation 1984: 4.4% 1985: 4.0%
Debt 1984: $US 110.0 bn
$US 120.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: $C 9.383 bn ($US 6.809 bn); NATO defn* $US 7.4 bn; 1986/7: $C 9.955 bn ($US 7.187 bn); NATO defn n.a.
   (* Canadian fiscal year is 1 April-31 March. NATO data refers to calendar year.)
$1=$C (1983/4): 1.2395 (1984/5): 1.3196 (1985/6): 1.3781 (1986): 1.3851

Population: 25,454,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,112,000 2,834,000
Women: 3,016,000 2,790,000
Regular: 83,000 (planned 90,000 by 1989; 7,400 women).*
   (*The Canadian Armed Forces were unified in 1968. Of the total strength, some 41,200 are not identified by service.)
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: 24,700. Army (Militia) 19,000; Comms 1,500; Navy 3,200; Air 1,000. (Total planned to increase to 40,000 by 1989.)
Commands:* (* Mobile Command commands land combat forces, and Maritime Command all naval forces. Air Command commands all air forces, but Maritime Command has operational control of maritime air forces. Mobile Command has operational control of TAG. HQ 4 ATAF in Europe has operational control of CAG.)
Mobile Command (about 18,000 land and air).
Maritime Command (MARCOM; about 15,000).
Air Command (23,000).
Communications Comd.
Canadian Forces Training System.
ARMY (Land Forces): 21,000.
2 bde gps: each 1 armd regt, 3 mech inf bns, 1 arty (2 close spt, 1 AD btys), 1 engr regts, spt units.
1 special service force (4,000): 1 armd regt, 1 inf bn, 1 AB, 1 arty, 1 engr regts, 1 spt unit.
1 mech bde gp: 1 armed regt, 2 mech inf bns, 1 arty, 1 engr regts, spt units.
(Reserves): 131 combat arms and spt units.
Tks: 114 Leopard C-1.
AFV: recce: 174 Lynx, 195 Cougar. APC: 961 M-113, 269 Grizzly.
Arty: how: 105mm: 12 model 44 (L-5) pack, 190 towed; 155mm: 50 M-109 SP.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: 787 Carl Gustav. ATGW: 149 TOW.
AD: guns: 40mm: 57 L-40/60. SAM: 111 Blowpipe.
(On order TOW-2 ATGW; 30 Oerlikon twin 35mm with Skyguard radar AD/ATK system (ADATS).)
NAVY (Maritime Forces): 5,500.f
Subs: 3 Oberon.
Escorts: 23 ASW:
   4 DDH-280 each with 2 CH-124 Sikorsky Sea King hel, 2 quad Sea Sparrow SAM.
   2 Annapolis each with 1 Sea King hel.
   6 St Laurent each with 1 Sea King hel.
   4 Improved Restigouche with ASROC.
   4 Mackenzie.
   3 Restigouche.
Replenishment spt ships: 3, each with 3Sea King hel.
Auxiliaries (civilian-manned): 11: 3 oceanographic research, 1 diving spt, 7 tugs (2 ocean, 5 coastal<).
Trg: 22: 6 coastal, 5 gate, 1 yacht(, 10 small.
(On order 6 Halifax-class ASW destroyers (DDH-330); 36 RGM-84D Harpoon ASM; Sea Sparrow SAM; radar.)
Atlantic: Halifax; 3 subs, 4 DDH-280, 2 Annapolis, 6 St Laurent, 1 Restigouche (in reserve, non-operational) frigates, 2 replenishment spt ships,
   2 sqns each with 7 Aurora, 1 sqn with 6 Tracker, 3 hel sqns, 32 Sea King ASW.
Pacific: Esquimalt; 10 ASW frigates (incl 4 trg, 2 in reserve, non-operational), 1 replenishment spt ship, 6 patrol vessels (trg);
   2 MR sqns: 1 with 4 Aurora, 1 with 3 Tracker.
   AIR FORCE: 15,300.f
Canadian Air Group (CAG):
   Ftr: 2 sqns with CF-18 (F/A-18 Hornet) (third sqn due in 1987).
Fighter Group:
   FGA: 3 sqns (1 trg) with CF-116/-116D (Northrop F-5A/D) (1 NATO-assigned); to get CF-18 from 1987. 1 trg sqn with CF-18D.
   AD: 2 sqns with CF-18 (trg sqn to augment).
   ECM: 1 trg sqn with CC-117 (Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20), CT-133 (Lockheed T-33), CF-101 (McDonnell-Douglas Voodoo).
   EWng: 13 North Warning System sites, supplemented by 39 short-range radar sites; Region Operational Control Centre (ROCC).
   1 space tracking and identification site.
Maritime Air Group:
   MR: 6 sqns: 4 (1 trg) with CP-140 Aurora (Lockheed P-3 mod); 2 (1 reserve) with CP-121 Grumman Tracker.
   ASW: 3 hel sqns (1 trg) with CH-124 Sikorsky Sea King, afloat.
   Liaison: 2 utility sqns with Lockheed T-33, CP-121 ac, CH-135 (Bell 212) hel.
Tactical Air Group (TAG):
   Tac hel: 6 sqns with CH-135, CH-136 (OH-58) Kiowa, CH-147 (CH-47) Chinook.
Air Transport Group:
   Tpt: 6 sqns: 4 (1 trg) with CC-130E/H Lockheed Hercules. 1 with CC-137 (Boeing 707).
   1 with CC-109 Cosmopolitan (Convair 440), CC-132 (DHC-7R Ranger), CC-144 Challenger (Canadair 600/601).
   SAR: 5 tpt/SAR sqns with CC-130, CC-129 (DC-3), CC-115 PHC-5 Buffalo), CC-138 (DHC-6 Twin Otter) ac,
   CH-113/-113A (BV-107) Labrador, CH-135 hel.
   Liaison hel: 4 base hel flights with CH-118 (Bell 205), CH-135.
Training Group:
   Trg: 3 flying schools with CT-133, CT-134 (Beech T-34) Musketeer, CT-114 (CL-41) Tutor, CC-129 (C-47) ac, CH-139 (Bell 206) hel.
   1 demonstration unit with CT-114.
Equipment: 140 combat ac; 32 armed hel.
   CF-116 (F-5): 49. -A: 24 (FGA); -D: 25 (FGA).
   CF-18D (F/A-18A/B): 56 (50 FGA, 6 trg).
   CF-101: 2 (1 ECM, 1 trg).
   CP-140: 18 (MR).
   CP-121: 22 (15 MR, 3 liaison, 4 reserve).
   CC-130E/H: 28 (tpt).
   CC-137: 5 (tpt). CC-109: 7 (tpt). CC-117: 4 (EW trg). CC-144: 8 (tpt). CC-132: 1 (tpt). CC-138: 8 (tpt). CC-115: 11 (tpt).
   T-33: 9 (liaison). CT-133: 17.(trg). CT-114: 111 (trg). CT-134: 20 (trg). CC-129: 2 (trg).
   CH-124: 35 (32 (ASW afloat, 3 reserve).
   CH-135: 38 (31 tac, 5 tpt, 2 liaison).
   CH-136: 36 (tac).
   CH-147: 7 (tac). CH-113: 13 (tpt). CH-118: 9 (tpt). CH-139: 14 (trg).
(On order 80 CF-18 (50 F-18A, 30 -B) ftrs, 4 CC-144 (CL-601 Challenger) EW/trg/test, 6 DHC-8 (2 CC-142 tpt, 4 CT-142 trg); Sidewinder, Sparrow AAM.)
Forces Abroad:
Europe: 1 mech bde gp (to be 4,203 end 1986); 1 armd, 2 inf, 1 arty bns, engr regt, hel sqn, log/adm bn.
   59 Leopard 1 MBT, 363 M-113 APC/recce, 59 Lynx comd/recce, 24 M-109 155mm SP how, 40 TOW ATGW, 42 40mm AA guns, 31Blowpipe SAM,
   12 CH-136 Kiowa hel. 1,415 reinforcements in Canada.
   1 Air Group: (2,700). 2 ftr sqns with 42 CF-18. 1 det; 1 CC-132 and 4 CT-133 liaison ac.
Cyprus (UNFICYP): 515.
Syria/Israel (UNDOF): 226.
Other Middle East (UNTSO): 20.
Egypt (MFO): 136.
Coast Guard: 6,561 (civilian-manned); 1 large, 7 med, 3 lt icebreakers, 38 SAR vessels, 25 tenders, 2 DHC-7R ac, 37 hel, 5 hovercraft.
Canadian Rangers: 620; Ranger cadets: some 600 (component of Militia).

GDP 1984: kr 561.14; 1985: kr 605.30
growth 1984: 3.5%; 1985: 2.7%
Inflation 1984: 6.3%; 1985: 4,7%
Debt 1984: $36.8 bn; 1985: $36.6 bn
Def exp 1985: kr 12.579 ($1.553 bn); NATO dfn $1.298 bn; 1986*: kr 12.771 ($1.553 bn) NATO dfn n.a.
   (* 1 Jan 1985 price levels. Supplemented at year-end with inflation allowance.)
$1=kr (1983): 9.1450; (1984): 10357; (1985): 10.596 (1986): 8.226
kr = Danish kroner

Population: 5,145.
   18-30 31-45
Men: 512,000 582,000
Women: 490,000 559,000
Regular 29,525 (6,825 conscripts).
Terms of service. 9-12 months (up to 18 months in certain ranks).
Reserves: 162,700: 72,500 active.
   Home Guard 75,200 (11,100 women) (to age 50).
   Amy: 128,900.
   Augmentation Force (immediate recall): (to wartime 'covering force') 4,500.
   Mobilization Forces: Field Army Reserve (FAR) 51,900 -comprising Covering Force Reserve (12,000): 5 mech inf bns (1 per bde), men
   (to bring units to war strength); Other (39,900); 5 mot inf bns, men for regimental combat teams, combat and log spt.
   Regional Defence Force: 7 Regions: 14,000.
   Hjemmevaemet (Home Guard): 58,500 (8,100 women); some 550 Coys.
   Navy: 9,400: 4,500 active. Home Guard: 4,900 (1,500 women).
   Air: 23,400: 11,600 active. Home Guard: 11,800 (1,700 women); some 90 sqns.
ARMY: 15,600 (5,200 conscripts): Standing Force (7,000); ('Covering Force') HQ, schools, administration (some 4,250) (trg force 4,000, UN 323).
To be 72,000 on mobilization.
3 geographical commands: 2 div HQ.
   5 mech inf bdes, each with 1 tk, 2 mech, 1 arty bns, spt units.
   6 regimental combat teams, each with 2-3 inf, 1 arty bns, spt units.
8 indep inf bns.
1 Army avn unit, some 8 platoons (being re-org).
Reserves: 10 inf (5 mech, 5 mot), 4 arty bns, ATK sqns, spt units.
Tks: 208: 120 Leopard 1, 88 Centurion; lt: 48 M-41.
APC: 650 M-113, 68 M-106 mor-armed.
Arty, guns: 155mm: 24 M-59 towed. how. 324: 105mm: 144 M-101; 155mm: 168: 96 M-114 towed, 72 M-109 SP; 203mm: 12 M-115 towed.
   mor 81mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: 400 Carl Gustav, 106mm: 252. RL-LAW. ATGW: TOW.
AD: guns: 40mm: 36 L/60. SAM: Hamlet (Redeye).
Avn: ac: 16 SAABT-17 lt. hel: 12 Hughes 500M.
NAVY: 6,925 (825 conscripts).
Bases: Copenhagen, Korsor, Frederikshavn.
Subs: 4: 2 Narhvalen; 2 Delfinen.
Frigates: 10:
   5 (2 Peder Skram (at cadre crew status, 1986), 3 Niels Juel) with 2 quad Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM;
   5 Hvidbjemen fishery-protection (1 Lynx hel).
FAC(G): 10 Willemoes with 8 Harpoon SSM.
FAC(T): 6 Seteven (2 in active reserve).
Patrol craft: 27: 22 large (8 Daphne (to be replaced), 3 Agdlek, 2 Maagen, 9 Barso); 5 Botved coastal<.
Minelayers: 7 (4 Falster, 2 Lindormen, 1 Langeland).
Minesweepers: 6 Sund (US MSC-60) coastal.
Misc: 2 coastal tankers, 4 ice breakers, 1 Royal Yacht
Coast defence unit: 2 coastal fortresses; 150mm guns.
Hel: 7 Lynx (up to 4 embarked).
Reserves (Home Guard): 37 coastal patrol craft
(On order 3 Kobben subs, 7 Standard Flex 300 multi-role patrol boats, Type 617 torpedoes, Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM.)
AIR FORCE: 7,000 (800 conscripts).
Tactical Air Command
   FGA: 4 sqns with General Dynamics F-16A/B.
   FGA/AD: 1 sqn with SAAB F-35XD Draken.
   FGA/recce: 1 sqn with RF-35XD Draken.
Air Defence Group:
   AD: 1 SAM bn: 6 batteries with Improved HAWK (2 more forming 1986).
Air Material Command:
   Tpt 1 sqn, 3 comms fits with C-130H Hercules, Gulfstream III, SAAB T-17.
   SAR: 1 sqn with Sikorsky S-61A hel.
   Trg: 1 flying school with T-17.
Equipment: 96 combat ac.
   F-16A/B: 64 (FGA).
   F-35: 32. F-35XD: 16 (FGA/AD); RW5XD: 16 (recce).
   C-130: 3 (tpt). Gulfstream III: 3 (tpt). SAAB T-17: 22 (7 tpt, 15 trg).
Hel: S-61: 8 (SAR).
Msls: AAM: Sidewinder.
SAM: 36 Improved HAWK.
(On order 12 F-16A/B FGA/trg; AIM-9L Sidewinder AAM.
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNFICYP): 1 bn: 323. Other 159.

GDP 1984: fr 4,284.1 bn ($490.222 bn); 1985: fr 4,595.4 bn ($511.441 bn)
growth 1984: 1.6% 1985: 1.1%
Inflation 1984: 7.4% 1985: 5.8%
Debt 1984: $94.0 bn 1985: $67.0 bn
Def bdgt* 1985: fr 150.2 bn ($16.716 bn); NATO defn $20.728 bn 1986: fr 158.026 bn ($22.342 bn); NATO defn $27.715 bn
   (* A 5-year military development plan for 1984-8, totalling fr 850 bn, is being implemented.)
$1=f r (1983): 7.6213 (1984): 8.7391 (1985): 8.9852 (1986): 7.0730

Population: 55,502,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 5,609,000 5,956,000
Women: 5,432,000 5,674,000
Regular 557,493 (13,600 women, 253,300 conscripts) (incl Gendarmerie, Service de Sante, Inter-service Central Staffs).
   To be reduced by 37,500 by 1988.
Terms of service.12 months plus post-conscription voluntary system of 16-24 months.
Reserves: 391,000; Army 305,000, Navy 28,000, Air 58,000.
STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES: (18,820, some 2,499 Army, 5,053 Navy, 9,957 Air Force, 747 Gendarmerie, 564 others).
SLBM: 6 SSBN: 1 with 16 M-4/TN-70; 5 with 16 M-2Q/TN-60 msls (1 on long refit incl conversion to M-4/TN-71, Exocet SM-39 SLCM).
IRBM: 18 SSBS S-3D/TN-61 msls in 2 sqns. (Test centre: 4 silos).
Aircraft; 105 combat ac.
Bbrs: 2 wings, 4 sqns.
   3 sqns with 22 Dassault Mirage IVA (AN-22 nuclear bombs).
   1 sqn with 8 Mirage IVP (ASMP nuclear ASM, one more sqn to be operational end-1986; 10 more Mirage IVA being converted to IVP;
   total 18 ac by end-1987).
Trg: 12 Mirage IIIB, 2 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20P.
Tankers: 1wing: 3 sqns with 11 Boeing KC-135F/FR.
Comms: 4 Transall C-160 ASTARTE airborne comms centres.
Reserve: 6 Mirage TVA recce.
'Prestrategic' Nuclear Forces: (8,628).
French doctrine considers shorter-range nuclear forces to fill this role. They include:
   Army (6,129): Pluton SSM;
   Navy (154): Super Etendard strike ac,
   Air (2,208): 5 sqns: 3 with 45 Jaguar, 2 with 30 Mirage III; all with AN-52 bombs;
(On order 1 SSBN (1994), 48 M-4/TN-71 SLBM, ASMP nuclear ASM.)
ARMY: 296,480 incl Army Aviation, 6,250 women (189,000 conscripts).
1 army HQ, 3 corps HQ.
   6 armd divs.
   2 lt armd divs.
   2 motor rifle (APC) divs.
   1 para regt
   3 SAM regts (11 btys with 66 HAWK) (1 school).
   1 sigs, 2 ELINT/EW regts.
Army/corps unity. 3 armd recce, 1 special ops, 1 drone, 1 hy arty, 5 SSM with Pluton, 5 SAM(each of 4 btys) with 139 Roland I/II and twin 30mm AA guns,
   2 inf, 3 combat hel 5 engr, 7 sigs, 3 tpt, 3 military police (traffic), 1 cadre (sqn) regts; 3 log bdes.
Rapid Action Force(FAR): 45,000.
   1 para div (13,500): 6 para inf, 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 engr, 1 comd spt regts, 1 spt bn
   1 air portable marine div (8,000): 4 inf, 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 engr, 1 comd/spt regts
   1 lt armd div (7,400): 2 lt armd, 2 APC inf, 1 arty, 1 engr, 1 comd/spt regts.
   1 alpine div (8,500): 6 mountain inf regts, 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 comd/spt regts; 1 engr bn.
   1 air mobile div (5,100): 1 inf, 3 combat hel, 1 comd/spt regts (to be 2 inf, 4 combat hel regts) see ALAT.
   1 log bde spt units (incl 1 sigs, 1 tpt regts).
Indep regts: 1 EW, 1 para, 6 arty, 4 engr, 6 tpt
Foreign Legion (8,300). 1 armd, 1 para, 4 inf (trg), 2 engr regts.
Reserves: (8,500):
Immediate manning, 1 Army, FAR units, 45,000.
Forces in Germany (18,500) 1 inf div.
Military Regions: 7 bdes (each some 3,500 men; lt armd, 2 inf regts, engrs);
   Strategic nuc defence: 1 div (5 inf regts); Frontier defence: 6 inf regts;
   Territorial defence: 23 regts (each some 1,000 men, some with lt armd sqn, engrs.

ARMY AVIATION (ALAT) (7,000). 177 combat hel.
1 Air mobile div:
1 regt with 4 manoeuvre sqns each 11 Puma; 1 liaison sqn with 16 SA-341 Gazelle.
3 regts each with 1 manoeuvre sqn with 11 Puma, 1 observation sqn with 9 SA-341/Athos, 1 gunship sqn with 10 SA-341,
   3 ATK sqns each 10 SA-342/ or Alouette/SS-11.
(240 hel: 77 Puma, 20 Alouette III/SS-11, 70 SA-342/HOT, 30 SA-341/gun; 27 SA-341/Athos, 16 SA-341 recce.)
3 corps hel regts, each 10 Puma, 16 SA-341/-342/Alouette ATK, 10 Gazelle.
4 territorial defence groups.
2 hel schools, detachments to 3 armd, inf, arty schools.
1 Army liaison sqn, overseas detachment
Tks: 1,300 AMX-30 (248 -B2); lt: 327 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 225 AMX-10RC, 60 ERC-90F4 Sagaie, 650 AML-60/90 (perhaps 300 in store). MICV: 780 AMX-10P/PC/Milan.
   APC 1,100 AMX-13 VTT, 2,060 VAB, 60 VAB (HOT).
Arty. 763. guns: 155mm: 110 AU-F-1 SP. how 105mm: 30 AU-50; 155mm: 623: 165 HM-2, 208 BF-50, 36 TR-F-1 towed, 214 F-3 SP.
   SSM: 44 Pluton. mor: 120mm: 552.
ATK: RL: 12,000 89mm, Apilas 112mm. ATGW: 113 AMX-13/SS-11, 1,400 Milan.
AD: guns: 817: 20mm: 90 76T1, 475 53T2; 30mm: 390 towed, 57 AMX-30 DCA twin SP. SAM: 220: 69 HAWK, 151 Roland I/II.
Avn: hel: 180 SA-315 Alouette II, 65 SA-316 III (AS-11 ATGW), 130 SA-330 Puma, 162 SA-341F/M and 128 SA-342M Gazelle hel with HOT.
   ac: 17 MH-1521 Broussard, 18 CL-89 drones; Cessna L-19 reported.
(On order 630 AMX-30B2 MBP, 600 Panhard M-11 VBL, 60 AMX-10RC, 120 ERC-90F4 armd cars; AMX-10P MICV; 294 VAB APC, 170 AU-F-1 155mm SP guns; 145 TR-F-1 155mm how, 3 227mm MRL; 58 120mm mor, 12,500 Apilas RL; 850 HOT (VAB and Gazelle), ACCP ATGW; 170 20mm AA guns; 31 Roland, 297 Mistral SAM; AS-332 Super Puma (with battlefield surveillance radar), 26 SA-342M (HOT) hel).
NAVY: 66,345 incl Naval Air, (1,500 women; 17,680 conscripts).
Comds: 2 home (CECLANT, CECMED), 2 overseas.
Bases: Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Toulon.
Subs (attack): 17.
   SSN: 2 Rubis (with SM-39 Exocet SSM).
   SS: 15: 4 Agosta, 9 Daphne, 2 Narval.
   trials: 1 SSB.
Principal Surface Combatants: 46.
Carriers: 3:
   2 attack Clemenceau, 39 ac (3 fits with 20 Dassault Super Etendard, 1 with 7 F-8E Crusader, 1 with 6 Breguet Alize, 1 det with 4 Etendard IVP, 4 hel).
   1 ASW (LPH): Jeanne d'Arc (capacity 8 Westland Lynx hel) with 6 Exocet SSM (trg).
Cruiser: 1 command with 4 Exocet SSM, 1 twin Masurca SAM.
Destroyers: 17.
ASW: 15:
   5 Leygues (C-70) ASW with 4 Exocet, 1 octuple Crotale SAM, 2 Lynx hel;
   2 Suffren with 4 Exocet, 1 Malafon ASW/SSM, 1 twin Masurca SAM;
   3 Tourville (F-67) with 6 Exocet, 1 octuple Crotale SAM, 1 Malafon, 2 Lynx,
   1 T-56 with 1 Malafon, 1 hel;
   1 T-53 with 4 Exocet, 1 Lynx;
   2 T-47 with 1 Malafon;
   1 C-65 with 8 Exocet, 1 Malafon.
AA: 2 T-47 with 1 Tartar SAM.
Frigates: 25: 8 Rivere (4 with 4 MM-38 Exocet); 17 Type A-69 (4 with 2 Exocet, 6 with 4).
Minor Surface Combatants:
FAC: 7 P-400 (3 more in 1987), 4 Patra, 1 La Combattante.
MCMV: ocean: 5 Type-D. coastal: 20: 5 Berlaimont, 5 Eridan, 5 Circe, 5 Cantho.
Amph: assault ships: 6. 2 Ouragan (3 SA-321 Super Gazelle/Alouette hel, 9 LCM or 2 LCU),
   4 Batral. LST: 2. LCT. 9. LCU: 6.
Tankers: 6 ocean, 6 maintenance/log/supply.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38, MM-40, SM-39 sub launched. ASW: Malafon.
SAM: Crotale, Masurca, Tartar.
Strike: 3 fits with Dassault Super Etendard (AN-52 nuclear weapons; 20 to be mod for ASMP).
Ftr: 1 fit with F-8E (FN) Crusader.
ASW: 2 fits with Breguet Alize (mod).
MR: 6 fits, 4 with Breguet Atlantic, 2 with Dassault Gardian (Mystere Falcon 20).
Recce: 1 fit with Etendard IVP.
OCU: Etendard IVM; Fouga Zephir, Alize.
Trg: 4 units with Nord 262 Fregate, Piper Navajo, EMB-121 Xingu, MS-760 Paris, Mystere Falcon 10MER.
Misc: 3 comms/liaison units (1 VIP) with DC-6, Falcon 10MER, Nord 262, Navajo.
   1 trial unit with Nord N-2504.
   2 lt ac units with 12 Rallye 880, 6 CAP-10.
ASW hel: 3 sqns with Westland Lynx.
Cdo hel: 2 assault sqns with SA-321 Super Frelon.
Trg hel: SA-316/-319 Alouette II/III.
Misc hel: 2 comms/SAR units with Alouette II/III, SA-332 Super Puma. 1 trials unit with Alouette II/III, Westland Lynx, Super Frelon.
Equipment: 122 combat ac, 24 combat hel
   Super Etendard: 37 (strike).
   Etendard: 20. WP: 8 (recce); IVM: 12(trg).
   Crusader 12 (ftr).
   Alize: 21 (16 ASW, 4 trg, 1 misc).
   Atlantic: 26 (MR) (2 -NG (modernized)).
   Gardian: 5 (MR).
   Zephir. 12 (trg). Nord 262: 23 (13 trg, 10 misc).
   Navajo: 11 (2 trg, 9 misc). Xingu: 14 (9 trg, 5 misc). Rallye 880: 16 (trg). CAP-10: 5 (trg).
   MS-760: 8 (misc). Mystere-Falcon 10MER: 6 (misc). Nord N-2504: 1(misc).
   Lynx 26 (24 ASW, 2 misc).
   Super Frelon: 15 (12 cdo, 3 misc).
   Alouette: 38 (10 trg, 28 misc).
Missiles: ASM: Exocet AM-39, AS-12/-30, Martel AS-37. AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, Sidewinder.
COMMANDOS (590): 4 assault units (1 reserve), 1 sub spt unit
(On order 4 Rubis SSN, 1 nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, 1 C-70 ASW, 4 AA (Cassard) destroyers; 1 FL-25, 6 A-69 frigates; 3 P-400 FAC(G); 5 Eridan minehunters; 1 TCD-90 LSD, 2 LCT, 1 ocean tanker, 33 Exocet SM-39 sub-launched SSM; 14 Crotale EDIR SAM; 16 Atlantic II ASW ac (total of 42 to be bought).)

PUBLIC SERVICE FORCE (MHSP): Naval personnel, general coastguard, fishery, SAR duties; 1 Sterne, 1 Mercure patrol craft, 1 ex-trawler, 1 P-681 Albatros fishery protection vessel, 3 N-262 ac, 1 Dauphin hel (To get 4 more vessels.)
AIR FORCE: 95,978 (5,850 women, 35,400 conscripts).
Air Defence Command (CAFDA): (7,150).
   Ftr: 11 sqns: 1 with Dassault Mirage IIIC (in Djibouti); 8 with Mirage F-1C; 2 with Mirage 2000C/B.
   Trg: 1 OCU with Mirage F-1B; 4 trg fits with CM-170 Magister, MH-1521 Broussard.
   AD system: automatic: STRIDAIL 10 radar stations.
   SAM: 12 sqns (1 trg) with 24 Crotale btys (48 fire, 24 radar units).
   AA: 300 btys (20mm guns).
   AAM: R-530, Super 530F, R-550 Magic I/II, Sidewinder.
Tactical Air Force (FATAC) (19,350).
   FGA: 10 sqns: 3 with Mirage IIIE; 2 with Mirage 5F; 5 with Jaguar A.
   Recce: 3 sqns: 1 with Mirage IIIR/IIIRD; 2 with Mirage F-1CR.
   Trg: 2 OCU: 1 with Mirage IIIB/E; 1 with Jaguar A/E. 8 trg fits with Magister, Broussard.
   AAM: Sidewinder, R-550 Mzgic, R-530. ASM: AS-30/-30L, Martel AS-37.
(Attached to COTAM):
   AEW: 2 sqns. 1 with Nord-2501 Noratlas; 1 with Douglas DC-8 (EE-51) EUNT.
   Liaison: 3 sqns with Magister, Broussard.
   Hel: 1 sqn with SA-315/316 Alouette II/III.
   Comms Gp (GTT): 2 sigs, 1 EWng sqns.
Air Transport Command (COTAM) (4,200).
   Tpt: 21 sqns:
   1 hy with DC-8F;
   6 tac: 5 with C-160/-160NG, 1 with Noratlas;
   14 lt tpt/trg/SAR with Nord 262 Fregate, Dassault Mystere-Falcon 50, MS-760 Paris, Broussard, DHC-6 Twin Otter, AS Caravelle, EMB-121 Xingu.
   Trg: 1 OCU with Fregate, C-160.
   Hel: 5 sqns with Alouette II/III, Puma, SA-365 Dauphin, AS-350 Ecureuil.
   Trg hel: 1 OCU with Alouette II/III, Puma, Ecureuil.
Training Command (CEAA) (5,500).
   Trg: Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet, Magister, Noratlas, Xingu 1, AS Epsilon, Mudry CAP-10B/-20.
   Misc: (trials units): 1 sqn with Mirage F-1, Mirage 2000, Jaguar, 1 sqn with DHC-6, Fregate.
Equipment: 555 combat ac.
   Mirage: 411. F-1B: 14 (OCU); F-1CR 127 (ftr, trials); F-1CR: 32 (recce); IIIC: 10 (ftr); IIIE: 75 (30 strike, 30 FGA, 15 ftr); IIIB/BE 21 (trg);
   IIIR: 19 (recce); IIIRD: 11 (recce); -5F: 30 (FGA); IVA: 22 (bbr);IVP: 8 (bbr); -2000: 39 (ftr, trials); (also 1 F-1, 2 -2000 in trials sqn).
   Jaguar 138+. -A: 116 (45 strike, 71 FGA, + trg and trials ac); -E 22 (trg, trials).
   Alpha Jet 102 (trg).
   DC-8: 6 (5 tpt, 1 EE-51 AEW).
   Transall C-160: 62 (T 36 tac tpt, 7 OCU, 19 -NG tac tpt).
   Noratlas: 19 (10 tac tpt, 5 AEW, 4 OCU).
   Fregate: 22 (21 misc, 1 trials). Mystere-Falcon: 13. -20: 12 (misc), -50: 1 (misc). MS-760: 23 (misc). Broussard: 38 (trg, misc).
   DHC-6: 10 (9 misc, 1 trials). Caravelle: 4 (misc). Xingu: 25 (17 trg, 8 misc). Magister 174 (trg). Epsilon: 76 (trg). CAP-10B/20: 56 (trg).
   Alouette: 64. II: 9 (OCU); II/III: 48 (lt tpt); III: 7 (OCU).
   Puma: 29 (27 tpt, 2 OCU). Dauphin: 1 (tpt). Ecureuil: 8 (tpt).
(On order some 19 Mirage 2000C/B, 47 -2000N, 17 F-1CR ftrs; 91 Epsilon trg ac; 16 Ecureuil-2 hel, 40 20mm AA guns.)
SERVICE DE SANT : 8,465 (2,140 conscripts).
Atlantic Fleet 6 SSBN, 8 other subs, 1 hel carrier, 17 escorts, 11 MCM, 8 amph.
Channel Flotilla: 3 frigates, 9 MCM.
Mediterranean Fleet 2 SSN, 9 subs, 2 carriers, 14 escorts, 5 MCM, 5 amph.
Forces Abroad:
Europe: Germany. 50,000; 3 armd divs (400 MBT; to be increased).
   Berlin: 2,700; 1 armd regt, 1 inf regt
Overseas Dependencies: 21,500; Army 12,700, Navy 3,350, Air 1,450, Gendarmerie 3,900.
Four inter-service overseas commands:
   Antilles-Guyana 7,900: 1 marine inf, 1 Foreign Legion regts, 1 marine inf bn,
   2 ships, 1 Atlantic MR ac, 1 air tpt unit (C-160 ac, Puma, Alouette II hel).
   South Indian Ocean (Mayotte, La Reunion): 3,300 incl AUNDIEN; 1 marine inf regt, 2 inf coys, 1 air tpt unit (C-l 60 ac, Alouette III hel).
   New Caledonia 4,900: 1 marine inf regt, 4 inf coys, 1 air tpt unit (C-l 60 ac, Alouette III hel).
   Polynesia 5,400 (incl AIPACI): 1 marine, 1 Foreign Legion regts, 1 air tpt unit (Caravelle, Twin Otter ac; Super Puma, Alouette III hel).
Two naval commands:
   Indian Ocean (A1JNDIEN) (1,800): 5 frigates, 2 minor combatants, 2 amph, 4 spt ships (1 comd), 1 Atlantic MR ac
   Pacific (ALPACI) (1,400): 3 frigates, 4 minor combatants, 8 amph, 12 spt ships, 5 Falcon Gardian MR ac
Other Overseas (some 11,000 from all services; numbers vary according to local circumstances): incl 120 AFV, spt vessels, 25 combat and 25 tpt ac, 43 hel
Central African Republic (CAR.) (1,600):
   garrison: 1 bn gp incl 2 motor coys; 1 platoon AML armd cars (6); spt coy with O-1E lt ac, 120mm mor, Milan ATGW.
   from France: 2 AML armd car sqns and 1tp, 2 inf coys, 1 arty bty (105mm), 1 ALAT det (10 attack, 6 med tpt hel);
   air elms with Jaguar, C-160 tpt acr, Puma, Gazelle (HOT) hel
Chad (1,300): 3 inf coys; Jaguar, Mirage F-1C, Atlantic MR, C-160 tpt ac; Puma hel.
Djibouti (4,000): 2 regts; 2 lt tk (AMX-13/AMXSS-11), 1 mixed armd sqns; 2 motor inf coys; 1 arty bty (105mm); 1 AA arty bty, 1 Pioneer coy,
   1 ALAT det (5 attack, 5 med tpt hel); 1 sqn with 7 Mirage HIC, 1 C-160 tpt ac, 3 Alouette II hel
Gabon (600): 1 marine inf bn; Jaguar, 1 C-160, Atlantic ac, 1Alouette III hel.
Ivory Coast (500): 1 marine inf bn; 1Alouette III Ihel.
Senegal (1,250): 1 marine inf regt; Jaguar, Atlantic MR ac 1 air tpt unit (C-160 tpt ac; Alouette II/III hel).
Middle East Lebanon (UNIHL) (1,391): 1 inf bn, log bn Sinai MFO (40): incl 2 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 1 C-160 tpt ac.
Gendarmerie (incl Penal Affairs): 85,708 (incl 1,112 women, 9,080 conscripts, 960 civilians);
   3,667 territorial squads, 133 intervention units; 93 general traffic units, 24 highway sqns, 6 platoons;
   130 mobile sqns; 234 overseas units. 121 AML, 28 VBC-90 armd cars; 33 AMX-VTT, 155 VBRG-170 APQ 288 81mm mor,
   58 patrol boats; 6 Cessna 206C acr, 18 Alouette H, 12 Ecureuil, 12 Alouette III hel
(*Incl Inter-Service Central Staff and Service de Sante, but not Gendarmerie.)

GDP 1984: DM 1,745.6 bn ($613.374 bn); 1985: DM 1,830.4 bn ($621.739 bn)
growth 1984: 2.7% 1985: 2.3%
Inflation 1984: 2.4% 1985: 2.2%
Debt 1984: $109.0 b a 1985: $120.7 bn
Def bdgt* 1985: DM 49.014 bn ($16.649 bn); NATO dem $19.922 bn; 1986: DM 49.911 bn ($22.487 bn); NATO defn $27.203 bn
   (* Exd Berlin support costs, which amounted to DM 15.1 bn in 1985 and DM 15.3 bn in 1986.)
$1=D M (1983): 2.5533 (1984): 2.8459 (1985): 2.9440 (1986): 2.2195

Population: 61,134,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 6,527,000 6,484,000
Women: 6,174,000 6,154,000
Regular 485,800 (228,850 conscripts).
Terms of service. 15 months (to be 18 months from 1989).* (* Incl 11,200 military personnel in the Ministry of Defence, Central Military Agencies, Central Medical Agencies and 6,000 reserve duty training positions.)
Reserves: 770,000 (men to age 45, officers/NCOs to 60): Army 645,000, Navy 22,000, Air 95,000, Others 8,000.
ARMY: 340,800 (181,300 conscripts).* (*Excl inter-service personnel and part-time reservists.)
HQ Support Elements: 25,400. General Army Office subordinate echelon and spt tps.
Field Army. 266,000.
3 corps: 12 divs (6 armd, 4 armd inf, 1 mountain, 1 AB);
   38 bdes: 17 armd (each with 3 tk, 1 armd inf, 1 armd arty bns), 15 armd inf (each with 1 tk, 3 armd inf, 1 armd arty bns),
   1 mountain, 3 AB, 2 Home Defence.
   Total: 70 tk, 64 armd inf, 2 inf, 4 mountain, 12 para, 33 armd arty, 1 mountain arty, 2 fd arty bns.
11 armd recce bns.
Corps arty: 4 SSM bns with Lance.
Div arty: 11 regts (each 3 btys: 18 FH-70, 18 203mm, 16MRL).
3 AD regts, 1 AD bn with Roland's. SAM.
11 AA regts with Gepard 35mm SP guns.
3 army aviation comds, each with 1 lt, 1 med tpt hel regt; 1 indep ATGW hel regt
1 mixed aviation regt
Engr units.
Territorial Army (Cadre): 49,400.
3 Territorial Commands, 5 Military District Commands, 29 Military Region Commands, 80 Sub-region Commands (county/town level):
   10 Home Defence bdes (4 with 2 tk, 2 lt inf, 1 arty bns; 6 with 1 tk, 2 inf, 1 arty bns): 2 with Field Army, 2 at 65%, 2 at 52% manning levels,
   4 eqpt holding units only in peacetime.
4 Territorial Service spt comds.
Security tps: 15 Home Defence Regts (with 45 mot inf bns only), 150 coys, 296 security platoons; defensive, comms, military police gps and service units on mobilization
Tks: 4,895: 295 M-48A2/A2C, 650 M-48A2G (Territorial bns), 2,437 Leopard 1A1, 1,513 Leopard 2.
AFV: recce: 408 SPz-2 Luchs. MICV: 2,136 Marder A1 (1,000 to be upgraded to A3). APC 876 TPz-1, 2,560 M-113.
Arty: how: 1,227: 105mm: 199; 155mm 216 FH-70, 586 M-109 (to be upgraded to A3); 203mm: 226 M-110A2SP.
   MRL 110mm: 209 LARS; 227mm: 2 MLRS. SSM: 26 Lance. mor: 120mm: 955 (535 SP on M-113).
ATK: guns: 90mm: some 200 JPz-4-5 SP. RCL: 105 106mm.
   ATGW: 1,928 Milan systems, 346 TOW systems, 316 RJPz-(HOT) Jaguar 1, 243 RJPz-(TOW) SP; (see also PAH-1 hel below).
AD: guns: 2,395. 20mm: 1,712 towed; 35mm: 432 Gepard SP; 40mm: 251 L-70. SAM: 723 Redeye, 143 Marder/Roland SP.
Avn: hel: 187 Bell UH-1D, 148 SA-316 Alouette III, 210 PAH-1 (MBB BO-105P with HOT), 95 BO-105M, 105 Sikorsky CH-53G.
(On order 377 Leopard 2 MBP, 312 Wiesel AB recce/MICV; 114 TPz-1 APC, 198 227mm MLRS MRL; 115 Marder/Roland SAM (with 4,000 missiles).)
NAVY: 36,300, incl naval air (9,450 conscripts)
Bases: Borkurn, Cuxhaven, Eckernforde, Emden, Flensburg, Kiel, Olpenitz, Wilhelmshaven.
Subs: 24: 18 Type 206; 6 Type 205.
Destroyers: 7:
   3 Lutjens (1 Type 103A with 1 Standard SAM, 8 ASROC, 2 103B with 2 quad Harpoon SSM; 2 RAM-ASMD SAM planned for all 3);
   4 Hamburg (Type 101A) with 2 twin Exocet MM-38 SSM.
Frigates: 9:
   6 Bremen (Type 122) with 2 quad Harpoon, 1 octuple Sea Sparrow, 2 RAM-ASMD, 2 quad Stinger SAM, 2 Lynx hel;
   3 Koln (Type-120).
Corvettes: 5 Thetis (Type 420).
FAC(G): 40 with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM: 10 Type 143,10 Type 143A, 20 Type 148, (to get 1 RAM-ASMD SAM).
MCMV: 57:
   12 Type 331 coastal minehunters (MHC);
   6 Type 351 Troika drone control minesweepers (MSCD) with 18 F-1 drone vessels (MCD);
   21 Schutze (7 Type-340, 14 Type-341) fast minesweepers;
   8 Ariadne (Type-393/393B), 10 Frauenlob (Type-394/394A) inshore minesweepers;
   2 spt ships.
Amph: LCU: 22 Type-520 (incl 1 trg, 2 in reserve); LCM: 28 Type-521 (incl 22 in reserve).
Misc: 10 Rhein depot, 4 Luneburg (Type 701A), 4 Coburg (Type 701C) spt ships, 4 tpts, 10 tankers, 2 repair ships, 3 Type-422A/B AGI,
   1 Burkner utility/trials.
(On order 2 Bremen (Type-122) frigates; 10 Type-332 MHC, 2 Type-423 AGI; 110 SM-1 Standard, 126 RIM-7M Sea Sparrow SAM.)
FGA: 3 sqns with Panavia Tornado (1 with Lockheed F-104 converting 1986).
Recce: 1 sqn with RF-104G.
MR/ELINT: 2 sqns with Breguet Atlantic.
Liaison: 1 sqn with Dornier Do-28-D2.
ASW hel: 1 sqn with Westland Sea Lynx Mk 88.
SAR hel: 1 sqn with Westland-Sikorsky Sea King Mk41.
Equipment combat 105 ac; 12 hel
   F-104: 40. F/TF-104G: 25 (FGA); RF-104G: 15 (recce).
   Tornado: 46 (FGA).
   Atlantic: 19 (14 MR, 5 HINT).
   Do-28: 19 (17 liaison, 2 environmental protection).
Helicopters: Sea Lynx 12 (ASW). Sea King: 22 (SAR).
Missiles: ASM: AS-30, Kormoran.
(On order 66 Tornado, 8 Sea Lynx)
AIR FORCE 108,700 (38,100 conscripts)
Tactical Command (GAFTAC).
4 divs: 2 tac, 2 AD.
FGA: 20 sqns: 3 with Lockheed F-104G;
   4 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4F;
   6 with Panavia Tornado;
   7 with Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet.
Ftr: 4 sqns with F-4F.
Recce: 4 sqns with RF-4E
ECM: 1 trg sqn with HFB-320 Hansa Jet.
SSM: 8 sqns with Pershing 1A.
SAM: 3 regts (each 2 bns of 4 btys) with Nike Hercules; 3 regts (each 3 bns of 4 btys) with Improved HAWK.
Radar: 4 aircraft control and warning regts; 9 sites; 1 US Control Report Centre (CRC) and 3 remote radars.
AAM: Sidewinder.
Transport Command (GAFTC).
Tpt 3 wings: 4 sqns with Transall C-160.
Special oper: 1 special air mission wing: 2 sqns with Boeing 707-320C, C-140 Jetstar, Hansa Jet, VFW-614, Domier Do-28 aq Bell UH-1D hel.
Hel: 1 wing 5 sqns with UH-1D (liaison).
Training Command:
FGA: 1 det (Cottesmore, UK) with Tornado.
Ftr: OCU (George AFB, US) with F-4E
Trg: NATO joint pilot trg (Sheppard AFB, US) with Cessna T-37B, Northrop T-38A; primary trg unit with Piaggio P-149D.
Liaison range base fits with Do-28D.
Equipment 525 combat ac
   F-104G: 90 (FGA).
   F-4: 186. -F: 120 (60 FGA, 60 ftr); -E 8 (OCU); RF-4E 58 (recce).
   Tornado: 143 (81 FGA, 22 OCU, 20 in tri- national trg sqn, 20 reserve).
   Alpha Jet 173 (126 FGA, 47 reserve).
   Transall C-160: 75 (tpt).
   Boeing 707: 4 (special). Jetstan 3 (special). Hansa Jet 13 (6 special, 7 ECM trg). VFW-614: 3 (special). Do-28: 71 (6 special, 65 liaison).
   T-37&35. T-38A: 41. P-149D: 34 (trg).
Helicopters: UH-1D: 96 (92 liaison, 4 special).
   SSM: 72 Pershing 1A.
   SAM: 432: 216 Nike Hercules, 216 HAWK.
(On order Tornado FGA, 40 Tornado ECR, 7 CL-601 Challenger ac; 100 AIM-9L Shorad (Sidewinder) (400 msls), 14 /taraf (779 msls),
   95 Roland, 310 AGM-65B Maverick ASM; 866 AGM-88A HARM msls.)
Border Police (Ministry of Interior) 20,000:
   MOWAG SW-1/-2 APC; 2 P-149D, 1 Do-27 ac, MBB BO-105M, 32 Alouette II, 13 UH-1D, 10 Bell 212, 22 Puma hel
Coastguard: 1,000; 1 tug, 8 large, 5 small patrol vessels.

GDP 1984: dr 3,772.30 bn ($33.466 bn); 1985: dr 4,509.40 bn ($32.648 bn)
growth 1984: 2.6%; 1985: 1.8%
Inflation 1984: 18.5%; 1985: 19.3%
Debt 1984: $14.0 bn; 1985: $17.0 bn
Def exp 1985e dr 281.713 ($2.04 bn); NATO dem $2.329 bn
FMA 1984: $530.0 m; 1985: $550.0 m
$1=dr (1983): 88.06; (1984): 112.72, (1985): 138.12; (1986): 140.65
dr = drachmas

Population: 10,372,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 961,00 904,000
Women: 910.00 951,000

Regular 209,000 (136,500 conscripts, 1,800 women).
Terms of service. Army 21, Navy 25, Air Force 23 months.
Reserves: some 404,000 (to age 50).
   Army some 350,000 (Field Army 227,000, Territorial Army 23,000, National Guard 100,000 (incl 5,000 reservists on 4-week tig));
   Navy about 24,000, Air about 30,000.
ARMY: 165,500 (108,500 conscripts incl 1,400 women).
Field Army (142,500): 3 Military Regions.
4 corps, 1 special comd HQ.
1 armd div (2 armd bdes, 1 arty regt).
1 mech div (2 mech bdes).
11 inf divs.
1 para-cdo div (1 para, 1 cdo, 1 marine regts, 3 cdo, 3 lt arty bns).
3 armd bdes (each 2 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 arty bns).
4 armd recce bns.
12 fd arty bns.
8 AA arty bns.
2 SAM bns with Improved HAWK
3 army aviation bns.
1 indep aviation coy.
: 1,776: 320 M-47, 1,100 M-48 (incl 250 -A3, 265 -A5), 250 AMX-30, 106 Leopard 1A3. lt: 210: 186 M-24, 24 M41A3.
AFV: recce: 288: 180 M-8, 108 M-20 armd cars. MICV: 240 AMX-10P. APC: 1,850: 300 Leonidas, 120 M-3 half-track, 430 M-59, 1,000 M-113.
Arty: 1,376: guns: 72: 155mm: 36 M-59, 175mm: 36 M-107 SP. how. 1,304: 105mm: 790: 180 M-56 pack, 324 M-101, 216 M-102, 70 M-52 SP;
   155mm: 442: 54 M-44 SP, 240 M-114, 40 M-198, 108 M-109 SP; 203mm: 72: 40 M-115, 32 M-110 SP.
   mor: 81mm: M-1, EBO Type E44, M-125A1 SP, M-4A1 (M-2/-3 APC) SP, AMX-10M-81 SP, Leonidas Gr W.I SP;
   107mm: M-2, M-30, M-84 SP (M-59 APC), M-106A1 SP, 120mm: EBO Type E-56, Leonidas Gr W.2 SP.
ATK: RCL: 90mm: 1,080 EM-67; 106mm: some 700 M-40A1.
   ATGW: 82 M-113A2 SP TOW, 14 M-901 Improved TOW, SS-11, Cobra, TOW, Milan,
AD: guns: 20mm: RH-202 twin; 40mm: incl M-42 twin SP; 75mm: M-51; 90mm: M-117/118.
   SAM: 36 MIM-23B Improved HAWK(216 msls), 37 M-48 Chaparral, Redeye.
Avn: ac: 2 Super King Air, 2 Aero Commander, 1 DHC-2 Beaver, 50 U-17A.
   hel: 8 Bell AH-1 with TOW, 10 Boeing-Vertol CH-47C, 5 Bell 47G, 22 Bell UH-1D, 50 Agusta-Bell AB-204B/-205, 10 AB-206A.
(On order. 106 Leopard 1 MBT; 36 M-901 Improved TOW SP ATGW (108 msls); 18 M-198 155mm how, Artemis 30 twin 30mm AA guns; 20 AH-1S attack hel (160 TOW), 20 Nardi-Hughes 300C trg hel; 300 Milan ATGW.)

TERRITORIAL ARMY: 23,000 (incl 10,000 conscripts, 5,000 reservists on refresher trg).
3 Territorial, 17 Sub-Commands.
12 indep inf bdes (6 mountain).
4 armd bns.

100 inf bns (mainly coastal defence). 100 lt arty btys.
It has been impossible to reconcile with confidence reports of equipment held respectively by the Territorial Army and the National Guard.
   Some may be identical to older items in the Field Army inventory, some no longer in that inventory may include the following
Tks: 28 M-26; lt: 57 M-41A3.
AFV: recce: 60 M-20. APC 380 M-2/-3.
Arty: gun/how 468 25-pdr (88mm) (plus some 33 in store). how: 75mm: 108 M-116 pack; 155mm: M-114.
   mor 60mm, 81mm: M-1, M-4/-5, M-4A1 SP, 107mm: M-2.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: 900 M-1 8; 75mm: 396 M-20; 106mm: 420 M-40A1.
NAVY: 19,500 (12,000 conscripts incl 200 women); 14 combat hel
Bases: Salamis, Patras, Mruini, Thessaloniki, Souda Bay.
Subs: 10: 8 209-dass: 4 Glavkos (Type-1100), 4 Poseidon (Type-1200); 2 US Guppy (trg).
Destroyers: 14:
   7 Gearing (6 with 1 octuple ASROC, 1 with 1 SA-316 Alouette III hel);
   1 Sumner (facilities for 1 Alouette hel); 6 Fletcher.
Frigates 7:
   2 Kortenaer (8 Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 AB-212 hel);
   4 US Cannon; 1 FRG Rhein (depot ship, employed as frigate).
FAC(G): 16: 14 La Combattante II/III (8 with 4 Exocet, 6 with 6 Penguin SSM); 2 L'Esterel with 4 SS-12;
FA(T): 6 FRG Type-143.
Patrol craft: 9: 8 coastal<, 1 Scimitar.
Minelayers: 2 (ex LSM-1).
MCMV: 14 coastal (9 MSC-294, 5 US Adjutant).
Amph: LSD: 1, LST: 7, LSM: 5, LCT: 2, LCU: 6; smaller classes: 62.
Spt: 2 support, 4 harbour tankers, 1 depot ship, 3 tpts.
ASW: 1 hel div (3 sqns: 2 with 10 Agusta-Bell AB-212, 1 with 4 Alouette III).
(On order 2 Poseidon (Type 1200) SS; 10 OL-76 23m FAQ 5 LCA; 2 Phalanx 20mm AD, Artemis 30 twin 30mm gun systems.)
AIR FORCE 24,000 (16,000 conscripts incl 200 women).
Tactical Air Force: 7 combat wings, 1 tpt wing.
FGA: 6 sqns: 3 with LTV A-7H Corsair, 3 with Lockheed F-104G.
Ftr: 7 sqns: 3 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4E; 2 with Northrop F-5A/B; 2 with Dassault Mirage F-1CG.
Recce: 2 sqns: 1 with Republic RF-84F, RF-4E; 1 with RF-5A.
MR: 1 sqn with HU-16B Grumman Albatross.
Tpt 3 sqns with C-130H Hercules, NAMC YS-11, Nord-2501 Noratlas, C-47 (Douglas DC-3), Dornier Do-28, Gulfstream.
Liaison: Lockheed T-33A.
Tpt hel: 3 sqns with Agusta-Bell AB-205A, AB-206A, Bell 47G, Bell UH-1D, AB-212, CH-47C Chinook.
SAM: 1 wing. 1 gp with Nike Ajax.
Air Training Command:
Trg: 4 sqns. 1 with T-41A Mescalerv, 1 with T-37B/Q 2 with Rockwell T-2E
Hel: 2 Nardi-Hughes 300.
Equipment: 292 combat ac.
   A-7H: 51: 46 (FGA); TA-7H: 5 (FGA).
   F-104: 66: F/RF-104G (FGA).
   F-5: 76: -A: 54 (18 FGA, 36 ftr); -B: 8 (6 FGA, 2 ftr); RF-5A: 14 (recce).
   F-4E: 54: 47 (ftr); RF-4E 7 (recce).
   Mirage F-1GC: 33 (ftr).
   F-84F: 32: 16 (trg); RF-84: 16 (trg/recce; in reserve).
   HU-16B: 12 (MR). C-130H: 12 (tpt). YS-11-200: 6 (tpt). C-47: 12 (tpt). Noratlas: 20 (tpt). Guffsfream I: 1 (VIP tpt).
   T-33A: 48 (liaison). T-41: 20 (trg). T-37: 25. T-2 36.
Helicopters: AB-205A: 12 (tpt). AB-206A: 3 (tpt). Bell 47G: 5(tpt). AB-212: 4 (tpt). CH-47C: 6 (tpt). NH-300: 2 (trg).
   AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder, Falcon. ASM: Maverick Bullpup.
   SAM: 36 Nike Ajax.
(On order 40 Mirage 2000 ac; 18 NH-300 hel; AIM-7 Sparrow AAM; Artemis 2x30mm AA guns.)
Forces Abroad: Cyprus: 2,500. 1 inf bn (950), cdo (350), spt elms (550); officers/NOOs seconded to Greek-Cypriot forces (650).
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie: 25,000; MOWAG Roland, 15 UR-416 APC.
   Coastguard and Customs: 4,000; some 100 patrol craft, 2 Cessna Cutlass ac.

GDP 1984: L 612,112 bn ($348.385 bn); 1985e: L 688,613 bn ($360.643 bn)
growth 1984: 2.6%; 1985: 2.4%
Inflation 1984: 10.8%; 1985: 9.2%
Debt 1984: $67.5 bn; 1985: $73.3 bn;
Def exp 1985: L 16,380 bn ($8.579 bn); NATO defn $9.458 bn;
Def bdgt 1986: L 17,600 bn ($14.063 bn); NATO defn n.a.
$1=L (1983): 1,518.8; (1984): 1.757; (1985): 1,909.4; (1986): 1,251
L = lire

Population: 57,207,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 5,656,000 5,653,000
Women: 5,447,000 5,637,000
Regular 387,800 (274,500 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army and Air Force 12, Navy 18 months.
Reserves: 799,000.
   Army 520,000 (obligation to age 45), immediate mobilization 240,000.
   Navy 221,000 (to age 38 for men, variable for officers to 73).
   Air 28,000 (to age 25 or 45 (specialists)).
ARMY: 270,000 (220,000 conscripts).
3 corps HQ (1 alpine).
1 armd div (2 armd, 1 mech bdes).
3 mech divs (each of 1 armd, 2 mech bdes).
2 indep mech bdes.
4 indep mot bdes.
5 alpine bdes.
1 AB bde (incl 1 Special Operations Force bn).
2 amph bns.
1 hy spt bde (1 Lance SSM, 3 hy arty, 3 Improved HAWK SAM bns).
4 wings org in sqns and fits (fit usually has 6 ac/hel)
9 lt ac fits with SIAI-Marchetti SM-1019/Cessna O-1E
10 hel sqns, 14 fits with AB-206.
Multi-role: 17 hel sqns: 1 with AB-204B; 15 with AB-205; 1 with AB-212B.
Med tpt 4 hel sqns with CH-47 Chinook.
Other 1 trg, 1 repair units.
Tks: 1,72ft 500 M-47, 300 M-60A1, 920 Leopard 1.
APC: 4,110: M-106, M-113, M-548 and M-577, AMX-VCI.
Arty: 1,110: guns: 18: 175mm: 18 M-107 SP.
   how: 1,092: 105mm: 320 Model 56 pack; 155mm: 724: incl 164 FH-70 towed, 220 M-109E SP; 203mm: 36 M-115, 12 M-110 SP.
   SSM: 6 Lance. mor: 81mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 57mm, some 80mm, 106mm (to retire). ATGW: Cobra, SS-11, TOW, Milan.
AD: guns: 20mm, 230 40mm. SAM: 60 Improved HAWK, Stinger.
Avn: ac: 70 SIAI-Marchetti SM-1019, 30 Cessna O-1E (tgt acquisition/utility).
   hel: AB-47G/J, 5 AB-109 Hirundo, 18 AB-204B (multi-role), 100 AB-205A, 140 AB-206A/A1 multi-role/utility,
   14 AB-212, 24 CH-47C Chinook recce/tgt acquisition/utility/tpt
(On order SP-70, M-109 155mm how, 20 FIROS 6 51mm MRU Milan ATGW; FIM-92A Stinger SAM +msls; 45 A-129 Mangusta hel)
NAVY: 47,200, incl 1,500 air arm, 750 marines (25,500 conscripts).
Bases: La Spezia, Tarante, Ancona, Brindisi, Augusta, Messina, La Maddalena, Cagliari, Naples, Venice.
Subs: 9: 4 Sauro, 4 Toti, 1 US Tang.
Carrier (hel): 2:
   1 Garibaldi with 14 SH-3D hel, 4 Teseo (Otomat Mk 2) SSM, 2 Albatros/Aspide SAM;
   1 Vittorio Veneto with 9 AB-212 ASW hel, 4 Teseo SSM, 1 twin Terrier/Standard SAM.
Cruisers: 2 Andrea Doria with 4 AB-212 ASW hel, 1 twin TerrierSAM.
Destroyers: 4 GW:
   2 Audache with 2 AB-212 ASW hel; 1 Standard SAM;
   2 Impavido with 1 Standard SAM.
Frigates: 16:
   8 Maestrale with 4 Teseo SSM, 1 octuple Albatros/Aspide SAM, 2 AB-212 hel;
   4 Lupo with 4 Teseo SSM, 1 octuple Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 AB-212 hel;
   2 Alpino with 2 AB-212 hel;
   2 Bergamini with 1 AB-212 hel
Corvettes: 8: 4 De Cristofaro, 4 Albatros.
Hydrofofls: 7 Sparviero with 2 Teseo SSM.
MCMV: 24: 2 Leriсi, 4 Storione (US Aggressive) ocean; 7 Mandorlo (US Adjutant) minehunters; 9 Agave coastal (retiring from 1987), 7 minesweepers.
Amph: LST: 2 US De Soto County. LCM: 19. LCVP: 7.
Spt: 2 Stromboli replenishment tankers, 1 spt ship, 5 coastal tpt

3 gps
1 ops (frogmen/raiding); 1 inf (trg); 1 log.
Equipment: 30 VCC-1, 10 LVTP-7 APC, 16 81mm mor, 8 106mm RCL, 6 Milan ATGW.

NAVAL AIR ARM (1,500); 83 combat hel.
ASW: 5 hel sqns with 30 SH-3D Sea King, 53 Agusta Bell AB-212.
ASM: Marte Mk 2.
(On order. 2 mod Sauro subs, 2 Audace destroyers, 4 Minerva corvettes with Albatros multi-role weapon system, 2 LPD; 5 SH-3D, 3 AB-212 hel)
AIR FORCE 70,600 (29,000 conscripts).
FGA: 6 FGA/recce sqns.
   3 with Panavia Tornado;
   1 with Lockheed F-104S;
   2 with Aeritalia G-91Y.
Tac: 3 sqns.
   1 lt attack with Aermacchi MB-339;
   2 lt attack/recce with G-91R/R1/R1A/R1B (to be replaced).
Ftr: 7 sqns with F-104S.
Recce: 2 sqns with F/RF-104G.
MR: 2 sqns with Breguet Atlantic (Navy-assigned; being increased).
ECM: 1 ECM/recce sqn with Aeritalia G-222VS and Piaggio PD-808.
Calibration: 1 navigation-aid calibration sqn with G-222, PD-808.
Tpt: 3 sqns: 2 with G-222; 1 with C-130H Hercules.
Comms: sqns with Gulfstream EL Dassault Mystere Falcon 50, Piaggjo P-166, SIAI-208M, PD-808, MB-326, Douglas DC-9acr,SH-3D Sea King hel
Trg: 1 OCU with TF-104G; 1 det (Cottesmore, UK) with Tornado, 6 sqns with G-91, MB-339A, SIAI-Marchetti SF-260M ac; AB-204B, AB47 hel
SAR hel: 1 sqn and 3 dets with Sikorsky HH-3M.
AD: 8 SAM groups with Nike Hercules; 4 lt btys with Spada.
Equipment: 378 combat ac.
   Tornado: 64 (54 FGA, 10 in tri-national trg sqn).
   F-104: 155.-S: 102 (18 FGA, 84 ftr); F/RM04G: 29 (recce); TF-104G: 24 (OCU).
   G-91: 122.-Y: 36 (FGA); -R: 36 (lt attack/recce); -T: 50 (trg).
   MB-339: 80 (15 tac, 65 calibration, trg). MB-326: 30 (liaison).
   Atlantic: 14(MR).
   C-130: 10 (tpt). G-222: 38 (32tpt,4 calibration; -VS: 2 ECM).DC-9: 2 (liaison). C-47: 4 (calibration).
   Gulfstream 111: 1 (VIP tpt).Mystere-Falcon 50: 2 (VIP tpt). P-166: 22 (liaison). PD-808: 14 (6 ECM, calibration, 8 liaison).
   SF-260: 30 (trg). SIAI-208: 32 (liaison).
Helicopters: CH-3: 19 (SAR), SH-3D: 2 (liaison). AB-2048: 20 (trg). AB-212: 25 (SAR). AB-47: 20 (trg).
Missiles: AAM: AIM-7E Sparrow, AIM-9B/L Sidewinder. ASM: Kormoran.
SAM: 96 Nike Hercules, Spada.
(On order 20 Tornado; 187 AMXFGA; 20 MB-339 lt attack, SF-260M trg ac; 11 AB-212, 10 HH-3F hel; AGM-65 Maverick ASM; Spada SAM systems, Aspide AAM.)
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO) (90); (UNIFIL) (51). 3 minesweepers. Lebanon
Carabinieri 90,000: 1 mech bde: 13 bns, 1 AB bn, 2 cav sqns;
   37 M-47 MBT, Fiat 6616, 80 M-6, M-8 armd cars; 470 Fiat 242/18AD, 240 M-113 APC, 23 AB-47, 2 A-109, 5 AB-205, 23 AB-206 hel
Ministry of Interior: Public Security Guard 67,927:
   11 mobile units; 40 Fiat 6614 APC, 3 Partenavia P-64B ac, 1 AB-47, 6 A-109, 12 AB-206, 4 AB-212 hel
Treasury Department Finance Guards 48,691; 6 AB-47J, 69Nardi-Hughes 500M hel; 350 patrol craft.
(On order 3 AB-212, 1 A-109 hel)

GDP 1984: fr 186.90 bn ($3.234 bn); 1985: fr 198.22 bn ($3.338 bn)
growth 1984: 2.2% 1985: 1.7%
Inflation 1984: 5.7% 1985: 4.1%
Debt 1984: $750 m 1985: $750 m
Def bdgt 1985: fr 1.393 bn ($23.46 m); NATO defh $39.021 m; 1986: NATO defh $55.879 m
$1= fr (1983): 51.132; (1984): 57.784; (1985): 59.378 (1986): 45.330
fr = Luxembourg francs

Population: 367,400
   18-30 31-45
Men: 27,300 26,100
Women: 26,900 25,000
Regular. 690.
Terms of service, voluntary, minimum 3 years.
ARMY: 690.
1 lt inf bn
1 indep coy.
: 5 Commando.
AIR FORCE (Luxembourg has no air force of its own, but for legal purposes NATO's E-3A AEW ac have Luxembourg registration.)
1 sqn with 18 E-3ASentry (NATO Standard).
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie 470.

GDP 1984: gld 394.86 bn ($123.059 bn); 1985: gld 412.70 bn ($124.255 bn)
growth 1984: 1.7%; 1985: 2.0%
Inflation 1984: 3.3%; 1985:2.3%
Debt 1984: $16.5 bn; 1985:$15.9 bn
Def bdgt 1985: gld 13.420 bn ($4.040 bn); NATO defh$3.978 bn; 1986: gld 13.739 bn ($5.498 bn); NATO defh n.a.
$1= (1983): 2.8541; (1984): 3.2087; (1985): 3.3214; (1986): 2.4990
gld = guilders

Population: 14,515,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,626,000 1,676,000
Women: 1,557,000 1,572,000
Regular 105,134 (incl 3,909 Royal Military Constabulary); 1,450 women; 48,482 œnscripts.
Terms of service. A m y 14-16, Navy and Air Force 14-17 months.
Reserves: 171,300 (men to ags 35, NOOs to 40, officers to 45).
   Army 145,300 (some (at the end of their period of conscription) on short leave, immediate recall), Home Guard (4,300),
   Navy some 20,000 (7,500 on immediate recall), Air 6,000 (immediate recall).
ARMY: 66,200 (42,250 conscripts), though see Reserves.
1 Corps HQ, 3 mech div HQ.
   2 armd bdes.
   4 mech inf bdes.
   1 SSM bn with Lance.
   3 hel sqns (Air Force manned).
   (3 AD bns forming).
Reserves: 1 armd, 2 mech inf bdes, corps troops and 1 indep inf bde would be completed by call-up of reservists;
   some inf bdes could be mobilized for territorial defence.
   Home Guard: 3 sectors; inf weapons.
Tks: 913: 468 Leopard 1A4, 445 Leopard 2.
APC 744 M-113, 718 YP-408 (to retire 1986-9), 1,490 YPR-765.
Arty. how: 476: 105mm: 42 M-101; 155mm: 140 M-114 (85 to be mod), 218 M-109; 203mm: 76 M-110A2SP.
   SSM: Lance. mor: 81mm: 333; 107mm: 195; 120mm: 152.
ATK: RCL: Carl Gustav 84mm, 175 106mm. ATGW: 359 Dragon, 322 TOW.
AD: guns: 40mm: 54 L-70 towed; 35mm: 95 Gepard SP.
Avn: hel: 64 SA-316 Alouette III (to be replaced), 30 MBB BO-105.
Marine: 1 tk tpt, 3 coastal, 15 river patrol boats.
(On order. 644 YPR-765 APC, 486 Stinger SAM.)
NAVY: 17,068, incl naval air arm and marines (1,390 conscripts).
Bases. Den Hdder, Flushing, Curacao.
Subs 5: 2 Zwaaravb, 2 Potvis, 1 Dolfijn.
Frigates 17, all with 8 Harpoon SSM:
   2 Tromp (flagships);
   1 Van Heemskerk with SM-1 Standard, octuple Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 Westland Lynx hel;
   10 Kartenuer ASW with octuple Sea Sparrow SAM, 1-2 Lynx hel;
   4 Van Speijk ASW with 2 quad Seacat SAM, 1 Lynx hel.
MCMV: 20: 11 Dokkum coastal, 9 Alkmaar.
Ampf: LCA/LCVP: 12<.
Misc: 2 Poolster combat support, 3 survey (2 Buyskes, 1 Tydeman).
NAVAL AIR ARM: (1,682);
MR: 3 sqns (1 trg) with P-3C Orionn, Fokker F-27 (see Air Force).
ASW hel: 1 sqn with Westland Lynx SH-14B/C
SAR hel: 1 sqn with Lynx UH-14A.
Equipment: combat 13 ac, 17 hel.
Aircraft: P-3: 13 (MR).
Helicopters: Lynx 22. SH-14B/C: 17 (ASW). UH-14A: 5 (SAR).
MARINES: (2,800).
2 amph cdo gps.
1 mountain/arctic warfare coy.
(Reserve): 1 amph cdo gp.
(On order 4 Walrus SS; 1 Heemskerk, 8 Zeven Provinden frigates; 6 Alkmaar MCMV.)
AIR FORCE 17,957 (4,500 conscripts).
FGA: 5 sqns:
   3 with General Dynamics F-16;
   2 with Northrop NF-5A (converting to F-16).
Ftr: 2 FGA/ftr sqns with F-16A.
Recce: 1 sqn with F-16B.
MR: 2 F-27 (assigned to Navy).
Tpt: 1 sqn with Fokker F-27.
OCU: 2 sqns: 1 with NF-5B; 1 with F-16B (temporarily integrated with 1 F-16A ftr sqn).
SAR hel: 1 fit with SA-316 Alouette III.
AD: SAM: 14 sqns: 12 with Improved HAWK (8 in Germany); 2 with Nike Hercules, 100 Stinger,
   guns: 25 VL4/41 Flycatcher radar, 40 L-70 40mm systems.
Equipment: 210 combat ac.
   NF-5: 89. -A: 61 (FGA), -B: 28 (OCU).
   F-16: 119.-A 75 (FGA); -B: 44 (26 ftr/OCU, 18 recce).
   F-27: 14 (12 tpt; 2 MR).
Helicopters: Alouette: 4 (SAR).
(On order 81 F-16A/B FGA ac; 20 Patriot SAM launchers, 160 msls.)
INTER-SERVICE ORGANIZATION 1,050 (232 conscripts).
Forces Abroad:
   Germany: 5,500. 1 armd bde, 1 recce, 1 engr bns, spt dements.
   Egypt (Sinai MFO): 105: 1 sigs det
   Netherlands Antilles: 1 frigate, 1 amph combat det, 1 MR det with 2 F-27MPA ac.
   Iceland: 1 P-3C Orion, 30 personnd (at Keflavik).
   Royal Military Constabulary (Koninklijke Marehaussee): 3,909 (342 conscripts); 3 'divs' comprising 9 districts with 87 Tries'.
   Civil Defence (Corps Mobiele Cobmesy). 22,000 on mobilization; disaster relief under Army command.

GDP 1984: kr 45273 bn ($55,471 bn); 1985: kr 497.84 bn ($57,907 bn)
growth 1984: 3.8% 1985E 3.1%
Inflation 1984: 62% 1985: 5.7%
Debt 1984: $29.5 bn 1985: $34.0 bn
Def bdgt 1985: kr 14.751 bn ($1,716 bn), NATO dem $1.795 bn; 1986: kr 15.901 bn ($2102 bn); NATO defn n.a.
$1=kr (1983): 72964 (1984): 8.1615 (1985): 8.5972 (1986): 7.5660
kr = kroner

Population: 4,162,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 421,000 441,000
Women: 401,000 421,000

Regular 37,300 (23,700 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army, Navy coast arty, Air AD elms, Home Guard 12; Navy, Air Force 15 months.
Reserves: 208000;
   Army 145,000 (officers to 55, men 60: 3 to 5 periods of refresher training, 1 to 4 weeks refresher training to age 44, may volunteer for extension).
   Navy 22,400. Air 30,600. Home Guard 10,000.
   Second line reserves 65,000, (all services). Home Guard 79,700. (See Para-military below.)
   Civilian resources mobilization: engr eqpt, tpt veh, 50-60 tpt ac, 80-100 med/hy hel, 220 vessels.
   War strength, full mobilization, incl Civil Defence, some 438,000.
ARMY: 20,000 (13,700 conscripts).
4 Land, 4 Regional (12 defence districts) commands.
1 bde 2 inf, 1 border garrison, 1 tk, 1 SP fd arty bns, 1 AA bty, spt units (North Norway).
2 bn all-anns gps inf, tk coys, fd arty, AA btys (South Norway).
1 inf bn (Royal Guard).
Reserves: 42 cadre units to form on mobilization, 3 div HQ, 13 indep bdes (each some 5,000 men), 28 indep inf bns, 7 indep arty bns
   plus 50-60 territorial inf bns, tank sqns, arty btys, engr, sigs, Home Guard and spt units.
Tks: 80 Leopard 1, 42 M-48A5. lt: 70 NM-116(M-24/90).
APC: MICK NM-135 (M-113/20mm). APC: M-113, 200 Bv-206 over-snow vehs.
Arty: 405: how: 105mm: M-101; 155mm: M-114 towed, 130 M-109 SP. mor: 81mm, 107mm.
ATK: RCL: 57mm M-18; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: M-40A1. RL: 66mm: M-72. ATGW: TOW.
AD: guns: 20mm: FK20-2; 40mm: L60/70. SAM: 108 RBS-70.
Avn: lt ac: 20 Cessna O-1E, 8 Piper L-18C
(On order 36 M48A5 MBT; 60 M-113 APC (44 with TOW); 1,800 Bv 206 over-snow veh; 300 TOW II ATGW; RBS-70 SAM.)
NAVY: 7,600, incl 2000 coast artillery (5,500 conscripts)i
Bases: Horten, Haakonsvem (Beigen), Ramsund, Oavsvem (Tromso).
8 Naval/Coast defence commands.
Subs: 14 Kobben (Type 207) (6 to retire, 6 reconditioned).
Frigates: 5 Oslo with 6 Penguin SSM, 1 octuple Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 sextuple Terne ASW.
Corvettes: 2 Slepner with 1 sextuple Terne ASW.
FAC(G): with Penguin Mk 2 SSM: 37: 17 Storm, 14 Hank (6 msls); 6 Snogg (4 msls).
MCMV: 2 Victor minelayers; 9 Sauda (US MSC-60), 1 Tana (minehunter); 2 diving tenders.
Amph: LCT: 5 Reirwyswid.
Spt: 1 Horten depot/trg ship, 7 coastal tots, 2 trg, 1 patrol vessels, 12 harbour tpt
Coast defence: some 30 fortresses: 50 arty, mine and torpedo btys 75mm, 105mm, 127mm, 150mm guns.
SAR/recce: 1 hel sqn with 6 Westland Lynx (coastguard).
(On order: 6 Ula (Type 210) SS; 8 120mm coast defence turret guns.)
AIR FORCE: 9,400 (5200 conscripts).
On mobilization, 30,000 (-tS,000 reserves).
FGA: 5 sqns
   4 with General Dynamics F-16;
   1 (OCU) with Northrop F-5A/R
MR: 1 sqn with P-3B Orion (2 assigned to coastguard).
Tpt: 2 sqns:
   1 with C-130 Hercules, Dassault Mystere-Fakon 20;
   1 with DHC-6 Twin Otter, Bell UH-1B hel
Trg: SAAB MFI-15 Safari
Hel: SAR: 1 sqn with Westland-Sikorsky Sea King Mk43.
   Coastguard: hel: 1 sqn with Westland Lynx Mk 86.
   liaison: 2 utility sqns with UH-1B.
AD: 8 lt arty bns; 1 SAM bn (4 btys).
Equipment: 94 combat ac
   F-5A/B: 30 16 (OCU); 14 (reserve).
   F-16: 68: -ft 58 (FGA), -ft 10 (FGA).
   P-3B: 7 (MR).
   C-130H: 6 (tpt).
   Mystere-Falcon 20S: 3 (EW).
   DHC-6: 4 (tpt). Safari 15 (trg).
   Sea King: 10 (SAR). Lynx Mk 86: 6 (Coastguard).
   UH-1B: 28 (2 tpt, 26 utility).
Missiles: AAM: AIM-9L/N Sidewinder. ASM: CVR (AGM-12B Bullpup).
Air Defence:
   Guns: 40mm: 32 L60, 64 L-70.
   SAM: MIM-14B Nike Hercules 128.
(On oder 4 P-3C MR ac (to replace 5 P-3B), 12 Bell 412 hel (to replace UH-1B), (lease) 54 Improved HAWK launchers and 162 msls (6 btys; 1987); Penguin Mk 3 ASM.)
Forces Abroad: 884:
Lebanon (UNIHL) 864; 1 inf bn, 1 service coy, plus HQ personnel
Other UN: 20.
Home Guarcfc 79,700 find 10,000 reservists).
   Land 71,400; 18 districts each divided into 2-6 sub districts and 500 areas (500-1,500 men), subareas (100-300 men).
   Sea: 5,700; 8 Tjeld FAC(T), 2 Kvatund LCT, 400 fishing vessels.
   Air. 2,600; 2 bns (7 btys), 2 indep btys, lt AA; 72 L60 40mm guns (to be replaced by 20mm).
(On order Cari Gustav RCL)
Civil Defence Permanent staff: some 500; mobilization strength 80,000; industrial: 32,500. Total war strength 112,000.
   Regional 54 Districts, 14 mobile columns. 108 local units.
Coastguard: 680: 375 Navy, 139 Air Force, 166 civilians. 13 patrol vessels (3 Nordkapp fitted for 6 Penguin Mk 2 SSM, 3 Nomen/Farm, 7 chartered),
   6 Lynx hel (Air Force manned), 7 armed fishery protection vessels.

GDP 1984e: esc 2,896.34 bn ($19.785 bn); 1985e: esc 3,54223 bn ($20.789 bn)
growth 1984: -1.9%; 1985: 25%
Inflation 1984: 29.5%; 1985: 19.6%
Debt 1984: $20.5 bn 1985: $224 bn
Def bdgt 1985: esc 115.0 bn ($674.922 m), NATO defn $628.52 m; 1986: esc 140.0 bn ($930.665 m); NATO defn n.a.
FMA 1984: $71.0 m 1985: $73.0 m
$1=esc (1983): 110.70; (1984): 146.39 (1985): 170.39 (1986): 150.43
esc = escudos

Population: 10,352,000
   18-30 31-55
Men: 1,103,000 869,000
Women: 1,080,000 1,004,000

Regular. 68,252 (43,980 conscripts): see Army.
Terms of service. Army 16, Navy 24, Air Force 21-24 months.
Reserves: 190,000 (all services) (obligation: men to age 45; officers to 70).
ARMY: 40,000 (30,000 conscripts, 3 intakes a year, 4 months alternating service).
6 Geographical Commands (4 military region, 2 island).
1 mixed bde.
2 cav regts.
11 inf regt, 3 indep inf bns.
1 special ops bde 1 cdo regt, 4 spt bns.
2 fd, 1 AA, 1 coast arty regts.
2 engr regt.
1 sigs regt
1 military police regt
Tks: 60: 20 M47, 40 M-48A5.
AFV: recce: 30 Saladin, 63 AML-60/-90 lt armd, 32 Ferret Mk4. APC: 105 M-113 (incl A2 TOW), 18 M-577A2 (81mm mor), 85 Chaimite.
Arty: guns: 5.5in (140mm): 24; how: 118: 105mm: 72 36 M-101A1, 18 M-101/L, 18 pack towed; 155mm 46: 6 M-109A2 SP, 40 M-114 towed.
   coast: 27 150mm; 152mm, 234mm.
   mor: 81mm, 20 107mm.
ATK: RCL: 90mm: 90, 106mm: 15. ATGW: 45 TOW, 36 SS-11, 38 Milan.
AD: guns 20mm: 30 Rh-202; 40mm: 20 Bofors L60. SAM: 16 Blowpipe.
   3 inf regts, 2 coast arty, 2 AA btys in Azores and Madeira.
NAVY: 14,452 incl marines (4,380 conscripts).
Bases. Lisbon (Alfeite), Faro.
Subs: 3 Albacora (Fr Daphne).
Frigates: 17: 4 Belo, 3 Silva (1 fishery protection); 4 Andrade, 6 Coutinho.
Patrol craft: 19: 10 Cacine large; 2 Aleixo, 5 Albatros coastal; 2 Bonanca, 3 other harbour patrol craft.
Amph: LCT: 3. LCM: 10.
Spt 1 tanker.
(On order 3 Meko-200 frigates.)
MARINES: (2,600) (1,200 conscripts).
3 bns (2 inf, 1 police), spt units.
Equipment: Chaimite APC, mor, amph craft.
AIR FORCE 13,800 incl 2,000 para (4,600 conscripts).
1 combat command, 5 administrative wings.
FGA: 4 sqns
   2 with A-7P Corsair,
   1 with Aeritalia G-91RVT3; 1 with G-91R4/T3.
Recce: 1 sqn with CASA C-212B.
Tpt: 2 sqns: 1 with C-130 Hercules; 1 with C-212
SAR: 3 sqns: 1 with C-212 ac; 2 with SA-330 Puma hel
Liaison: 4 sqns: 2 ac with Reims-Cessna FTB-337G; 2 utility hd with SA-315 Alouette II
OCU: 1 with Northrop T-38 Talon.
Trg: 3 sqns: 1 with G212 ac, SA-316 Alouette III hel; 1 with Cessna T-37C; 1 with DH Chipmunk
Para: 1 para bde (3 bns), Milan.
Equipment: 101 combat ac
   A-7: 48 (42 FGA, 6 trg).
   G-91: 49. -R3: 19 (PGA), -R4: 20 (FGA), -T3: 10 (trg).
   T-38: 12 (OCU).
   C-212: 24 (12 tpt, 6 SAR; -A: 2 (trg); -B: 4 ELINT).
   C-130: 5 (tpt). T-37: 20 (trg). Cessna 337: 26 (liaison). Chipmunk. 25 (trg).
Helicopters: Puma: 12 (SAR). Alouette II/III: 40 (37 liaison, 3 trg).
(On order 3 C-130 tpt ac; 12 A-109 hel (4 with TOW))
   National Republican Guard 15,510; Commando Mk III APC
   Public Security Police 13,000.
   Border Security Guard 8,853.

GDP 1984: pts 25,935 bn ($161.327 bn); 1985e: pts 28,762 bn ($169.148 bn)
growth 1984: 2.3%; 1985: 1.7%
Inflation 1984: 113%; 1985: 8.8%
Debt 1984: $37.0 bn; 1985: $35.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: pts 816.144 bn ($4.800 bn); NATO dem n a; 1986: pts 842.397 bn ($5.939 bn); NATO ddh na.
FMA 1984: $400.0 m 1985: $415.0 m
$1=pts (1983): 143.43 (1984): 160.76; (1985):170.04; (1986): 141.83
pts = pesetas

Population: 39,778,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 4,085,000 3,557,000
Women: 3,968,000 3,616,000
Regular 320,000 (214,000 conscripts) (to be reduced).
Terms of service. 12 months.
Reserves 1,085,000 (au services) (to age 38 (men)).
ARMY: 230,000 (160,000 conscripts); being reduced 1986-90.
6 Military Regions (Regional Operational Commands), 2 Overseas Commands.
   1 armd div (1 armd, 2 mech (1 reserve) bdes).
   1 mech div (1 mech, 2 mot (1 reserve) bdes).
   1 mot div (3 mot (1 reserve) bdes).
   2 mountain divs (each 2 bdes).
   1 armd cav bde.
   8 inf bdes (7 to be disbanded).
   1 airportable bde (3 bns).
   1 Spanish Legion (3 regts, spt units (overseas forces), 1 dept regt, 1 Special ops gp).
General Reserve Force:
   1 para bde (3 bns).
   1 arty msl bde (incl 1 HAWK SAM gp, 1 Nike Hercules bty).
   1 arty bde (1 locating, 1 fd rocket, 1 lt AA regts).
   2 hy arty regts.
   7 coast/AA arty regts.
   1 engr, 1 sigs regts.
   1 chemical/nuclear defence regt
Special Task Units:
   1 engr, 2 railway engr regts.
   1 sigs regt
Independent Units
   Army HQ inf gp.
   Royal Guard Regt (incl inf, naval, air force coys and escort cav sqn).
Army Aviation (FAMET): 40 armed hel
   HQ with 1 hel, 1 spt, 1 trg sqns.
   1 attack bn.
   1 tpt bn (1 med, 1 hy coys).
   3 utility units.
Tks: 883: 319 AMX-30, 400 M-47E, 164 M-48 (105mm). lt: 127 M-41.
AFV: MICV: 510 BMR-600. recce: 140: 60 AML-60, 90 VEC, 80 AML-90. APC: 1,196 M-113.
Arty: guns: 190: 122mm: 178 122/46 towed; 175mm: 12 M-107 SP.
   coast: 88mm: 200 (?reserve); 6-in (152.4mm): 127; 203mm: 24; 12-in. (305mm): some 14; 15-in. (381mm): some 15.
   how: 1,078: 105mm: 858: 810 M-26 and M-56 pack, 48 M-108 SP, 155mm: 192 84 M-114, 12 M-44, 96 M-109A SP,
   8-in. (203mm): 28: 24 M-115 towed, 4 M-55 SP.
   MRL: R-2B 105mm, 12 Tend 140mm.
   mor: 1,200 81mm, 107mm; 400 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 106mm: 350. RL: 88.9mm: 42 M-65; 90mm: C-90G. ATGW: 50 Milan, 50 Cobra, 18 Dragon, HOT, 12 TOW.
AD: guns: 20mm: GAI-BOI; 35mm: 64 GDF002 twin; 40mm: 260 L-70, 90mm 90 MA.
   SAM: 9 Nike Hercules, 24 Improved HAWK
Avn: hel: 59 HU-8/-10B (Bell UH-1B/H), 3 HA-16 (SA-316 Alouette III), 72 HA-15 (MBB BO-105; 12 with 20mm guns, 28 with HOT),
   3 Agusta-Bell AB-206A, 6 AB-212, 17 HR-12B (Bell OH-58B), 12 HT-17 (CH-47C Chinook).
(On order (?145) VEC recce, 650 BMR-600 MICV; SB 155/39 155mm how, 1,100 G-90C 90mm RL, 540 TOW, 250 Milan, 150 HOT ATGW; 18 AS-332, 6 CH-47C, 28 AB-412, 18 OH-58A hel; 18 Roland SAM launchers (500 msls), 13 Skyguard/Aspide SAM launchers (100 msls).)
Regional Operational Commands: 6: Centre, South, East and West Pyrenees, North West Ceuta and Melila: 21,000;
   2 armd cav, 2 Spanish Legion, 2 coast/AA arty, 2 engr, 4 Regulares inf regts, 2 special sea coys.
Overseas Forces Comds. 2
   Balearic Islands: 5,800; 3 inf, 2 coast/AA regts; 1 engr bn; 1 lt cav gp; 1 cdo coy.
   Canary Islands: 10,000, 2 inf regts (1 cadre); 1 Spanish Legion (2 bns, 1 lt cav gp); 2 coast/AA arty regts; 1 engr gp (2 bns); 1 sea coy.
NAVY: 62,500, incl marines (44,000 conscripts).
Bases: Ferrol (Galiria), Cadiz (San Femandoy Rota, Cartagsna, Majorca.
9 Commands (Fleet, Naval Air, Submarine, Mine Warfare, Marines, 4 Naval Region HQ).
Subs: 8: 4 Agosta, 4 Daphne.
Carrier: 1 Dedalo (9 AV-8A, 24 hel).
Destroyers: 11: 1 de Lauria;
   5 US Gearing with 1 ASROC, 1 Hughes 500 hel;
   5 US Fletcher (3 to retire).
Frigates: 11:
   5 Baleares (F-70) with 2 quad Harpoon SSM, 16 Standard SAM, 1 octuple ASROC,
   6 Descubierta (F-30) with 2 quad Harpoon SSM, 1 octuple SeaSparmw/Aspiae SAM.
Corvettes: 4 Atrevida (1 to retire).
FAC(P): 12: 6 Lazago, 6 Barcelo.
Patrol craft: 85: 14 large (3 ex-minesweepers), 38 coastal, 33 inshore<.
MCMV: 12: 4 US Aggressive ocean, 8 Jucar coastal.
Amph: LSD: 1. LST: 3. LCT: 6. LCU: 2. LCM: 12
Tpts: 2
FGA: 1 sqn with Matador (Bae Harrier II), TAV-8A.
Liaison: 1 sqn with 7 Piper Comanche, Cessna Citation.
Hel: 5 sqns:
ASW: 2 sqns: 1 with Hughes 500, 1 with Sikorsky SH-3D/G Sea King.
tac: 1 sqn with AH-1G Cobra.
comd/recce: 1 sqn with Agusta-Bell AB-212.
liaison: 1 sqn with Bell 47G.
Equipment: 10 combat ac, 43 hel
Aircraft: AV-8: 10 (8 AV-SA; 2 TAV-8A) FGA,
   Comanche: 2 (liaison). Citation II: 2 (liaison).
Helicopters: AB-212: 14 (comd/recce).
   Sea King: 14 (ASW). Hughes 500: 11 (ASW). AH-1G: 4 (tac).
   Bell 47G: 10 (liaison).
MARINES: (11,500).
   1 marine regt (3,000): (2 inf, 1spt, 1 log bns; 3 arty btys).
   5 marine garrison regts.
Tks: 18 M-48S.
AFV: 17 Scorpion lt tks, 19 LVTP-7 amph.
Arty: how: 105mm: 12 OTO Melara M-56 pack, 8 M-52A1 SP. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 72 106mm; RL: M-72 66mm,; ATGW: TOW, Dragon.
(On order 1 lt carrier (1986), 5 FFG-7 frigates (1 in 1986), 4 32,2-m patrol craft, 20 15.9-m patrol vessels; 12 Bravo (AV-8B) ac, 18 Sikorsky SH-60 hel; 80 RGM-84A Harpoon SSM, SM-1 Standard SAM.)
AIR FORCE: 33,000 (to be reduced):
Air Combat Command (MACOM). 3 wings.
Ftr: 6 sqns:
   2 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4C Phantom,
   2 with Dassault Mirage IIIEE/EB;
   2 with Mirage F-1CE/BE
liaison: 1 fit with Dornier Do-27.
Tactical Command (MATAC): 2 wings.
FGA: 2 sqns with Northrop F-5A, F-5B, RF-5A.
MR: 1 sqn with Lockheed P-3A Orion.
liaison: 2 fits with Cessna O-1E, Do-27, Do-28.
AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder, R.-550 Magic
Air Command Canary Islands (MACAN):
FGA: 1 sqn with Mirage F-1C.
Tpt: 1 sqn with C-212 Aviocar, Do-27.
SAR: 1 sqn with Fokker F-27 ac, Agusta-Bell AB-205 hel
Transport Command (MATRA). 3 wings.
Tpt: 5 sqns with C-130 Hercules, KC-130, CASA C-212, 12 DHC-4 Caribou, Do-27.
Training Command (MAPER):
OCU: 2 sqns with F-5A/B, Do-27.
Trg: ac: 14 sqns with Piper (Aztec, Navap), Beech (Bonanza, Baron, King Air), CASA C-101 Aviajet, C-212,
   CASA I-131 (Bucker 131A Jungmann), T-6 Texan.
   hel: 2 sqns with AB-205, Hughes 300C, Bell UH-1H.
Air Force HQ Group (ACGA):
Tpt: 2 sqns with Douglas DC-8, C-212, Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20, Navajo.
Spt: 3 sqns with Canadair CL-215, Do-27, C-212, DHC-4A, T-7.
SAR: 2 sqns: with G-212, Do-27 ac, SA-332 Super Puma, AB-205, AB-206, AB-47, SA-316 Alouette III hel
liaison: 1 hel sqn with SA-330 Puma.
Trg: 1 sep with C-101, C-212
Equipment: some 175 combat ac.
   F-5: 35: -A: 13 (FGA),-B: 6 (FGA), RF-5A: 16 (recce).
   Mirage: 94: F-1C: 21 (FGA); F-1CE: 44 (ftr), F-1CE/BE 3 (ftr); IIIEE: 20 (ftr), IIIEB: 6 (ftr).
   F-4C: 38 (34 ftr, 4 RF-4C recce).
   F-18: (bang delivered mid-86).
   P-3A: 6 (MR).
   DC-8-52: 2 (tpt, to be replaced in 1987).
   C-130H: 11: 5 (tpt); KC-130H: 6 (tanker).
   C-212: 82 (55 tpt, 4 SAR, 5 spt, 2 trg-E 14 trg TR-12D: 2 EW).
   C-101: 86 (trg).
   CL-215: 12 (spt). DHC-4 32 (30 tpt, -A: 2 spt). Mystere-Falcon 20: 4 (tpt).
   F-27: 3 (SAR). Do-27/-28 60. -27: 40 (12 tpt, 4 SAR, 24 spt); -77/-28: 20 (liaison).
   T-6: 45 (trg). O-1: 6 (liaison) Other 48 (Aztec 6, Navajo 2, Bonanza 29, King Air 6, Baron 5).
   AB-205C 20 (SAR). AB-206: 4 (SAR). Alouette III: 3 (SAR). Puma: 5 (liaison). Super Puna: 11 (SAR).
   Hughes 300C: 18 (trg). Bell 47: 25 (trg).
(On order some 72 F-18 Hornet ftr (from mid- 1986), 2 P-3C Orion MR, 2 Boeing 707 tkr/tpt, 40 T-35C Tamiz (Pillan) ac; 6 CH47 Chinook hel; Super Sidewinder AAM.)

Guardia CM 65,000: 25 inf tercios (regts), 3 reserve mobile comds, 1 railway security, 1 traffic security gps, 1 antiterrorist special gp (UAR);
   BLR APC, 1 B-11T (BK-117) hel. (On order: 20 BO-105, 3 BK-117 hel)
Policia National 47,000: 26 inf bns, 2 cav sqn gps, 3 cav tps, 1 special ops cdo gp (GBO), civil security gps.
Ministry of Transportation and Communications: Maritime Surveillance Force, some 54 patrol boats (10 320-ton, 4 32-m, 16-m), many armed.

GDP 1984: TL 18,188 bn ($49.602 bn); 1985e TL 27,282 bn ($51266 bn)
growth 1984: 5.9% 1985: 4%
Inflation 1984: 48.4% 1985: 442%
Debt 1984: $25.9 bn 1985: $28.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: TL 860.8 bn* ($1.649 bn), NATO dem $1295 bn; 1986: TL 1,307 bn ($1.895 bn), NATO dem n.a.
   (*Exd some TL 100 bn for military police and internal security.)
FMA 1984: $660.9 m 1985: $750 m
$1=TL (1983): 225.46 (1984): 366.68 (1985): 521.98 (1986): 689.74
TL = Turkish liras

Population: 51,421,000 * (* Based on preliminary results of October 1985 census.)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 6,186,000 4,165,000
Women: 5,877,000 4,011,000
Regular 654375 (575,825 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months.
Reserves: 951,000 to age 46 (all). Army 808,000, Navy 73,000, Air 70,000.
ARMY: 542,000 (497,000 conscripts)* (*About half the divs and bdes are below strength.)
4 army HQ 10 corps HQ.
2 mech divs.
14 inf divs.
6 indep armd bdes.
2 indep mech bdes.
11 indep inf bdes.
1 para bde.
1 cdo bde.
5 Fortress Defence regts (coastal).
1 SAM bty forming (Rapier).
Corps units: 10 tk, 30 hy/med, 20 AA arty bns.
Tks: some 3,700: 900 M-47 (700 in reserve, 200 in store), 1,085 M-48A1 (to be -AS), 1,615 M-48A5, some 77 Leopard 1A3. lt: (100 M-41 in store).
AFV: recce: (M-8 in store). APC: 3,750: 700 M-59, 2250 M-113, some 800 M-2/-3 (perhaps 300 in store).
Arty: some 2,000. guns: 186: 155mm: 150 M-59 towed; 175mm: 36 M-107 SP.
   how: 75mm: 100 M-116A1; 105mm: 600 M-101A1, 72 M-108 SP, (108 M-7 SP and 216 M-52 in store);
   155mm: 144 M-44 SP (some in store), 378 M-114A1; 203mm: 104 M-115, (81 M-55 (US) SP in store), 16 M-110A2 SP.
   mor: 1,800. 81mm: M-1, M-4A1 (M-2/-3 APC) SP, Soltam M-125A1 SP, 107mm (incl 42-in) M-2, M-30, M-84 (M-59 APC) SP, M-106A1 SP,
   120mm: 100: Soltam, TOSAM Mk E HY12-DI.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: 1,400 M-18; 75mm: 1,000 M-20; 106mm: 1200+ M-40. ATGW: 85 Cobra, SS-11, TOW incl M-113, Milan.
AD: guns: 20mm: 300: HSS20, Mk 20 RH-202 twin; 35mm; 40mm: 900 M-1A1, L/60, M-42; 75mm: M-51; 90mm: M-117/-118.
   SAM: Redeye, some 4 Rapier launchers with 54 msls.
Avn: ac: 2 DHC-2 Beaver, 100 U-17 (Cessna 185), 70 O-1E, 8 Cessna 206, 20 Cessna 421, 5 Domier Do-27, 5 Do-28, 15 Beech Baron,
   5 T42 (Beech Cochise), 40 Champion Citabria 150S trg.
   hel: 65 Agusta-Bell AB-204/-205, 15 AB-206A, 20 Bell 47G, 30 Bell UH-1D, 40 UH-1H, 30 Hughes TH-55.
(On order TOW, 1,040 Milan ATGW; 26 AH-1S Ccbra (Improved TOW) attack, 25 UH-1H hel; RapierSAM (some 8 launchers, 108 msls))
NAVY: 55,000, incl marines (42,000 consorts).
Bases: Golcuk, Istanbul, Izmir, Eregli, Iskenderun, Kara Mursel.
Subs 17: 6 Type 1200; 9 US Guppy (2 in reserve); 2 Tang (on loan)i
Destroyers: 13: 9 Gearing (5 with 1 octuple ASROC), 2 Carpenter, 1 Sumner, 1 Smith.
Frigates 4: 2 Berk each with 1 hel; 2 Koln.
FAC(G): 15: 6 Dogan (Lurssen FPB-57) with 2 quad Harpoon, 9 Kartal (Jaguar-type) with 4 Penguin 2 SSM;
FAC(T): 11: 5 S-141 Jaguar,6 Zobel-types.
Patrol craft: 28: 24 large (1 Girne; 1 US Asheville, 12 AB-25, 6 PC-1638, 4 PGM-71); 4 coastal 83-ft<.
Minelayers: 7: 1 Nusret, 6 coastal
Minesweepers: 26: 12 US Adjutant, 4 Can, 6 FRG Vegesack coastal; 4 US Cape inshore; 8 mine hunting craft.
Amph: LST: 7 (4 are dual-purpose minelayers); LCT: 40. LCU: 13. LCM: 20.
Auxiliary ships incl 1 HQ ship; 1 destroy tender, 1 sub tender, 2 repair ships; 4 depot ships; 1 fleet, 6 spt, 3 harbour tankers; 38 tpts.
NAVAL AVIATION: 15 combat ac 6 combat hel
ASW: 1 sqn with 15 S-2A/E Tracker ac 3 Agusta-Bell AB-204B, 3 AB-212 hel
MARINES 1 bde (4,000). HQ, 3 bns, 1 arty bn (18 guns), spt units.
(On order: 1 Type 1200 SS, 4 Meko-200 frigates, 12 LCT.)
AIR FORCE 57.375 (36,825 conscripts).
2 tac, 1 tpt, 1 air trg commands.
FGA: 19 sqns
   2 with Northrop F-5A/B;
   2 with F-100D Super Sabre,
   5 with McDonnell-Douglas F-4E;
   10 with Lockheed F-104G/TF-104.
Ftr: 2 sqns with F-104S/TF-104G.
Recce 2 sqns: 1 with F-5A, RF-5A; 1 with RF-4E
Tpts: 5 sqns: 1 with C-130 Hercules, 1 with Transall C-160; 3 with C-47 (Douglas DC-3), Beech C-45, BAe Viscount 794 (VIP) ac; Bell UH-1H hel
VIP: 1 fit with G47, Cessna Citation.
Liaison: 3 fits G47, Beech AT-11, Lockheed T-33 ac; UH-1H hel;
   10 base fits with C-47, T-33, AT-11 ac; UH-1H, UH-19B (Sikorsky S-55) hel
OCU: 5 sqns 2 with F-5A/B, F-104G, 2 with T-33, Northrop T-38; 1 with Cessna T-37C.
Trg: 3 sqns with T-33, T-34 Beech Mentor, T-41 Cessna Mescalero, trg schools with C-47 ac, UH-1H hel
SAM: 8 sqns with Nike Hercules, 2 Rapier sqns (to have 24 launchers, 324 msls).
Equipment: 448 combat ac.
   F-5: 91: -A: 30 (FGA), -B: 16 (FGA), -A/B: 24 (OCU); RF-5A: 18 (recce), RF-5B: 3 (recce).
   F-100D/F: 40 (FGA).
   F-4E: 97: 90 (FGA), RF-4E: 7 (recce).
   F-104: 220: -D/G: 160 (FGA), -S: 32 (ftr), TF-104: 28: 20 (FGA), 4(ftr), 4 (OCU).
   C-130: 7 (tpt). Transall C-160D: 20 (tpt). Viscount: 3 (VIP). C-47: 44+ (40 tpt, 2 VIP, 2 base flt + comms fit, trg school ac).
   Chariot: 2 (VIP tpt). AT-11: 18. Beech 18: 2 (tpt). T-33: 82 (48 trg/OCU, 34-A liaison/OCU). T-37: 35 (OCU). T-34: 15. T-41: 30 (trg).
Helicopters: UH-1H: 15+(15 tpt, others in Bason, base fits, trg schools). UH-19B: 5 (base fits, trg schools).
SAM: 72 Nike Hercules, 24 Rapier.
(On order 160 F-16 ftr, 18 S-2E Tracker ASW, 2 Citation II trg ac; 15 AH-1S Cobra hell, Super Sidewinder, Sparrow AAM; AGM-65 Maverick, 24 Rapier SAM msls.)
Forces Abroad: Cyprus 1 corps of 2 inf divs (23,000);
   150 M-47/-48 MET, 100 M-59 APQ 108 107mm mor, 150 105mm, 155mm, 203mm guns/how, 72 40mm AA guns.
PARA-MILITARY. Gendarmerie 125,000 (incl 3 mobile bdes with V-150, UR-416 APC)
   Coastguard 1,100: 36 large, 9 coastal patrol craft, 4 tpts. (On order 4 SAR-33 FAC)



   Albania: Albania joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 but left it in 1968, moving into a closer relationship with China. After Chairman Mao's death in 1976, Chinese aid has progressively reduced. Since 1978 little military aid has been received from any source. The Constitution precludes the establishment of foreign bases or the stationing of foreign troops in Albania.
   Austria: Austria's constitution contains a declaration of permanent neutrality. A small indigenous arms industry supplies many of the Armed Forces' needs and provides a few foreign sales.
   Cyprus: In 1959 Britain, Greece and Turkey signed a Treaty of Guarantee assuring the independence, territorial integrity and security of the Republic of Cyprus. Under this Treaty Britain maintains a garrison in two Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) at Akrotiri and Dhekelia. An associated Treaty of Alliance with the Republic entitles both Greece and Turkey to maintain contingents on the island. The Turkish-Cypriot and Greek-Cypriot communities each maintain armed forces. In 1963 a constitutional dispute led the Turkish-Cypriot community to withdraw from the central government. In 1983 it formed the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus'; it is this entity which is shown as 'Northern Cyprus' on p. 83. A numerical error appeared in this entry in the 1985-6 edition and has now been corrected. The United Nations has interposed a peace-keeping force (UNFICYP) between the communities since 1964. The United States has a signals establishment on the island.
   Finland: Finland pursues a policy of neutrality. Under the 1948 Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, Finland is committed to repel aggression against itself or against the USSR through Finnish territory. In such a case, Finland can, if needed, request assistance from the USSR, subject to special agreement. Finland maintains a permanent UN peace-keeping force and has provided personnel for UN duties since 1956. Finland's own defence industry provides nearly half its needs. Its major arms systems have been acquired from the USSR and Sweden, together with special equipment from Britain, France and the United States.
   Ireland: Independent since 1922, Ireland plays an active role in UN peace-keeping operations. With no significant arms industry, it has bought arms from many sources, including Britain, France, Sweden and the US.
   Malta: After independence in 1964, Malta had a defence agreement with Britain. The island was a NATO base from 1972 to 1979. In September 1980 Malta undertook to remain neutral, outside any alliances, and banned foreign troops and bases, including Soviet warship docking facilities. In 1980 Italy agreed to consult if Malta were attacked and to guarantee its independence; this agreement was not renewed (1984). In December 1981 France and Algeria also agreed to support and guarantee Maltese neutrality. In November 1984, and despite disputes over territorial waters, Libya signed a five-year Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation under which Malta agreed to exclude foreign military bases and Libya to answer requests for assistance against aggression.
   Sweden: Neutral in both World Wars, Sweden has a permanent peace-keeping organization which has provided personnel for UN duties since 1964. Its self-defence organization is largely supported by a domestic defence industry but some external purchases have been made, mainly from the United States.
   Switzerland: Neutral since 1815, Switzerland belongs to no defence alliance. Its small arms industry produces most of its equipment and plays a small but significant role in exports.
   Yugoslavia: Expelled from the Cominform in 1948, Yugoslavia has since been a leading force in the Non-Aligned Movement, maintaining a balanced relationship with each Bloc. lt has no defence alliances, though a limited naval repair agreement exists with the USSR. lt has its own defence industry but has bought most of its major military equipment from the USSR.


   Албания: Албания присоединилась к Варшавскому пакту в 1955 году, но покинула его в 1968 году, перейдя в более тесные отношения с Китаем. После смерти председателя Мао в 1976 году, китайская помощь постепенно уменьшается. С 1978 года военная помощь практически не поступала ни из каких источников. Конституция запрещает создание иностранных баз или размещение иностранных войск в Албании.
   Австрия: Конституция Австрии содержит декларацию постоянного нейтралитета. Небольшая местная оружейная промышленность удовлетворяет многие потребности Вооруженных сил и обеспечивает небольшой экспорт.
   Кипр: в 1959 году Великобритания, Греция и Турция подписали Договор о гарантиях, гарантирующий независимость, территориальную целостность и безопасность Республики Кипр. В соответствии с этим договором Британия содержит гарнизон в двух суверенных базовых районах (SBA) в Акротири и Декелии. Соответствующий Союзный договор с Республикой дает право Греции и Турции содержать контингенты на острове. Каждая из общин киприотов-турок и киприотов-греков имеет вооруженные силы. В 1963 году в результате конституционного спора кипрско-турецкая община вышла из состава центрального правительства. В 1983 году она образовала "Турецкую Республику Северного Кипра"; именно это образование показано как "Северный Кипр" на стр. 83. Числовая ошибка появилась в этой записи в издании 1985-6 годов и теперь исправлена. С 1964 года Организация Объединенных Наций размещает между общинами силы по поддержанию мира (ВСООНК). Соединенные Штаты имеют на острове связное учреждение.
   Финляндия: Финляндия проводит политику нейтралитета. В соответствии с Договором о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи 1948 года Финляндия обязуется отразить агрессию против себя или против СССР через территорию Финляндии. В таком случае Финляндия может, при необходимости, обратиться за помощью к СССР при условии специального соглашения. Финляндия поддерживает постоянные силы ООН по поддержанию мира и предоставляет персонал для выполнения обязанностей ООН с 1956 года. Собственная оборонная промышленность Финляндии обеспечивает почти половину ее потребностей. Его основные системы вооружения были приобретены у СССР и Швеции вместе со специальной техникой из Великобритании, Франции и Соединенных Штатов.
   Ирландия: независимая с 1922 года, Ирландия играет активную роль в миротворческих операциях ООН. Не имея значительной военной промышленности, она закупила оружие из многих источников, включая Великобританию, Францию, Швецию и США.
   Мальта: после обретения независимости в 1964 году Мальта заключила оборонное соглашение с Великобританией. Остров был базой НАТО с 1972 по 1979 год. В сентябре 1980 года Мальта обязалась сохранять нейтралитет вне любых альянсов и запретила иностранные войска и базы, включая советские военные корабли. В 1980 году Италия согласилась провести консультации в случае нападения на Мальту и гарантировать ее независимость; это соглашение не было продлено (1984 год). В декабре 1981 года Франция и Алжир также согласились поддержать и гарантировать мальтийский нейтралитет. В ноябре 1984 года, несмотря на споры по поводу территориальных вод, Ливия подписала пятилетний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве, в соответствии с которым Мальта согласилась исключить иностранные военные базы, а Ливия-ответить на просьбы о помощи в борьбе с агрессией.
   Швеция: нейтральная в обеих Мировых войнах, Швеция имеет постоянную миротворческую организацию, которая предоставляет персонал для выполнения обязанностей ООН с 1964 года. Ее организация самообороны в значительной степени опирается на отечественную оборонную промышленность, однако некоторые внешние закупки осуществляются, главным образом, из Соединенных Штатов.
   Швейцария: нейтральная с 1815 года, Швейцария не принадлежит ни к одному оборонному союзу. Ее стрелковая промышленность производит большую часть своего оборудования и играет небольшую, но значительную роль в экспорте.
   Югославия: изгнанная из Коминформ в 1948 году, Югославия с тех пор является ведущей силой в Движении неприсоединения, поддерживая сбалансированные отношения с каждым блоком. у lt нет оборонных союзов, хотя существует ограниченное соглашение о ремонте флота с СССР. ЛТ имеет собственную оборонную промышленность, но большую часть своей основной военной техники закупила у СССР.
GNP 1983e: leke 17.21 bn ($2.868 bn); 1984E: lekК 18.50 bn ($2.387 bn)
Debt* 1984: $5.4 bn 1985: $5.6 bn (* Est total since 1949.)
Def bdgt 1985e: leke 1.70 bn ($188.889 bn); 1986e: leke 2.30 bn ($230.000 bn)
$1=leke (1983): 6.00 (1984): 7.75 (1985): 9.00

Population: 3,064,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 387,000 260,000
Women: 373,000 253,000
Regular: 42,000 (22,400 conscripts).
Terms of service. Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units 3 years.
Reserves: 155,000 (to age 56): Army 150,000, Navy/Air 5,000.
ARMY: 31,500 (20,000 conscripts).
1 tk bde.
4 inf bdes.
3 arty regts.
6 lt coastal arty bns.
Equipment: * (*Spares are short; some eqpt may be unserviceable.)
Tks: 190: T-34, T-54.
AFV: recce: 13 BRDM-1. APC: 80: BTR-40/-50/-152, K-63.
Arty: guns: 76mm: M-1942, SU-76 SP; 85mm: D-44, Type-56; 122mm: M-1931/37; 130mm: Type-59-1.
   gun/how: 122mm: M-1938, Type-60; 152mm: M-1937,Type-66. how: 152mm: D-1.
   MRL: 107mm: Type-63. mor: 120mm, 160mm.
ATK: RCL: 82mm: T-21. guns: 45mm: M-1942; 57mm: M-1943; 85mm: D-44, Type-56.
AD: guns: 50: 37mm: M-1939; 23mm: ZU-23 twin.
NAVY: 3,300 (1,000 conscripts).
Bases: Durres, Valona, Sazan Island, Pasha liman.
Subs: 2 Sov W-class (1 trg).
Patrol craft: 2 Sov Kronshtadt large.
FAC: 6 Ch Shanghai-II.
FAC(T): 12 Ch P-4.
Hydrofoil: 32 Ch Huchwan<.
MCMV: 2 T-301 inshore, 6 PO-2 utility.
(Plus, in reserve: 1 W-class sub, 2 Kronshtadt patrol craft, 2 T-43, 4 T-301 minesweepers).
AIR FORCE: 7,200 (1,400 conscripts); some 100 combat ac.* (*Spares are short; some eqpt may be unserviceable.)
Ftrs: 6 sqns with 20 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-15/F-2, 20 MiG-17, 40 MiG-19/J-6, 20 Shenyang J-7.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 3 Ilyushin I1-14M, 10 Antonov An-2.
Hel: 2 sqns with 30 Mil Mi-4.
Trg: 1 sqn with MiG-15UTI.
SAM: some 5 SA-2 sites.
PARA-MILITARY: 12,000. Internal security force (5,000). Frontier guard (7,000).

GDP 1984: OS 1,284.9 bn ($64.214 bn); 1985: OS 1,371.0 bn ($66.264 bn)
growth 1984: 2.2% 1985: 3.0%
Inflation 1984: 5.7% 1985: 3.3%
Debt 1984: $11.8bn 1985: $12.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: OS 17.875 bn ($863.944 m); 1986: OS 18.768 bn ($1.204 bn)
$1=OS (1984): 20.009 (1985): 20.690 (1986): 15.588
OS = schilling

Population: 7,565,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 802,000 772,000
Women: 776,000 762,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (Air Services form part of the Army):
Regular: 54,700 (27,300 conscripts, some 70,000 reservists on refresher training).
Terms of service. 6 months recruit trg; 60 days reservist refresher trg during 15 years (or 8 months trg, no refresher), 30-90 days additional for specialists.
Reserves: 186,000; 970,000 (being increased) have a reserve commitment (men to age 51, specialists, NCOs, officers 65).
ARMY: 50,000 (25,000 conscripts).
Army HQ.
Standing Alert Force (some 15,000):
   1 mech div of 3 mech bdes (3 tk, 3 mech inf, 3 SP arty, 2 SP ATK bns); 3 comd/spt, 1 AA, 1 engr, 1 sigs bns.
Field Units (regional defence force - cadre units):
   Army: 1 HQ, 1 recce bns; 1 sigs, 1 log regts.
   2 HQ, 1 air-mobile, 2 mountain, 1 guards, 2 arty, 1 SP ATK, 2 AA, 2 engr, 2 sigs bns.
   2 log regts.
   9 Regional (county) Commands.
   30 Landwehrstammregimente (trg regts):
   Peacetime: trg and maintenance.
   Mobilization: active personnel for mobile and territorial forces.
Cadre Force (full strength on mobilization):
   8 mobile bde HQ:
   Bde tps (45,000): 24 inf, 8 arty, 3 engr/ATK, 8 comd/spt bns.
Territorial tps (82,000): 26 inf regts, 86 inf coys, 42 guard coys; 16 hy, 15 lt inf, 11 inf/ATk bns, 13 engr, 6 ATKcoys.
Tks: 50 M-60A3, 120 M-60A1.
APC: 460 Saurer 4K4E/F.
Arty: how: 105mm: 108 IFH (M-2A1); 155mm: 24FHM-1, 59 M-109/-A2. MRL: 128mm: 18 M-51.
   mor: 81mm: 551; 107mm: 105 M-2/M-30; 120mm: 82 M-60 (M-38/41).
ATK: RL: LAW. RCL: 74mm: Miniman; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 397 M-40A1.
   guns: 75mm: M-6 PAR; 84mm: (20-pdr tk guns, turret mounted) PAR; 85mm: 240 M-1944 (T-34/-85 tk), M-52/M-55 towed;
   90mm: some 100 M-36, M-47 (tk); 105mm: some 180 L-7A2 (Centurion tk mobile and fixed), 284 Kuerassier JPz SK SP, 150 M-68 (L-7A1);
   155mm: 24 SFKM2 fortress.
AD: guns: 20mm: 512; 35mm: 74 Oerlikon twin towed; 40mm: 38 M-42 twin SP.
(On order: 18 GHN-45 155mm gun/how.)
AIR FORCE: 4,700 (2,300 conscripts); 32 combat ac.
1 Air Div HQ; 3 Air Regts:
Multi-role (ftr/FGA/recce): 4 sqns with 32 SAAB 105OE.
Recce: some Cessna O-1E (arty fire control, retiring).
Hel: 6 sqns: recce/arty fire control: 12 Bell OH-58B Kiowa, 16 Agusta-Bell AB-204.
   tpt (med): 23 AB-212; (lt): 12 AB-206A. SAR: 12 SA-316 Alouette III.
Liaison: 1 sqn: 2 Short Skyvan 3M, 12 PC-6B Turbo Porter.
Trg: 18 SAAB 91D Safir, some 10 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer.
AD: 3 bns with 36 20mm, 18 M-65 twin 35mm AA guns; Super-Bat and Skyguard AD, Goldhaube EWng, Selenia MR(S-403) 3-D radar systems.
(On order: 24 J-35D Draken interceptors, 6 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer.)
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNFICYP): 1 inf bn (301). Syria (UNDOF): 1 inf bn (532). Other Middle East (UNTSO): 13.

GDP 1984: £C 1.316 bn ($2.242 bn); 1985: £C 1.427 bn ($2.341 bn)
growth 1984: 5.0% 1985: 3.5%
Inflation 1984: 6.0% 1985: 5.0%
Debt 1984: $817.0 m 1985: $983.0 m
Def bdgt 1984: £C 35.00 m ($59.637 m); 1985: £C 37.90 m ($62.183 m)
$1=£C (1984): 0.5869 (1985): 0.6095

Population: 677,500
   18-30 31-45
Men: 478,750 608,500
Women: 457,450 578,000
Regular: 13,000.
Terms of service, conscription, 26 months, then Reserve to age 50 (officers 65).
Reserve: 60,000 (have yearly refresher training): 30,000 immediate; 30,000 second-line.
NATIONAL GUARD: 13,000.* (* Mainly Greek-Cypriot conscripts, but some 650 seconded Greek Army officers and NCOS.)
3 recce/mech inf bns.
20 inf bns (under strength).
1 cdo bn.
8 arty bns.
8 spt units.
Tks: 8 T-34.
AFV: 120 EE-9 Cascavel, 20 EE-3 Jararaca, 20 Marmon-Harrington armd cars (in reserve). APC: 84 VAB-VTT/-VCI, 20 BTR-152.
Arty: 164: guns: 76mm: 12 M-42; 100mm: 36 M-1944; 105mm: 20 M-101; 25-pdr (88mm): 54. how: 42: 75mm: 6 M-116A1 pack; 105mm: 36 M-56.
   MRL: 128mm: 8 Yug YMRL-32. mor: 81mm: 70 M-29; 82mm: 80 M-41/-43; 107mm: 6 M-2.
ATK: RL: 89mm: 198 M-20. RCL: 57mm: 198 M-18; 106mm: 132 M-40. ATGW: Milan.
AD: guns: 100: 20mm: M-55; 40mm; 3.7-in. (94mm). SAM: SA-7.
Patrol craft: 3: 1 30-metre, 2 10-metre.
Air wing: ac: 1 BN-2 Islander.
PARA-MILITARY: Armed police 3,000; 1 96-ton patrol boat.

Def bdgt* 1984: TL 2,988.10 bn ($8,149 m) 1985: TL 2,765.00 bn ($5,297 m) (* Reported defence budget figures.)
$1=TL (1984): 366.68 (1985): 521.98
TL = Turkish lira
Regular some 4,500.
Terms of service: conscription, 24 months, then reserve to age 50.
Reserves: 7,500 first-line, 10,000 second-line.
7 inf bns.
1 armd coy.
Tks: 5 T-34 (operability questionable).
Mor: 75: 81mm, 120mm.

GDP 1984: m 307.88 bn ($51.228 bn) 1985: m 337.60 bn ($54.470 bn)
growth 1984: 3.0% 1985: 2.8%
Inflation 1984: 7.0% 1985: 5.9%
Debt 1984: $24.3 bn 1985: $28.9 bn
Def bdgt 1985: m 4.693 bn ($757.192 m)
1986: m 5.146 bn ($999.417 m)
$1=m (1984): 6.010 (1985): 6.1979; (1986): 5.149
m = markkaa

Population: 4,854,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 475,000 604,000
Women: 454,000 573,000
Regular: 34,900 (25,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 8-11 months (11 months for officers and NCOs); three entries per year.
Reserves (all services): some 700,000 (35,000 a year do conscript training; 44,000 reservists a year do refresher training: total obligation 40 days (75 for NCOs, 100 for officers) between conscript service and age 50 (NCOs and officers to age 60)). Some 210,000 would, with the Regulars, form the 'fast deployment force' to cover full mobilization. Mobilization units in military areas support general, local or spt forces; org in some 20 bdes, some 100 indep bns, etc.
ARMY: 30,000 (22,300 conscripts).
7 Military Areas; 23 Military Districts:
1 armd bde (1 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 ATK, 1 arty bns, 1 AA bty).
7 inf bdes (each 3 inf bns (1 cadre), some with 1 arty bn).
7 indep inf bns.
Field arty: 3 regts, 2 indep bns.
Coast arty: 2 regts, 3 indep bns (1 mobile).
1 AA arty regt (incl 1 SAM bn with SAM-79).
4 indep AA arty bns.
2 engr bns.
Sigs: 1 regt, 1 bn.
Tks: T-54/-55/-72. lt: PT-76.
AFV: MICV: BMP-1. APC: BTR-50P, some 60 BTR-60, some 50 A-180 Sisu, MT-LB reported.
Arty: guns: 130mm: M-54 (M-46). coastal: 100mm: D-10T (tank); 122mm: M-60; 130mm; 152mm.
   gun/how: 155mm: K-83. how: 105mm: M-37/-61; 122mm: M-38/D-30; 150mm: M-40; 152mm: M-38. mor. 81mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 55mm: M-55; 74mm: Miniman; 95mm: SM-58-61. ATGW: M-82 (AT-4 Spigot), M-83 (BGM-71C Improved TOW).
AD: guns: 20mm; 23mm: ZU-23; 30mm; 35mm: GDF-002; 40mm: L-60/L-70; 57mm: S-60 towed, ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: SAM-79 (SA-3), SAM-78 (SA-7).
(On order: some 250 A-180 Sisu APC; Apilas ATK weapon.)
NAVY: 2,000 (1,200 conscripts).
Bases: Upinniemi (Helsinki), Turku.
4 functional Flotillas (gunboat, missile, patrol, mine warfare).
Corvettes: 2 Turunmaa.
FAC(G): 9: 4 Helsinki (8 RBS-15SF SSM); 4 Tuima (Sov Osa-Il); 1 Isku (trg/trials) with 4 MTO-66 (SS-N-2) SSM.
FAC: 6 Nuoli.
Patrol craft: 5 Ruissalo large ASW; 1 Hurja coastal< (experimental).
MCMV: 2 minelayers (1 trg), 6 Kuha; 7 Kuski 'slave' inshore minesweepers.
HQ/log ship: 1.
Spt: 3 Pukkio.
Tpt: 5 Valas, 6 Hauki(. LCU: 14<.
AIR FORCE: 2,900 (1,300 conscripts); 80 combat aircraft.
3 AD districts: 3 fighter wings.
Ftrs: 3 sqns with 30 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21bis, 33 SAAB J-35F/BS/XS Draken.
OCU: 5 MiG-21U/UM, 4 J-35B/-C.
Recce: 1 fit with 8 BAe Hawk Mk 51.
Tpt: ac: 1 sqn with 3 Fokker F-27-100, 3 Gates Learjet 35A. hel: 1 fit with 7 Mil Mi-8 (also SAR), 2 Hughes 500.
Trg: 41 Hawk Mk 51, 27 Valmet L-70 Vinka.
Liaison: 14 Piper (8 Cherokee Arrow, 6 Chieftain).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, RB-27, RB-28 (Falcon).
(On order: AD system.)
Forces Abroad: 961 (UN only, not within Force totals).
   Cyprus (UNFICYP) 10. Syria (UNDOF) 1 bn (402). Lebanon (UNIFIL) 1 bn (514). Other Mid-East (UNTSO) 22. Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 4.
Ministry of Interior:
   Frontier Guard 4,400; 4 frontier, 3 coastguard districts, 18 coys; 5 large, 10 coastal, 34 patrol craft<; ac, 3 Mi-8 (SAR), and 1 Agusta-Bell 412 hel.
(On order 2 Lokki coastal patrol craft<, 2 AB-412 hel.)

GDP 1984: £I 16.282 bn ($17.700 bn); 1985e: £I 17.585 bn ($18.738 bn)
growth 1984: 4.4% 1985: 2.0%
Inflation 1984: 8.6% 1985: 5.5%
Debt 1984: $16.1 bn 1985: $18.1 bn
Def bdgt 1985: £I 277.000 m ($295.171 m); 1986: £I 252.415 m ($344.042 m)
$1=£I (1984): 0.9199 (1985): 0.9384; (1986): 0.7337

Population: 3,632,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 395,000 319,000
Women: 379,000 307,000
Regular: 14,115.
Terms of service, voluntary, 3-year terms to age 60, officers 65.
Reserves: 16,049 (obligation to age 60, officers 57-65). Army: first-line 1,070, second-line (14,564). Navy (415).
ARMY: 12,282.
1 inf force (2 inf bns).
4 inf bdes: 2 with 2, 1 with 3 inf bns, 1 fd arty regt, 1 motor recce sqn, 1 engr coy; 1 with 2 inf bns, 1 armd recce sqn, 1 fd arty bty.
Army tps: 1 tk sqn, 1 AD regt, 1 Ranger coy.
Total units:
   12 inf bns (3 with MICV coy; 1 UNIFIL bn ad hoc -dets from other bns).
   1 tk sqn.
   4 recce sqns (1 armd).
   3 fd arty regts (each of 2 btys); 1 indep bty.
   1 AD regt (1 regular, 3 reserve btys).
   3 fd engr coys.
   1 Ranger coy.
   4 Army Gps (garrisons).
   18 inf bns.
   6 fd arty regts.
   3 motor sqns.
   3 engr sqns.
   3 supply, 8 tpt coys.
   3 sigs coys.
   3 AA btys.
Tks: lt: 14 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 20 AML-90, 32 AML-60. APC: 60 Panhard VTT/M3, 10 Timoney.
Arty: guns: 105mm: 12 lt. gun/how: 48 25-pdr. mor: 60mm: 199; 81mm: 250; 120mm: 72.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: 447 Carl Gustav, 90mm: 96 PV-1110. ATGW: 4 Milan.
AD: guns: 40mm: 24 L/60, 2 L/70. SAM: 4 RBS-70.
NAVY: 943 (to be increased to about 1,500).
Base. Cork.
Patrol vessels: 5: 1 P-31 (with 1 Dauphin hel), 4P-21.
MCMV: 2 Br Ton coastal (fishery protection).
AIR FORCE: 890; 15 combat ac.
3 Wings (1 trg):
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 CM-170-2 Super Magister.
COIN/trg: 1 sqn with 9 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260WE ac, 2 SA-342L Gazelle trg hel.
Liaison: 1 sqn with 7 Reims Cessna F-172H, 1 F-172K.
Hel: 1 sqn with 8 SA-316 Alouette III.
Composite sqn: 3 Beech King Air (2 MR, 1 trg), 1 BAe/HS-125-700 (VIP).
(On order 5 SA-365F Dauphin II hel (3 SAR, 2 MR.)
Forces Abroad: (759).
Cyprus (UNFICYP) 8. Lebanon (UNIFIL) 1 bn+(746); 4 AML-90 armd cars, 13 VTT/M-3 APC, 4 120mm mor. Other Middle East (UNTSO) 21.

GDP 1984: LM 461.10 m ($1.001 bn); 1985: LM 463.30 m ($990.815 m)
growth 1984: 0.0% 1985: -0.5%
Inflation 1984: -0.4% 1985: -0.3%
Debt 1984: $120.0 m 1985: $125.0 m
Def bdgt 1985: LM6.10m ($13.045 m); 1986: LM6.70m ($17.114 m)
FMA 1984: $3.0 m
$1=LM (1984): 0.4604 (1985): 0.4676 (1986): 0.3915

Population: 385,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 43,300 42,100
Women: 41,900 44,500
Regular: 775.
Terms of service: voluntary.
'TASK FORCE': 500.
1 inf coy; RPG-7 RL, 81mm and 82mm mor, 50 ZPU-4 14.5mm quad machine guns.
1 coast arty bty (82mm mor).
1 marine section; 11 patrol, 4 spt craft <.
1 hel fit; 1 Agusta-Bell AB-206, 1 AB-204 (SAR), 3 AB-47G, 3 SA-316 Alouette III (serviceability questionable).
1 AD bty; 6 40mm AA guns.
1 general duties coy.
1 electrical and mechanical engr coy.
PARA-MILITARY: Reserves (Id Dejma) some 900.

GDP 1984: Skr 787.15 bn ($95.161 bn); 1985e: Skr 860.30 bn ($99.990 bn)
growth 1984: 4.0%; 1985:2.4%
Inflation 1984: 8.1%; 1985: 5.7%
Debt $47.5 bn; 1985: $51.0 bn
Def bdg*: 1985/6: S kr 25.50 ($3.239 bn)**
   1986/7: Skr 25.70 ($3.306 bn)
   (* Def bdgt incl about 7% allocated to civil defence and economic defence. Additional funding for a defence development plan of kr 2.2 bn for 1984-7.)
   (** The exchange rate used here for this dollar conversion is an average for the fiscal year.)
$1=kr (1984): 8.2718 (1985): 8.6039; (1986): 7.1680
kr = kronor

Population: 8,351
Men: 765,000 991,000
Women: 731,000 645,000
Regular: 64,650 (49,600 conscripts): mobilizable to about 800,000 in 72 hours, 850,000 maximum excl 500,000 auxiliary orgs.
   25,000 civilians provide spt services.
Terms of Service. Army and Navy 7.5-15 months, Air Force 8-12 months.
Reserves (ail services; obligation to age 47): 709,000; Army 550,000, Navy 102,000, Air 57,000; voluntary auxiliary organizations 500,000.
(* There are normally some 95,000 more conscripts (70,000 Army, 4,500 Navy, 6,000 Air Force) plus 15,000 officer and NCO reservists doing 11-40 days refresher training at some time in the year. Obligation is 5 times per reservist between ages 20 and 47.)

ARMY: 47,000 (38,000 conscripts).*
6 Military commands; 26 Defence districts (Laens).
Peace establishment:
   50 armd, cav, inf, arty, AA, engr, sig, spt regts (local defence, cadre for mobilization, basic conscript plus refresher trg).
War establishment (700,000 on mobilization, incl 100,000 Home Guard):
   4 armd bdes.
   1 mech bde.
   19 inf, 4 Norrland, 1 Gotland bdes.
   60 indep armd, inf, arty and AA arty bns.
   1 army aviation bn (4 coys; 40 hel).
   11 arty aviation platoons (66 ac and hel).
Local Defence Districts: 100 indep bns, 400-500 indep coys and Home Guard units.
Tks: 340 Strv-101, Strv-102/-104 (Centurion), 330 Strv-103B. lt: 200 Ikv-91.
APC: 1,000 Pbv-302.
Arty: guns: 155mm: BK-1A SP. how: 105mm: Type-40; 150mm: M-39; 155mm: FH-77-A and (SP)-B. mor: 81mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 74mm: Minirnan; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 90mm: PV-1110. ATGW: RB-53 (Bantam), RB-55 (TOW).
AD: guns: 20mm, 40mm. SAM: RB-69 (Redeye), RBS-70 (incl Lvrbv SP), RB-77 (Improved HAWK).
Avn: ac: 66 SK-61C (BAe Bulldog) observation, Dornier Do-27 tpt.
   hel: 15 HKP-3 (Agusta-Bell AB-204B) tpt, 10 HKP-5 (Hughes 300C) trg, 24 HKP-6 (Bell-206) utility.
(On order: Pvrbv 551 TOW veh; 20 MBB BO-105 (HKP-9A) hel with TOW ATK, RBS-56 Bill ATGW).
NAVY: 9,650, incl coast arty (6,250 conscripts) some vessels with Coast Def, 10 combat hel.
Bases: Musko, Harnosand, Karlskrona, Goteborg (spt only).
Subs: 13: 3 Nacken; 5 Sjo'ormen; 4 Draken; 1 Mala two-man.
FAC(G): 30: 2 Stockholm (Spica III) (6 RBS-15 SSM); 16 Hugin (6 RB-12 (Penguin)); 12 Spica II (R-131) (4 RBS-15 SSM).
FAC(T): 4 Spica I (T-121).
Patrol craft: 4 Hand'large; 1 Jagaren, 3 Dalaro, 8 Skanor, 17 other coastal<.
Minelayers: 3 large (1 trg); 13 coastal, 22 inshore<, 1 spt ship.
MCMV: 4 Landsort, 6 Arko coastal, 18 inshore.
Amph: LCM: 12.
Icebreakers: 7.
Spt: 1 AGI, 3 spt tkrs.
Arty: 5 bdes: 30 mobile and static bns:
   guns: 40mm, 75mm, 120mm (mobile); 75mm, 120mm (static).
   SSM: RBS-17 Hellfire (to equip planned mech bns), RBS-08A, RB-52.
Rangers (coys):
   Minelayers: 10 coastal, 17 inshore.
   Patrol craft: 18 60-/70-class.
   Amph: 9 LCM, 80 LCU, 55 LCA.
Hel: 2 sqns with 14 HKP-4B/C (Kawasaki-Vertol KV-107) ASW, 10 HKP-6 (Agusta-Bell AB-206) liaison.
(On order. 4 A-17 Vestergotland subs, 4 KKV-90 Goteborg FAC(T), 4 Landsort minehunters; RBS-15 SSM; 6 MCMV; 1 CASA C-212 MR ac,
6 Hellfire SSM (coast arty); 4 HKP-4 hel (to transfer from Air Force).)
AIR FORCE: 8,000 (5,350 conscripts);* 369 combat ac.
1 attack gp.
4 AD districts.
9 wings liaison ac: 48 SK-50 (SAAB 91 Safir).
FGA: 6 sqns: 5 with 100 SAAB AJ-37 Viggen, 1 with 20 SK-60B/C (SAAB 105).
AD: 11 sqns: 4 with 80 J-35F Draken, 7 with 100JA-37 Viggen.
Recce: 3 sqns: 52 SH/SF-37 Viggen; 2 Aerospatiale Caravelle(ELINT).
OCU: 1 with 15 SK-37 Viggen (6 SK-35C Draken in store).
Tpt: 1 sqn with 8 C-130E/H Hercules.
Comms units: SK-60A, 2 Cessna 404, 1 Fairchild Metro HI (leased).
Trg: incl 124 SK-60A/B/C, 54 SK-61 (BAe Bulldog), 22 J-32 Lansen (14 -32E ECM trg, 8 -32D target tug).
SAR: 1 sqn with 10 HKP-4 (Kawasaki-Vertol 107, 4 to transfer to Navy), 2 HKP-9B (MBB BO-105).
Utility unit: 6 HKP-2 (to retire), 7 HKP-3 (Agusta-Bell AB-204) hel.
AAM: RB-24, AIM-9J/L Sidewinder, RB-27 (Falcon), RB-28 (Improved Falcon), RB-71 (Skyflash).
ASM: RB-04E, RB-05A, RB-75 (Maverick).
AD: Semi-automatic control and surveillance system, Stril 60, co-ordinates all AD components.
(On order: 50 JA-37 Viggen, 30 JAS-39 Gripen multi-role ac; 2 BO-105 SAR hel; RBS-15F ASM, AIM-9L Sidewinder AAM.)
Forces Abroad: (526). Cyprus (UNFICYP) 1 inf bn (374). Lebanon (UNIFIL) medical tps (144).
   Coast Guard (550); 2 TV-171 fishery protection vessels, 70 patrol craft(; (Air Arm: ) 1 Cessna 337G, 1 402C. (On order: 2 CASA C-212 MR ac.)
   Civil Defence: shelters for some 5 million people outside military ages (16-65).

GDP 1984: fr 214.10 bn ($91.118 bn); 1985: fr 225.70 bn ($91.856 bn)
growth 1984: 2.1% 1985: 3.2%
Inflation 1984: 2.9% 1985: 3.4%
Debt 1984: $30.0 bn 1985: $28.0 bn
Def bdgt* 1985: fr 5.128 bn ($2.087 bn); 1986e: fr 4.835 bn ($2.657 bn) (* Excl civil defence bdgt of about fr 250 m p.a.)
$1=f r (1984): 2.3497; (1985): 2.4571; (1986): 1.8200
fr = francs

Population: 6,552,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 510,000 563,000
Women: 413,000 646,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (Air Corps forms part of the Army):
Regular: about 1,500 regular and 18,500 recruits* (mobilizable to some 1,100,000, incl Civil Defence, in 48 hours).
   (* Two recruit intakes a year (Feb/Jul) each of 17,000. Some 400,000 reservists a year do refresher training.)
Terms of service: 17 weeks recruit training followed by reservist refresher training of 3 weeks over an 8-year period between ages 20-32 for Auszug,
   2 weeks over 3-year period (33-42) for Landwehr, 1 week over 2-year period (43-50) for Landsturm.
Reserves (all services): 625,000 (45,000 officers, 110,000 NCOs, 3,000 women auxiliaries).
ARMY: War establishment: 580,000 on mobilization.
3 fd corps, each of 1 mech, 2 inf divs:
   Corps tps: 3 inf, 3 cyclist, 3 engr regts (3 bns); 3 sigs, 3 traffic control bns; 3 hel sqns, 3 lt ac fits.
1 mountain corps of 3 mountain inf divs:
   Corps tps: 1 mountain inf, 1 engr, 1 sigs regts; 7 indep inf, 2 pack horse bns; 1 traffic control bn, 1 hel sqn.
17 indep bdes (11 frontier, 3 fortress, 3 redoubt).
6 Territorial Zones: 13 medical, 12 log, 11 civil def regts.
Indep units: 3 hy arty, 3 engr, 2 sigs.
20 Fortress Guard companies.
Tks: some 30 Pz-Leopard 2, 300 Pz-55/-57 (Centurion), 150 Pz-61, 390 Pz-68.
APC: 1,475 M-63/-73/-64 (mor) (M-113).
Arty: guns: 105mm: some 900 Model-35. how: 105mm: Model-46; 155mm: M-50 towed, 380 PzHb-66/74 (M-109U) SP.
MRL: 81 mm: RWK-014 30-tube. mor 3,000: 81mm: M-33, M-72; 120mm: M-74.
ATK: guns: 90mm: 1,340 Model-50/-57. RCL: 106mm: M-58. RL: 83mm: 20,000 M-58, M-80.
   ATGW: 6 MOWAG Piranha with TOW; 800 B/B-65 (Bantam), B/B-77 (Dragon).
AD: guns: 20mm: 1,200; 35mm: 600 GDF-002. SAM: B/L-84 (Rapier).
Marine: 11 Aquarius patrol craft<.
(On order some 374 Leopard 2 MBT, 310 MOWAG Piranha with TOW-2 ATK vehs, Dragon, TOW-2 ATGW.)
AIR FORCE: 45,000 on mobilization (maintenance by civilians); 297 combat ac.
3 air regts.
FGA: 9 sqns with 139 BAe Hunter F-58/T-68.
Ftrs: 6 sqns with 98 Northrop F-5E, 12 F-5F.
Interceptors: 2 sqns with 30 Dassault Mirage IIIS/BS.
Recce: 1 sqn with 18 Mirage IIIRS.
Liaison/SAR: 4 sqns with 16 Pilatus PC-6 Porter, 24 PC-6A Turbo-Porter, 6 Domier Do-27, 3 Beech Twin Bonanza.
Hel: 4 sqns with 21 SA-315 Alouette II, 76 SA-316 Alouette III.
Trg: incl 40 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 37 DH-100 Vampire T-55, 65 Vampire Mk 6, 4 Mirage IIIBS, 68 Pilatus P-3.
AAM: Sidewinder, AIM-26B Falcon.
ASM: AS-30.

1 air force fd bde (3 fd regts, 1 para coy, 1 lt ac wing).
1 airbase bde with 3 AA arty regts, each with 4 batteries of 20mm and 35mm guns.
1 AD bde with 1 SAM regt (2 bns, each of 2 btys; 64 B/L-64 (Bloodhound), 60 Rapier SAM);
   7AA arty regts (each of 3 btys; 20mm and 35mm guns, Skyguard fire control).
3 comd and comms, 1 log regts.
(On order: 500 AGM-65 Maverick ASM.)
   Civil Defence: 480,000 (300,000 fully trained).
   Shelter programme for 5,500,000; emergency supplies and medical facilities.

GMP 1984e: YD 6,454.0 bn ($42.232 bn); 1985e: YD 11,685.0 bn ($43.252 bn)
growth 1984: 2.0% 1985: 0.5%
Inflation 1984: 55.4% 1985: 74.5%
Debt 1984: $19.3 bn 1985: $19.5 bn;
Def bdgt 1986: YD 765.0 bn ($1.870 bn)
Def exp 1985: YD 457.0 bn ($1.692 bn)
$1=YD (1984): 152.822 (1985): 270.160 (1986): 409.180
YD = dinar 1984:

Population: 23,495,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,565,000 2,375,000
Women: 2,465,000 2,338,000
Regular: 210,000 (123,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 12 months.
Reserves: Army 500,000 (to age 55, officers 60; mobilization troops to complete units to war establishment), Navy 45,000, Air 30,000.
ARMY: 161,500 (110,500 conscripts).
7 Military Regions; 1 Military District.
3 Corps HQ.
12 inf divs: 7 active (est 75% strength), 5 reserve.
9 inf bdes (3 mech, 3 mot, 3 lt).
7 indep tk bdes.
3 mountain bdes.
6 hy fd arty regts.
6 ATK regts.
11 AA arty regts.
4 SAM regts (SA-6).
Tks: 760 T-54/-55, some 200 M-84 (T-74; mod T-72) and T-72, 60 M-47. lt: 20 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 100 M-3A1, 20 M-8, some 50 BRDM-2. MICV: 300 M-80. APC: 200 BTR-40/-50, 300 M-60P.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 1,800 M-48 pack, 411 M-1942, SU-76 SP; 100mm: SU-100 SP; 122mm: 241 M-1931/37; 130mm: 186 M-46; 155mm: 132 M-59.
   gun/how: 215: 152mm: M-1937, D-20.
   how: 556: 105mm: M-101, M-56, M-18, M-7 SP; 122mm: 378 D-30, M-1938, 2S1 SP; 155mm: 426 M-65, M-114.
   MRL: 128mm: 122 M-73, M-63. mor 3,215 82mm, 2,703 120mm. SSM: 4 FROG-7.
ATK: guns: 75mm: 748: M-1943, PAL-40; 90mm: 540: M-63B2 (incl SP); 100mm: 511 T-12.
   RCL: 57mm: 1,418; 82mm: 1,838 M-60PB SP; 105mm: 526 M-65.
   ATGW: Bov-1 veh with ATGW, AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 20mm: 2,178: M-55/-75, Bov-3 SP triple; 30mm: 540: M-53, M-53/59, Bov-3 SP; 37mm: 418 M-1939; 40mm: 128: M-1, L/70;
   57mm: 304: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm: 260 M-1944; 90mm: 210 M-117; 3.7-in. (94mm): 46.
   SAM: SA-6/-7/-9.
Reserves: some 250 T-34/85, 400 M-4 MBT, AA guns; 300 M-18 Hellcat 76mm, M-36B2 90mm SP ATK guns in store.
(On order. M-84 MBT, some 200 M-80 MICV.)
NAVY: 12,500 incl 1,500 marines, 2,300 coast defence (5,500 conscripts).
Bases: Lora/Split, Pula, Sibenik, Kardeljevo, Kotor.
Subs: 7: 2 Sava; 3 Heroj; 2 Sutjeska (trg).
   2 S-11 (Una) two-man diver veh.
Frigates: 3 Koni with 4 SS-N-2B SSM, 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM.
Corvettes: 3: 2 Mornar, 1 Le Fougueux.
FAC(G): 16: 6 Rade Koncar, 10 Osa-I with 2 and 4 SS-N-2A/B respectively.
FAC(T): 15 Shershen.
Patrol craft: 16 large: 10 Kraljevica, 6 Type 131 (retiring); some 60 Type 80, 11 Mirna.
MCMV: 21 minesweepers: 4 Vukov Klanac coastal, 10 inshore (4 Ham, 6 M-117), 7 Nestin river( (some in reserve).
Amph: LCT/minelayers: 10 DTM-211 (to retire from 1986 (PO-91 to replace)). LCU: 22 DJC-601-type<.
Spt: 9 coastal tpts, 6 tankers, 1 flagship.
2 marine bdes (2 regts, each of 2 bns).
25 coast arty btys (2,300): guns (Army): 85mm: 58 M-44; 88mm: 69 M-36; 122mm: 75 M-37; 130mm: 82 M-54; 152mm: 75 D-20.
   SSM: SS-C-3 Shaddock, Brom (truck-mounted SS-N-2).
(On order 9 Kobra FAC(P) (status doubtful), 1 PO-91 spt/trg ship.)
AIR FORCE: 36,000 (7,000 conscripts); some 355 combat ac, 30 armed hel.
2 air corps each 1 air def div, incl ac, AA arty, SAM.
FGA: 12 sqns: 25 P-2 Kraguj, 90 SOKO Galeb/Jastreb, some G-4 Super Galeb.
Interceptors: 9 sqns: 120 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21F/PF/M/bis, 20 MiG-21U.
Recce: 4 sqns: 45 Galeb/Jastreb RJ-1, 25 SOKO Orao MR.
OCU: 30 Galeb/Jastreb J-1/Ty-l, some Orao.
ASW hel: 1 sqn with 10 Kamov Ka-25 (Navy assigned).
Tpt hel: 1 sqn with 20 Mil Mi-8, SA-341 Gazela (Navy-assigned).
Tpt: 6 sqns: ac: 2 sqns: 6 Yakovlev Yak-40, 2 Antonov An-12, 15 An-26, 2 Douglas DC-6B, 2 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 50 (VIP),
   3 Canadair CL-215, Pilatus PC-6 Porter,
   hel: 4 sqns: 70 Mi-8, 45 Gazela, 2 Agusta A-109 (some 20 hel (2 sqns) are armed).
Trg: ac incl 80 Galeb/Jastreb, 100 UTVA-75, UTVA-66; hel: 15 Gazela.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll. ASM: AGM-65 Maverick.
15 AA arty regts.
14 SAM bns (8 SA-2, 6 SA-3).
1 AB bde (Air Force-manned, Army of frs and trg, HQ control).
(On order: Super Galeb, some 180 Orao FGA, PC-6A Turbo Porter lt tpt ac, some 94 SA-341 H Gazela hel.)
PARA-MILITARY (under Army):
   Frontier Guards 15,000; 9 Mima patrol craft.
   Territorial Defence Force (militia): 1 million: mobile inf bdes, arty, AA bns, TAB-71/-72 APC, arty incl SU-76/-100, AA.
   Civil Defence 2 million on mobilization.

The Middle East and the Mediterranean

   Bilateral Agreements with External Powers
   The Soviet Union signed a twenty-year Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Iraq in April 1972 and a further agreement in December 1978. A similar treaty was signed with Syria on 8 October 1980. A Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with South Yemen was ratified in February 1980, and an agreement for Joint Co-operation was signed in January 1983. Soviet units continue to use some of Aden's naval and air facilities but there is uncertainty over the status of Khormaksar air base. All three countries have received significant Soviet arms deliveries. Despite this, Iraq has tried to broaden its contacts with the West, particularly with France and Italy. In November 1979 Iran unilaterally abrogated two paragraphs of a 1921 treaty under which the USSR reserves the right to intervene in Iran's internal affairs if a third country threatens to attack it from Iranian territory; the USSR has refused to accept this abrogation. A 20-year Treaty of Friendship between the USSR and North Yemen was signed in October 1984; details are not known.
   Bulgaria and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY; South Yemen) signed a Protocol for Co-operation in April 1980 and a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation on 14 November 1981. Similar agreements with Hungary were reported in April and November 1981. Libya signed treaties of Friendship and Co-operation with Bulgaria and Romania in January 1983. Sudan and Romania signed an agreement providing technical co-operation and training in November 1982.
   The United States concluded a mutual defence agreement with Israel in July 1952. A subsequent strategic co-operation understanding, reported in early 1982, led in March 1984 to a series of agreements covering aid and support, details of which have still not been published. A 1981 agreement enables the US to use Egyptian bases, but only under strict conditions. A similar agreement was reached with Morocco in May 1982. An agreement has been concluded with Oman to provide economic and military aid in exchange for permission conditionally to use Salalah and Masirah as staging bases. An agreement with Bahrain permits the US Navy to use port facilities. In November 1981, a strategic co-operation agreement was signed with Tunisia.
   Britain concluded Treaties of Friendship with Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in August 1971 and a Defence Co-operation Agreement with Oman in June 1985. lt has supplied arms to Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and the UAE. France has continuing arms-supply arrangements with Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. West Germany provided technical training assistance to Sudan under a 1982 agreement. Spain has reached a defence agreement with Morocco enabling its navy to use Moroccan ports; the benefits to Morocco have not been identified. China signed a Treaty of Friendship with North Yemen in 1964, under which minor arms were provided. Arms and spare parts have been sent to Egypt under agreements signed in 1978/9 and 1983. A military co-operation agreement was signed with Sudan in January 1982 and arms supplied. North Korea and Libya signed a Treaty of Alliance or Friendship and Co-operation in November 1982 which permits exchanges of military data, specialists and supplies.
   Peace-Keeping Forces
   The United Nations (UN) withdrew the 4,000-man Emergency Force (UNEF) from the Sinai on 24 July 1979; its duties were temporarily assumed by the Truce Supervisory Organization (UNTSO), 298 officers (including Observer Group Beirut of some 50 officers). It has monitored the cease-fire on Israel's northern border since 1949. The Egyptian-Israeli border is now patrolled by the 2,642-man Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) under the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty; contingents come from the US (1,186), Australia (which is being replaced by Canada in 1986) (109), Britain (37), Colombia (500), Fiji (500), France (43), Italy (90), the Netherlands (102) and Uruguay (75).
   The UN also deploys in the Golan Heights the 1,317-man Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), made up of contingents from Austria (532), Canada (226), Finland (402) and Poland (157).
   The UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) consists of some 5,827 men from France (1,391), Fiji (627), Finland (514), Ghana (690), Ireland (746), Italy (51), Nepal (800), Norway (864) and Sweden (144).
   Arrangements Within the Region
   Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and North and South Yemen are members of the League of Arab States (Egypt's membership was suspended in March 1979). Among its subsidiary bodies are the Arab Supreme Defence Council, comprising Foreign and Defence Ministers (set up in 1950), the Permanent Military Committee of Army General Staffs (1950), which is an advisory body, and the Unified Arab Command (1964).
   Syrian and Palestine Liberation Army forces, initially deployed as the Arab Deterrent Force, remain in parts of northern Lebanon. Syria has reinforced its component and maintains a measure of control over the Arab guerrilla group elements in the Beqa'a Valley and northern Lebanon. Israeli forces, supported by a Lebanese Christian militia and a Home Guard, exercise a measure of control over a strip of territory in the south of Lebanon.
   Algeria and Libya signed a defence agreement in 1975. Egypt and Sudan signed a joint defence agreement in 1977. The Egyptian-Sudanese Joint Defence Council's minutes of December 1981 were tantamount to another agreement, and in October 1982 an 'Integration Charter' was signed covering, inter alia, military policy; these are probably no longer in effect. Saudi Arabia has long supported Morocco against Polisario guerrillas; the two countries signed a security pact in February 1982. A Mutual Defence Agreement between Libya and Morocco was ratified in September 1984; no change in Saudi policy is reported. Libya signed a 'Strategic Agreement' with Iran in June 1985; no details have been released. An understanding between Saudi Arabia and Iraq is believed to have been signed in 1979. Jordan and Iraq ratified a defence agreement in March 1981. The Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC), created in May 1981 by Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, is developing a mutual defence structure to include a joint 'rapid deployment' force, air defence, transport and procurement. lt is being reinforced by internal security pacts between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Qatar, Oman (1982) and the UAE. A draft Gulf security agreement is being considered.
   Morocco has loaned forces to the UAE. Libya, South Yemen and Ethiopia formed the Aden Treaty Tripartite Alliance in 1981; it included a joint defence commitment but nothing has since been reported, and the commitment has probably lapsed. North and South Yemen have agreed in principle to a merger (1981, 1986); the details remain obscure. Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and North Yemen have announced the departure of unspecified numbers of 'volunteers' to assist Iraq in the war against Iran, but no formed units have been despatched. Iraq has stated that multinational composite units have been formed; their roles are obscure. Sudan and Ethiopia agreed a regime of security, stability and non interference in each other's internal affairs in July 1982. Actions since the coup in Sudan in April 1985 suggest the possibility that this agreement is being implemented.
   Arms movements in the region are peculiarly complex. Egypt has supplied arms to Morocco, Sudan and Iraq. Algeria and Libya have supplied arms to Polisario, and most Arab countries have supplied Palestinian guerrillas with arms. In some cases a third nation funds the recipient's foreign arms purchases. Iran has reportedly received arms, supplies and spares from, inter alia, Israel, North Korea and Eastern Europe and is also buying material on the open market in Western Europe. Some Chinese weapons have been identified in Iranian service, and more are reported as being delivered. Iraq has apparently recently received arms from Egypt, the USSR, China, North Korea, France, Portugal and Brazil.
   In 1975 an Arab Organization for Industrialization (AOI) was set up in Egypt, under the aegis of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the UAE and Sudan, to encourage indigenous Arab arms production. Arab involvement ended in 1979 following Egypt's rapprochement with Israel. Egypt replaced the AOI with an existing Egyptian Arab Military Industries Organization and with foreign aid. Some of this aid is from Saudi Arabia for limited specific projects. Egypt also has been entering into co-production agreements with Britain, France, the US and Yugoslavia. For their part, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE agreed in 1979 to replace the AOI with an $8-billion arms industry in the UAE. This proposal is still before the GCC and may now be moribund.
   Military Developments
   North Africa has been a main area of conflict over the past year, with combat in Libya, Western Sahara, Chad and the Sudan. Libya received Soviet SA-5 SAM late in 1985. These were being installed at the time of the US air strikes against Libya but were inadequate to protect Libyan airspace. lt is not known whether they are fully operational, nor whether these systems have been modified to bring them to the latest specifications. Libyan actions in Chad were intermittent and not very successful. Polisario continues to operate in Western Sahara; the Moroccan defensive wall limits those operations to hit-and-run raids which are being contained. Losses occur on both sides and there are indications that budgetary constraints have delayed some of the purchases of replacements by the Moroccan Forces. The civil war in the Sudan continues to frustrate national development and any improvement of military capability. The transfer from interim military rule to a civil administration has not brought with it the hoped-for reconciliation between the North and South. No major arms purchases have been noted.
   The Gulf War continues, with no apparent change in the balance between Iranian numerical superiority on the one hand and Iraqi material superiority on the other. Reports of losses and confusing indications of resupply make evaluations of strength difficult and of limited reliability. The 'Tanker War' also goes on but without any major impact on exports. The Iraq-based Kurds have taken advantage of the War to strengthen their position. The apparent increase in total Iranian personnel strength stems largely from our inclusion this year of the Revolutionary Guards as Regulars, reflecting their actual position.
   Israeli financial constraints appear to have caused delays in naval equipment programmes and may interfere with the export sales plans for the indigenously-designed Lavi fighter. Despite financial constraints, Saudi Arabia has gone, ahead with its order for Tornado FGA and air defence aircraft and Hawk and Pilatus trainers. Oman, on the other hand, has postponed the delivery of Tornado - presumably for financial reasons. Decisions by the United States Congress and Senate to oppose further orders for equipment has Saudi Arabia seeking alternative sources. The political conflict in Southern Yemen resulted in bitter fighting and the destruction of a considerable proportion of its military equipment; reports on replacement continue to be inconclusive and conflicting.
   Economic Factors
   The Middle East is experiencing the worst economic recession in recent history. After dramatic economic growth on the part of the oil-exporting countries, and substantial economic improvements in many non-oil-producing states (e.g Jordan) during the 1970s, all states of the region are now having to come to terms with economic difficulties until recently confined to the western hemisphere and Africa: large external debts, a drastic reduction in income; and massive trade deficits and deficit financing, which is being partially offset by drawing down reserves. Moreover, the Middle East and North Africa are experiencing significant population growth and urbanization which may have unforeseeable economic consequences and serious implications for regional security, especially in the Gulf.
   The drastic decline of oil prices (in many cases by over 50%), an equally drastic fall in petroleum output, due to conservation measures by the consumer countries and the worldwide recession, are only some of the reasons for this economic malaise. The Iraq-Iran War (and its concomitant economic effects on the GCC), the continuing crisis in the Lebanon and Syria's expensive involvement there, the instability of Sudan, Egypt's expensive modernization of the military, and Libyan and Moroccan military involvement in the Saharan belt are also contributing factors. Moreover, massive infrastructure development projects over the past decade, especially in the major oil-producing countries, have committed these states to their upkeep, forcing them to abandon, or at least to curtail, further development projects. Finally, due to the severe manpower shortage in the Gulf states, Iraq and Libya, many regional states with surplus manpower (e.g. Egypt and Pakistan) have become dependent on hard-currency remittances, and during the past two years these have been drastically reduced.
   Regional debt, excluding Iran, Iraq and Israel, is estimated to amount to about $110 bn. Iran's debt is negligible in comparison to those of other Middle Eastern states, amounting to well under $1 bn. Iraq's debt, on the other hand, is somewhere between $65 bn and $85 bn (three times its GDP), $50-60 bn of which is owed to the GCC states and probably will have been written off; the rest consists of debts to western and Asian creditors and especially to its arms suppliers: the USSR, France and Brazil. Israel's debt -one of the highest in percentage terms of GDP and servicing ratios -amounts to over $30 bn. Of the other states, Sudan, Egypt and Morocco continue to have the highest total national debts, but Jordan, Tunisia, and the Yemen Arab Republic are also dangerously over-exposed (with debts representing about 70% of GDP).
   Regional GDP growth for 1984 was expected to be about 2.5%; in reality, however, it fell to under 1%, while in 1985 GDP actually declined by at least 1.6%, or probably more. With the oil price collapse in 1986, the region will have entered a steep decline (probably around -10%) in terms of GDP output. While the rich oil producers (especially members of the GCC) have sufficient capital reserves to deal with the fall in income in the short run, the poorer states (Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, etc.) will have to find other means to finance their budget deficits.
   With some of the world's highest population increases (between 3 and 5%), economic progress is constantly being eroded; there has been a constant annual rate of decline, ranging from 3% to 5%, in real per capita GDP in the 1980s. The seriousness of the economic situation is further indicated by the decline in trade. Regional exports declined from $253 bn in 1980 to $131 bn in 1985, while imports remained more or less unchanged (falling from $129 bn in 1980 to $116 bn in 1985), and this has caused serious balance-of-payments difficulties in some countries (e.g. Libya, Egypt and Sudan). Some countries, such as Sudan, are near financial collapse, while Israel, with the highest inflation rate and debt exposure, has to be supported financially by Western powers, especially the United States. Their burdens are accentuated by involvement in external conflicts (Morocco, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Israel and Libya) or by serious internal problems (Sudan). Political and military insecurity, and high population growth, therefore remain the greatest obstacles to economic advancement in the Middle East.

Ближний Восток и Северная Африка

   Двусторонние соглашения с внешними державами
   Советский Союз подписал двадцатилетний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Ираком в апреле 1972 года и еще одно соглашение в декабре 1978 года. Аналогичный договор был подписан с Сирией 8 октября 1980 года. В феврале 1980 года был ратифицирован Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Южным Йеменом, а в январе 1983 года было подписано соглашение о совместном сотрудничестве. Советские подразделения продолжают использовать некоторые военно-морские и воздушные объекты Адена, но есть неопределенность в отношении статуса авиабазы Хормаксар. Все три страны получили значительные поставки советского оружия. Несмотря на это, Ирак пытался расширить свои контакты с Западом, в частности с Францией и Италией. В ноябре 1979 года Иран в одностороннем порядке отменил два пункта договора 1921 года, согласно которым СССР оставляет за собой право вмешиваться во внутренние дела Ирана, если третья страна угрожает напасть на него с иранской территории. 20-летний договор о дружбе между СССР и Северным Йеменом был подписан в октябре 1984 года; подробности не известны.
   В апреле 1980 года Болгария и Йеменская Народно-Демократическая Республика подписали Протокол о сотрудничестве, а 14 ноября 1981 года - Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве. Аналогичные соглашения с Венгрией были заключены в апреле и ноябре 1981 года. Ливия подписала договоры о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Болгарией и Румынией в январе 1983 года. В ноябре 1982 года Судан и Румыния подписали соглашение о техническом сотрудничестве и подготовке кадров.
   В июле 1952 года Соединенные Штаты заключили с Израилем соглашение о взаимной обороне. Последующее соглашение о стратегическом сотрудничестве, о котором сообщалось в начале 1982 года, привело в марте 1984 года к заключению ряда соглашений, охватывающих помощь и поддержку, подробности которых до сих пор не опубликованы. Соглашение 1981 года позволяет США использовать египетские базы, но только на жестких условиях. Аналогичное соглашение было достигнуто с Марокко в мае 1982 года. С Оманом заключено соглашение об оказании экономической и военной помощи в обмен на разрешение использовать Салалу и Масиру в качестве плацдармов. Соглашение с Бахрейном позволяет ВМС США использовать портовые сооружения. В ноябре 1981 года было подписано соглашение о стратегическом сотрудничестве с Тунисом.
   В августе 1971 года Великобритания заключила договоры о дружбе с Бахрейном, Катаром и Объединенными Арабскими Эмиратами (ОАЭ), а в июне 1985 года - соглашение о сотрудничестве в области обороны с Оманом. Она поставляла оружие в Бахрейн, Египет, Иорданию, Кувейт, Оман, Катар, Саудовскую Аравию, Судан и ОАЭ. Франция продолжает заключать соглашения о поставках оружия с Египтом, Ираком, Ливией, Ливией, Марокко, Суданом и Тунисом. Западная Германия оказала Судану техническую помощь в подготовке кадров в соответствии с соглашением 1982 года. Испания достигла оборонного соглашения с Марокко, позволяющего ее военно-морским силам использовать марокканские порты; выгоды для Марокко не определены. В 1964 году Китай подписал договор о дружбе с Северным Йеменом, в соответствии с которым предоставлялось незначительное количество оружия. Оружие и запасные части были направлены Египту в соответствии с соглашениями, подписанными в 1978/9 и 1983 годах. В январе 1982 года с Суданом было подписано соглашение о военном сотрудничестве и поставках оружия. В ноябре 1982 года Северная Корея и Ливия подписали Договор о Союзе или дружбе и сотрудничестве, который разрешает обмен военными данными, специалистами и поставками.
   Миротворческие силы
   24 июля 1979 года Организация Объединенных Наций (ООН) вывела с Синайского полуострова чрезвычайные силы в составе 4000 человек (ЧВС ООН); их функции временно взяла на себя организация по наблюдению за выполнением условий перемирия (ОНВУП), насчитывающая 298 сотрудников (включая группу наблюдателей в Бейруте, насчитывающую около 50 сотрудников). Он следит за прекращением огня на северной границе Израиля с 1949 года. Египетско-израильская граница в настоящее время патрулируется 2642-мя многонациональными силами и наблюдателями (МНС) в соответствии с израильско-египетским мирным договором; контингенты прибывают из США (1186), Австралии (которая в 1986 году была заменена Канадой) (109), Великобритании (37), Колумбии (500), Фиджи (500), Франции (43), Италии (90), Нидерландов (102) и Уругвая (75).
   Организация Объединенных Наций также развертывает на Голанских высотах силы по наблюдению за разъединением (СООННР) численностью 1317 человек в составе контингентов из Австрии (532), Канады (226), Финляндии (402) и Польши (157).
   Временные силы Организации Объединенных Наций в Ливане (ВСООНЛ) состоят примерно из 5827 человек из Франции (1391), Фиджи (627), Финляндии (514), Ганы (690), Ирландии (746), Италии (51), Непала (800), Норвегии (864) и Швеции (144).
   Договоренности в регионе
   Алжир, Бахрейн, Джибути, Иордания, Ирак, Йемен, Катар, Кувейт, Ливан, Ливия, Мавритания, Марокко, Оман, Организация освобождения Палестины (ООП), Саудовская Аравия, Сирия, Сомали, Судан, Тунис и Северный и Южный Йемен являются членами Лиги арабских государств (членство Египта было приостановлено в марте 1979 года). К числу его вспомогательных органов относятся арабский Высший совет обороны в составе министров иностранных дел и обороны (учрежденный в 1950 году), постоянный военный комитет Генерального штаба армии (1950 год), являющийся консультативным органом, и Объединенное арабское командование (1964 год).
   Силы сирийской и Палестинской освободительной армии, первоначально развернутые в качестве арабских сил сдерживания, остаются в некоторых районах Северного Ливана. Сирия усилила свой компонент и сохраняет определенный контроль над элементами арабской партизанской группы в долине Бекаа и на севере Ливана. Израильские силы при поддержке ливанского христианского ополчения и Национальной гвардии осуществляют определенный контроль над полосой территории на юге Ливана.
   Алжир и Ливия подписали соглашение об обороне в 1975 году. Египет и Судан подписали совместное соглашение об обороне в 1977 году. Протокол совместного Совета обороны Египта и Судана от декабря 1981 года был приравнен к другому соглашению, а в октябре 1982 года была подписана "Хартия интеграции", охватывающая, в частности, военную политику; вероятно, они больше не действуют. Саудовская Аравия давно поддерживает Марокко в борьбе с партизанами Полисарио; в феврале 1982 года обе страны подписали пакт о безопасности. Соглашение о взаимной обороне между Ливией и Марокко было ратифицировано в сентябре 1984 года; никаких изменений в политике Саудовской Аравии не сообщается. Ливия подписала "стратегическое соглашение" с Ираном в июне 1985 года; подробности не разглашаются. Считается, что соглашение между Саудовской Аравией и Ираком было подписано в 1979 году. Иордания и Ирак ратифицировал соглашение об обороне в марте 1981 года. Совет сотрудничества стран Залива (ССЗ), созданный в мае 1981 года Бахрейном, Катаром, Кувейтом, Оманом, Саудовской Аравией и ОАЭ, разрабатывает структуру взаимной обороны, включающую совместные силы быстрого развертывания, противовоздушную оборону, транспорт и закупки. Он подкрепляется пактами о внутренней безопасности между Саудовской Аравией и Бахрейном, Катаром, Оманом (1982 год) и ОАЭ. В настоящее время рассматривается проект соглашения о безопасности в заливе.
   Марокко предоставило силы ОАЭ. Ливия, Южный Йемен и Эфиопия сформировали трехсторонний альянс по Аденскому договору в 1981 году; он включал совместное оборонное обязательство, но с тех пор ничего не сообщалось, и это обязательство, вероятно, утратило силу. Север и Юг Йемена в принципе согласились на слияние (1981, 1986 годы); подробности остаются неясными. Египет, Иордания, Марокко и Северный Йемен объявили об отъезде неопределенного числа "добровольцев" для оказания помощи Ираку в войне против Ирана, однако сформированных подразделений отправлено не было. Ирак заявил, что были сформированы многонациональные составные подразделения; их роли неясны. Судан и Эфиопия договорились о режиме безопасности, стабильности и невмешательства во внутренние дела друг друга, в июле 1982 года. Действия, предпринятые после переворота в Судане в апреле 1985 года, указывают на возможность осуществления этого соглашения.
   Движение оружия в регионе является особенно сложным. Египет поставляет оружие Марокко, Судану и Ираку. Алжир и Ливия поставляли оружие Полисарио, а большинство арабских стран поставляли оружие палестинским партизанам. В некоторых случаях иностранное оружие, закупаемое получателем, финансируется третьим государством. Согласно сообщениям, Иран получает оружие, поставки и запасные части, в частности, от Израиля, Северной Кореи и Восточной Европы, а также закупает материалы на открытом рынке в Западной Европе. Некоторые китайские вооружения были идентифицированы на иранской службе, и сообщается, что еще больше было доставлено. Ирак, по-видимому, недавно получил оружие из Египта, СССР, Китая, Северной Кореи, Франции, Португалии и Бразилии.
   В 1975 году в Египте под эгидой Саудовской Аравии, Катара, ОАЭ и Судана была создана арабская организация по индустриализации (АОИ) для поощрения производства оружия арабскими народами. Арабские участие закончилось в 1979 году после сближения Египта с Израилем. Египет заменил АОИ существующей египетской Арабской организацией военной промышленности и иностранной помощью. Часть этой помощи поступает из Саудовской Аравии для осуществления ограниченных конкретных проектов. Египет также заключает соглашения о совместном производстве с Великобританией, Францией, США и Югославией. Со своей стороны, Саудовская Аравия, Ирак, Кувейт, Катар и ОАЭ договорились в 1979 году заменить АОИ на 8-миллиардную оружейную промышленность в ОАЭ. Это предложение все еще находится на рассмотрении ССЗ и, возможно, в настоящее время умирает.
   Военные события
   Северная Африка была основным районом конфликта в течение последнего года, с боевыми действиями в Ливии, Западной Сахаре, Чаде и Судане. Ливия получила Советский ЗРК SA-5 в конце 1985 года. Они были установлены во время авиаударов США против Ливии, но были недостаточны для защиты воздушного пространства Ливии. неизвестно, полностью ли они функционируют и были ли эти системы модифицированы с целью приведения их в соответствие с последними техническими требованиями. Ливийские действия в Чаде были периодическими и не очень успешными. ПОЛИСАРИО продолжает действовать в Западной Сахаре; марокканская оборонительная стена ограничивает эти операции рейдами, которые сдерживаются. Потери происходят с обеих сторон, и есть признаки того, что бюджетные ограничения задерживают некоторые закупки марокканскими силами запасных частей. Гражданская война в Судане продолжает подрывать национальное развитие и любое укрепление военного потенциала. Переход от временного военного правления к гражданской администрации не принес с собой ожидаемого примирения между Севером и Югом. Крупных закупок оружия отмечено не было.
   Война в Персидском заливе продолжается без видимых изменений в балансе между численным превосходством Ирана, с одной стороны, и материальным превосходством Ирака - с другой. Сообщения о потерях и путаные указания на пополнение запасов затрудняют оценку сил и ограниченной надежности. "Танкерная война" также продолжается, но не оказывает существенного влияния на экспорт. Иракские курды воспользовались войной для укрепления своих позиций. Очевидное увеличение общей численности иранского личного состава объясняется главным образом тем, что в этом году мы включили в состав регулярной армии стражей исламской революции, что отражает их фактическое положение.
   Как представляется, финансовые трудности Израиля привели к задержкам в осуществлении программ по оснащению военно-морского флота и могут помешать осуществлению планов экспортных продаж истребителя Lavi, сконструированного на местном уровне. Несмотря на финансовые трудности, Саудовская Аравия выполнила свой заказ на самолеты Tornado ударный и ПВО, а также на учебные Hawk и Pilatus. Оман, с другой стороны, отложил доставку Tornado - предположительно по финансовым причинам. Решения Конгресса и Сената США выступить против дальнейших заказов на оборудование заставили Саудовскую Аравию искать альтернативные источники. Политический конфликт на юге Йемена привел к ожесточенным боевым действиям и уничтожению значительной части его военной техники; сообщения о замене по-прежнему являются неубедительными и противоречивыми.
   Экономические факторы
   Ближний Восток переживает самый тяжелый экономический кризис в новейшей истории. После резкого экономического роста со стороны стран-экспортеров нефти и существенного улучшения экономического положения во многих государствах, не являющихся производителями нефти (т.к. Иордания) в 70-е годы все государства региона в настоящее время вынуждены мириться с экономическими трудностями, которые до недавнего времени ограничивались Западным полушарием и Африкой: большой внешней задолженностью, резким сокращением доходов; и массовым торговым дефицитом и финансированием дефицита, который частично компенсируется сокращением резервов. Кроме того, на Ближнем Востоке и в Северной Африке наблюдается значительный рост населения и урбанизация, которые могут иметь непредсказуемые экономические последствия и серьезные последствия для региональной безопасности, особенно в заливе.
   Резкое снижение цен на нефть (во многих случаях более чем на 50%), столь же резкое падение добычи нефти из-за мер по ее сохранению странами-потребителями и мировой рецессии - лишь некоторые из причин этого экономического недуга. Иракско-иранская война (и ее сопутствующие экономические последствия для ССАГПЗ), продолжающийся кризис в Ливане и дорогостоящее участие Сирии в нем, нестабильность Судана, дорогостоящая модернизация вооруженных сил Египта и Ливийское и марокканское военное участие в Сахарском поясе также являются факторами, способствующими этому. Кроме того, масштабные проекты развития инфраструктуры за последнее десятилетие, особенно в крупных нефтедобывающих странах, обязали эти государства поддерживать их, заставив их отказаться или, по крайней мере, свернуть дальнейшие проекты развития. Наконец, из-за острой нехватки рабочей силы в государствах Персидского залива, Ираке и Ливии многие региональные государства с избытком рабочей силы (например, Египет и Пакистан) стали зависеть от денежных переводов в твердой валюте, и в течение последних двух лет они были резко сокращены.
   Региональный долг, за исключением Ирана, Ирака и Израиля, оценивается примерно в $110 млрд. Долг Ирана ничтожно мал по сравнению с долгами других ближневосточных государств и составляет менее $ 1 млрд. С другой стороны, задолженность Ирака составляет где-то от 65 до 85 млрд. долл.США (втрое больше ВВП), из которых 50-60 млрд. долл. США причитаются государствам ССЗ и, вероятно, будут списаны; остальная часть состоит из долгов западным и Азиатским кредиторам и особенно поставщикам оружия: СССР, Франции и Бразилии. Долг Израиля - один из самых высоких в процентном отношении к ВВП и коэффициентам обслуживания - составляет более $30 млрд. Из других государств Судан, Египет и Марокко по-прежнему имеют самый высокий общий национальный долг, но Иордания, Тунис и Йеменская Арабская Республика также опасно чрезмерно подвержены (с долгами, составляющими около 70% ВВП).
   Ожидалось, что рост регионального ВВП в 1984 году составит около 2,5%; в действительности, однако, он упал до менее 1%, в то время как в 1985 году ВВП фактически снизился по крайней мере на 1,6%, или, возможно, больше. С обвалом цен на нефть в 1986 году регион вступит в резкое снижение (вероятно, около -10%) объема производства ВВП. В то время как богатые производители нефти (особенно члены ССЗ) имеют достаточные запасы капитала, чтобы справиться с падением доходов в краткосрочной перспективе, более бедные государства (Иордания, Египет, Судан и т. д.) придется изыскивать другие средства для финансирования своего бюджетного дефицита.
   С некоторыми из самых высоких в мире темпов прироста населения (от 3 до 5%) экономический прогресс постоянно подрывается; в 1980-х годах наблюдался постоянный ежегодный спад реального ВВП на душу населения в диапазоне от 3% до 5%. О серьезности экономической ситуации свидетельствует также спад в торговле. Региональный экспорт сократился с 253 млрд. долл.США в 1980 году до 131 млрд. долл. США в 1985 году, в то время как импорт остался более или менее неизменным (снизившись со 129 млрд. долл. США в 1980 году до 116 млрд. долл. США в 1985 году), что вызвало серьезные трудности с платежным балансом в некоторых странах (например, Ливии, Египте и Судане). Некоторые страны, такие как Судан, близки к финансовому краху, в то время как Израиль, с самыми высокими темпами инфляции и долговыми обязательствами, должен получать финансовую поддержку со стороны западных держав, особенно Соединенных Штатов. Их бремя усугубляется участием во внешних конфликтах (Марокко, Сирия, Ирак, Иран, Израиль и Ливия) или серьезными внутренними проблемами (Судан). Поэтому отсутствие политической и военной безопасности и высокие темпы роста населения по-прежнему являются самыми серьезными препятствиями на пути экономического прогресса на Ближнем Востоке.
GDP 1984: D 230.3 bn ($46,213 bn); 1985e: D 250.0 bn ($49,723 bn)
growth 1984: 3.7% 1985: 5%
Inflation 1984: 4.6% 1985: 6.6%
Debt 1984: $15.8 bn 1985: $17.2 bn
Def bdgt* 1985: D 4.793 bn ($953,300 m); 1986: D 5.459 bn ($1,114 bn) (*Excl eqpt and internal security costs.)
$1=D (1983): 4.7888 (1984): 4.9834 (1985): 5.0278 (1986): 4.9000
D =dinar

Population: 22,840,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,530,100 1,374,000
Women: 2,450,000 1,510,000
Regular: 169,000 (70,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 2 years Army only; 6 months basic, 18 months 'National Service' = civil engineering.
Reserves: Army: up to 150,000.
ARMY: 150,000 (70,000 conscripts).
6 Military Regions.
2 armd bdes (2 tk, 1 mech, 1 arty, 1 engr bns, recce coy, ATK, log bns).
6 mech bdes (2 mech, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 engr recce, ATK, log bns).
8 mot inf bdes (3 inf, 1 arty, 1 engr bns).
1 AB/special force bde.
28 indep inf bns.
4 para bns.
5 indep arty bns.
5 AD bns.
4 engr bns.
12 coys desert troops.
Tks: 890: 90 T-34, 375 T-54/-55, 325 T-62, 100 T-72. lt: 30 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 130 BRDM-2. MICV: 690 BMP-1. APC: 660: 460 BTR-50/-60, 200 BTR-152.
Arty: 1,000: guns: 390: 76mm: 70 ZIS-3 (M-1942); 85mm: 90 D-44; 122mm: 110 M-1931/37, 70 M-1974; 152mm: 50 ISU-152 SP.
   how: 300: 122mm: 50 M-30, M-1938, 170 D-30; 152mm: 80 M-1937.
   MRL: 130: 122mm: 100 BM-21; 240mm: 30 BM-24. mor: 180: 120mm: M-43; 160mm: M-43.
ATK: guns: 185: 57mm: 135 ZIS-2; 100mm: 50 SU-100SP. RCL: 140: 82mm: 100 T-21; 107mm: 40 B-11.
   ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (some SP/BRDM-2), Milan.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 50 ZPU-2/-4; 20mm: 100; 23mm: 60 ZU-23; 37mm: 150; 57mm: 60; 85mm: 20; 100mm: 150; 130mm: 20 towed;
   210 ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: 50 SA-6, SA-7/-9.
NAVY: 7,000.
Bases: Algiers, Annaba, Mers el Kebir.
Subs: 2 R-class.
Frigates: 3 Koni with 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM.
Corvettes: 4 Nanuchka with 4 SS-N-2b/c SSM, 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM.
FAC(G): 12: 3 Osa-I, 9 Osa-II with 4 Styx SSM.
Patrol: 1 Zhuk coastal.
MCMV: 1 T-43 ocean minesweeper.
Amph: LST: 2 Brooke; LSM: 1Polnocny.
Coastguard (Para-Military): 550; 24 vessels: 6 Kebir FAC; 18 patrol craft< (2 P-6, 16 Baglietto (6 Mangusta, 10 Type-20 GC)).
(On order: 2 corvettes, 3 Kebir (Brooke Marine 37-m) FAC, 3 P-1200 patrol craft, 2 802 harbour craft.)
AIR FORCE: 12,000; some 363 combat ac, some 35 armed hel.
FGA: 10 sqns:
   1 with 12 Sukhoi Su-7BM;
   4 with 60 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17;
   4 with some 80 MiG-23BM;
   1 with some 18 Su-20 (Fitter C).
Interceptors: 9 sqns:
   8 with 125 MiG-21MF/F;
   1 with 15 MiG-25 Foxbat A.
Recce: 1 sqn with 6 MiG-25R Foxbat B.
MR: 1 sqn with 8 Fokker F-27-400 (Navy assigned), 2 Beech Super King Air T-200T.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 8 Antonov An-12, 11 C-130H Hercules, 6 C-130H-30, 1 Ilyushin I1-18, 1 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20,
   2 Aerospatiale Caravelle Super B.
Hel: 9 sqns.
   attack: 3 sqns with 35 Mil Mi-24;
   tpt (hy): 3 sqns with 30 Mi-8 (some may be armed), 4 Mi-6; (med): 2 sqns with 28 Mi-4, 5 SA-330 Puma;
   (lt): 6 Hughes 269A, 4 SA-318C Alouette II.
Misc: 2 Canadair CL-215 SAR, 27 Beech (12 King Air, 12 Sierra 200, 3 Queen Air).
Trg: combat 25 MiG-17/-21UTI, 3 Su-7U, 6 MiG-23U, 3 MiG-25U, 5 MiG-15U, 6 Beech T-34C; basic: 25 CM-170 Magister,
   41 Gumhuriya (Bucker-181 type).
AD: guns: 3 bdes+: 85mm, 100mm, 130mm; SAM: 1 regt: 30 SA-2 (96 msls), some 20 SA-3.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
PARA-MILITARY: (Ministry of Interior): Gendarmerie 30,000; 44 Panhard AML-60/M-3 APC.

GDP 1984: D 1.89 bn ($5.027 bn); 1985e: D 1.68 bn ($4.468 bn)
growth 1984: 3.0% 1985: 2.4%
Inflation 1984: 0.3% 1985: 0.5%
Debt 1983: $420.0 m; 1984: $330.0 m
Def bdgt* 1986: D 50.70 m ($134.518 m); 1987: D 51.50 m ($136.641 m)
   (*Excl eqpt expenditures and a $1.0-bn GCC subsidy shared between Bahrain and Oman. Also excl internal security costs,
   est at D35 m for 1986 and 1987.)
$1=D (1983): 0.3760 (1984): 0.3760; (1985): 0.3760 (1986): 0.3769
D = dinar

Population: 420,000e (excl some 150,000 non-Bahrainis)
Regular 2,800.
Terms of service: voluntary.
ARMY: 2,300.
1 bde:
1 inf bn.
1 armd car sqn.
1 arty, 2 mor btys.
AFV: recce: 8 Saladin, 20 AML-90, 8 Ferret. APC: some 10 AT-105 Saxon, 90 Panhard M-3.
Arty: guns: 8 105mm lt. mor 6 81mm.
AD: SAM: 6 RBS-70.
(On order: 54 M-60A3 MBT, 7 M-198 155mm how, TOW ATGW).
NAVY: 300.
Base: Jufair (Manama).
FAC(G): 2 Lurssen 45-metre with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
FAC: 2 Lurssen 38-metre.
Amph: LCU: 1 40-metre.
(On order 2 Lurssen type 62-001 (62-metre) with Harpoon SSM.)
AIR FORCE: 200; 6 combat ac.
FGA: 1 sqn with 6 Northrop F-5E.
Tpt: 1 Gulfstream II (VIP).
Hel: 1 sqn with 10 Agusta-Bell AB-212, 3 MBB BO-105, 2 Hughes 500D.
AAM: AIM-9P Sidewinder.
(On order 4 F-5E, 2 F-5F FGA ac.)
PARA-MILITARY (Ministry of Interior):
Coast- guard 180; 21 coastal patrol craft, 2 landing craft, 1 hovercraft.
Police 2,000; 2 Bell 412,2 Westland ScoutAH-1 hel
(On order: 3 Wasp 30-metre coastal patrol craft.)

GDP 1983/4: £E 27.595 bn ($39.427 bn); 1984/5E: £E 30.500 bn ($43.578 bn)
growth 1983/4: 6.2% 1984/5: 5.3%
Inflation 1984: 17.0% 1985: 13.4%
Debt* 1984: $29.0 bn 1985: $33.7 bn (* Est military debt $12 bn, excl that to the USSR.)
Def exp 1985/6e: £E 2.90 bn ($4.143 bn); 1986/7E: £E 3.65 bn ($5.215 bn)
FMA* 1985/6: $1.18 m 1986/7: $1.30 m (*Excl credit arrangements with individual suppliers.)
$1=£E (1982/3/4/5/6): 0.6999

Population: 49,500,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 5,536,000 4,100,000
Women: 5,400,000 4,080,000
Regular. 445,000 (some 250,000 conscripts).
Terms of service.3 years (selective).
Reserves: 604,000; Army 500,000, Navy 14,000, Air Force 20,000, AD 70,000.
ARMY: 320,000 (perhaps 180,000 conscripts).
2 Army HQ:
4 armd divs (each with 2 armd, 1 mech bdes).
5 mech inf divs (type: 2 mech, 1 armd bdes).
3 inf divs (each with 2 inf, 1 mech bdes).
1 Republican Guard bde.
1 indep armd bde.
3 indep inf bdes.
2 airmobile, 1 para bdes.
3 indep arty bdes (2 more to form).
2 hy mor bdes.
7 cdo gps (l,000men).
2 SSM regts (1 with FROG-7, 1 with Scud B).
Tks*: MBT: 2,250: 900 T-54/-55, 600 T-62, 753 M-60A3. lt: 15 PT-76.
   (*Most Soviet eqpt now in reserve, incl MBT, some combat aircraft. Some shown as Soviet has been rebuilt with Western, Chinese and
   domestically-produced components.)
AFV: recce: 300 BRDM-2. MICV: 200 BMP-1, some 230 BMR-600P.
APC: 2,500: OT-62, Walid (to National Guard), Fahd (being introduced), BTR-50; 1,200 M-113A2.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 1,500 D-44; 100mm: M-1944 towed, 200 SU-100 SP; 122mm: M-31/37; 130mm: M-46. gun/how: 152mm: M-1937, D-20.
   how: 122mm: M-1938, D-30 (some SP); 155mm: some 100 M-109A2 SP.
   MRL: about 300: 80mm: VAP-80-12; 122mm: BM-21/Sakr-18/-30; 130mm: M-51/Praga V3S; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16;
   240mm: BM-24.
   SSM: 12 FROG-7, 9 Scud B.
   mor: 400: 120mm: M-43; 160mm: M-43; 240mm: M-1953.
ATK: RCL: 900: 82mm: B-10; 107mm: B-11. guns: 900 57mm: M-1943; 76mm: M-1942; 100mm: T-12.
   ATGW: 1,000 AT-1 Snapper, AT-2 Swatter, AT-3 Sagger, Milan; Swingfire, 480 TOW (incl 52 on M-901 (M-113) SP).
AD: guns: 1,000: 14.5mm: ZPU-4; 23mm: ZU-23-2, ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: S-60, 254 ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: 75 SA-6, SA-7/as-Saqr, SA-9, 20 Crotale.
(On order some 325 BMR-600P, some 100 M-109A2 155mm SP how; 2,000 Swingfire ATGW; as-Saqr (SA-7), 25 btys (384 msls) Chaparral SAM.)
NAVY: 20,000 (10,000 conscripts).*
Bases: Alexandria, Port Said, Mersa Matruh, Port Tewfig, Hurghada, Safaqa.
Subs: 12: 10 R-class (6 Ch Type-O-33); 2 Sov W-class.
Destroyers: 3: 2 Sov Skory (1 with 1 twin Styx SSM); 1 Br Z-class (trg).
Frigates: 6:
   FFG: 4: 2 Ch Jianghu with 4 Hai Ying-2 SSM; 2 Spanish F-30 (Descubierta) with 2 quad Harpoon;
   FF: 2 Br (1 Black Swan, 1 Hunt).
FAC(G): 32: 6 Ramadan with 4 Otomat SSM; 8 Sov Osa-I with 4 Styx SSM, SA-7 SAM; 8 October-6 (P-6)< with 2 Otomat;
   6 Hegu (Komar-type)< with 2 Hai Ying-2 SSM; 4 Komar< with 2 SS-N-2A SSM.
FAC(T): 13: 3 Shershen, 10 P-6<.
FAC: 21: 3 Shershen BM-21 (8-tube) 122mm or 1 BM-24 (12-tube) 240mm MRL, 1 SA-7 SAM; 12 P-6( with 1 octuple BM-21; 6 Shanghai II.
Patrol craft: 39 large: 12 Sov SO-1 (6 with 1 BM-21 (8-tube) 122mm MRL, some with SA-7 SAM), 8 Ch Hainan, 12 Timsah, 4 Swift 93-ft,
   3 SRN-6 hovercraft.
MCMV: 12 minesweepers: 10 ocean (6 T-43, 4 Yurka), 2 T-301, 2 K-8 inshore.
Minelayers: 3 SRN-6 hovercraft.
Amph: LSM: 3 Polnocny, LCU: 13(9 Vydra, 4 SMB1).
Coastal defence unit (Army tps, Navy control): guns: SSM-4-1 130mm. SSM: 30 Otomat and Samlet.
(On order 4 Luda DDG; 6 Cormoran FAC(G); 2 Tripartite MCMV (1986), 5 Swift, 10 Timsah, 3 Hyundai patrol boats; 11 SRN-6 hovercraft; 6 LST; Stingray torpedoes; 16 Harpoon, Otomat SSM.)
AIR FORCE: 25,000 (10,000 conscripts); some 443 combat ac, 53 armed hel (incl AD comd)4
Bbr: 1 bde (sqn): 10 Tupolev Tu-16.
AD/FGA: 2 bdes (4 sqns): 70 Shenyang J-6, 32 McDonnell-Douglas F-4E.
FGA: 2 bdes (4 sqns): 54 Dassault Mirage 5SDE2 (Mirage 2000EM being delivered), 36 Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet MS-2.
Interceptors: 6 bdes (9 sqns):
   5 sqns with 100 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21F/PFS/FL/PFM/M/MF;
   1 with 12 J-6; 1 with 20 Xian J-7; 2 with 35 General Dynamics F-16A.
Recce: 1 bde (2 sqns): 6 Mirage 5SDR, 15 MiG-21F/RF, 10 Ilyushin I1-28 (MR).
ELINT: 2 EC-130H Hercules.
Hel: 11 sqns:
   attack: 1 bde (4 sqns): 24 SA-342M Gazelle (HOT), 24 SA-342L (20mm gun).
   ASW: 1 bde (sqn) with 5 Sea King Mk 47.
   tac tpt 3 bdes: (hy): 1 sqn with 15 CH-47C Chinook, (med): 3 sqns with 50 Mil Mi-8, 1 sqn with 23 Westland Commando Mk 2 (2 VIP).
   (lt): 1 sqn with Hiller UH-12E.
Tpt: 2 bdes (3 sqns): 22 C-130H, 5 DHC-5D Buffalo, 4 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20 (VIP), 2 Gulfstream-III, 1 Boeing 707, 1 Boeing 737.
Trg: incl 16 MiG-19 (OCU), 9 Alpha Jet MS-1, 50 Aero L-29 (being replaced), 36 Gumhuria (Bucker-181 type), 36 Yakovlev Yak-18 Max,
   PZL-104 Wilga, 4 Shenyang JJ-6 (2-seat), 6 Mirage 5SDD, 6 F-16B, 2 EMB-312 Tucano, 4 DHC-5 Buffalo (after modification).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, R-530, MATRA Sparrow, R-550 Magic, AIM-9P3/AIM-9L Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-1 Kennel, AS-5 Kelt, AGM-65 Maverick, HOT.
(On order: Some 40 Shenyang J-7, 80 F-16C/D, some 40 Mirage 2000EM, 4 -BM, 16 Mirage 5E2 ftrs, 26 J-6; 5 Grumman E-2C AEW, 6 Beech 1900 ESM, 3 C-130H tpt, some 18 Tucano trg ac; 12 Sea King ASW, AS-332 Super Puma, 24 AH-1 Cobra with TOW, 15 CH-47, 18 Hiller UH-12E, 24 Gazelle (some 12 with HOT ATGW), 4 Bell 222, 1 Agusta-Sikorsky AS-61 tpt hel; Sparrow, 560 Sidewinder AAM; Exocet AM-39, Maverick ASM.)
AIR DEFENCE COMMAND: 80,000 (50,000 conscripts).
12 centres under construction.
AD: 4 divs: regional bdes.
   100 AA bns.
   65 SA-2, 60 SA-3 bns.
   Radar bns.
Arty: guns: 2,500: 20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, 85mm; 100mm. SAM: some 400 SA-2, 240 SA-3.
Some 18 Amoun AD systems (Skyguard/AIM-7F Sparrow AD systems - some 36 twin 35mm guns, some 36 quad SAM).
   75 SA-6, 9 btys Improved HAWK(108 launchers, 389 msls), 16 Crotale.
Radar: AN/TPS-43/-59/-63, AN/TSQ-73, Fan Song, Flat Face P-15, Spoon Rest P-12, Low Blow, Straight Flush missile/gun and Squint Eye, Long Track EWng.
(On order: Ch CSA-1, Spada/Aspide SAM, LPD-20 search radar.)
Forces Abroad: Iraq ('volunteers'), Oman, Sudan, Somalia, Zaire.
   Central Security Forces 300,000.
   National Guard 60,000 (getting Walid APC).
   Frontier Corps 12,000. Defence and Security 60,000.
   Coast Guard 7,000; 3 Nisr, 6 Crestitalia, 6 Bertram patrol boats, 34 rescue launches.

GDP 1983/4: r 13,750.0 bn ($157.632 bn); 1984/5: r 15.030 bn ($163.544 bn)
growth 1984/5: 0% 1985/6: -10.0%
Inflation 1984: 9.0% 1985: 4.4%
Def exp 1985/66: r 1,295 bn ($14.091 bn)
Def bdgt 1986/7e: r 465.0 bn ($5.894 bn)
$1=r (1983/4): 87.228 (1984/5): 91.902 (1985/6): 87.733 (1986): 78.889
r = rial

Population: 45,200,000*(* Figures do not account for war losses.)
   25-30 31-45
Men: 5,200,000 3,500,000
Women: 5,151,400 3,400,000
Regular: 704,500.
Terms of service. 24 months.
Reserves: Army: 350,000, ex-service volunteers.
ARMY: 305,000 (perhaps 200,000 conscripts).
(?3) Army HQ.
3 mech divs (each 3 bdes: 9 armd, 18 mech bns).
7 inf divs.
1 AB bde.
1 Special Forces div (4 bdes).
Some indep armd, inf bdes (incl 'coastal force').
12 SAM bns with HAWK.
Ground Forces Air Support units.
Reserve: 'Qocfa' bns (ex-service).
Equipment. (*Losses and incomplete reporting of resupply makes eqpt estimates very tentative. Reports of Chinese tk and ac deliveries possible but unconfirmed; MRL identified. Operational status of US-source eqpt impossible to confirm.)
Tks: MBT perhaps 1,000: T-54/-55, Ch T-59, T-62, T-72, Chieftain Mk 3/5, M-47/-48, M-60A1. lt: 50 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 130 EE-9 Cascavel. MICV: 180 BMP-1. APC: 500 BTR-50/-60, perhaps 250 M-113, perhaps 300 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: some 600+: guns: 130mm: M-46 towed, 175mm: 30 M-107 SP. how: 105mm: M-101; 155mm: M-109A1 SP; 203mm: 10 M-110 SP.
   MRL: 12x107mm: Ch Type-63; 40x122mm: 65 BM-21. mor: 81mm, M-30 4.2-in. (107mm), 3,000 120mm. SSM: Scud.
ATK: RCL: 57mm, 75mm, M-40A/C 106mm. ATGW: ENTAC, SS-11/-12, M-47 Dragon, BGM-71A TOW.
AD: guns: 1,500: 23mm: ZU-23 towed, ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: ZSU-57-2 SP. SAM: HAWK/Improved HAWK, SA-7, RBS-70.
Avn: ac incl 56 Cessna (185, 310,0-2A), 2 Fokker F-27, 5 Rockwell Shrike Commander, 2 Dassault Mystere-Falcon;
   hel: (attack): AH-1 Cobra; (hy tpt): CH-47C Chinook. (270 Bell 214A, 35 AB-205A, 15 AB-206 were also held.)
(Captured Iraqi eqpt in service.)
(On order: no confirmed information.)
REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS (Pasdaran): some 350,000; still independent of the Army. Perhaps 8 divs and many indep bdes, which may incl inf, armd, para, arty, engr, AD and border defence units, serve indep or with Army; small arms, spt weapons from Army, Naval elm; some Air.
NAVY: 14,500, incl naval air and marines. t
Bases: Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Kharg, Bandare-Anzelli, Bandar-e-Khomeini, Chah Bahar (building).
Destroyers: 3: 1 Br Battle with 2 quad Standard SSM, 1 quad Seacat SAM; 2 US Sumner.
Frigates: 4 Saam with 1 quintuple Seakiller SSM, 1 triple Seacat SAM (2? non-operational).
Corvettes: 2 US PF-103.
FAC(G): 8 Kaman (La Combattante II) with a total of 7 Harpoon SSM (?3 serviceable).
Patrol craft: large: 7: 3 Improved PGM-71, 4 Cape, 2 BH-7 hovercraft?.
MCMV: 2 US MSC 292/268 coastal.
Amph: LST: 4 Hengam; LCT: 4 Neth.
Spt: 1 replenishment, 2 fleet supply, 1 repair ship.
Marines: 3 bns.
(On order: 6 Type-1200 subs.)
NAVAL AIR: 2 combat ac, 12 combat hel.
MR: 1 sqn with 2 P-3F Orion (?non-operational)
ASW: 1 hel sqn with ?12 Sikorsky SH-3D
MCM: 1 hel sqn with 2 Sikorsky RH-53D.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 4 Rockwell Shrike Commander, 4 Fokker F-27, 1 Dassault Mystere-Falcon20 ac, 7 Agusta-Bell AB-212 hel.
AIR FORCE: 35,000; perhaps 68 serviceable combat ac
FGA: 8 sqns:
   4 with some 35 (?20) McDonnell-Douglas F-4D/E;
   4 with some 45 (?30) Northrop F-5E/F.
Interceptor/FGA: (?10) Grumman F-14.
Recce: 1 sqn (dets) with some 5 F-14A, 3 RF-4E.
Tanker/tpt: 2 sqns: 17 Boeing (10 707, 7 747).
Tpt: 5 sqns: 26 C-130F7H Hercules, 9 Fokker F-27, 2 Rockwell Aero Commander 690, 4 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20.
Hel: 10 Sikorsky S-55 (HH-34F), 10 Agusta-Bell AB-206A, 5 AB-212, 39 Bell 214C, 10 CH-47 Chinook, 2 Sikorsky S-61A4.
Trg: incl 26 Beech F-33A/C Bonanza, 7 Lockheed T-33, 46 Pilatus PC-7, 2 Shenyang J-6.
SAM: 5 sqns: Rapier, 25 Tigercat.
AAM: Phoenix, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-7 Sparrow.
ASM: AS-12, Maverick.
(On order no confirmed information.)
Forces Abroad: Lebanon: Revolutionary Guard 1,000.
Basij 'Popular Mobilization Army' volunteers, mostly youths; small arms, org in 'bns' (strength 300-350), under control of Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Gendarmerie (70,000 incl border guard elm); Cessna 185/310 lt ac, AB-205/-206 hel, patrol boats.
Sevama secret police.

GDP 1984e: D 8.4 bn ($27.018 bn); 1985e: D 7.0 bn ($22.515 bn)
growth 1984: -10.0% 1985: -14%
Inflation 1984: 22.0% 1985: 25.0%
Debt* 1984: $45-50 bn 1985: $55-75 bn (* Incl military debt to USSR and other Warsaw Pact members.)
Def exp 1984e: D 4.3 bn ($13.831 bn); 1985e: D 4.0 bn ($12.866 bn)
$1=D (1982): 0.2984 (1983/4/5): 0.3109
D = dinar

Population: 15,400,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,750,000 1,180,000
Women: 1,680,000 1,140,000
Regular: 845,000.
Terms of service: basic 21-24 months, extended for war.
ARMY: 800,000 (incl perhaps 230,000 active reserves).
7 corps HQ.
5 armd divs ('Type': 1 armd, 1 mech bde; varies).
3 mech/mot inf divs.
10 inf divs.
1 Presidential Guard Force (3 armd, 1 inf, 1 cdo bdes).
2 special forces divs (6 bdes).
9 Reserve bdes. All on active duty.
15 Peoples Army. Strength perhaps sufficient volunteer inf bdes J for a further 8 divs.
Equipment*: (*Losses and incomplete reporting of resupply makes eqpt estimates very tentative.)
Tks: MBT : some 4,500: T-54/-55/-62/-72, 1,500 T-59/-69 II, 150 Chieftain Mk 3/5, M-60, M-47. lt: 100 PT-76.
AFV: about 4,000: recce: incl BRDM-2, FUG-70, ERC-90, MOWAG Roland, EE-9 Cascavel, EE-3 Jararaca. MICV: 1,000 BMP.
   APC: BTR-50/-60/-152, OT-62/-64, VC-TH (with HOT ATGW), M-113A1, Panhard M-3, EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: 5,500: guns: 122mm: D-74; 130mm: M-46, Type 59-1; 155mm: some 5 GCT SP. gun/how: 152mm: M-1974.
   how: 105mm: M-56 pack, M-102; 122mm: D-30 towed, M-1938, M-1974 SP; 152mm: M-1943, M-1973 SP,
   155mm: AMX-30 GCT, M-114/M-109SP.
   MRL: 200: incl 122mm: BM-21; 127mm: 60 ASTROS II; 132mm: BM-13/-16. SSM: 30 FROG-7, 20 Scud B.
   mor: 120mm, 160mm.
ATK: RCL: 73mm: SPG-9; 82mm: B-10; 107mm. guns: 85mm; 100mm towed; 105mm: 100 JPz SK-105SP.
   ATGW: AT-3 Sagger, SS-11, Milan, HOT.
Avn (Army Air Corps): (7150) armd hel.
   attack (?40) Mil Mi-24 Hind; 50 SA-342 Gazelle (some with HOT); 10 SA-321 Super Frelon, some with Exocet AM-38 ASM;
   some 30 SA-316B Alouette III with AS-12 ASM; some 44 MBB BO-105 with SS-11 ATGW.
   tpt: (hy): 10 Mi-6 Hook, (med): 100 Mi-8, 20 Mi-4, 10 SA-330 Puma.
ATGW: 360 HOT, AS-11/-12, AT-2 Swatter.
AD: guns: 4,000: 23mm, ZSU-23-4 SP, M-1939 and twin 37mm, 57mm incl ZSU-57-2 SP, 85mm, 100mm, 130mm.
   SAM: 120 SA-2, 150 SA-3, SA-6, SA-7, SA-9, 60 Roland.
(Captured Iranian eqpt in service.)
(On order: no confirmed information.)
NAVY: 5,000* (*Losses and incomplete reporting of resupply makes eqpt estimates very tentative.)
Bases: Basra, Umm Qasr.
Frigates: 2: 1 Lupo with 8 Otomat-2 SSM, 1 octuple Albatros/Aspide SAM, 1 hel; 1 Yug (trg).
Corvettes: 6 (?5) Assad with 1 quad Albatros/Aspide SAM; 2 with 2 Otomat-2 SSM, 1 hel; 4 with 6 Otomat-2.
FAC(G): 10 Osa with 4 Styx SSM.
FAC(T): 5 P-6<.
Patrol craft: large: 3SO-1; coastal: 8: Poluchat, Nyryat II, PO-2, Zhuk<.
Minesweepers: ocean: 2 Sov T-43 3 Yevgenya<; inshore: 3 Nestin<.
Amph: LSM: 4 Polnocny, LST: 3.
Spt ship: 1.
(On order 3 Lupo FFG, 1 Stromboli (reported commissioned but undelivered); 1 Agnadeen tanker, 1 tpt.)
AIR FORCE: 40,000 incl 10,000 AD personnel; some 500 combat ac*
   (*Losses and incomplete reporting of resupply makes eqpt estimates very tentative.)
Bbrs: 2 sqns: 1 with perhaps 7 Tupolev Tu-22, 1 with 8 Tu-16.
FGA: 11 sqns:
   4 with some 40 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23BM;
   4 with 20 Dassault Mirage F-1EQ5 (Exocet equipped), 23 Mirage F-1EQ-200;
   3 with Sukhoi Su-7 and Su-20.
Interceptors: 5 sqns: Some 25 MiG-25, some 40 MiG-19, some 200 MiG-21, 30 Mirage F-1EQ.
Recce: 1 sqn with 5 MiG-25.
Tpt: ac: 2 sqns: 10 Antonov An-2 Colt, 10 An-12 Cub, 6 An-24 Coke (retiring); 2 An-26 Curl, 13 Ilyushin I1-76 Candid, 2 Tu-134 Crusty,
   13 I1-14 Crate, 1 DH Heron.
Trg: incl MiG-15/-21/-23U, Su-7U, BAe Hunter T-69; 16 Mirage F-1BQ; 50 L-29 Delfin, 40 L-39 Albatros, 50 PC-7 Turbo Trainer,
   11 EMB-312 Tucano.
AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, AA-2/-6/-7/-8.
ASM: AS-30 Laser, Armat, Exocet AM-39, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt.
(On order, no confirmed information.)
   Frontier Guards.
   Security troops 4,800.
   People's Army 650,000.
   Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP): 10,000 (20,000 more in militia); small arms, some Iranian lt arty reported.
   Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) 10,000.

GDP 1984: NS 7.069 bn ($24.110 bn); 1985: NS 25.966 bn ($22.027 bn)
growth 1984: 0.9% 1985: 1.7%
Inflation 1984: 373.0% 1985: 304.0%
Debt 1984: $30.0 bn 1985: $30.2 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: NS 4.980 bn ($4.225 bn); 1986/7: NS 8.030 bn ($5.378 bn)
FMA* 1985: $1.4 bn 1986: $1.723 bn (*US military aid has so far reached a total of $21.4 bn, of which $11.2 bn is to be repaid.)
$1=NS (1983): 0.0562 (1984): 0.2932; (1985): 1.1788 (1986): 1.4930
NS = new shekel

Population: 4,400,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 472,800 410,000
Women: 450,000 405,000
Regular 149,000 (93,300 male and female conscripts).
Terms of Service, officers 48 months, men 36 months, women 24 months (Jews, Druze only; Christians and Arabs may volunteer).
   Annual training as reservists thereafter to age 54 for men, 34 (or marriage) for women.
Reserves: 554,000 (all services) Army 494,000; Navy 10,000, 1,000 immediate recall; Air Force 50,000, 9,000 immediate recall.
ARMY: 112,000 (88,000 conscripts, male and female); some 606,000 on mobilization.
11 armd divs (many cadre; on mobilization comprise 33 armd bdes (each 3 tk, 1 mech inf bns).
9 mech inf bdes.
3 inf bdes.
7 para bdes.
12 territorial/border inf bdes with Nahal militia.
15 arty bdes (each 5 bns of 3 btys).
AD: 2 Vulcan/Chaparral btys.
Equipment: * (* Does not include captured PLO equipment: T-34, T-54 MBT, APC, 130mm guns, BM-21 MRL, ZSU-23-4 AA guns, SA-9 SAM.)
Tks: 3,660: incl 1,100 Centurion, 600 M-48A5, 1,210 M-60/A1/A3, 250 T-54/-55, 150 T-62, 350 Merkava I/II.
AFV: recce: about 400 incl Ramta RBY, M-2/-3, BRDM-2. APC: 5,900 M-113, BTR-50P.
Arty: guns: 130mm: 85 M-46; 175mm: 140 M-107 SP.
   how: 105mm: 70 M-101; 122mm: 100 D-30; 155mm: 300 Soltam M-68/-71, M-839P/-845P, L-33 SP; M-50, 450 M-109A1/A2;
   203mm: 48 M-110 SP.
   MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 160mm: LAR-160; 240mm: BM-24; 290mm: MAR-290.
   SSM: MGM-52C Lance, Ze'ev (Wolj). mor: 1,100 81mm, 120mm, 160mm (some SP).
ATK: RL: 82mm: B-300; RCL: 106mm: 250. ATGW: BGM-71 TOW, Cobra, M-47 Dragon, Picket 81mm, Togger (TOW/Sagger derivative).
AD: guns: 30 M-163 Vulcan 20mm gun and M-48 Chaparral msl systems, 900 20mm, 50 ZSU-23-4 23mm SP, 30mm, 37mm and L-70 40mm.
   SAM: MIM-42A Redeye.
(On order. Merkava MBT, Re'em AFV; M-107 175mm SP guns; Lance SSM, TOW, Dragon ATGW.)
NAVY: 9,000 (3,300 conscripts), 19,000 on mobilization.
Bases: Haifa, Ashdod, Eilat.
Subs: 3 Type 206.
Corvettes: 6 Aliya (Sa'ar 4.5) with 4 Gabriel II and 4 Harpoon SSM, 2 with 1 Bell 206 Kiowa ASW hel.
FAC(G): 23:
   8 Reshef (Sa'ar 4) with 5 Gabriel III, 4 Harpoon SSM;
   6 Sa'ar 3 with 3 Gabriel III, 1 twin Harpoon;
   6 Sa'ar 2 with up to 5 Gabriel II;
   1 Dvora with 2 Gabriel III;
   hydrofoil: 3 Shimrit (Flagstaff 2) with 2 Gabriel III, 4 Harpoon SSM.
Patrol craft: 41 coastal<: 32 PCBR Mk 1 Dabur, 9 Yatush.
Amph: LSM: 3; LCT: 6; LCM: 3.
MR: ac: 7 Seascan 1124N.
Spt: 1 tender, 2 armed tpts, 2 trg ships (1<), 4 coastal patrol auxiliaries<.
Naval cdo: (300), 1 Firefish III attack craft.
AIR FORCE: 28,000 (2,000 conscripts, in AD), 78,000 on mobilization; some 629 combat ac (perhaps 90 stored), 58 armed hel.
FGA/interceptor: 15 sqns:
   2 with some 50 McDonnell Douglas F/TF-15;
   5 with 131 McDonnell Douglas F-4E;
   5 with 150 IAI Kfir C1/C2/C7;
   3 with 67 General Dynamics F-16A, 8-B.
FGA: 4 sqns with 130 A-4N/J Skyhawk.
Recce: 13 RF-4E.
AEW: 4 Grumman E-2C.
ECM: 4 Boeing 707 (some comd), 2 C-130 Hercules.
Tpt: l wing: incl 7 Boeing 707 (2 tanker mod), 20 C-130E/H, 18 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 KC-130H.
Liaison: 1 BN-2 Islander, 19 Dornier (5 Do-27, 14 Do-28D); 22 Cessna (18 U-206C, 2 T-41D, 2 180); 12 Beech Queen Air 80; 2 IAI Westwind;
   20 Piper Super Cub.
Trg: incl 20 TA-4E/H Skyhawk, 50 Kfir (incl TC-2), 85 CM-170 Magister/Tzugit.
Hel: attack: 1 sqn with 30 Bell AH-1G/S, 1 with 28 Hughes 500MD; ECM/SAR: 1 sqn with 70 Bell 206, 212;
   tpt: (hy): 17 Sikorsky CH-53A/D; (med): 8 SA-321 Super Frelon, 17 Bell UH-1D; (lt): 2 sqns with 50 Bell 206A, 212.
Drones: Mastiff 3, Scout, Teledyne Ryan 124R, MQM-74C Chukar II.
SAM: 15 bns with MIM-23B HAWK/Improved HAWK.
AAM: AIM-9/-9L Sidewinder, AIM-7E/F Sparrow, Shafrir, Python III.
ASM: Luz, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-62A Walleye, AGM-12 Bullpup, Gabriel III (mod).
(On order 75 F-16 ftrs; 60 Kfir-Cll-TC-2 trg ac; 12 AS-365 Dauphin hel; 200 Improved HAWK SAM; 200 Sidewinder AAM.)
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (e 500).
   Border Guards 4,500; BTR-152 APC.
   Arab Militia; small arms.
   Coast guard; 3 US PBR, 3 other patrol craft.
   Gadna (youth bns), volunteers 15-18, paramilitary service trg by Defence Force.

GDP 1984: D 1.523 bn ($3,965 bn); 1985e: D 1.675 bn ($4,252 bn)
growth 1984: 2.3% 1985: 4.8%
Inflation 1984: 3.8% 1985: 5.5%
Debt 1984: $2.9 bn 1985: $4.2 bn
Def bdgt 1985: D 206.0 m ($522.807 m) 1986: D 243.7 m ($735.365 m)
FMA 1984: $400.0 m
$1=D (1983): 0.3630 (1984): 0.3841 (1985): 0.3940 (1986): 0.3314
D = dinar

Population: 2,720,000 (excl West Bank)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 407,000 218,000
Women: 370,000 210,000
Regular: 70,200.
Terms of service, voluntary conscription, 2 years authorized.
Reserves (all services): 35,000. Army 30,000 (obligation to age 40).
ARMY: 62,750.
2 armd divs (?each 2 tk, 1 mech inf bdes).
2 mech inf divs (?each 2 mech inf, 1 tk bdes).
1 indep Royal Guards bde.
1 Special Forces bde (3 AB bns).
16 arty bns.
4 AA bdes.
Tks: some 790: 140 M-47/-48A5 (in reserve), 186 M-60A1/A3, 270 Khalid, 191 Centurion.
APC: 1,200 M-113, 32 Saracen.
Arty: some 247: guns: 155mm: 17 M-59. gun/how: 180 GHN45.
   how: 105mm: 36 M-101A1; 155mm: 38 M-114 towed, 20 M-44, 108 M-109A2 SP; 203mm: 4 M-115 towed, 24 M-110 SP.
   mor: 400 81mm, 107mm and 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 300 106mm. ATGW: 300 BGM-71A TOW, 310 M-47 Dragon.
AD: guns: 20mm: 100 M-163 Vulcan; 40mm: 16 ZSU-23-4, 250 M-42 SP. SAM: SA-7B2 Redeye, 34 SAM-8, Improved HAWK.
(On order. Javelin, Rapier SAM.)
NAVY (Coast Guard): 250.
Base: Aqaba.
Patrol craft: 6 (2 armed<).
(On order: patrol craft.)
AIR FORCE: 7,200; 119 combat ac, 24 armed hel.
FGA: 3 sqns with 67 Northrop F-5E/F.
Interceptor: 2 sqns with 34 Dassault Mirage F-1CJ/EJ.
OCU: 1 sqn with 15 F-5A, 3 F-5B.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 6 C-130B/H Hercules, 2 North American Sabreliner 75A, 2 CASA C-212A.
VIP: 1 sqn with 2 Boeing 727, 3 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20, 1 T-39 Sabreliner ac, 4 Sikorsky S-76 hel.
Hel: 4 sqns: 2 with 24 Bell AH-1S (with TOW ASM; for eventual transfer to Army); 2 with 16 SA-316B Alouette III, 14 S-76, 8 Hughes 500D hel.
Trg ac: 13 Cessna T-37C, 19 BAe Bulldog, 1 C-212, 12 Piper Warrior-W, 6 Piper Seneca-II.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder. ASM: TOW.
AD: 2 bdes: 14 btys with 112 Improved HAWK SAM.
(On order 14 CASA C-101/5 Aviojet trg/COIN, 2 CASA-Nurtanio CN-235 tpt, 1 C-212 lt tpt ac; 6 Maverick ASM.)
   Public Security Force 3,500.
   Civil Militia 'People's Army' 2,500: Men 16-65; Women 16-45.
   Palestine Liberation Army: 1,500; bde.

GDP 1983/4: D 6.415 bn ($21.969 bn); 1984/5: D 6.425 bn ($21.474 bn)
growth 1983/4: -1.5% 1984/5: -4.0%
Inflation 1984: 1.2% 1985: 1.0%
Debt 1984: $5.0 bn 1985: $3.7 bn
Def bdgt* 1984/5e: D 490.0 m ($1.638 bn) 1985/6e: D 540.0 m ($1.827 bn) (* Excl capital expenditure.)
$1=D (1982/3): 0.2908 (1983/4): 0.2920 (1984/5): 0.2992 (1985/6): 0.2956

Population: 1,710,000 (incl 1.1 m expatriates)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 224,000 252,000
Women: 159,000 125,000
Regular 12,000.
Terms of service: 2 years (university students, 1 year).
Reserves: planned conscript force.
ARMY: 10,000.
2 armd bdes.
1 mech inf bde.
1 SSM bn.
Tks: 70 Vickers Mk 1, 10 Centurion,160 Chieftain.
AFV: recce: 100 Saladin, 60 Ferret. APC: 175 M-113, 100 Saracen.
Arty: guns: 155mm: 20 AMX Mk F-3 SP. how: 18 M-109A2 SP. SSM: 4 FROG-7. mor: 81mm.
ATGW: HOT, BGM-71A TOW, Vigilant.
SAM: SA-6, SA-7, SA-8 Gecko.
(On order Scorpion lt tks, 188 M-113 APC, 56 M-113 SP TOW, 4,800 Improved TOW, SA-7, SA-8 SAM.)
NAVY (administered by Ministry of the Interior): 1,100.
Base. Kuwait City.
FAC(G): 6 Lurssen TNC-45 with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
FAC: 2 Lurssen FPB-57.
Patrol craft: 50 coastal< (15 armed).
Amph: LCU: 6 Loadmaster, 7 landing craft, 3 spt ships (320-ton).
(On order. 20 Sedan patrol craft; 6 SRN-6 hovercraft; SA-365N Dauphin II hel; Exocet MM-40 SSM.)
AIR FORCE: 2,000 (excl foreign personnel);
80 combat ac, 23 armed hel.
FGA: 2 sqns with 30 A-4KU, 4 TA-4KU Skyhawk.
Interceptor: 1 sqn with 32 Dassault Mirage F-1CK, 2 F-1BK.
COIN/trg: 1 sqn with 12 BAe Hawk.
Tpt: 2 McDonnell-Douglas DC-9; 4 Lockheed L-l00-30; used also in civil role.
Hel: 3 sqns: attack: 23 SA-342K Gazelle, tpt: 12 SA-330 Puma, 5 AS-332 Super Puma.
Trg: incl 9 BAe/BAC-167 Strikemaster.
AD: 1 bn (4 btys) with 8 twin Improved HAWK SAM.
AAM: R-550 Magic, Super R-530, AIM-9 Sidewinder. ASM: AS-11/-12.
(Store: 12 BAe Lightning, 9 BAe Hunter.)
(On order 6 AS-332F Super Puma hel; 12 Exocet AM-39 ASM; AD radar and command system.)
National Guard: Palace, Border Guard. 20 V-150, 62 V-300 Commando APC.

Given the continuing conflict in the Lebanon, the development of at least two economies, the political impotence of the President and the National Assembly, and the existence of several armed forces, it is no longer possible to provide macro-economic, population or meaningful defence economic data. There are no longer any truly 'national' forces. Even the respective sectarian militia forces vary in their degrees of cohesion. They all have small regular cadres, rapidly expanded by mobilizing reserves. Much of the equipment of the former national forces is held by these groups; some is stored unserviceable. The militias have their own ources of supply, and it has not been possible to determine types and quantities accurately.
ARMY: some 15,000.
5 nominal brigades.
Tks: some 90 M-48 A1/A5. lt: 50 AMX-13 (35 with 75mm, 15 with 105mm guns).
AFV: recce: 80 Saladin, 20 Ferret. APC: 300 M-113, Saracen, 20 VAB-VTT.
Arty: guns: 130mm: M-46. how: 122mm: 18 M-102, M-1938/D-30; 155mm: 36 M-50, M-114, M-198. mor: 200 81mm; 120mm.
ATK: RL: 85mm: RPG-7; 89mm: M-65. RCL: 106mm. ATGW: ENTAC, Milan, BGM-71A TOW.
AD: guns: 20mm; 23mm: ZU-23; 30mm: towed; 40mm: M-42SP.
NAVY: some 300.
Base. Juniye.
Patrol craft: 4: 1 38-m, 3 30-m coastal<.
Landing craft 2 Fr EDIC 670 ton.
1 operational base.
Equipment (?operational):
Ftrs: 7 BAe Hunter F-70.
Hel: 1 sqn: attack: 4 SA-342 Gazelle with SS-11/-12 ASM; tpt: (med): 7 Agusta-Bell AB-212, 12 SA-330 Puma; (lt): 9-SA 315/316 Alouette II/III.
Trg: 5 BAe Bulldog, 3 CM-170 Magister.
Tpt: 1 DH Dove, 1 Rockwell Turbo Commander 690B.
   Ministry of the Interior Internal Security Force 8,000 (largely ineffec tive: law courts closed); 30 Chaimite APC.
   Customs: 1 Tracker, 5 Aztec patrol craft.
Lebanese Forces Militia (Kata'eb = Phalange): 4,500 regulars, 30,000 reservists.
Tks: 110 T-34, 50 M-48; 5 M-4, 55 T-54. lt: some 20 AMX-13 tks.
APC: M-113.
Arty: some 100: 122mm, 130mm, 155mm. mor: 60mm, 81mm, 120mm. ATK: RPG-7.
AD: 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 23mm guns.
Patrol boats: 1 Tracker, 2 Yatush.

Guardians of the Cedars: (Right-wing): ?300.
Marada Brigades (Zehorta Liberation Army) (pro-Syrian): ?200.
South Lebanon Army (SLA; Israeli-backed):
Maronite and some Shi'ite: perhaps 1,000.
TKS: 40 M-4, 15 T-54.
Arty: M-1938 122mm, M-46 130mm, M-198 155mm.
Al-Tanzim: (extremist): ?600.
1 nominal army bde.
Progressive Socialist Party (Jumblatt): (5,000 regular, perhaps 12,000 reservists);
Tks: 50 T-34/-54.
APC: BTR-60/-152.
Arty: 122mm, 130mm. MRL. mor: 82mm.
Patrol craft: 18 small.
1 nominal army bde.
Islamic Unity Movement (Taweed): Tripoli, (1,000), small arms incl ATK.
Al-Mourabitoun (independent Nasserites, underground: (400).
October 24 Movement (secular).
Junudullah ('soldiers of God', PLO-financed): (?few hundred).
3 nominal army bdes.
Amal (orthodox pro-Syria; Bern): (6,000 regulars; some 10,000 reservists).
Tks: M-48, 50 T-54/5.
AFV: recce: Saladin. APC: VAB, BTR, M-113.
Arty: guns: 130mm. how: 105mm, 122mm, 155mm. MRL: 107mm, 122mm.
ATK: guns: 85mm, 100mm. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 23mm ZU-23. SAM: SA-7.
Al Amal al Islam (Islamic Amal; break-away faction, links with Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps): (600).
Equipment incl
Arty: 130mm. mor.
ATK: RL: PG-7.
AD: guns: 20mm ZPU-2.
Hizbollah ("The Party of God'; fundamentalist, pro-Iranian): (1,000).
Equipment incl:
AFV, arty, RL, RCL, ATGW, AA guns.
Islamic Resistance Movement (Hizbollah linked): (400).
ATK: RL: 'Grad' (BM-21 122mm). ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
   Lebanese Arab Army: Lebanese Army deserters; pro-Syrian (numbers decreasing).
   Lebanese National Resistance Front: umbrella for anti-Israeli forces in South Lebanon.

GDP 1984e: D 6,700 bn ($22.627 bn) 1985K D 5.900 bn ($19.926 bn)
growth 1983: -21.0% 1984: -4%
Inflation 1983: 9.0% 1984: 11.0%
Debt 1984e: $2.0 bn 1985e: $4.0 bn
Def exp 1982e: D 210.0 m ($709.338 m)
$1=D (1982/3/4/5): 0.2961
D = dinar

Population: 3,800,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 455,000 390,000
Women: 375,000 264,000
Regular 71,500.
Terms of service, selective conscription, term varies -3 to 4 years.
Reserves: People's Militia, some 40,000.
ARMY: 55,000.
1 tk, 2 mech inf div HQ.
38 tk bns.
54 mech inf bns.
1 National Guard bde.
41 arty, 2 AA arty bns.
14 para/cdo bns.
6 SSM bdes.
3 SAM bdes.
Equipment: *
Tks: 2,200 T-54/-55/-62, 160 T-72.
AFV: recce: 250 BRDM-2, 400 EE-9 Cascavel. MICV: 800 BMP. APC: 700 BTR-50/-60, OT-62/-64, 100 EE-11 Urutu, Fiat 6614.
Arty: some 1,300: guns: 122mm: 60 D-74; 130mm: 360 M-46. how: 105mm: some 60 M-101; 122mm: 330 M-1938, D-30 towed, 120 M-1974 SP;
   152mm: 48 M-1973, DANA SP; 155mm: 200 Palmaria, 18 M-109 SP.
   MRL: some 600: 122mm: BM-21/RM-70; 130mm: M-51.
   SSM: 48 FROG-7, 70 Scud B.
   mor: 450: 81mm, 120mm, 160mm, 240mm.
ATK: RCL: 200 106mm. ATGW: 3,000: Vigilant, Milan, AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM SP).
AD: guns: 600: 23mm: ZSU-23-2, ZSU-23-4 SP, 30mm: M-53/59 SP; 40mm: L/70; 57mm. SAM: SA-7, 30 quad Crotale.
(On order MBT, BMD AB MICV, Fiat 6616 recce, ASTROS II SS-40 MRLS.)
NAVY: 6,500.
Bases: Tarabulus, Benghazi, Darnah, Tubruq, Bardiyah, Al Khums.
Subs: 6 Sov F-class; 2 R-2 'Mala'-class submersible.
Frigates: 2: 1 Vosper Mk 7 with 4 Otomat SSM, 4 Albatros/Aspide SAM;
   1 Koni-class with 4 SS-N-2C SSM.
Corvettes: 7: 4 Assad with 4 Otomat SSM (1 with 1 quad Aspide SAM);
   3 Sov Nanuchka II with 4 SS-N-2C SSM, 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM.
FAC(G): 24: 9 Sharara (La Combattante II) with 4 Otomat SSM;
   12 Sov Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2C SSM;
   3 Susa with 8 SS-12M SSM.
Patrol craft: 8: 4 Garian, 3 100-ft Benina large; 1 78-ft coastal.
MCMV: 7 Sov Natya.
Amph: LST: 2 PS-700; LSM: 3 Polnocny, LCU: 20 C-107.
Misc: 1 tpt (could use as minelayer).
Drone craft: 50.
(On order 2 Rade Koncar-type FAC(G), 1 Benina patrol craft.)
AIR FORCE: 10,000; some 489 combat ac, 60 armed hel.*
   (* Much eqpt, incl 1,200 MBT, 450 combat ac (Tu-22, MiG-21/-23/-25, Su-22) in storage.
   Syrian pilots also reportedly fly Libyan ac, while some Soviet, Korean and Pakistani personnel act as instructors.
   Some 2,000 Soviet personnel reportedly man the SA-5 complexes. Expatriates form a large proportion of the technical support staff.)
Bbrs: 1 sqn with 7 Tupolev Tu-22.
Interceptors: 3 sqns and 1 OCU:
   some 26 Dassault Mirage F-1ED, 6 F-1BD,
   135 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23 Flogger E, 50 MiG-25 Foxbat A, 50 MiG-21, 5 MiG-25U.
FGA: 5 sqns and 1 OCU:
   45 Mirage 5D/DE, 13 5DD, 14 Mirage F-1 AD,
   40 MiG-23BM Flogger F, 14 MiG-23U,
   some 50 Sukhoi Su-20/-22 Fitter E/F/J.
COIN: 1 sqn with 30 Soko J-1 Jastreb.
Recce: 1 sqn with 2 Mirage 5DR.
Tpt: 2 sqns: 20 Antonov An-26 Curl, 8 C-130H Hercules, 2 Boeing 707, 17 Aeritalia G-222, 2 Dassault Mystere-Falcon-20, 2 C-140 Lockheed Jetstar,
   2 Canadair CL-44, 15 Ilyushin I1-76 Candid, 1 Aerospatiale Corvette 200, 2 Beech King Air, 6 Fokker F-27-600, 16 Turbolet L-410.
Hel: 9 sqns: attack: 2 with 30 Mil Mi-24 Hind;
   ASW: 2 with 30 Mi-14 Haze,
   SAR: 1 with 8 SA-321 Super Frelon.
   tpt: (hy): 1 with 19 CH-47C Chinook, (med): 1 with Mi-8, 2 Agusta-Bell AB-212;
   (lt): 1 with 5 AB-206, 1 with 10 SA-316B Alouette III, 9 AB-47.
Trg: 4 sqns: 2 with 61 Soko G-2 Galeb ac; 2 with 20 Mi-2 (Hoplite) hel; 2 Tu-22 Blinder D, 100 Aero L-39ZO, 12 CM-170 Magister,
   139 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260WL.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, R-550 Magic. ASM: Swatter ATGW (hel-borne).
AD Comd: (13,000).
   3 SA-5A bdes: each 2 bns of 6 launchers, some 4 AA gun bns; radar coys, 2 AD schools.
   3 Regional Sections: 2 bdes each 18 SA-2, 2-3 bdes each 12 twin SA-3, ?3 bdes each 20/24 SA-6/-8.
(On order MiG-25, MiG-23 ftrs; 25 EMB-121 Xingu tpt, 50 SF-260M trg ac; SA-342 Gazelle, 2 Agusta A-109 hel; Super 530 AAM.)
Forces Abroad:
Chad: some 5,000; 2 mech bns, 2 tk bns: T-55 tks, BMP-1 MICV, MRL, AD guns, SAM, 5 SF-260W ac, 3 Mi-24
Liwa Haris Al-Jamahiriya (Revolution Guard Corps).
   Eqpt MBT: T-54/-55. AFV: armd cars, APC Arty: MRL. AD: ZSU-23-4, SA-8 (Army inventory).
Islamic Pan-African Legion, some 2,500; 1 armd, 1 inf, 1 para/cdo bdes.
   Eqpt: MBT: some 75 T-54/-55. MICV: EE-9. APC: BTR-50/-60 (Army inventory).
Muslim Youth.
People's Cavalry Force; parade unit.
Customs/Coastguard (Naval control). Eqpt: 2 SAR-33 Lurssen-type FAC; 3 Benina, 3 Jihad patrol craft.

GDP 1984: D 105.60 bn ($11.985 bn) 1985e: D 123.55 bn ($12.279 bn)
growth 1984: 2.2% 1985: 4.3%
Inflation 1984: 6.2% 1985: 12.4%
Debt 1984: $13.6 bn 1985: $14.1 bn
Def bdgt 1985: D 5.257 bn ($522.461 m) 1986: D 6.837 bn ($749.671 m)
FMA 1984: $39.0 m 1985: $77.0 m
$1=D (1983): 7.111 (1984): 8.811 (1985): 10.062 (1986): 9.120
D = dirham

Population: 23,000,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,700,000 1,367,000
Women: 2,564,000 1,550,000
Regular 205,000 incl Gendarmerie.
Terms of service: conscription authorized 18 months; most enlisted personnel volunteers.
Reserves: individual obligation; details of age limits unknown.
ARMY: 150,000.
3 mech inf bdes.
1 lt security bde.
1 para bde.
1 AA gp.
9 mech inf regts.
9 arty groups.
7 armd bns.
1 Royal Guard bn.
4 camel corps bns.
2 desert cav bns.
1 mountain bn.
4 cdo bns.
4 engr bns.
4 armd car sqns.
Tks: 110 M-48A5. lt: 70 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 20 EBR-75, some 50 AMX-10RC, 162 AML-90, 30 AML-60-7, 25 Eland 90mm.
   APC: 20 M-8, 400 M-113, some 420 VAB (270 -VTT/VCI, 20 with 120mm mor, 130 other mods), 70 UR-416, 65 Ratel-20, 40 M-3,
   some OT-62/-64 may be operational.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 30 D-44; 100mm: 10 SU-100 SP; 105mm: 36 lt; 130mm: 12 M-46; 155mm: 50 AMX-F-3 SP.
   how: 105mm: 25 M-101 towed; 155mm: 20 M-114 towed, 36 M-109SP.
   MRL: 122mm: 15 BM-21. mor: 575 60mm, 600 81mm, 70 82mm, 440 120mm.
ATK: RL: LAW 66mm, M-20 3.5-in. (88mm), STRIM-S9. RCL: 75mm: 250 M-20; 90mm: 20 M-67; 106mm: 325 M-40.
   guns: 90mm: 25 M-56; 105mm: 121 Steyr SK-105 Kuerassier SP. ATGW: M-47 Dragon, Milan, BGM-71A TOW.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 15 ZPU-4; 20mm: 50 towed, 55 M-163 Vulcan SP; 23mm: 87 ZU-23-2; 37mm: M-38/-39; 57mm: 60 S-60;
   100mm: 10 KS-19 towed.
   SAM: SA-7, 35 M-730 Chaparral.
(On order some 30 AMX-10RC armd cars.)
NAVY: 7,000 incl 1,000 naval infantry.
Bases: Casablanca, San, Agadir, AI Hoceima, Dakhla.
Frigates: 1 Descubierta with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM, 1 octuple Albatros/Aspide SAM.
FAC(G): 4 Lazaga with 4 Exocet MM-38.
FAC: 2 PR-72.
Patrol craft: large: 4: 1 Sirius ex-MCMV, 1 NATO 174-ft, 1 CMN 133-ft, 1 Esterel 104-ft; coastal: 13: 6 P-32, 3 Arcoz 31,4 Ifri.
Amph: 4: LSM: 3 Batral; LCU: 1 EDIC-type.
1 naval inf bn.
(On order 6 Vigilante patrol boats.)
AIR FORCE: 13,000; 119 combat ac; 25 armed hel.
FGA/recce: 4 sqns:
   2 with 21 Dassault Mirage F-1E, 18 F-1C;
   2 with 29 Northrop F-5 (5 A, 14 E, 3 B, 4 F, 3 RF-5A).
COIN/recce: 1 sqn with 6 OV-10 Bronco.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 17 C-130H Hercules, 3 KC-130H, 1 Gulfstream, 4 Beech King Air, 4 Domier Do-28D.
Hel: attack: 25 SA-342 Gazelle. tpt (hy): 9 CH-47 Chinook-, (med): 30 SA-330 Puma, 33 Agusta-Bell AB-205A; (lt): 14 AB-206, 4 AB-212;
Trg: 24 Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet, 21 CM-170 Magister, 11 Beech T-34C, 11 AS-202/18A Bravo.
AAM: AIM-9J Sidewinder, R-530, R-550 Magic.
(On order. 20 IA-58 Pucara COIN, 25 AMIN Gepal Mk IV trg ac; 381 AGM-65 Maverick ASM.)
DEPLOYMENT: South West Sahara: 75,000.
Forces Abroad: Equatorial Guinea: 300. United Arab Emirates: some 500.
PARA-MILITARY: 35,000 incl Gendarmerie Royale, Force Auxiliary and Mobile Intervention Corps:
   2 Socata Rallye ac; 8 SA-315/-316 Alouette II/III, 6 Gazelle, 6 Puma hel.

OPPOSITION. Polisario: 15,000 (perhaps 4,000 'Regulars') org in bns, spt elms.
Eqpt: MBT: T-55; AFV: MICV: BMP-1, some 20-30 EE-9 Cascavel;
   Arty: how: M-1931/37 122mm; MRL: BM-21 122mm; mor: 120mm, 160mm.
   AD: guns: 23mm ZSU-23-2; SAM: SA-6, SA-7.
   (Captured Moroccan eqpt incl AML-90, Eland AFV, Ratel-20, Panhard APC, Steyr SK-105 105mm SP ATK guns.)

GDP 1984: R 3.047 bn ($8.822 bn); 1985: R 3.400 bn ($9.844 bn)
growth 1984: 11.0% 1985: 2%
Inflation 1984: -2.0% 1985: -1.1%
Debt 1984: $2.0 bn 1985: $2.0 bn
Def bdgt 1985: R 717.0 m ($2.076 bn); 1986E: R 601.0 m ($1.561 bn)
FMA see note* (* $1.8 bn military subsidy from GCC between 1984 and 1994.)
$1=R (1983/4/5): 0.3454 (1986): 0.3850

Population: 1,000,000- 1,600,000* (* Breakdown based on World Bank projections and total population of 1.3 m.)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 135,000 118,000
Women: 120,000 92,000
Regular 21,500 (excl Royal Household tps, but incl some 3,700 foreign personnel).
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: National Volunteer Reserve Force (Army): 1,000; obligation to age 35-45.
ARMY: 16,500.
2 bde HQ.
1 armd regt (2 tk sqns, 1 SP arty bty).
3 arty regts (2 lt, 1 med), 1 lt AA bty.
1 recce regt (2 armd car sqns).
8 inf 'regts' (bns).
1 sigs regt.
1 fd engr regt (2 sqns).
1 para regt.
Tks: 6 M-60A1, 33 Quayid Al Ardh (Chieftain).lt: 30 Scorpion,6 VBC-90.
AFV: MICV: (VAB): 2 VCAC with Milan, 2 VD (AD; 20mm), 2 PC. APC: 6 VAB VCI, 15 AT-105 Saxon.
Arty: guns: 105mm: 39 ROF lt; 130mm: 12 M-1946. gun/how: 18 25-pdr (88mm). how: 155mm: 12 FH-70, 12 M-109A2 SP.
   mor: 60mm; 81mm: L-16; 4.2-in. (107mm): 12 M-30; 120mm: 12.
ATGW: 10 BGM-71A TOW, Milan.
AD: guns: 4 ZU-23-2 23mm. SAM: Blowpipe.
NAVY: 2,000.
Bases: Muscat, Raysut, Ghanam (Goat) Island; Wadam Alwi (1986).
FAC(G): 4 with Exocet SSM: 3 Province (2with 2 quad, 1with 2 triple MM-40); 1 Brook Marine with 2 MM-38.
Patrol craft: 4 inshore<.
Amph: LST: 2 (1 comd); LCM: 3; LCU: 2.
Trg ship: 1.
(On order. 1 Province-class FAC(G).)
AIR FORCE: 3,000; 52 combat ac.
FGA: 2 sqns with 20 Sepecat Jaguar S(O) Mk 1, 4 T-2.
FGA/recce: 1 sqn with 12 BAe Hunter FGA-73, 4 T-7.
COIN/trg: 1 sqn with 12 BAC-167 Strikemaster Mk82.
Tpt 3 sqns: 1 with 3 BAC-111,1 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20; 2 with 7 BN-2 Defender/Islander, 15 Short Skyvan 3M, 3 C-130H Hercules.
Hel: 2 sqns: tpt (med): 20 Agusta-Bell AB-205, 4 AB-212, 2 AS-332 Super Puma, 5 AB-214B. (lt): 3 AB-206.
AD: 2 sqns with 28 Rapier SAM.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
(On order 8 Panavia Tornado ftr, 1 C-130H, 2 DHC-5D Buffalo tpts; 6 Bell 214ST hel; 300 AIM-9P Sidewinder AAM; 2 S-713 (3-D radar) systems, 28 Blindfire radars.)
1 Royal Guard bde.
1 special force regt.
Royal Yacht 1.
Royal fit: 1 Gulfstream, 1 Douglas DC-8, 1 Bae VC-10 tpts; 2 AS-202 Bravo.
Tribal Home Guard (Firqat)5,000.
Police Coastguard; 15 AT-105 APC, 11 coastal, 3 inshore patrol, 13 spt craft, 28 speedboats<.
Air Wing: 1 Gates Learjet, 2 Dornier 228-100, 2 Fairchild Merlin IVA, 2 DHC-5 Buffalo ac, 5 AB-205, 3 AB-206 hel.
Musandam Security Force (Shikuk Tribal Militia) 85.

GDP 1984: R 12.377 bn ($3.400 bn); 1985: R 11.100 bn ($3.050 bn)
growth 1984: -10.0% 1985: -7.5%
Inflation 1984: 3.5% 1985: 3.0%
Debt 1984: $650.0 m 1985: $1.1 bn
Def bdgt 1983/4e: R 604.0 bn ($165.939 bn)
$1=R (1983/4/5): 3.6399 (1986): 3.6410
R = rial

Population: 300,000 (incl foreigners; indigenous population est 80,000)
Regular. 6,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 5,000.
1 Royal Guard regt.
1 tk bn.
3 inf bns.
1 arty bty.
1 SAM bty with Rapier.
Tks: 24 AMX-30.
AFV: recce: 10 Ferret. MICV: 30 AMX-10P. APC: 25 Saracen, 136 VAB, 8 Commando Mk 3.
Arty: gun/how: 8 25-pdr (88mm). how: 6 Mk F-3 155mm SP. mor: 81mm.
AD: SAM: 18 Rapier, Blowpipe.
NAVY: 700 incl Marine Police.
Base. Doha.
FAC(G): 3 La Combattante IIIB with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
Patrol craft: 6 Vosper Thornycroft 120-ton; coastal<: 43: (2 75-ft, 4 Tracker, 2 13-ton, 7 P-1200-type, 25 Spear, 2 Interceptor (SAR), 1 other).
Coast defence: 3 Exocet MM-40.
AIR FORCE: 300; 23 combat ac; 2 armed hel.
FGA: 14 Dassault Mirage F-1 (12 -B, 2 -E), 2 BAe Hunter FGA-6, 1 T-79, 6 Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet.
Tpt: 1 BN-2 Islander, 1 Boeing 727, 2 707.
Hel: 2 SA-341 Gazelle, 20 Westland (3 Whirlwind, 4 Commando Mk 2A, 10 Mk 2B, 3 Lynx).
SAM: 5 Tigercat.
(On order 6 SA-330 Puma hel.)
PARA-MILITARY; Police: 3 Lynx, 2 Gazelle hel.

GDP 1984: R 371.25 bn ($105.355 bn) 1985: R 339.22 bn ($93.653 bn)
growth 1984: 0.9% 1985: -7.5%
Inflation 1984: -1.1% 1985: -3.4%
Debt 1984: $13.3 bn 1985: $14.7 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: R 79.90 bn ($22.674 bn) 1985/6: R 64.085 bn ($17.693 bn)
$1=R (983): 3.4548 (1984): 3.5238 (1985): 3.6221 (1986): 3.7510

Population: 8-12 million (based on 1986 World Bank projection of 11.6 million)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,450,000 1,250,000
Women: 1,100,000 772,000
Regular 67,500 (incl 10,000 National Guard).
Terms of service, voluntary; conscription, males aged 18-35, authorized.
ARMY: 40,000.
2 armd bdes.
4 mech bdes.
1 inf bdes.
1 AB bde (2 para bns, 3 special forces coys).
1 Royal Guard regt (3 bns).
5 arty bns.
18 AA arty btys.
17 SAM btys:
12 with 105 Improved HAWK (216 msls);
3 with 12 Shahine (48 msls) and AMX-30SA 30mm SP AA guns.
Tks: 300 AMX-30, 150 M-60A1 (converting to A3).
AFV: recce: 200 AML-60/-90. MICV: 350 AMX-10P, some BMR-600P. APC: 600 M-113, 30 EE-11 Urutu, 130 Panhard M-3.
Arty: how: 105mm: some 24 Model 56 pack, 100 M-101/-102; 155mm: 72 FH-70, 34 M-198 towed, 275 M-109 and GCT SP.
   mor: 81mm: 200; 4.2-in (107mm): 360 M-30.
ATK: RCL: 75mm, 90mm, 106mm. ATGW. BGM-71A TOW (incl 200 VCC-1 SP), M-47 Dragon, HOT (incl some on AMX-10P).
AD: guns: 20mm: 48 M-163 Vulcan; 30mm: AMX-30SA; 35mm: 200; 40mm: M-42 SP.
   SAM: FIM-92A Stinger, FIM-43 Redeye, Shahine, MIM-23B Improved HAWK.
(On order 100 M-60A3 MBT; 60 AMX-10P, some 140 BMR-600, EE-11 Urutu APC; 8 M-198; some 400 JPz SK-105 SP ATK guns; ASTROS II MLRS; TOW ATGW; Shahine SAM.)
NAVY: 3,500; 20 combat hel.
Bases: Western Fleet: Jiddah (HQ), Al Wajh, Yanbu.
   Eastern Fleet: Jabayl (HQ), Al Qatif, Ras Tanura, Al Dammam, Ras al Mishab.
2 Fleet HQ.
Frigates (FFG): 4 F-2000 with 8 Otomat-2 SSM, 1 Crotale SAM, 1 AS-365 hel.
Corvettes (FLG): 4 PCG-1 with 2 quad RGM-84A Harpoon SSM.
FAC(G): 9 PGG-1 with 2 twin Harpoon SSM.
FAC(T): 3 Jaguar (Lurssen).
Patrol craft large: 1 (100 tons); coastal<: 45.
MCMV: 4 MSC-322 coastal.
Amph: LST: 3; LCU: 4 US Type-1610; LCM: 8 US Type-6; LCVP: 4.
Spt: 2 Durance log spt ships, 2 Royal Yachts.
Hel: 24 AS-365N Dauphin 2 (4 SAR, 20 with AS-15TT ASM).
(On order 2 Breguet Atlantic D MR ac; 100 Harpoon, Otomat coast defence SSM; AS-15TT ASM.)
AIR FORCE: 14,000; 216 combat ac.
FGA: 3 sqns with 65 Northrop F-5E.
Interceptor: 3 sqns (1 forming) with 45 F-15C.
Recce: 1 sqn with 10 RF-5E.
OCU: 2 with 24 F-5F, 16 F-5B, 17 McDonnell Douglas TF-15D.
Tpt: 3 sqns: 40 C-130E/H Hercules,9 KC-130H, 2 VC-130H, 2 L-100-30HS (hospital ac), 35 CASA C-212, 2 C-140 Jetstar.
Hel: 2 sqns: 20 Agusta-Bell AB-206B, 20 AB-205, 25 AB-212, 15 Kawasaki-Vertol KV-107.
Trg: 39 BAC-167 Strikemaster Mk 80, 6 Panavia Tornado IDS.
AAM: Red Top, Firestreak, AIM-9J/L/P Sidewinder, AIM-7F Sparrow. ASM: Maverick.
AD: Air Defence Command; to control msl, gun and radar elms.
SAM: 2 btys Shahine (Crotale); 10 btys Improved HAWK.
(On order 42 Panavia Tornado IDS FGA, 24 Tornado ADV ftrs; 1 F-5F trainer, 10 RF-5E recce; 5 E-3A AWACS; 1 Boeing 747, 10 CASA-Nurtanio CN-235, 5 CASA C-212-200 tpts; 10 Boeing KE-3A (707-320C) (7 tankers, 3 ECM), 2 BAe Jetstream 31, 30 BAe Hawk trg, 30 Pilatus PC-9 trg; 22 AB-212 hel; 1,000 AIM-7F Sparrow, 3,000 AIM-9L/P Sidewinder AAM; 400 Maverick ASM.)
National Guard (10,000 regular, est 15,000 reserve; tribal levies):
Bde HQ:
4 all-arms, 16 regular inf, 24 irregular inf bns.
1 ceremonial cav sqn. spt units.
APC: 240 V-l 50 Commando.
Arty: how: 50 M-102 105mm. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 106mm. ATGW: TOW.
AD: guns: 30 20mm Vulcan.
(On order 489 Commando incl V-300 APC, V-150 SP 20mm AA guns, SP TOW, 90mm armed AFV.)
Foreign contract military personnel: 10,000 (2 bdes).
Ministry of Interior
Counter-terrorist unit; hel.
Frontier Force and Coastguard 8,500; 8 BH-7, 16 SR-N6 hovercraft, 130 coastal, 300 inshore patrol craft.
General Civil Defence Administration units; 10 Kawasaki hel.

GDP 1982/3e: ?S 6.600 bn ($9.400 bn); 1983/4e: ?S 8.500 bn ($7.299 bn)
growth 1983: -2.7% 1984: -6.0%
Inflation 1983: 31.0% 1984: 42.0%
Debt 1984: $9.0 bn 1985e: $12.0 bn
Def bdgt t 1984/5: ?S 275.0 m ($211.538 m) 1985/6: ?S 336.0 m ($134.400 m)
FMA 1984: $65.0 m 1985: $82.0 m
$1=?S (1982/3): 0.7021 (1983/4): 1.1164 (1984/5): 1.3000 (1985/6): 2.5000

Population: 24,100,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,405,000 1,685,000
Women: 2,321,000 1,664,000
Regular 56,750.
Terms of Service, voluntary (conscription legislated, not implemented).
ARMY: 53,000 (incl AD).
10 Regional Commands.
1 armd div HQ.
1 Republican Guard bde.
2 armd bdes.
10 inf bdes.
1 para bde.
3 arty regts.
1 engr regt.
Air Defence (3,000):
2 AA arty bdes.
1 SAM bde (3 btys) with SA-2.
Equipment.* (*Eqpt serviceability questionable.)
Tks: 120 T-54/-55, 20 M-60A3. lt: 78 Ch Type-62.
AFV: recce: 6 AML-90, 48 Saladin, 55 Ferret, BRDM-1/-2. APC: 50 BTR-50/-152, 30 OT-62/-64, 30 M-113, 48 Walid.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 30 D-44; 25-pdr (88mm): 55; 100mm: 25 M-1944; 122mm: Type-60; 130mm: 36 M-46 and Ch 59-1; 155mm: 11 Mk F-3.
   how: 105mm: 18 M-101 pack; 122mm: 64 M-1938/Type-54/D-30.
   MRL: 122mm: Al-Saqr-30. mor: 120mm: 30.
ATK: guns: 85mm: 20 D-48. ATGW: Swingfire.
AD: guns: 20mm: M-167 towed, M-163 SP; 23mm: ZU-23-2; 37mm: 100 M-1939/Type-63; 40mm: 80 1760; 85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19 towed.
   SAM: 20 SA-2, SA-7.
NAVY: 750 (*Eqpt serviceability questionable.)
Base. Port Sudan.
Patrol craft: ?11: large: 7: 4 Yug PBR, 3 70-ton; coastal: 4 10-ton; river (3 reported).
Amph: LCT: 2 Yug DTM-221.
AIR FORCE: 3,000; 35 combat ac (*Eqpt serviceability questionable.)
FGA/interceptor 1 sqn with some 8 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21.
FGA: 1 sqn with 8 Shenyang J-5 (MiG-17 type), 6 Shenyang J-6 (MiG-19 type), 10 MiG-17.
COIN: 1 sqn with 3 BAe/BAC-167 Strikemaster (forming).
MR: 2 CASA C-212.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 6 C-130H Hercules, 1 Dassault Mystere-Falcon, 3 DHC-5D Buffalo, 8 PC-6A Turbo-Porter, 6 EMB-110P2 Bandeirante.
Hel: 1 sqn with 8 IAR/SA-330 Puma, 10 MBB BO-105, 5 Bell 212.
Trg: incl 3 BAe Jet Provost Mk 55,3 MiG-15UTI, 2 MiG-21U, 2 JJ-5 (2-seat J-5), 2 JJ-6 (2-seat J-6).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
(On order some 8 Northrop F-5E, 6 J-6 ftr, 4 C-212 (1985/6), 2 C-130 tpt ac; 10 IAR-330, 6 Bell 212 hel.)
PARA-MILITARY: 3,000: National Guard 500; Border Guard 2,500.
OPPOSITION: Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPIW): est 12,500 org in bns; mainly small arms; arty reported; operating only in southern Sudan.

* Due to the internal security problems and the economic situation it is difficult to arrive at an accurate economic and defence profile.)
GDP 1982/3e: ?S 6.600 bn ($9.400 bn) 1983/4e: ?S 8.500 bn ($7.299 bn
t Official figures. Actual 1984/5 expenditure - i.e. incl eqt and internal security expenditure - est as high as $500 m; 1985/6 budget est as high as ?S 875.0m.

GDP 1983: ?S 73.049 bn ($18.611 bn); 1984: ?S 75.126 bn ($19.140 bn)
growth 1983: 3.1% 1984: 3.0%
Inflation 1983: 6.0% 1984: 9.6%
Debt* 1984: $3.5 bn 1985e: $4.0 bn (* Excl some $15-19 bn owed to USSR and eastern-bloc countries, probably half for military eqpt)
Def bdgt 1985: ?S 13.672 bn ($3.483 bn); 1986e: ?S 14.220 bn ($3.623 bn)
$1=?S (1983/4/5/6): 3.925

Population: 11,250,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,270,000 680,000
Women: 1,164,000 660,000
Regular. 392,500.
Terms of service. 30 months.
Reserves (to age 45): 272,500. Army 270,000 active, Navy 2,500.
ARMY: 320,000 (135,000 conscripts, 50,000 reservists).
HQ: 2 corps.
5 armd divs (each 3 armd, 1 mech, 1 arty bdes).
3 mech divs (each 2 armd, 2 mech, 1 arty bdes).
2 indep armd bdes.
2 indep mech bdes (may be reorg as new mech div).
2 indep inf bdes.
3 arty bdes.
1 special forces div (9 para/cdo bdes).
3 SSM bdes:
2 (each 3 bns) with FROG, Scud; 1 (2 bns) with SS-21.
9 SAM bns (27 btys) with SAM-6.
Coast Def:
1 bde with SS-C-1B Sepal, arty and msl bns.
(Reserves: 9 mech and inf bdes.)
Tks: 4,200*: 1,800 T-54/-55, 1,300 T-62 M/K, 1,100 T-72/-72M.
   (* Tanks with units and training, perhaps 2,800; remainder as static anti-tank or reserve.)
AFV: recce/ATK: 800 BRDM-2. MICV: 1,400 BMP-1. APC: 1,200 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, OT-64.
Arty: guns: 3,800: 85mm: D-44; 122mm: M-1931/-37/-38, ISU-122; 400 M-1974 SP; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: ISU-152 SP, 180mm: S-23.
   gun/how: 152mm: M-1937. how: 122mm: M-38, D-30, 36 T-34/D-30 SP; 152mm: D-1, M-1943; 200 M-1973 SP.
   MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14-16; 220mm: BM-27; 240mm: BM-24.
   SSM: 18 FROG-7, 12 SS-21, 18 Scud-B; SS-C-1B Sepal coastal. mor: 120mm, 160mm, 240mm.
ATK: guns: 100mm: T-12. ATGW 1,300 AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot and Milan.
AD: guns: 1,700: 23mm: ZU-23-2 towed, ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm: M-1939/-44; 100mm: KS-19.
   SAM: SA-6/-7/-8/-9/-13 SAM.
NAVY: 2,500.
Basesr. Latakia, Tartus, Minet el-Baida.
Subs: 2 Romeo.
Frigates: 2 Petya II.
Corvettes: 2 Nanuchka II with 2 triple SA-N-6 Siren SSM.
FAC(G): 24 with SS-N-2A/C SSM; 6 Osa -I, 12 Osa -II (4 msls); 6 Komar< (2 msls);
FAC(T): 8 P-4<.
Patrol craft: 7: 1 CH large, 6 Zhuk coastal<.
MCMV: 9: 1 Natya, 1 T-43 ocean; 2 Vanya coastal; 5 Yevgenya inshore.
Amph: LSM: 2 Polnocny.
(On order 1981: 2 Nanuchka II corvettes.)
AIR FORCE: 70,000; some 483 combat ac; some 100 armed hel.* (*Some aircraft believed to be in storage.)
FGA: 9 sqns:
   4 with 85 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17;
   1 with 18 Sukhoi Su-7;
   2 with 40 Su-20;
   2 with 50 MiG-23BM Flogger F.
Recce: perhaps 10 MiG-25R.
Interceptor: 15 sqns:
   2 with 30 MiG-25 Foxbat E;
   10 with 180 MiG-21PF/MF;
   3 with 70 MiG-23 Flogger E/G.
Tpt: 2 sqns: 3 Antonov An-24 Coke, 6 An-26 Curl, 4 Ilyushin I1-76 Candid, 4 Tupolev Tu-134 Crusty, 2 Dassault Mystere-Falcon- 20F.
Trg: incl 150 Aero (90 L-39, 60 L-29), 50 MBB-223 Flamingo.
Hel: attack: 40 Mil Mi-24 Hind, 35 SA-342 Gazelle (ATK), perhaps 25 armed Mi-8; tpt 100 Mi-8, 30 Mi-17 (mod-8), 10 Mi-2 Hoplite,
   ASW(Navy-assigned): 3 Kamov Ka-25 Hormone, 20 Mi-14 Haze.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex. ASM: AT-2 Swatter ATGW.
(On order MiG-29 ac; 12 SA-342 Gazelle hel; AAM.)
20 AD bdes (some 95 SAM btys): 11 (some 60 btys) with some 392 SA-2/-3;
9 (27 btys) with some 200 SA-6, AA arty and radar.
2 AD regts (each 2 bns of 2 btys) with some 48 SA-5.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon: 2-3 indep bdes (?a div eqivalent) plus 1 def coy bde: 12,500.
Ministry of Defence: Saraya ad-Difer (Defence Coys): 25,000: 4 armd, 3 mech bdes:
Internal Security Force incl Republican Guard Desert Guard (Frontier Force) 1,800.
Palestine Liberation Army 4,500: 3 bdes (in Syria/Lebanon, some Syrian officers, nominally under PLO);
   Eqpt: 90 T-54/-55 MBT, 105mm, 122mm, 152mm how, MRL; AT-3 Sagger ATGW; SA-7 SAM.
Ministry of Interior Gendarmerie 8,000.
Ba'ath Party: Workers Militia (People's Army).

GDP 1984: D 6.235 bn ($8.027 bn) 1985e D 6.860 bn($8.220 bn)
growth 1984: 4.5% 1985: 4.0%
Inflation 1984: 8.3% 1985: 5.0%
Debt 1984: $4.9 bn 1985: $5.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: D 347.60 m ($416.537 m) 1986: D 413.57 m ($547.775 m)
FMA 1984: $112.0 m 1985: $65.0 m
$1=D (1984): 0.7768 (1985): 0.8345 (1986): 0.7550
D = dinar

Population: 7,300,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 888,200 466,650
Women: 874,000 526,000
Regular 40,300 (27,000 conscripts) (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service. 12 months selective.
ARMY: 30,000 (25,000 conscripts).
2 mech bdes (each with 1 armd, 2 mech inf bns).
1 Sahara bde.
1 para-cdo bde.
2 armd recce regts.
3 fd, 2 AA arty regts.
1 engr regt.
Tks: 14 M-48A3, 54 M-60A3. lt: 45 AMX-13, 10 M-41, 45 Steyr SK-105 Kuerassier.
AFV: recce: 20 Saladin, 10 AML-60, EE-3 Jararaca, 18 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 96 M-113A1/-2, 24 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: gun/how: 25-pdr (88mm): 6. how: 105mm: 48 M-101A1/A2 towed, 10 M-108 SP; 155mm: 10 M-114A1, 10 M-109 SP.
   mor: 81mm: (incl M-125 SP); 82mm; 107mm: (12 M-106A2 SP).
ATK: RL: STRIM-89. ATGW: MGM-71A TOW incl 35 M-113 SP), Milan, SS-11.
AD: guns: 20mm: 26 M-163 Vulcan SP; 37mm: 10 M-1939/Type-55. SAM: RBS-70, 20 MIM-72 Chaparral.
NAVY: 3,500 (700 conscripts).
Bases: Bizerte, Sfax, La Gouliette, Kelibia.
Frigate 1 US Savage.
FAC(G): 6: 3 La Combattante IIIM with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM; 3 P-48 with 8 SS-12 SSM.
FAC: 2 Ch Shanghai II.
Patrol craft: 17: 5 large (1 Le Fougeux, 2 Adjutant ex-MCMV, 2 Vosper Thomycroft 103-ft); 12 I'Esterel 32m and 35m coastal<.
(On order 2 Lurssen 23-metre FAC)
AIR FORCE 3,500 (700 conscripts); 29 combat aircraft.
FGA: 10 Northrop F-5E, 4 F-5F.
COIN: 1 sqn with 5 Aermacchi MB-326K, 3 MB-326L
Tpt: 2 C-130H Hercules
Liaison: 4 SIAI-Marchetti S-208M ac.
Trg 17 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260,7 MB-326B, 12 North American T-6, 12 SAAB Safir.
Hel: 1 wing with 7 SA-316 Alouette III, 2 Bell UH-1H, 1 SA-330 Puma, 18 Agusta-Bell AB-205, 6 Bell 205, 6 AS-350B Ecureuil,
   1 SA-365N Dauphin.
   Gendarmerie (Public Order Brigade; part of armed forces): 3,300: 3 bns; 110 Fiat 6614 APC
   National Guard: 7,000.

GDP 1983: Dh 101.10 bn ($27.540 bn); 1984e Dh 94.50 bn ($25.742 bn)
growth 1983: -7.5% 1984: -8.0%
Inflation 1984: 2.0% 1985: 3.0%
Def bdgt 1985: Dh 7.50 bn ($2.043 bn)
1986: Dh 6.90 bn ($1.880 bn)
$1=Dh (1983/4/5/6): 3.671
Dh = dirham

Population: 1,300,000 (including foreigners)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 238,000 303,000
Women: 86,000 73,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES: * (* The Union Defence Force and the armed forces of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Shaijah) were formally merged in 1976; Abu Dhabi and Dubai still maintain a degree of independence. Non-nationals incl some 500 Moroccans.)
Regular: 43,000 (perhaps 30% foreign)
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 40,000.
3 regional commands: Western (Abu Dhabi), Central (Dubai), Northern (Ras al Khaimah).
1 Royal Guard bde.
1 armd bde.
1 mech inf bde.
2 inf bdes.
1 arty, 1 AD bde (each 3 bns).
Tks 100 AMX-30, 36 OF-40 Mk 2 (Lion). lt: 60 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 90 AML-90, VBG40. MICV: 30 AMX-10P.
   APC: 30 AMX VCL. VCR TT, 300 Panhard M-3, VAB, 66 EE-11 Urutu (some with TOW ATGW).
Arty: guns: 105mm: 50 ROF lt; 155mm: 20 Mk F-3 SP. how: 105mm: 18 M-56 pack. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 84mm. ATGW: Vigilant, TOW.
AD: guns 20mm: 60 M-3VDA SP, 30mm: 30 GCF-BM1 SAM: Rapier, Crotale, RBS-70.
(Store 70 Saladin armd, 60 Ferret scout cars; 12 Saracen APC.)
(On order 20 Scorpion lt tks; 42 Improved HAWK SAM, 343 msls.)
NAVY: 1,500.
Bases: Abu Dhabi: Dalma, Mina Zayed; Ajman; Dubai: Mina Rashid, Mina Jabal 'Ali; Fujairah; Ras al Khaimah: Mina Sakr,
   Shaijah: Mina Khalid, Khor Fakkan; Taweela (under construction).
FAC(G): 6 Lurssen TNC-45 with 2 twin Exocet MM-40 SSM.
Patrol craft 9: 6 Vosper Thornycroft large, 3 Keith Nelson coastal<.
Spt: 2 Cheverton tenders<.
AIR FORCE (incl Police Air Wing): 1,500; combat ac, 7 armed hel
Interceptor: 2 sqn 24 Dassault Mirage 5AD, 3 5RAD, 2 5DAD.
FGA: 1 sqn with 3 Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet
COIN: 1 sqn: 8 Aermacchi MB-326KD/LD.
Tpt: incl 5 Lockheed (4 C-130H Hercules, 1 M00-30), 1 Boeing 707-320B, 1 Aeritalia G-222, 4 CASA C-212, 1 BAe/HS-125, 5 BN-2 Islander,
   9 DHC-5D Buffalo, 1 Cessna 182.
Hel: incl 7 SA-316 Alouette III with AS-11, 8 Agusta Bell AB-205, 6 AB-206, 3 AB-212, 3 Bell 214, 9 SA-330 Puma, 6 AS-332F Super Puma,
   10 SA-342Gazelle.
Trg: some 14 Pilatus PC-7, 21 BAe Hawk (15 Mk 63, 6 Mk 61), 6 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260TP, 2 Aermacchi MB-339.
AAM: R-550 Magic. ASM: AS-11/-12.
(On order 36 Mirage 2000 ftrs (3 recce, 3 tig), 3 Alpha Jet FGA/trg, 1 G-222, 1 C-130H-30 tpt, 2 MB-339, some 24 Hawk (8 Mk 61,16 Mk 63) trg ac;
   30 A-129 Mangusta, 4 AS-332F Super Puma, Westland Lynx hel; Skyguard AD system with twin 35mm guns.)
PARA-MILITARY: Coastguard (Ministry of the Interior): 57 coastal patrol boats/craft.

GDP 1983c R 16.10 bn ($3.353 bn); 1984: R 17.95 bn ($3.362 bn)
growth 1983: 4.2% 1984: 5.0%
Inflation 1983: 5.3% 1984: 6.0%
Debt 1984: $1.7 bn 1985: $2.4 bn
Def bdgt 1983: R 2.879 bn ($628.781 m)
Def exp 1984: R 3.200 bn ($597.762 m)
$1=R (1983): 4.5787 (1984): 5.3533 (1985): 6.4144 (1986): 0.5150
R = rial

Population: 9,300,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 845,000 450,000
Women: 965,000 710,000
Regular 36,550 (perhaps 25,000 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription, 3 years.
Reserves: Army: perhaps 40,000.
ARMY: 35,000 (perhaps 25,000 conscripts).
5 armd bdes (bns).
1 mech, 6 inf bdes (1 reserve).
1 Special Forces bde.
1 para/cdo bde.
1 central guard force.
3 arty bdes.
3 AA arty, 2 AD bns (1 with SA-2 SAM).
Tks: 100 T-34, 450 T-54/-55, 45 T-62, 64 M-60A1.
AFV: recce: 50 Saladin, Ferret. APC: 90 M-113, 300 BTR-40/-60/-152, Al Walid.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 200 M-1942; 100mm: 30 SU-100 SP; 122mm: M-1931/37. how: 105mm: M-101 105mm; 122mm: M-38; 155mm: M-115.
   MRL: 122mm: 65 BM-21. mor: 200: 82mm, 120mm.
ATK: RL: LAW. RCL: 75mm: M-20; 82mm. ATGW: 20 Vigilant, BGM-71A TOW, 24 M47 Dragon.
AD: guns: 20mm: 52 M-167, 20 M-163 Vulcan SP, 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60. SAM: SA-2/-6/-9.
NAVY: 550.
Base. Hodeida.
Patrol craft: 6<: 3 Sov (2 Zhuk, 1 Poluchat); 3 US Bradsword (?non-operational).
MCMV: 2 Yevgenya inshore.
Amph: LCM: 4: 2 T-4, 2 Ondatra.
AIR FORCE 1,000; 95 combat ac*
Ftrs: 5sqns:
   2 with 40 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21;
   1 with 20 MiG-17F;
   1 with 11 Northrop F-5E;
   1 with 20 Sukhoi Su-22.
Tpts: 2 C-130H Hercules, 2 C47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 Short Skyvan, 3 Antonov An-24 Coke, 3 An-26 Curl
Trg: 4 F-5B, 4 MiG-15UTL
Hel: 20 Mil Mi-8, 6 Agusta-Bell AB-206, 5 AB-212, 2 SA-315 Alouette.
AD: 1 regt with 12 SA-2 SAM.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AIM-9 Sidewinder.
Ministry of National Security Force 5,000.
Tribal levies at least 20,000.
(*Some 15 ac in storage.)
GDP 1983 D 326.8m ($946.149 m); 1984 D 378.2m ($1.095 bn)
growth1983: 1.5% 1984 4.5%
Inflation 1983: 15.0% 1984: 10.0%
Debt 1983 $1.3 bn 1984 $1.5 bn
Def exp 1983: D 59.0 m ($170.816 m); 1984: D 67.0 m ($193.978 m)
$1=D (1983/4/5/6): 0.3454
D = dinar

Population: 2,300,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 225,000 130,000
Women: 236,000 161,000
Regular 27,500 (perhaps 18,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 2 years.
Reserves: Army. 45,000.
ARMY: 24,000 (perhaps 18,000 conscripts).
1 armd bde.
1 mech bde (status uncertain).
10 inf 'bdes' (regts) (some being mechanized).
1 arty bde.
10 arty bns.
2 SSM bdes with FROG-7 and Scud B.
2 SAM btys with SA-2/-3.
Equipment: *
Tks: 470 T-34/-54/-55/-62.
AFV: recce: BRDM-2; MICV: some 100 BMP-1. APC: 300 BTR-40/-60/-152.
Arty: guns: 350: 85mm: D-44; 130mm coastal M-46, SM-4-1. how: 122mm: M-38, D-30. MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14.
   SSM: 12 FROG-7, 6 Scud B. mor: 120mm, 160mm.
AD: guns 200: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60; 85mm: KS-12. SAM: 6 SA-2, 3 SA-3, SA-6/-7/-9.
NAVY: 1,000.
Bases: Aden, Perim Island, Al Mukalla.*
FAC(G): 6 Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2B SSM.
FAC(T): 2 P-6<.
Patrol craft: 2 Zhuk<.
Amph: LST 1 Ropucha, LSM: 3 Polnocny, LCM: 5 T-4.
AIR FORCE 2,500,113 combat ac, some 15 armed hel*
FGA: 4 sqns:
   2 with 40 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17F;
   1 with 12 MiG-21;
   1 with 25 Sukhoi Su-20/-21
Interceptor: 3 sqns with 36 MiG-21F.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 3 Antonov An-24, 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
Hel: 1 sqn with 15 Mil Mi-24, 30 Mi-8.
SAM: 1 regt with 48 SA-2.
Trg: 3 MiG-15UTL
AAM: AA-2 Atoll. ASM: AT-2 Sagger.
People's Militia 15,000.
Public Security Force 30,000 (increasing); 1 Tracker 2, 4 Spear, 1 Interceptor patrol craft.
(* Reports suggest that 145 tanks and up to 80% of Naval and 90% of Air eqpts were destroyed or seriously damaged as a result of the civil war. Data on resupply is inadequate. Some eqpt believed in storage; some ac believed flown by Soviet and Cuban crews.)

Sub-Saharan Africa

   Bilateral External Agreements
   The US has mutual defence and assistance agreements with Kenya (February 1980) and Somalia (August 1980) which give the US limited access to naval and air facilities and Somalia some military aid.
   The Soviet Union has Treaties of Friendship and Co-operation with Angola (October 1976), Mozambique (March 1977) and Ethiopia (November 1978, ratified April 1979). Relations with the Congo Republic are close but no such agreement is known to exist. Military aid has been given to Angola (under additional Military Co-operation Agreements, including one signed in May 1983), Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Uganda and Zambia (1980). The Soviet Navy has facilities in the Dahlak Islands, Ethiopia. Reports of a Soviet facility in Sao Tome and Principe have been received.
   China has military assistance agreements with Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Mali and Tanzania, and has provided aid to Mozambique and Zaire (under a 1982 sales credit).
   Britain maintains overflying, training and defence agreements with Kenya, helps Zimbabwe form and train her forces, and heads a Commonwealth Training Team (Australia, Britain, Canada, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Tanzania) which is helping to rebuild the Ugandan defence forces.
   France has signed defence agreements with Cameroon (February 1974), the Central African Republic (August 1960), the Comoro Islands (October 1978), Djibouti (June 1977, including permission to deploy forces), Gabon (August 1974, 1985), Ivory Coast (April 1961), Senegal (March 1974) and Togo (July 1963). Agreements with Chad have led temporarily to French military deployment and continued support. France has signed technical military assistance agreements with 23 countries, including the above.
   Belgium has a military co-operation agreement with Zaire. Spain has a military agreement with Equatorial Guinea (1981) and has provided training since 1979 and some equipment.
   Portugal signed a Protocol on Military Co-operation with Mozambique in April 1982.
   Cuba has some 27,000 men in Angola, training the Angolan armed forces and assisting with internal security, and 5,000 in Ethiopia. Cuban, Soviet and East German advisers are present in a number of other African countries.
   Some military links exist between Israel and both South Africa and Zaire, and between both Mozambique and Angola on the one hand, and East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania (1982) and Yugoslavia (1982) on the other. Hungary signed a Friendship Treaty with Ethiopia and with Mozambique in September 1980. North Korea signed a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Togo in October 1981 and supplied a 100-man training team to Zimbabwe (1981-84) and a 6-man team in 1985; reports persist of North Korean teams in Angola and seven other countries (Benin, Congo, Malagasy, Mozambique, Seychelles, Tanzania, Zambia), and a 200-man training team is in Uganda. Ethiopia signed a Treaty of Friendship with Libya and South Yemen in 1981.
   Multilateral Regional Agreements
   The Organization of African Unity (OAU), constituted in May 1963 to include all internationally-recognized independent African states except South Africa, has a Defence Commission - responsible for defence and security co-operation and the defence of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its members. In 1979 this approved in principle an African Intervention Force and ordered planning for its formation, funding and equipping, but little progress has been reported. lt did agree in 1981 on an Inter-African Force for Chad, with troops from Nigeria, Senegal and Zaire. OAU financing was inadequate
and the Force was withdrawn in June 1982.
   In 1961 the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo and Gabon formed the Defence Council of Equatorial Africa, with French help. Chad's present position in relation to the Council is unclear.
   In May 1981 the Economic Community of Western African States (ECOWAS) adopted a Protocol on Mutual Assistance on Defence Matters calling for a joint Defence Commission, comprising Defence Ministers and their Chiefs of Defence Staff, and a Defence Council of the Heads of State. lt is intended to create a joint force, using assigned units of the national armies, which could serve as an intervention or peace-keeping force. Of the then 16 ECOWAS members (Benin, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Upper Volta), 12 have signed; Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Mali declined, and Mauritania signed only after the Protocol was amended to call for the withdrawal of foreign troops once ECOWAS could guarantee mutual defence.
   Bilateral Regional Arrangements
   Kenya signed a defence agreement with Ethiopia in November 1963 and a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation in January 1979; Kenya and Somalia agreed in 1981 to control border incursions. Sierra Leone and Guinea signed a Defence Agreement in 1971 and a Mutual Defence Pact in August 1981. In December 1981 Senegal and The Gambia signed a confederation pact which united the two countries as Senegambia. There is now a confederal army with one Gambian company. Each government has its own Gendarmerie. Djibouti signed a Friendship Treaty with Ethiopia and with the Somali Republic in early 1981. Nigeria and Benin signed a military co-operation agreement in January 1983 providing for joint exercises and unspecified 'other things'. Tanzania had provided instructors for Uganda under a defence pact signed in August 1981; present status of this arrangement is unclear. Zaire trains Chadian forces. In March 1984 South Africa signed one agreement with Mozambique mutually to curb insurgency and another with Angola providing for disengagement by South African forces and mutual supervision of guerrilla activity. Angola and Zaire agreed a Treaty of Security and Defence in February 1985; each guarantees not to let its territory be used as a base for attacks on the other.
   The only country in the area with an indigenous arms industry is South Africa, which builds equipment both under licence and of its own designs.
   Military Developments
   Conflicts during the year included border incidents between Burkina Faso and Mali and the continuing internal conflicts in Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda and South Africa. The conflict between Burkina Faso and Mali could not be sustained, and there has been no report of any major change to organization or equipment of the miniscule armed forces of the two countries. The data on Burkina Faso has been revised, but the information leading to the amendments predates the conflict. Uganda has seen the overthrow of the previous (Obote) government and the collapse of that government's armed forces. The new government's National Resistance Army has taken over some of the previous inventory and may be absorbing some of the personnel who have not fled to the Sudan. Future plans and programmes for this reconstituted force are unknown but a short-term increase in strength is expected. The armed forces of Chad have received a modest amount of aid from France in the form of APCs. There has been a reorganization in Chad's para-military structure with the amalgamation of the National and the Territorial Military Police which had absorbed the former Nomad Guard component. Details on the Opposition forces remain scanty; the changes shown represent re-evaluation of data.
   Details of the fighting in Angola have supported earlier reports of equipment deliveries. More recent reports suggest that additional equipment has been sought by the Angolan Government from the USSR; deliveries cannot be confirmed. lt is still difficult to assess how much of the equipment reported is actually serviceable. In Mozambique the National Resistance Movement (MNR or Renamo) appears to retain the initiative and has inflicted major defeats on Government forces. Troops from Zimbabwe and Tanzania have been deployed in varying strengths to protect communications links vital to those two countries' economies. They have succeeded intermittently in establishing relatively secure zones in their respective sectors but the Mozambique Government seems unable always to hold them. Economic shortcomings exacerbate the military situation.
   Arms procurement throughout the area continues to be inadequately reported and difficult to verify. Deliveries seem to have slowed, but it could be that the arrival of equipment is unreported. A possible exception is Nigeria, where a number of naval vessels are reported to have been ordered. Some of these may, in fact, be intended for para-military use. For most of the countries of the region, spares would appear to be more important than major equipment items. Much of the equipment in use is not new, and a large proportion of the respective inventories is probably no longer operable.
   Economic Factors
   Except for Nigeria and South Africa, the economic performance of Sub-Saharan African countries generally continues to be disappointing. Real GDP growth rates in 1982 and 1983 hovered around 0.5%, rising only to 2% and 3% in 1984 and 1985. However, as population growth continued to outstrip economic performance, per capita real GDP growth rates were negative between 1981 and 1984, resulting in a marked fall in living standards. Figures for 1985 suggest that per capita GDP growth was around 1% -not enough to make up for the 3-4% p.a. decline over the previous four years.
   Economic growth is expected to remain below 3%in 1986 (lower than projected population growth), bringing little hope of immediate improvement. The drought that devastated agriculture receded in 1985, but its effects will be long felt. Although food production rose by some 30% in 1985 the increase was from the very low base of 1983-4, and over one third of the population is still dependent on imported grain for sustenance. Notably, out of the six countries singled out by FAO as requiring emergency relief in 1986, four - Angola, Mozambique, Sudan and Ethiopia - face internal conflicts. Many low-income countries have introduced economic adjustment policies as prescribed by international lending bodies, and some (like Ghana and Zaire) implemented austerity programmes which, though unpopular, have shown positive results. Other countries (for instance, Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana and Mauritania) have realigned their foreign exchange, while others (like Tanzania, Mauritania, Cameroon and Guinea), have reduced subsidies on food commodities, and increased prices paid to farmers for export crops. However, as the outgoing President of the World Bank has warned, 'adjustment through further economic contraction is not a feasible alternative in a continent where per capita income levels are today no higher than they were 20 years ago'.* Another major problem facing the region is the massive $ 110.5 bn debt, of which Nigeria and South Africa account for $21.5 bn and $24 bn respectively. Debt service ratios continue to deteriorate, increasing from 15.6% in 1980 to 20.2% in 1982 and 23.3% in 1984, reaching 29% in 1985 and being expected to exceed 30% in 1986. The situation for some countries is extremely serious. Ghana, for instance, budgeted 50% of its export earnings for debt servicing, while Nigeria estimated this ratio at 43%.Terms of trade for the region as a whole are expected to worsen in 1986, making the debts of many countries unserviceable.
   While West African countries might benefit from improvements in coffee prices (if they do not over-supply and so depress prices, which remains a distinct possibility), the fall in oil prices might be a mixed blessing for importing countries - on one hand, leading to a reduction in the import bills; on the other, possibly causing a further reduction in funds available for investment. Substantial external resources will be necessary if the regions' economies are to recover and prosper. The shortfall in external financing is estimated at between $4 bn and $7 bn p. a. A reversal in the trend towards restricting soft loans in favour of short-term commercial credit, and a more generous attitude by Western creditor nations (such as the cancellation of government-to-government debt) will be essential. Some signs of a change in the attitudes of Western nations began to emerge in 1986, and if sufficient funds become available and appropriate structural adjustments are undertaken, then the bleakest years might be at an end.
   * A.W. Clausen, foreword to Financing adjustment with growth in Sub-Saharan Africa 1986-90 (Washington DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1986).

Африка к югу от Сахары

   Двусторонние Внешние Соглашения
   США имеют соглашения о взаимной обороне и помощи с Кенией (февраль 1980 года) и Сомали (август 1980 года), которые дают США ограниченный доступ к военно-морским и воздушным объектам и Сомали некоторую военную помощь.
   Советский Союз заключил договоры о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Анголой (октябрь 1976 года), Мозамбиком (март 1977 года) и Эфиопией (ноябрь 1978 года, ратифицирован в апреле 1979 года). Отношения с Республикой Конго тесные, но такого соглашения, как известно, не существует. Военная помощь была оказана Анголе (в соответствии с дополнительными соглашениями о военном сотрудничестве, включая соглашение, подписанное в мае 1983 года), Гвинее, Гвинее-Бисау, Замбии, Мали, Мозамбику, Нигерии, Сомали, Уганде и Эфиопии (1980 год). Советский флот имеет объекты на островах Далак, Эфиопия. Были получены сообщения о Советском объекте в САО-Томе и Принсипи.
   Китай заключил соглашения о военной помощи с Камеруном, Экваториальной Гвинеей, Гвинеей, Мали и Танзанией и предоставил помощь Мозамбику и Заиру (в рамках кредита 1982 года).
   Великобритания поддерживает соглашения о пролете, подготовке и обороне с Кенией, помогает Зимбабве формировать и обучать свои силы и возглавляет учебную группу Содружества (Австралия, Великобритания, Канада, Гайана, Ямайка, Кения, Сьерра-Леоне и Танзания), которая помогает восстанавливать угандийские силы обороны.
   Франция подписала соглашения об обороне с Камеруном (февраль 1974 года), Центральноафриканской Республикой (август 1960 года), Коморскими островами (октябрь 1978 года), Джибути (июнь 1977 года, включая разрешение на развертывание сил), Габоном (август 1974 года, 1985 года), Кот-Д'Ивуаром (апрель 1961 года), Сенегалом (март 1974 года) и того (июль 1963 года). Соглашения с чадом временно привели к развертыванию французских вооруженных сил и оказанию дальнейшей поддержки. Франция подписала соглашения о технической военной помощи с 23 странами, включая вышеуказанные.
   Бельгия заключила с Заиром соглашение о военном сотрудничестве. Испания заключила военное соглашение с Экваториальной Гвинеей (1981 год) и с 1979 года осуществляет подготовку и предоставляет некоторое оборудование.
   Португалия подписали Протокол о военном сотрудничестве с Мозамбиком в апреле 1982 года.
   Куба имеет около 27 000 человек в Анголе, которые занимаются подготовкой ангольских вооруженных сил и содействуют обеспечению внутренней безопасности, и 5000 человек в Эфиопии. Кубинские, советские и восточногерманские советники присутствуют в ряде других африканских стран.
   Некоторые военные связи существуют между Израилем и Южной Африкой и Заиром, а также между Мозамбиком и Анголой, с одной стороны, и Восточной Германией, Болгарией, Румынией (1982 год) и Югославией (1982 год) - с другой. В сентябре 1980 года Венгрия подписала договор о дружбе с Эфиопией и Мозамбиком. В октябре 1981 года Северная Корея подписала договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Того и направила в Зимбабве (1981-1984 годы) учебную группу в составе 100 человек, а в 1985 году-группу в составе 6 человек.; продолжают поступать сообщения о том, что северокорейские группы находятся в Анголе и семи других странах (Бенин, Замбия, Конго, Мозамбик, Сейшельские острова, Танзания), а учебная группа в составе 200 человек находится в Уганде. Эфиопия заключила договор о дружбе с Ливией и Южным Йеменом в 1981 году.
   Многосторонние Региональные Соглашения
   Организация африканского единства (ОАЕ), созданная в мае 1963 года для включения в ее состав всех международно признанных независимых африканских государств, за исключением Южной Африки, имеет комиссию по вопросам обороны, отвечающую за сотрудничество в области обороны и безопасности и защиту суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости ее членов. В 1979 году она в принципе утвердила африканские силы вмешательства и распорядилась о планировании их формирования, финансирования и оснащения, однако прогресс был незначительным. в 1981 году она договорилась о создании Межафриканских сил для чада с участием войск Нигерии, Сенегала и Заира. Финансирование ОАЕ было недостаточным, а силы были выведены в июне 1982 года.
   В 1961 году Габон, Конго, Центральноафриканская Республика и Чад при содействии Франции сформировали Совет обороны Экваториальной Африки. Нынешняя позиция чада в отношении Совета неясна.
   В мае 1981 года экономическое сообщество западноафриканских государств (ЭКОВАС) приняло протокол о взаимной помощи по вопросам обороны, предусматривающий создание совместной комиссии по вопросам обороны в составе министров обороны и их начальников штабов обороны, а также Совета глав государств по вопросам обороны. она призвана создать совместные силы, используя выделенные подразделения национальных армий, которые могли бы служить в качестве сил вмешательства или поддержания мира. Из 16 тогдашних членов ЭКОВАС (Бенин, Гамбия, Гана, Гвинея, Гвинея-Бисау, Кабо-Верде, кот-Д'Ивуар, Либерия, Мавритания, Мали, Нигер, Нигерия, Сенегал, Сьерра-Леоне, Того и Верхняя Вольта) подписали 12; Кабо-Верде, Гвинея-Бисау и Мали отказались, а Мавритания подписала только после внесения поправок в протокол, призвав к выводу иностранных войск, как только ЭКОВАС сможет гарантировать взаимную оборону.
   Двусторонние Региональные Соглашения
   Кения подписала соглашение об обороне с Эфиопией в ноябре 1963 года и Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве в январе 1979 года; Кения и Сомали договорились в 1981 году о контроле за пограничными вторжениями. Сьерра-Леоне и Гвинея подписали соглашение об обороне в 1971 году и пакт о взаимной обороне в августе 1981 года. В декабре 1981 года Сенегал и Гамбия подписали пакт Конфедерации, объединивший обе страны в Сенегамбию. Сейчас есть армия Конфедерации с одной гамбийской ротой. У каждого правительства есть своя жандармерия. В начале 1981 года Джибути подписала договор о дружбе с Эфиопией и сомалийской Республикой. В январе 1983 года Нигерия и Бенин подписали соглашение о военном сотрудничестве, предусматривающее проведение совместных учений и неуказанные "другие мероприятия". Танзания предоставила Уганде инструкторов в соответствии с пактом об обороне, подписанным в августе 1981 года; нынешний статус этого соглашения неясен. Заир тренирует чадские войска. В марте 1984 года Южная Африка подписала одно соглашение с Мозамбиком о взаимном сдерживании повстанческих действий, а другое - с Анголой, предусматривающее разъединение южноафриканских сил и взаимный контроль за партизанской деятельностью. Ангола и Заир заключили договор о безопасности и обороне в феврале 1985 года; каждая гарантирует, что ее территория не будет использоваться в качестве базы для нападений на другую.
   Единственной страной в этом районе, где имеется местная оружейная промышленность, является Южная Африка, которая производит оборудование как по лицензии, так и по своим собственным проектам.
   Военные события
   Конфликты в течение года включали пограничные инциденты между Буркина-Фасо и Мали и продолжающиеся внутренние конфликты в Анголе, Мозамбике, Уганде, Чаде, Эфиопии и Южной Африке. Конфликт между Буркина-Фасо и Мали не мог продолжаться, и не поступало никаких сообщений о каких-либо серьезных изменениях в организации или оснащении миниатюрных вооруженных сил этих двух стран. Данные по Буркина-Фасо были пересмотрены, однако информация, приведшая к внесению поправок, появилась до конфликта. Уганда стала свидетелем свержения предыдущего правительства (Оботе) и развала вооруженных сил этого правительства. Национальная армия сопротивления нового правительства взяла на себя часть предыдущего инвентарного состава и, возможно, поглотит часть персонала, который не бежал в Судан. Будущие планы и программы в отношении этих восстановленных сил неизвестны, однако ожидается их краткосрочное увеличение. Вооруженные силы Чада получили от Франции скромную помощь в виде БТР. Была проведена реорганизация военно-полувоенной структуры чада с объединением национальной и территориальной военной полиции, в которую был включен бывший компонент охраны кочевников. Сведения о оппозиционных силах остаются скудными; представленные изменения представляют собой переоценку данных.
   Подробности боевых действий в Анголе подтверждали ранее поступавшие сообщения о поставках техники. Согласно более поздним сообщениям, ангольское правительство запросило у СССР дополнительное оборудование; поставки не могут быть подтверждены. по-прежнему трудно оценить, какая часть оборудования, о котором сообщается, является фактически исправной. В Мозамбике национальное движение сопротивления (МНР или РЕНАМО), как представляется, сохраняет инициативу и нанесло серьезные поражения правительственным силам. Войска Зимбабве и Танзании были развернуты с различной силой для защиты коммуникационных связей, имеющих жизненно важное значение для экономики этих двух стран. Им периодически удавалось создавать относительно безопасные зоны в своих соответствующих секторах, однако правительство Мозамбика, как представляется, не всегда может их удерживать. Экономические недостатки усугубляют военную ситуацию.
   По-прежнему поступают неадекватные сообщения о закупках оружия во всем районе, и их трудно проверить. Поставки, похоже, замедлились, но, возможно, прибытие оборудования не сообщается. Возможным исключением является Нигерия, где, как сообщается, было заказано несколько морских судов. Некоторые из них могут, по сути, предназначаться для использования в военных целях. Для большинства стран региона запасные части, как представляется, имеют более важное значение, чем основное имущество. Большая часть используемого оборудования не нова, и значительная часть соответствующих запасов, вероятно, уже не функционирует.
   Экономические факторы
   За исключением Нигерии и Южной Африки, экономические показатели стран Африки к югу от Сахары в целом продолжают вызывать разочарование. Реальные темпы роста ВВП в 1982 и 1983 годах колебались около 0,5%, увеличившись лишь до 2% и 3% в 1984 и 1985 годах. Однако, поскольку рост населения продолжал опережать экономические показатели, реальные темпы роста ВВП на душу населения в период 1981-1984 годов были отрицательными, что привело к заметному снижению уровня жизни. Цифры за 1985 год показывают, что рост ВВП на душу населения составлял около 1% - недостаточно, чтобы компенсировать 3-4% п. a. снижение за предыдущие четыре года.
   Ожидается, что в 1986 году экономический рост будет оставаться ниже 3% (ниже прогнозируемого роста населения), что не дает больших надежд на немедленное улучшение. Засуха, опустошившая сельское хозяйство, отступила в 1985 году, но ее последствия будут ощущаться еще долго. Хотя производство продовольствия выросло примерно на 30% в 1985 году, рост был с очень низкой базы 1983-1984 годов, и более трети населения по-прежнему зависит от импорта зерна для поддержания жизни. В частности, из шести стран, которые ФАО выделила в качестве нуждающихся в чрезвычайной помощи в 1986 году, четыре - Ангола, Мозамбик, Судан и Эфиопия - сталкиваются с внутренними конфликтами. Многие страны с низким уровнем дохода проводят политику экономической перестройки, предписанную международными кредитными органами, а некоторые (например, Гана и Заир) осуществляют программы жесткой экономии, которые, хотя и непопулярны, но дают положительные результаты. Другие страны (например, Гвинея, Гамбия, Гана и Мавритания) пересмотрели курс своей иностранной валюты, в то время как другие (например, Танзания, Мавритания, Камерун и Гвинея) сократили субсидии на продовольственные товары и повысили цены, выплачиваемые фермерам за экспортные культуры. Однако, как предупреждал уходящий президент Всемирного банка, "корректировка путем дальнейшего экономического спада не является реальной альтернативой на континенте, где уровень дохода на душу населения сегодня не выше, чем 20 лет назад".* Еще одной серьезной проблемой, стоящей перед регионом, является огромный долг в размере 110,5 млрд. долл.США, из которых на Нигерию и Южную Африку приходится 21,5 млрд. долл. Коэффициенты обслуживания долга продолжают ухудшаться, увеличиваясь с 15,6% в 1980 году до 20,2% в 1982 году и 23,3% в 1984 году, достигнув 29% В 1985 году и, как ожидается, превысив 30% в 1986 году. Для некоторых стран ситуация крайне серьезна. Гана, например, заложила в бюджет 50% своих экспортных поступлений на обслуживание долга, в то время как Нигерия оценила этот показатель в 43%.Ожидается, что в 1986 году условия торговли в регионе в целом ухудшатся, что сделает задолженность многих стран безнадежной.
   В то время как западноафриканские страны могли бы извлечь выгоду из повышения цен на кофе (если они не перепроизводят и тем самым не снизят цены, что по-прежнему является очевидной возможностью), падение цен на нефть может быть неоднозначным благом для стран - импортеров, с одной стороны, что приведет к сокращению импортных счетов; с другой стороны, возможно, приведет к дальнейшему сокращению средств, имеющихся для инвестиций. Для восстановления и процветания экономики регионов потребуются значительные внешние ресурсы. Дефицит внешнего финансирования оценивается в $4 млрд. и $7 млрд р. а. Необходимо обратить вспять тенденцию к ограничению льготных кредитов в пользу краткосрочных коммерческих кредитов и более щедрое отношение западных стран - кредиторов (например, списание государственного долга). Некоторые признаки изменения отношения западных стран начали проявляться в 1986 году, и если будут выделены достаточные средства и осуществлены соответствующие структурные перестройки, то самые мрачные годы могут закончиться.

GDP 1982e: K 126.0 bn ($4.186 bn)
Debt* 1984e: $2.3bn 1985e: $2.7bn
Def bdgt:* 1985: K 29.43 bn ($983,689 m) 1986: K 32.73 bn ($1,094 bn)
$1=K (1983): 30.214 (1984): 29.920 (1985): 29.918 (1986): 29.918

Population: 8,227,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 914,000 670,500
Women: 945,000 699,000
Field: 50,000 (perhaps 10,000 'Guerrilla Forces' (militia), 24,000 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription, 2 years.
Reserves: Militia: 50,000.
ARMY: 36,000 (perhaps 24,000 conscripts); (see Para-military).
10 Military Regions, (some may be fd HQ).
5 mot inf bdes (each of 1 tk, 2 inf bns, arty).
19 inf bdes (2 'Guerrilla Force').
4 AA arty bdes.
10 tk bns.
6 arty bns.
: 130 T-34, 260 T-54/-55, 90 T-62. lt: some 50 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 200 BRDM-2. APC: 255 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152.
Arty: guns/how: 460: incl 76mm, 85mm, 100mm, SU-100 SP, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm.
MRL: 122mm: 75 BM-21. mor: 82mm: 460; 120mm: 40.
ATK: RCL: 900: 75mm, 82mm, 107mm. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 300+: 14.5mm: ZPU-4; 20mm: M-55; ZU-23-2, 23mm: M-1939; 37mm; 57mm: 70 S-60 towed, 20 ZSU-23-4, 40 ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: SA-7.
NAVY: l,500.ї
Bases: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe.
FAC(G): 6 Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
FAC(T): 5 Sov Shershen (?3 serviceable).
Patrol craft: 12: 4 large Port Argos; 8 coastal<: 1 Zhuk, 2 Poluchat, 1 Jupiter, 4 Bellatrix class.
Amph: LCT: 3 Polnocny B, 1 Alfange (?un service able). LCM: 5 Sov T-4.
AIR FORCE/AIR DEFENCE: 2,000; some 136 combat ac, some 27 armed hel.ї
FGA: 4 sqns with 23 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23, 62 MiG-21MF, ?12 Sukhoi Su-22, incl 2 trg.
Interceptor: 3 sqns: 1 with 8 MiG-19, 2 with 30 MiG-21bis.
MR: 1 Fokker F-27MPA.
Tpt: 2 sqns with 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), some 12 CASA C-212, 10 Antonov An-2, 12 An-12 (most may be Sov forces spt ac), 29 An-26,
   4 PC-6 Turbo-Porter, 8 BN-2 Islander.
Hel: 2 sqns with 21 Mil Mi-25 (?A), 13 Mi-17, 50 Mi-8, 24 SA-316B Alouette III, 4 SA-365N Dauphin, 6 AS-341 Gazelle, some 6 IAR-316B.
Trg: incl 1 MiG-15UTI, 6 Yakovlev Yak-11, 19 PC-7.
AD: 5 SAM bns; 21 radar units.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
SAM: 10 btys; 12 SA-2 Guideline, 40 SA-3 Goa, 72 SA-6 Gainful, 48 SA-8 Gecko, SA-9 Gaskin.
Radar: EW : Tall King, Spoon Rest; search: Bar Lock, Flat Face, Squat Eye, height-finding: Side Net;
   msl comd: Fan Song (SA-2), Low Blow (SA-3), Straight Flush (SA-6), Land Roll (SA-8); AA arty: Flap Wheel, Fire Can, Gun Dish.
(On order (status uncertain): An-26 ac; some 30 IAR-316B attack hel.)
Forces Abroad: SДo Tome: some 1,000; 1 bde.
Militia (People's Defence Organization, ODP) 50,000; 11+ 'bdes'. Perhaps an average of 10,000 serving with the Regular Army at any one time.
Border Guard (TGFA): 7,000.
South West African People's Organization (SWAPO): 8,900, most fighting UNITA; perhaps 1,500 against Namibia.
African National Congress(ANC) perhaps 1,000.
'Popular Vigilance Brigades': unarmed civilians support police in counter-intelligence and security role.
Cuba 27,000 (plus 8,000 civilian instructors/advisers): some 13 inf regts in security and in field roles, combat ac pilots, technicians, advisers.
E. Germany 500: intelligence and security advisers.
Portugal; other.500 incl combat pilots, technicians.
USSR 950: advisers and technicians.
UNITA (Union for the Total Independence of Angola): some 26,000 'regulars' (1-2 years service), 34,000 militia (spt and log);
   Eqpt: captured T-34/85 MBT; BM-21 122mm MRL; 75mm, 76mm, 122mm fd guns; 81mm, 82mm, 120mm mor, 85mm RPG-7 RL; 75mm RCL;
   12.7mm hy machine guns; 14.5mm, 20mm and ZU-23-2 23mm AA guns; SAM-7; lt ac reported (probably inactive).
FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola): claims up to 5,000; small arms only.
FLEC (Front for the Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave): (200-300); small arms only.
(* Some $1.5 bn owed to the Soviet Union, mostly for armaments.)
(t Angola is reported to have received up to $2 bn in Soviet military materiel between 1983 and 1986.
(*Delivery data incomplete; eqpt totals uncertain.)
(% Serviceability, especially of non-Soviet eqpt, uncertain.)

GDP 1982: fr 342.90 bn ($ 1.043 bn) 1983: fr 385.30 bn ($1.011 bn)
Debt 1984: $800.0 m 1985e: $845.0 m
Def bdgt 1982: fr 7.82 bn ($23.80 m)
Def exp 1983e: fr 9.50 bn ($24.93 m)
FMA 1986: $.40 m
$1=fr (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06 (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 4,011,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 391,000 251,000
Women: 461,000 312,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular 3,510.
Terms of service: conscription (selective), 18 months.
ARMY: 3,200.
3 inf bns.
1 para/cdo bn.
1 engr bn.
1 service bn.
1 armd sqn.
1 arty bty.
Tks: lt: 10 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 7 M-8, 8 BRDM-2.
Arty: how: 105mm: 4 M-101. mor: 60mm, 81mm.
NAVY: 150.
Base. Cotonou.
Patrol boats<: 5 Zhuk.
AIR FORCE: 160; no combat ac or hel.
Ac: 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 Antonov An-26, 1 Fokker F-27 Mk 600, 1 Dassault Falcon 20, 1 Rockwell Aero Commander 500B,
   1 Aerospatiale Corvette 200 (VIP), 2 Max Holste MH-1521 Broussard tpts; 1 Reims Cessna 337 lt.
Hel: 1 SA-315B Alouette II, 2 AS-350B Ecureuil, 1 Bell 47G.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie: 2,000; 4 mobile coys.
Public Security Force.
People's Militia 1,500-2,000.

GDP 1983/4: P 1.264 bn ($1.131 m); 1984/5: P 1.536 bn ($1.078 bn)
growth 1982/3: 20.7% 1983/4: 19.1%
Inflation 1984: 8.5% 1985: 10.4%
Debt 1984: $280.0 m 1985s: $320.0 m
Def exp 1983/4e: P 24.72 m ($22.10 m); 1984/56: P 28.91 m ($20.29 m)
Def bdgt 1986/7: P 14.70 m ($7.815 m)*
FMA 1984: $60.0 m 1985e: $10.4 m
$1=P (1983/4): 1.1183 (1984/5): 1.4251; (1985/6): 1.8811 (1986): 1.8811
P = pula

Population: 1,028,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 99,700 57,600
Women: 126,000 77,600

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (both services form part of the Army):
Regular: 3,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 2,850.
2 inf bn gps (5 inf, 1 recce, 1 engr, 1 sigs, 1 log, 1 spt coys).
AFV: recce: 30 Shorland, 11 Cadillac Cage. APC: 30 BTR-60.
Arty: guns: 105mm: 6 lt. how: 105mm: 4 Model 56 pack, mor: 81mm: 10; 120mm: 10.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: 20 Carl Gustav.
AD: SAM: some 60 SA-7.
AIR FORCE: 150; 5 combat ac.
COIN: 1 sqn with 5 BN-2 Defender.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 3 Short Skyvan 3M, 2 BN-2 Islander, 1 DHC-6 Twin Otter.
Comms/trg: 1 sqn with 2 Cessna 152, 6 BAe Bulldog 120.
Hel: 2 AS-350 Ecureuil.
PARA-MILITARY: 1,000 (Police mobile unit).
* The National Development Plan 1979-85 allocated some P 72.0 m to Defence in addition to the budget.

GDP 1983: fr 429.4 bn ($1.127 bn); 1984: fr 510.0 bn ($1.167 bn)
growth 1983: 4.5% 1984: 4.1%
Inflation 1984: 4.8% 1985: 6.9%
Debt 1984: $500.0 m 1985: $560.0 m
Def bdgt 1984: fr 12.5 bn ($28.607 m); 1985: fr 15.3 bn ($34.078 m)
$1=f r (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 7,920,000*
   18-30 31-45
Men: 816,000 458,000
Women: 792,000 637,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services incl
Gendarmerie form part of the Army): Regular 4,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
People's Militia 2 years part time; men and women 20-35 (military and civic duties); 40,000 trained.
ARMY: 3,900.
6 Military Regions.
5 inf 'regts': HQ, 3 'bns' (each 1 coy of 5 platoons).
1 AB 'regt': HQ, 1 bde, 2 coys.
1 tk 'bn': 2 platoons.
1 arty 'bn': 1 tp.
1 engr 'bn', 1 sigs 'bn'.
Honour Guard.
Garrison School.
AFV: recce: 15 AML-60/-90, some 24 EE-9 Cascavel reported, 10 M-8, 4 M-20, 30 Ferret. APC: 13 M-3.
Arty: how: 105mm: M-101. MRU 107mm: Ch Type-63. mor: 60mm, 10 81mm.
ATK: RL: M-20 3.5-in (89mm). RCL: RPG-7, Ch Type-52 75mm.
AD: 30 14.5mm hy machine guns. SAM: SA-7.
AIR FORCE: 100; no combat ac or hel.
Ac: 10: 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 Nord 262 Fregate, 2 BAe/HS-748A/B, 1 Rockwell Aero Commander 500B, 1 MH-1521M Broussard,
   2 Cessna (1 F-172N, 1 F-337E Super Skymaster).
Hel: 3: 2 SA-316CAlouette HI, 1 SA-365 Dauphin.
Gendarmerie 650; 6 coys (2 mobile).
Security Company (CRG) 250.
* Est from initial results of 1985 census.

GDP 1984: fr 115,954 bn ($968.624 m); 1985: fr 132,368 bn($ 1.097 bn)
growth 1984: -1.2%; 1985: 7.0%
Inflation 1984: 14.3%; 1985e: 3.0%
Debt 1983: $290.0 m; 1984: $350.0 m
Def exp 1984: fr 3.90 bn ($32.579 m); 1985: fr 4.20 bn ($34.800 m)
$1=B fr (1982) 90.00 (1983); 92.95; (1984) 119.71; (1985) 120.69
fr = Burundi francs.

Population: 4,917,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 571,000 301,000
Women: 579,000 346,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services Gendarmerie form part of the Army):
Regular. 7,200 (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 5,500.
2 inf bns.
1 para bn.
1 cdo bn.
1 armd car coy.
AFV: recce: 6 AML-60, 12 -90, Shorland. APC: 9 M-3, 20 BTR-40 Walid.
Arty: mor: 82mm: 18.
ATK: RL: 83mm: Blindicide. RCL: 75mm: 15 Ch Type-52.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 15 quad.
NAVY: 50.
Base. Bujumbura.
Patrol boats: 3 Lambro river( (2 in reserve).
AIR: 150; 3 combat ac.
COIN: 3 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260W.
Tpt: 1 Douglas DC-3, 3 Reims Cessna 150.
Trg: 3 SF-260C.
Hel: 2 SA-341 Gazelle, 3 SA-316C Alouette III.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie (1,500).

GDP 1983/4: fr 3,089.30 bn ($7.543 bn); 1984/5: fr 3,738.00 bn ($7.934 bn)
growth 1983/4: 5.0% 1984/5: 6.9%
Inflation 1983/4: 16.0% 1984/5: 13.0%
Debt 1983: $2.5 bn 1984: $2.8 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: fr 61.800 bn ($131.174 m); 1985/6: fr 49.064 bn ($125.668 m)*
FMA 1984: $5.10 m 1985: $5.00 m
$1=fr (1983/4): 409.5675(1984/5): 471.1300; (1985/6): 390.4225
fr = francs CFA

Population: 9,784,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,016,000 735,000
Women: 1,033,000 772,500
Regular: 7,300.
Terms of service, voluntary (pre-military compulsory training programme in force).
ARMY: 6,600.
3 Military Regions; 7 Military Sectors: coy gps under command.
1 armd car bn.
1 para/cdo bn.
4 inf bns.
1 engr bn.
5 fd, 6 AA arty btys.
HQ regt, spt units.
AFV: recce: M-8, Ferret, 8 Commando (20mm gun). MICV: 12 Commando (90mm gun). APC: 29 Commando, M-3 half-track.
Arty: how: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 105mm: 16 M-101. mor: 60mm: M-1935; 81mm: 20 M-1944; 120mm: 16 AM-50.
ATK: RL: 89mm ACL-STRIM. RCL: 57mm: 13 Ch Type-52. 106mm: 40 M-40. ATGW: Milan.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 18 Type-58; 35mm: 18 twin Oerlikon; 37mm: 18 Ch Type-63; 40mm: 18 Bofors.
NAVY: 350..
Bases: Douala, Port Gentil.
FAC(G): 1 P-48S La Combattante with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
FAC: 3: 1 PR-48 (could mount SS-12 SSM), 2 Shanghai-II.
Patrol craft<: 2 coastal; 12 inshore
Amph: LCM: 2; LCVP: 5; 9 lt assault/spt craft.
AIR FORCE: 350; 15 combat ac, 2 armed hel.
1 composite sqn.
1 Presidential fit.
FGA/COIN: 8 Breguet-Dornier Alpha Jet, 4 Fouga Magister, 1 BN-2T Defender.
MR: 2 Dornier Do-128D-6.
Tpt: 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 DHC-4 Caribou, 5 DHC-5D Buffalo, 3 C-130 Hercules, 2 BAe/HS-748, 7 MH-1521 Broussard, 1 Boeing 727-200,
   1 IAI-201 Arava, 1 PC-6 Turbo Porter, 1 PC-7 Turbo Trainer.
Hel: 1 SA-330 Puma, 1 AS-332 Super Puma, 3 SA-315B/316C Alouette II/III, 4 SA-341 Gazelle (2 with HOT ATGW), 1 SA-365 Dauphin II.
(On order 1 IAI-201 Arava tpt.)
PARA-MILITARY: 4,000. Gendarmerie: 7 regional groups.
* Excl capital eqpt.

Population: 371,000
   18-30 31-45
Men 40,500 9,100
Women 46,600 17,200
Regular 1,185.
Terms of service: conscription (selective).
ARMY: 1,000 (Popular Militia).
4 inf coys.
Spt elms.
AFV: recce: 8 BRDM-2.
Arty: mor: 82mm: 16 M-1941; 120mm: 8 M-1943.
ATK: RL: 3.5-in. (89mm).
NAVY: 160.
Base: Praia.
FAC: 2 Shershen.
Patrol craft: 1 Zhuk coastal<.
Misc: 1 Kamenka survey ship/buoy tender.
AIR FORCE: 25; no combat ac.
Tpt: 2 Antonov An-26.

GDP 1983e: fr 139.0 bn ($364.772 m)
growth 1983: -2.3% 1984: 1.0%
Inflation 1983: 13.0% 1984: 12.4%
Debt 1984: $300.0 m 1985e: $355.0 m
Def exp 1982e: fr 5.0 bn ($15.216 m); 1983e: fr 6.5 bn ($17.058 m)
FMA 1983: $15.50 m
$1=f r (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr=francs CFA

Population: 2,601,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 280,000 164,000
Women: 279,000 212,000
Regular: 2,300.
Terms of service, conscription (selective), 2 years, personnel have a Reserve obligation thereafter, term unknown.
ARMY: 2,000.
1 regt HQ.
1 mech bn.
1 inf bn.
1 engr coy.
1 sigs coy ('bn').
1 tpt coy.
Tks: 4 T-55.
AFV: recce: 22 BRDM-2, 10 Ferret. APC: 4 BTR-152.
Arty: mor: 81mm; 120mm: 12 M-1943.
ATK: RCL: 14 106mm.
River patrol craft: 9<.
AIR FORCE: 300; 2 combat ac.
COIN: 2 Socata R-235 Guerrier.
Tpt: 5 Douglas (1 DC-4 (VIP), 4 DC-3/C-47), 2 Aerospatiale (1 Caravelle, 1 Corvette), 6 MH-1521 Broussard, 2 Cessna 337 Skymaster.
Hel: 1 SA-315B.4/oitt>"ё>II, 4 H-34 (Sikorsky S-58).
PARA-MILITARY: some 10,000.
Presidential Guard 500.
Gendarmerie 700; 3 Regional Legions, 8 'bdes'.
Republican Guard 700.
Security Forces.
National Young Pioneers 8,000 (boys and girls 14-18); unarmed, some elementary drill and discipline.

GDP 1982: fr 181.0 bn ($550.805 m); 1983: fr 210.0 bn ($551.094 m)
Debt 1983: $130.0 m 1984: $140.0 m
Def exp 1984e: fr 24.0 bn ($54.925 m); 1985e: fr 17.0 bn ($37.840 m)
FMA 1984: $5.0 m 1985: $5.0 m
$1=f r (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 5,100,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 544,000 416,000
Women: 552,000 432,000
Regular. 14,200 (perhaps 6,000 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription, 3 years.
ARMY: 14,200; comprises regular and rejoined rebel groups; mostly org as coys.
3 inf bns.
16 inf coys, 3 para coys.
1 recce sqn (Sahara).
2 recce tps (camel).
3 Nomad coys.
3 sigs coys.
Presidential Guard (400 men).
1 armd bn.
2 indep para coys.
2 arty btys.
1 tpt coy.
Numerous indep cdo (guerrilla) 'bns' (gps).
AFV: recce: 4 Panhard ERC-90, some 50 AML-60/-90.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 6 M-1942; 105mm: 6 M-101. mor: 81mm: M-61; 120mm: AM-50.
ATK: RL: 68mm, 89mm. RCL: 106mm: M-40; 112mm: APILAS. ATGW: Milan.
AD: guns: 20mm, 30mm.
AIR FORCE: 200; 2 combat ac.
COIN: 2 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer (armed).
Tpt: 1 Douglas DC-4, 2 C-130A Hercules, 9 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 Nord Noratlas, 1 Aerospatiale Caravelle 6R (VIP), 1 CASA C-212,
   2 PC-6B Turbo-Porter,2 MH-1521 Broussard; lt: 4 Reims Cessna 337.
Hel: 10 SA-315B/316C Alouette II/III, 4 SA-330 Puma.
PARA-MILITARY: perhaps 5,700.
National Military Police (PMN) and Territorial Military Police (PMT). 2 Security Companies 1,000: 17 sub-units; 81mm mor.
Surete (Police) 800.
Village Militias 3,900.
North: Libyan-backed, mainly Arab.
   Army of National Liberation (ANL) armed wing:
   Government d'Union Nationale du Tchad (GUNT).
   Forces Armees Populaires (FAP) ?3,000.
   Conseil Democratique de la Revolution (CDR) 200.
   Front de Liberation du Tchad (Frolinat): rump only, several factions.
   Eqpt: BMP MICV; BTR-60 APC; some EE-9 Cascaval AFV; BM-21 MRL; RPG-7 RL; B-10 RCL; 120mm, 2 CL-106mm mor,
   ZU-23-2 AA guns; SA-7 SAM; Libyan forces in spt incl tks, ac.
South: GUNT/ANL mainly African:
   Forces Armees du Tchad (FAT) ex-Chad army, Gendarmerie; largely inactive.
   Front d'Action Commune (FAC) 300.
   Mouvement Populaire pour la Liberation du Tchad (MPLT) ?300.
   Union Nationale Democratique 100. Plus 7 other groups. Mainly small arms.

* Excl French military subventions. Total French costs in Chad est at French francs 1.2 bn.

GDP 1984: fr 920.1 bn ($2.106 bn) 1985: fr 987.2 bn ($2.197 bn)
growth 1984: 3.0% 1985: 1.0%
Inflation 1984: 12.6% 1985e: 6.2%
Debt 1984: $1.8 bn 1985: $2.0 bn
Def bdgt*1984: fr 21.6 bn ($49.432 m)
Def exp* 1985: fr 25.0 bn ($55.647 m)
$1=fr (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 1,791,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 200,000 113,000
Women: 204,000 132,000
Regulan 8,700.
Terms of service, voluntary (2 years).
ARMY: 8,000.
1 armd bn (5 sqns).
2 inf bn gps (each lt tk tp, 76mm gun bty).
1 arty gp (how, MRL).
1 engr bn.
1 para/cdo bn.
: 35 T-54/-55, 15 Ch T-59. lt: 14 Ch T-62, 3 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 25 BRDM-1/-2. APC: M-3, 104 BTR (30 -50, 30 -60, 44 -152).
Arty: how: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 76mm: 8 M-1942; 100mm: 10 M-1944; 122mm: 8 M-1938. MRL: 8 BM-21. mor: 82mm; 120mm: 10 M-1943.
ATK: guns: 5 57mm. RCU 57mm.
AD: guns: 37mm: 28 M-1939.
(Some T-34 MBT in store).
NAVY: 200.f
Base: Point Noire.
FAC(P): 6: 3 Shanghai II; 3 Zhuk. (1 Shershen, 3 Pirana HS non-operational).
Patrol craft: 8 river(: 4 ANCOR (2 13-metre Type 43, 2 11.4-metre Type 38), 4 Yulin.
AIR FORCE: 500; 21 combat a c t
FGA: 1 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-15, 20 MiG-17.
Tpt: 1 Fokker F-28, 5 Antonov An-24, 5 Ilyushin I1-14, 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 Nord-2501 Noratlas, 1 Nord 262 Fregate, 2 MH-1521 Broussard.
Trg: 4 Aero L-39.
Hel: 1 SA-330 Puma, 4 SA-315B/316C Alouette II/III, 1 AS-365 Dauphin.
Gendarmerie 1,400; 20 coys.
People's Militia 4,700.

* Excl eqpt budget.
t Spares are short; much eqpt may be non-operational.

GDP 1983e: fr 65.90 bn ($370,808 m); 1984e: fr 60.23 bn ($331,955 m)
growth 1982: 1.2% 1983: 0.9%
Inflation 1983: 1.4% 1984: 1.8%
Debt 1983: $44.0 m 1984: $47.0 m
Def exp 1983: fr 4.95 bn ($27.853 m); 1984e: fr 4.90 bn ($27.006 m); 1985e: fr 5.70 bn ($32.203 m)
FMA* 1984: $2.1 m 1985: $2.5 m
$1=fr (1982): 177.72 (1983): 177.72; (1984): 181.44 (1985): 177.00
fr D = Djibouti francs

Population: 404,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 40,000 28,000
Women: 38,000 27,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services, incl Gendarmerie, form part of the Army):
Regular: 4,500 incl 1,500 Gendarmerie. (Does not incl French garrison - see France, Forces Abroad.)
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 2,870.
1 inf regt, incl mor, ATK platoons.
1 armd sqn.
1 spt bn.
1 border cdo bn.
1 para coy.
AFV: recce: some 10 BRDM-2, 4 AML-60, 16 -90. APC: 12 BTR-60. mor 81mm, 4 120mm.
ATK: RL: 89mm. RCL: 106mm.
NAVY: 40.
Base. Djibouti.
Patrol boats: 3: 2 Plascoa 23-m, 1 7ramarcoastal<.
Amph: LCA: 3<.
AIR FORCE: 90; no combat ac or armed hel.
Tpt: 1 Dassault Mystere 20 (VIP), 2 Nord 2501 Noratlas; lt: 1 Cessna 206G, 1 Socata 235GT.
Hel: 1 SA-315B Alouette II.
PARA-MILITARY: 1,500. Gendannerie: 1 bn, 1 patrol boat.

* Excl French military assistance.

GDP 1982: fr 35.0 bn ($159.294 m) 1983: fr 20.0 bn ($69.720 m)
Debt 1984e: $110.0 m 1985e: $124.0 m
Def exp 1982e: fr 1.318 bn ($5.998 m)
FMA 1986: $1.1 m
$1=f r (1982): 219.72 (1983): 286.86 (1984): 321.52 (1985): 449.26*
fr = francs CFA

Population: 419,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 41,000 32,000
Women: 42,000 34,000
Regular 2,300.
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 2,000.
1 inf bn (5 coys).
Equipment: AFV: recce: 10 BRDM-2. APC: 10 BTR-152. mor: 82mm: M-1937.
NAVY: 150.
Bases: Malabo (Santa Isabel), Bata.
Patrol craft: 2: 1 P-6, 1 Poluchat<.
(On order 1 patrol craft< (1986).)
AIR FORCE: 150; 2 combat ac.
FGA: 2 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17.
Tpt: 1 Reims Cessna 337, 3 CASA C-212, 1 Yakovlev Yak-40.
Hel: 2 SA-316C Alouette III.
PARA-MILITARY: some 2,000.
Guardia Civil: 2 coys.

* In January 1985 the bipkwele (linked to the Spanish peseta at a rate of 1 peseta = 2 bipkwele since June 1980) was replaced by the franc CFA.

GDP 1983/4: EB 10.06 bn ($4.857 bn); 1984/5: EB 9.90 bn ($4.783 bn)
growth 1983: 4%
Inflation 1983: 0.7%; 1984: 8.4%
Debt* 1984: $1.9 bn 1985e: $2.5 bn
Def bdgt t 1983/4: EB 1.044 bn ($504.348 m); EB 925.0 bn ($446.860 m)
$1=EB (1982): 2.07 (1983): 2.07; (1984): 2.07 (1985): 2.07

Population: 36,922,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 4,003,000 2,751,000
Women: 3,898,000 2,724,000
Regular 227,0004
Terms of service: conscription, 30 months, incl police, border guard.
Reserves: All citizens 18-50 do 6 months trg. Assigned to Army, Police and Border Guard.
ARMY (incl People's Militia): 220,090.
22 inf divs (incl 3 mot, 4 mountain, 3 lt) with some 25 tk bns.
4 para/cdo bdes.
45 arty bns.
28 AD bns (incl 3 bns each of SA-2, SA-3 SAM).
Equipment ^
: 1,000?: 65 M-47, 40 T-34, 850 T-54/-55, 50 T-62, T-72 reported. lt: 15 M-41.
AFV: recce: 165 BRDM-1/-2. Micv: 40 BMP-1.
APC: some 30 M-113, 600 BTR-40/-60/-152, V-150 Commando.
Arty: gun/how: some 700 incl: 75mm: M-116 pack; 105mm: 40; 122mm: 370 (incl SP); 130mm: M-46; 152mm: D-20, 12 towed; 155mm: 6 M-109 SP.
   MRL: 122mm: BM-21. mor: 60mm, 81mm, 82mm, 120mm: 100 M-38; 4.2-in. (107mm): 100 M-2/-30; 120mm.
ATK: guns: 100mm: M-1955. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 23mm: ZU-23; 37mm towed, 23mm: ZSU-23-4; 57mm: M-1950, ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: 18 SA-2, 18 SA-3, SA-7.
NAVY: 3,000.ї
Bases: Massawa, Assab.
Frigates: 2 Petya II.
FAC(G): 4 Sov Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2A SSM;
FAC(T): 2 Sov Mol.
Patrol craft: 14: 7 large (1 Yug Kraljevica, 3 US PGM, 3 Swiftships), 7 coastal< (4 Sewart, 1 Poluchat, 2 Zhuk).
Amph: LSNi: 2 Polnocny B; LCVP: 4 T-4, 2 EDIC.
Spt: 1 6,615-ton.
Trg: 1 US Barnegat.
AIR FORCE: 4,000; perhaps 145 combat ac; some 30 armed hel.
FGA: 8 sqns: 1 with 10 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17; 6 with 100 MiG-21; 1 with 35 MiG-23.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 12 Antonov An-12.
Trg: MiG-21U, 10 Aero L-39; some 10 SIAIMarchetti SF-260TP.
Hel: incl 32 Mil Mi-8 (some may be armed), 24 Mi-24, some Chetak (Alouette III).
(On order: some 10 Chetak hel.)
PARA-MILITARY: 169,000. Border Guard.
Mobile emergency police force (9,000).
Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) some 6,500 (14 'bdes'), a unified organization consisting of Eritrean Liberation Front-People's Liberation Forces
   (ELF-PLF) some 5,000, ELF Revolutionary Council and ELF Revolutionary Committee.
People's Liberation Front Revolutionary Guard (PLFRG) some 5,000;
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) some 13,000.
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) some 600; 12 gps.
Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) 5,000.
Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF).
Mainly small arms but captured eqpt incl T-54/55 tks; APC, 76mm, 85mm, 122mm, 130mm guns/how; 23mm, 37mm, 40mm AA guns.

* Excl military grants and aid from USSR and Eastern Europe (est at $2.5 bn).
t Incl internal security budget, but excl capital expenditure (est at $275 m for 1983/4).
$ Some 1,400 Soviet, 500 Cuban, 300 E. German technicians and advisers operate ac and hy eqpt. Some 4,000 (?bde) Cuban military personnel (?to be withdrawn).
ї War situation makes equipment data suspect; older US eqpt probably unserviceable.

GDP 1983: fr 1,320.0 bn ($3.464 bn); 1984: fr 1,455.6 bn ($3.331 bn)
growth 1982: 2.5%; 1983: 1.6%
Inflation 1984: 5.9%; 1985: 8%
Debt 1984: $1.0 bn; 1985:
Def bdgt* 1984: fr 29.364; 1985: fr 35.500
FMA 1984: $3.0 m; 1986: $5.3 m
$1=fr (1982): 328.61; (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96; (1985): 449.26
fr=francs CFA

Population: 1,011,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 76,000 62,000
Women: 79,000 65,000
Regular 2,700.
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 1,900.
Presidential Guard bn gp (1 recce/armd, 3 coys, arty, AA btys).
8 inf coys.
1 engr coy.
1 para/cdo coy.
1 service coy.
AFV: recce: 16 EE-9 Cascavel, 24 AML-90, 12 EE-3 Jararaca. APC: 12 EE-11 Urutu, 6 Commando, M-3, 12 VXB-170.
Arty: how: 105mm: 4 M-101. MRL: 140mm: 8. mor: 81mm, 120mm: 20. RCL: 67mm: Armbrust, 106mm.
AD: guns: 23mm: 24 ZU-23-2; 37mm: 10; 40mm: 2.
(On order 6 ERC-90 Sagaie, 4 ERC-20, 14 VBL armd cars, mor, Milan ATGW.)
NAVY: 200.
Base. Port Gentil.
FAC(G): 1 Fr 150-ton with 4 SS-12 SSM.
FAC: 3: 1 Swiftships 118-ton; 1 Esterel 88-ton, 1 80-ton.
Patrol craft 2< (1 Brazil Type V-3).
Amph: LST: 1; LCM: 3.
Tpt: 1 Batral lt.
(On order 2 P-400, 1 12-m patrol craft, 1 10-m coastal).
AIR FORCE: 600; 13 combat ac.
FGA: 9 Dassault Mirage 5GD, 1 DR, 2 RQ.
MR: 1 Embraer EMB-111P1 Bandeirante.
Tpt: 4 Lockheed Hercules (1 C-130, 1 L-100-20, 2 L-100-30), 4 Douglas (3 C-47, 1 DC-8-30), 4 EMB-110 Bandeirante,
   1 Grumman Gulfstream III (VIP), 1 Dassault Falcon, 1 Nihon YS-11A, 3 Nord 262 Fregate, 4 MH-1521 Broussard;
   lt: 2 Reims Cessna 337, 2 Fouga Magister, 4 Beech T-34C.
Hel: 4 SA-330 Puma, 3 SA-316C Alouette III.
(On order 1 AS/Aeritalia ATR-42 tpt, 4 Beech T-34C1 lt tpt ac; 2 AS-350 Ecureuil (armed), 5 SA-342 Gazelle hel (3 armed).)
Coastguard 2,800; 9 patrol craft.
Gendarmerie 2,000; 3 'bdes', 11 coys.
Republican Guard.
Rapid Intervention Force.

* Incl internal security.

GDP 1984: C 276.00 bn ($7.811 bn); 1985: C 313.20 bn ($5.794 bn)
growth 1984: 7.6% 1985: 5.3%
Inflation 1984: 40.0% 1985: 10.3%
Debt 1984: $2.0 bn; 1985: $2.2 bn
Def exp 1984: C 2.75 bn ($80.575 m); 1985: C 3.25 bn ($59.755 m)
FMA 1984: $0.30 m 1985: $0.33 m
$1=C (1982): 2.7503 (1983): 3.4495; (1984): 35.3356 (1985): 54.0541

Population: 13,216,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,503,000 861,000
Women: 1,485,000 970,000
Regular. 11,200.
Terms of service, voluntary.
ARMY: 9,000.
2 Command HQ:
2 bdes (6 inf bns and spt units).
1 recce bn.
3 border tps bns (were police/customs).
1 para bn.
1 mor bn.
1 fd engr bn.
1 sigs bn.
AFV: recce: 25 Saladin. APC: 50 MOWAG Piranha.
Arty: mor: 81mm: 50; 120mm: 28 Tampella. RCL: 84mm: 50 Carl Gustav. SAM: SA-7.
NAVY: 1,200.
Bases: Sekondi, Tema.
2 Command HQ:
Corvettes: 2 Kromantse ASW.
FAC: 4: 2 FPB-57, 2 FPB-45.
Patrol craft: 6: 2 Dela, 2 Br Ford large; 2 Spear II coastal.
AIR FORCE: 1,000; 10 combat ac.
COIN: 1 sqn with 10 Aermacchi MB-326F/KB.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 6 Short Skyvan 3M.
Comms/liaison: 1 sqn with 6 Fokker (5 F-27, 1 F-28).
Hel: 2 SA-316C Alouette III, 2 Bell 212.
Trg: 1 sqn with 11 BAe Bulldog.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (UNIFIL): 1 bn (690).
Border Guards some 2,500.
People's Militia 5,000.
Committees for the Defence of the Revolution (National Civil Defence Force).

GDP 1982e: sylis 35.50 bn ($1.598 bn); 1983e: sylis 36.30 bn ($1.551 bn)
growth 1983: 1.0%
Debt 1983: $1.5 bn 1984: $1.4 bn
Defexp* 1982: sylis 1.85 bn ($83,251 m)
FMA t 1985: $3.0 m 1986e: $2.3 m
$1=sylis (1982): 22.222 (1983): 23.40; (1984): 25.36 (1985): 24.83

Population: 5,833,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 678,000 382,000
Women: 660,000 516,000
Regular 9,900 (perhaps 7,500 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription, 2 years.
ARMY: 8,500.
1 armd bn.
5 inf bns.
1 arty bn.
1 engr bn.
1 cdo bn.
1 special force bn.
1 AD bn.
Tks: 45 T-34, 8 T-54. lt: 20 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 25 BRDM-1/-2.
APC: 40 BTR (16 -40, 10 -50, 8 -60, 6 -152).
Arty: guns/how: 76mm: 8 M-1942; 85mm: 6 D-44; 122mm: 12 M-1931/38. mor: 120mm: 20 M-1938/43.
ATK: guns: 57mm.
AD: guns: 30mm: twin M-53; 37mm: 8 M-1939; 57mm: 12 S-60; 100mm: 4 KS-19. SAM: SA-7, SA-8, 24 SA-6.
NAVY: 600.
Bases: Conakry, Kakanda.
FAC: 6 Ch Shanghai-II.
Patrol craft: 17: 1 Swiftships 65-ft, 1 T-58 ex-MCM, 3 Sov Shershen, 6 P-6; 6 coastal< incl 4 Sov (2 Poluchat, 2 MO-6), 2 Fr Stinger 26-ft inshore.
Amph: LCU: 2.
(On order 1 Swiftships 77-ft.)
AIR FORCE: 800; 6 combat ac.
FGA: 6 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17F (serviceability questionable).
Tpt: 6 Ilyushin (4 I1-14, 2 I1-18), 6 Antonov (4 An-14, 2 An-24), 1 Yakovlev Yak-40; lt: 1 Reims Cessna F-337.
Trg: 2 MiG-15UTI, 5 Yak-18, 3 Aero L-29, 2 Fairchild C-119.
Hel: 1 Bell 47G, 1 SA-330 Puma, 1 SA-341 Gazelle, 1 Hiller UH-12B.
People's Militia: 7,000.
Gendarmerie 1,000.
Republican Guard 1,600.

* The USSR, Egypt and Libya have reportedly supplied military aid; value unknown.
f US military aid.

GDP 1983e: pG 8.0 bn ($177.778 m); 1984e: pG 14.5 bn ($183.544 m)
Debt 1983: $138.2 m
Def bdgt 1982e: pG 375.0 m ($9.330 m)
$1=p G (1982): 40.20 (1983): 45.00; (1984): 79.00 (1985): 147.32
pG = Guinea pesos

Population: 869,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 87,000 60,000
Women: 99,000 79,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services, incl Gendarmerie, are part of the Army):
Regular. 8,550.
Terms of service. ?conscription (selective).
ARMY: 6,200.
1 armd bn (sqn).
5 inf bns.
1 recce sqn.
1 engr coy.
1 arty bn.
Tks: 10 T-34. lt: 20 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 10 BRDM-2. APC: 35 BTR-40/-60/-152, 20 Ch Type-56.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 8 D-44. how: 105mm: 1; 122mm: 18 M-1938/D-30. mor: 82mm: 40 M-1937; 120mm: 8 M-1943.
ATK: RL: 89mm. RCL: 75mm: Ch Type-52; 82mm: B-10.
AD: guns: 23mm: 18 ZU-23; 37mm: 6 M-1939; 57mm: 10 S-60. SAM: SA-7.
NAVY: 275.
Base. Bissau.
Patrol craft: 12: 1 Shershen large; 2 Ch Shantou, 1 Sov Poluchat, 8 other coastal<.
Amph: LCVP: 2 T-4.
(On order 4 Bazan coastal patrol craft<.)
AIR FORCE: 75; no combat ac or armed hel.
Tpt: 2 Dornier Do-27, 2 Yakovlev Yak-40; lt: 1 Reims Cessna FTB-337.
Hel: 1 SA-315B Alouette II, 2 SA-316C Alouette III, 1 Mil Mi-8.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie 2,000.

GDP 1984: fr 2,800.0 bn ($6.408 bn); 1985: fr 2,996.0 bn ($6.669 bn)
growth 1984: -4.0% 1985: 4.0
Inflation 1984: 4.3% 1985: 5.0%
Debt 1984: $7.0 bn 1985: $7.4 bn
Def bdgt 1985*: fr 32.20 bn ($71.680 bn); 1986* fr 32.42 bn ($91.693 bn)
FMA 1985: $.5 m 1986: $.7 m
$1=fr (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96; (1985): 449.26 (1986): 353.55
fr = francs CFA

Population: 9,818,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,127,000 1,000,000
Women: 1,022,000 759,000
Regular: 13,220 (incl full time para-military).
Terms of service, conscription (selective), 6 months.
Reserves: 12,000.
ARMY: 6,100.
4 Military Regions: 3 inf bns.
1 armd bn forming.
1 arty gp forming.
1 AA arty bty.
1 engr coy.
1 HQ coy.
1 spt coy.
1 para coy.
Tks: lt5AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 7 ERC-90. APC: 16 M-3.
Arty: how: 105mm: 4 M-1950. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 16 AM-50.
ATK: RL: 89mm STRIM. RCL: 106mm M-40.
AD: guns: 20mm: 14 incl 4 M-3 VDA SP; 40mm: 5.
NAVY: 690.
Base. Abidjan.
FAC(G): 2 PR-48 Patra (4 Exocet MM-40 SSM).
Patrol craft: 8: 2 Vigilant (PR-48), 4 ANCOR-26-m, 2 31-m launches.
Amph: 1 Batral LSM, 13 assault boats.
Trg ship: 1.
AIR FORCE: 930; 6 combat ac.
FGA: 1 sqn with 6 Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet.
Tpt: 1 sqn with: ac: 7 Fokker (3 F-27, 4 F-28), 6 Beech F-33C Bonanza; hel: 3 SA-330 Puma, 2 SA-316C Alouette III, 2 SA-365C Dauphin.
Liaison/VIP: 1 fit with: ac: 1 Fokker F-28 Mk 4000, 1 Fairchild Metro, 2 Gulfstream II/III; hel: 1 SA-330 Puma.
Other: ac: 2 Reims Cessna F-337, 1Cessna 421, 1 Beech King Air, hel: 2 SA-365C Dauphin.
Presidential Guard 1,100.
Gendarmerie 4,400; VAB APC, 4 patrol boats.
Militia 1,500.
Military Fire Service 800.

* Incl equipment cost.
t Incl Ministry of the Navy which has separate budget.

GDP 1984: sh 85.881 bn ($5.958 bn); 1985e: sh 100.051 bn ($6.089 bn)
growth 1984: 3.9% 1985: 4.0%
Inflation 1984: 10.0% 1985: 12.0%
Debt 1984: $2.7 bn 1985: $2.9 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5e: sh 3.50 bn ($242.819 m); 1985/6e: sh 4.20 bn ($255.599 m)
FMA 1984e: $25.0 m 1985e: $25.0 m
$1=sh (1982): 10.922 (1983) 13.312; (1984): 14.414 (1985): 16.432
sh = Kenyan shillings

Population: 19,879,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,132,000 1,224,000
Women: 2,203,000 1,317,000
Regular 13,650.
Terms of service: voluntary.
ARMY: 13,000.
1 armd bde (2 armd bns).
2 inf bdes (1 with 2, 1 with 3 inf bns).
1 engr bde.
1 armd recce bn.
2 arty bns.
2 engr bns.
1 indep air cav bn.
5 inf bns (cadre).
1 para bn.
1 AA bn.
Air wing with 15 armed hel.
Tks: 76 Vickers Mk 3.
AFV: recce: 40 AM1^60/-90, 8 Shorland. APC: 50 UR-416, 10 Panhard M-3.
Arty: guns: 40 lt; 105mm: 16 pack. mor: 81mm: 20; 120mm: 10.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: 50 Carl Gustav. 120mm: Wombat. ATGW: Milan, 8 Swingfire.
AD: guns: 20mm: 50 TCM-20.
Avn: (pre-1982 Air Force -now re-formed under Army): combat: 28 ac, 30 hel.
FGA: 11 Northrop F-5 (9 -E, 2 -F).
COIN: 17 BAe (5 BAC-167 Strikemaster, 12 Hawk T-52).
Tpt: 22: 5 DHC-4 Caribou, 6 DHC-5D Buffalo, Dornier Do-28D, 2 Piper Navajo.
Trg: 14 BAe Bulldog 103.
Hel: 44: 10 SA-330 Puma, 2 Bell 47G, 32 Hughes (15 500 Scout, 15 500MD with TOW ATGW, 2 500D trg).
Msls: Sidewinder AAM, Maverick ASM.
NAVY: 650.
Base. Mombasa.
FAC(G): 4 Brooke Marine (1 37.5-m, 3 32.6-m) with 4 Gabriel II SSM.
Patrol craft: 3 Vosper 31-m (Simba) large.
(On order 2 Province FAC(G); Gabriel SSM).
Police (General Service Unit) 1,800:
Police Air Wing, 7 Cessna lt ac, 3 Bell hel.

GDP 1983: $L 920.00 m ($US 920.0 m); $L 961.40 m ($US 961.4 m)
growth 1983: 1.0% 1984: 2.0%
Inflation 1983: 3.3% 1984: 2.0%
Debgt 1984: $US 1.4 bn 1985: $US 1.5 bn
Def bdgt 1983/4: $L 22.40 m ($US 22.40 m); 1984/5: $L 26.00 m (SUS 26.00 m)
FMA 1984: $US12.8m; 1985: $US14.0m
$US=$L (1982/3/4/5/6) 1.0

Population: 2,477,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 229,000 179,000
Women: 234,000 177,000
Regular. 6,750.
Terms of service, voluntary; militia conscription authorized, not in force.
Reserves: ?50,000 males 16-45.
ARMY: 6,300.
1 Executive Mansion Guard bn.
6 inf bns.
1 arty bn.
1 engr bn.
1 armd recce sqn.
1 service bn.
1 air recce bn (250).
APC: some MOWAG.
Arty: how: 75mm pack; 105mm: 8. mor: 60mm: 20; 81mm: 10; 4.2-in. (107mm).
ATK: RL: 3.5-in. (89mm). RCL: 57mm, 106mm.
Avn: MR: 1 Cessna 337.
   tpt: 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3). lt ac: 10 Cessna (2 172, 1 185, 1 207, 6 337).
(On order. 7 IAI-201 Arava: 3 recce, 4 tpt ac.)
NAVY (Coastguard): 450.
Bases: Monrovia, Bassa, Sinoe, Cape Palmas.
Patrol craft: 6: 3 Swed CG-27 50-ton, 3 Swift-ships (2 38-ton, 1 42-ton).
PARA-MILITARY: National Police 2,000.

GDP 1983e: fr 1,250.0 bn ($2.904 bn); 1984e: fr 1,400.0 bn ($2.428 bn)
growth 1983: 0.5% 1984: 1.5%
Inflation 1983: 19.0% 1984: 10.0%
Debt 1984e: $1.5 bn 1985e: $1.6 bn
Def bdgt 1984: fr 31.73 bn ($55.029 m); 1985: fr 36.00 bn ($54.341 m)
FMA 1985: $3.0 m
$1=fr (1982): 349.74 (1983): 430.45; (1984): 576.60 (1985): 662.48
fr = Malagasy francs

Population: 10,224,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,112,000 649,000
Women: 1,102,000 720,000
Regular 21,100.
Terms of service, national service (incl civil), 18 months.
ARMY: 20,000.
2 bn gps.
1 engr regt.
1 sigs regt.
1 service regt.
7 construction regts.
Tks: lt 12PT-76.
AFV: recce: 8 M-8, (?20) M-3A1, 10 Ferret, (?35) BRDM-2. APC: (?30) M-3A1 half-track.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 12 ZIS-3. how: 122mm: 12 D-30. mor: 81mm: 24; 120mm: 8.
ATK: RCL: 106mm.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 50 ZPU-4.
NAVY: 600 (incl 120 marines).
Base. Diego-Suarez.
Patrol craft: 1 PR-48 large.
Amph: LSM: 1 Batram with 8 SS-12 SSM. LCT: 1 EDIC. LCM: 1 N.Korean Nampo.
1 marine coy+.
AIR FORCE: 500; 12 combat ac.
FGA: 1 sqn with 4 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, 8 MiG-21FL.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 BAe/HS-748 (VIP); 4 Antonov An-26; 2 Yakovlev Yak-40; 6 Douglas DC-3 (1 C-53D, 5 C-47); 1 BN-2 Defender, An-12;
   1 Piper Aztec, 3 Cessna 337, 5 other lt ac.
Hel: 1 sqn with 1 Bell 47, 1 SA-315B Alouette II, 2 SA-316C Alouette III, 2 Mil Mi-8.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie 8,000, incl maritime police with 5 patrol craft.

GDP 1984: K 1.735 bn ($1.228 bn); 1985: K 1.799 bn ($1.053 bn)
growth 1984: 4.1%; 1985: 1.9%
Inflation 1984: 20.2%; 1985: 15.4%
Debt 1983: $720.0 m; 1984: $900 m
Def bdgt 1984: K 27.9 m ($19.740 m); 1985: K 35.5 m ($20.666 m)
FMA 1984: $2.5 m; 1985: $2.2 m
$1 = K (1982): 1.0555; (1983): 1.1748; (1984): 1.4134; (1985): 1.7081

Population: 7,012,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 696,000 492,000
Women: 732,000 538,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (ail services form part of the Army):
Regulan 5,250.
Terms of service,voluntary, 7 years.
Reserves: Army: some 500; ex-soldiers have a 5-year obligation.
ARMY: 5,000.
3 inf bns.
1 spt bn (incl 1 recce sqn).
AFV: recce: 10 Fox, 10 BRDM-2.
Arty: guns: 9 105mm. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RL: 3.5-in. (89mm). RCL: 57mm.
AD: guns: 14.5mm. SAM: 14 Blowpipe.
MARINE: 100.
Base. Chilumba.
Patrol boats: 5: 1 Fr 21-m, 1 Spear, 3 lake<.
AIR: 150; no combat ac or armed hel.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 14 Dornier (6 Do-27, 8 Do-28), 1 BN-2T Defender ac.
Hel: 1sqn with 3 AS-330 Puma, 1 SA-316C Alouette III, 1 AS-365 Dauphin, 1 AS-350 Ecureuil.
(On order 3 Dornier Do-228 lt tpt ac.)
PARA-MILITARY: 1,000; Police: 1 BN-2T Defender ac (border patrol).

GDP 1983: fr 420.0 bn ($1.102 bn); 1984: fr 480.0 bn ($1.098 bn)
growth 1982: 4.4%; 1983: 2.5%
Inflation 1984: 25.0%; 1985: 30.0%
Debt 1983: $880.0 m; 1984: $1.1 bn
Def bdgt*fr 12.50 bn ($27.824 m); 1986: fr 12.90 bn ($36.477 m)
Def exp fr 26.00 bn ($59.502m)
$1=fr (1983):381.06; (1984): 436.96; (1985): 449.26; (1986): 353.65
fr = francs CFA

Population: 8,115,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 715,000 452,000
Women: 784,000 653,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular 5,050.
Terms of service, national service (incl civil), 2 years (selective).
ARMY: 4,600.
1 tk bn.
3 inf bns.
1 arty bn.
1 engr bn.
1 para bn.
1 special force bn.
2 AA arty coys.
1 SAM bty.
Tks: 21 T-34. lt: 12 Type 62.
AFV: recce: 20 BRDM-2. APC: 30 BTR-40, 10 BTR-152, 10 BTR-60.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 6 D-44; 100mm: 6 M-1944; 122mm: 8 D-30. MRU 122mm: 2 BM-21. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 30 M-43.
AD: guns: 37mm: 6 M-1939; 57mm: 6 S-60. SAM: 6 SA-3.
NAVY: 50.
Baser. Bamako, Mopti, Segou, Timbuktu.
Patrol craft: 3 river<.
AIR FORCE (Army Air Coy): 400; 27 combat acf
FGA: 5 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, 8 MiG-19, 14 MiG-21.
Tpt: 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 7 Antonov (3 An-2, 2 An-24, 2 An-26), 1 Aerospatiale Corvette 200 (VIP).
Trg: 1 MiG-15UTI, 6 Yakovlev Yak-11/-18.
Hel: 3 Mil (2 Mi-4, 1 Mi-8).
Gendarmerie 1,200; 8 coys. Republican Guard 2,000.
Militia 3,000.
Civilian Defence Organization 1,500.

* Excl internal security and eqpt procurement.
t Eqpt serviceability questionable.

GDP 1983: OM 46.0 bn ($839.232 m); OM 54.1 bn ($847.923 m)
growth 1984: 0.4%
Inflation 1984: 7.0%; 1985: 10.5%
Debt 1984: $1.4 bn; 1985: $1.6 bn
Def bdgt 1982: OM 3.50 bn ($67.608 m); 1983: OM 2.64 bn ($48.146 m)
$1=OM (1982): 51.769; (1983): 54.812; (1984): 63.803; (1985): 77.085

Population: 1,901,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 177,000 126,000
Women: 182,000 133,000
Regular 8,470.
Terms of service, voluntary; (2 years) authorized.
ARMY: 8,000.
1 inf bn.
1 arty bn.
1 Camel Corps.
3 armd recce sqns.
1 AA bty.
1 engr coy.
1 para coy.
AFV: recce: 15 EBR-75 hy, 39 AML-60, 14 -90, 12 M-3A1. APC: 40 M-3 half-track.
Arty: mor: 81mm; 120mm: 8.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20; 106mm: M-40.
AD: guns: 14.5mm; 23mm: ZU-23-2; 37mm: 6 M-1939. SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 320.
Bases: Port Etienne, Nouadhibou.
Patrol craft: 8: 1 Fr Patra-class; 3 Sp Barcelo; 4 Fr EstereK (2 32-m, 2 18-m).

AIR FORCE: 150; 9 combat ac.
COIN: 5 BN-2 Defender, 4 Cessna 337.
MR: 4 Piper Cheyenne.
Tpt: 1 DHC-5D Buffalo, 1 Aerospatiale Caravelle,2 Short Skyvan, 2 BN-2 Islander.
Gendarmerie 2,500; 6 regional coys (Defence Ministry).
National Guard 1,400.
Border Guard 100.
Auxiliaries 1,000 (Interior Ministry).

GDP 1983: M 82.0 bn ($3.008 bn); 1984: M 122.0 bn ($2.761 bn)
growth 1983: -0.8% 1984: -10.0%
Debt 1983: $1.4 bn 1984e: $1.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: M 10.30 bn ($238.592 bn); 1986: M 11.21 bn ($276.139 bn)
FMA* 1985: $1.8 m; 1986e: $3.0 m
$1=M (1983): 27.26 (1984): 44.19; (1985): 43.17 (1986): 40.61

Population: 12,725,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,512,000 1,056,000
Women: 1,582,000 1,111,000
Regular 15,800 (some 10,500 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription (selective), 2 years (incl women).

ARMY: ?28,000 (perhaps 75% conscripts).
1 tk bde (Presidential Guard).
7 inf bdes (each 1 tk, 3 inf, 2 mot, 2 arty, 1AD bns, spt units).
2 indep mech bns.
7 AA arty bns.
Tks: 150 T-34, some 100 T-54/-55.
AFV: recce: 30 BRDM-1/-2, 16 BMP with Sagger. APC: 200+BTR-60/-152.
Arty: guns: 200: 76mm: M-1942; 85mm: D-44; 100mm: 24 M-1944; 130mm: 24 M-46/D-30.
   how: 105mm: M-101; 122mm: M-1938; 152mm: 20D-1.
   MRL: 122mm: 30 BM-21. mor: 350: 60mm, 82mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 75mm; 82mm: B-10; 107mm: B-11. ATGW: AT-3Sagger.
AD: guns: 400: 20mm; 23mm: ZU-23 (ZSU-23-4 reported); 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60 towed, ZSU-57-2 SP. SAM: SA-7, 10 SA-3.

NAVY: 800. t
Bases: Maputo, Beira, Nacala, Pemba, Metangula.
Patrol craft large: 2 SO-I; coastal: 25(: 7 Sov (6 Zhuk, 1 Poluchat), 6 Port (1 Antares, 3 Jupiter, 2 Bellatrix), 2 Neth, 10 Indian.
Amph: LCT: 1 Port Alabarda 500-ton; LCU: 2 LDM-100.

AIR FORCE: 1,000; some 69 combat act
FGA: 5 sqns with some 15 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, 3 MiG-19, 35 MiG-21.
Hel: 2 sqns with 10 Mil Mi-8, 12 Mi-24/-25.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 Tupolev Tu-134, 8 Antonov An-26 (some equipped for COIN operations).
Trg: Aero L-39, 7 Zlin Z-526, 3 MiG-15.
Border Guard 9,500: 4 bdes.
Provincial, People's Militias, Local Militias (village self-defence force).

FOREIGN TROOPS: 1,350 Cuban, 300 Soviet, 80 N.Korean military advisers; 175 E. German security advisers reported.
   Some 5,000 Zimbabwean and some 3,000 Tanzanian combat troops (varies).

OPPOSITION: National Resistance Movement of Mozambique (MNR or Renamo): 18,000 reported, perhaps 10,000 trained.
* Western military aid only.
t Eqpt serviceability questionable; perhaps only 50-60%operational. Some eqpt in store.

GDP 1983: fr 697.2 bn($ 1.830 bn) 1984e: fr 640.0 bn ($1.465 bn)
growth 1982: -4.0% 1983: -3.5%
Inflation 1984: 8.5% 1985: -1.0%
Debt 1983: $950.0 m 1984: $990.0 m
Def bdgt* 1984: fr 4.5 bn ($10.298 m); 1985e: fr 5.3 bn ($11.797 bn)
FMA 1985: $5.0 m 1986: $5.3 m
$l=fr (1982): 328.61 (1983): 381.06 (1984): 436.96 (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 6,362,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 690,000 480,000
Women: 705,000 493,000
Regular 2,270.
Terms of service, conscription (2 years), selective.

ARMY: 2,150.
3 Military Districts.
2 armd recce sqns.
6 inf coys.
1 engr coy.
1 para coy.
1 log/spt coy.
AFV: recce: 10 M-8, 18 AML-90, 18 AML-60-7. APC: 14 M-3.
Arty: mor: 60mm: M-35; 81mm: M-61; 120mm: 15 AM-50.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20.
AD: guns: 20mm: 10 M-3 VDA SP.

AIR FORCE: 120; no combat ac or armed hel.
Tpt 1 Boeing 737 (VIP), 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 C-130H Hercules, 4 Nord Noratlas, 3 Dornier Do-28D, 1 Rockwell Aero Commander 500,
   1 Reims Cessna F-337.
(On order 1 Dornier Do-228 lt tpt ac).
PARA-MILITARY: some 2,550.
Gendarmerie (?850); 5 groups.
Presidential Guard (?200).
Republican Guard (?1,500).
Four Nomad patrol groups.
* Excl Republican Guard, Police Force and Presidential Guard.

GDP 1983: N 46.773 bn ($64.654 bn); 1984: N 48.490 bn ($63.449 bn)
growth 1984: -0.6% 1985: 2.4%
Inflation 1984: 44.0% 1985e: 8.0%
Debt 1984: $20.0 bn 1985: $21.5 bn;
Def bdgt*1985: N 975.669 m ($ 1.093 bn); 1986: N 907.058 m ($ 1.034 bn)
$1=N (1983): 0.7234 (1984): 0.7642
(1985): 0.8924 (1986): 0.8770

Population: 97,251,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 10,667,000 7,034,000
Women: 10,856,000 7,302,000

Regular 94,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: none organized.

ARMY: 80,000.
1 armd div (4 armd, 1 mech bdes).
1 composite div (incl 1 AB, 1 air portable, 1 amph bdes).
2 mech divs (each 3 mech bdes).
4 arty bdes
4 engr bdes
4 recce bns
Tks: 40 T-55, 72 Vickers Mk 3. lt: 50 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 20 Saladin, 90 AML-90, 55 Fox. APC: 10 Saracen, 70 Steyr 4K-7FA.
Arty: guns: 122mm: 200 D-30/-74. how. 105mm: 200 M-56; 155mm: 25 FH-77B towed, 25 Palmaria SP. mor: 81 mm: 200.
ATK: RCL: 106mm.
AD: guns: some 90: some 60 20mm, 40mm towed; 30 ZSU-23-4 SP. SAM: Blowpipe, 16 Roland.
(On order 40 ERC-90 AFV, Swingftre ATGW; Blowpipe.)

NAVY: 5,000.
Bases: Apapa (Lagos; HQ Western Command), Calabar (HQ Eastern Command).
Frigate: 1 Meko 360H with 8 Otomat SSM, 1 octuple Aspide SAM, 1 Lynx hel.
Corvettes: 4: 2 Hippo (Vosper Thornycroft Mk 9) with 2 triple Seacat SAM; 2 Dorina (Mk 3) (?operational).
FAC(G): 6: 3 Lurssen Type-57 with 4 Otomat SSM; 3 La Combattante IIIB with 2 twin Exocet MM-38.
Patrol craft: 5 large: 4 Makurdi (Brook Marine), 1 Yan-Yan;
   4 Argungu (Abeking & Rasmussen), 2 Swiftships 20-m, 4 Damen 14.5-m, 14 Intermarine coastal<.
Amph: LST: 2 Ro-Ro 1300 (Crocodile); LCU: 2.
Trg: 1 ex-Neth yacht.
Hel: 3 Westland Lynx Mk 89 MR/SAR.
(On order 2 Lerici MCMV; 10 Swiftships 20-m, 2 Watercraft P-2000, 6 SM-5115 Simoneau 15.8-m, 2 Damen 14.5-m patrol craft, 4 FPB-512 RTK assault landing craft.)

AIR FORCE: 9,000; 53 combat ac.
FGA/interceptor. 3 sqns:
   1 with 16 Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet;
   2 with 17 Mikoyan- Guryevich MiG-21MF (to be replaced); 18 Sepecat Jaguar (14-5N, 4 -BN).
SAR: 1 sqn with: ac: 2 Fokker F-27MPA MR;
hel: 20 MBB BO-105C/D.
Tpt: 2 sqns with 9 C-130H-30 Hercules, 3 F-27, 5 Aeritalia G-222, 1 Gulfstream Aerospace Gulfstream III (VIP), 3 Dornier Do-228 (VIP),
   1 Beech Super King Air.
Spt 3 sqns with 13 Domier Do-28D, 12 Do-128-6.
Hel incl 14 SA-330 Puma.
Trg: ac 2 MiG-21U, Piaggio P-149D, 12 Aermacchi MB-339, 4 Jaguar, 25 BAe Bulldog;
hel: 15 Hughes 300.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
(On order 18 MiG-21 (12 MF, 6 U), 8 Alpha Jet FGA; 3 Do-228 lt tpt; some 4 Do-128-6 utility ac; 5 Boeing CH-47 Chinook, 12 SA-330 Puma hel.)
Coastguard 15 Abeokuta, 3 other patrol craft.
Port Security Police 12,000.
Security and Civil Defence Corps (Ministry of Internal Affairs): Police: UR- 416 APC, 4 hel, 68 small craft, 7 hovercraft (5 AV Tiger).
* Excl N 3.94 bn development plan.
GDP 1983: fr 141.9 bn ($1.504 bn); 1984c fr 153.8 bn ($1.535 bn)
growth 1983: 1.0%; 1984: 2.9%
Inflation 1984: 5.4%; 1985s 4.0%
Debt 1983 $250.0 m ($28.620 m); 1984e $330.0 m
Def exp 1983e fr 2.70 bn; 1984e fr 3.00 bn ($29.949 m)
fr = Rwanda francs (1982): 92.84; (1983): 94.34; (1984): 100.17; (1985): 101.26

Population: 5,766,000
18-30 31-45
Men: 731,000; 351,000
Women: 725,000 407,000

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular 5,150.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 5,000.
1 cdo bn.
1 recce sqn.
8 inf coys.
1 engr coy.
AFV: recce: 12 AML-60. APC 16M-3.
Arty: mor: 81mm: 8.
ATK: RL: 83mm: Blindicide. guns: 57mm: 6.

AIR: 150; 4 combat ac.
COIN: 2 BN-2 Defender, 2 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260W.
Tpt: 1 Aerospatiale Caravelle (VIP); 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
Liaison: ac 2 Socata R-235; hel: 6 SA-342L Gazelle, 2 SA-316C Alouette III.
Trg: 1 CM-110 Magister.
PARA-MILITARY: Gendarmerie 1,200.

In December 1983 a confederal defence budget was introduced. In 1985/6 it was fr CFA 3.274 bn.

GDP 1983/4: fr 977.7 bn ($2.566 bn); 1984/5: fr 1,015.0bn ($2.323 bn)
growth 1984: 4.7%; 1985: 3.8%
Inflation 1983: 11.6%; 1984: 11.8%
Debt 1983: $1.5 bn; 1984: $1.8 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: fr 28.097 bn ($64.301 m); 1985/6: fr 28.379 bn ($63.168 m)
FMA 1985: $3.0 m; 1986: $2.9 m
$1=fr (1982): 328.61; (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96; (1985): 449.26
fr = francs CFA

Population: 6,694,000
18-30 31-45
Men: 730,000; 353,000
Women: 731,000; 513,000
Regular 9,700.
Terms of service, conscription, 2 years selective.
Reserve: exists, no details known.
ARMY: 8,500 (mostly conscripts).
4 Military Zone HQ.
7 inf bns.
1 engr bn.
1 Presidential Guard (horsed).
1 recce sqn.
1 arty gp.
1 AA arty gp.
2 para coys.
3 construction coys.
AFV: recce: 10 M-8, 4 M-20, 30 AML-60, 27 -90. APC: some 40 Panhard M-3, 25 M-3 halftrack.
Arty: how: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 105mm: 6 M-101. mor: 81mm: 8; 120mm: 8.
ATK: RL: STRIM-89. ATGW: Milan.
AD: guns: 21 M-693 20mm, 40mm.
NAVY: 700.
Patrol craft 7: 1 PR-72M, 3 P-48 large; 3 Interceptor<.
Amph: LCT: 1; LCM: 2.
(On order Osprey-class fast patrol vessel, 1 EDIC-700 410-ton LCT (1986).)
AIR FORCE: 500; 2 combat ac.
MR/SAR: 1 EMB-111 maritime Bandeirante, 1 DHC-6 Twin Otter.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 Boeing 727-200, 1 Aerospatiale Caravelle (VIP); 5 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 6 Fokker F-27-400M.
Trg: incl 6 Fouga Magister, 1 Reims Cessna F-337; lt: 6 Socata R-235G.
Hel incl 1 SA-341 Gazelle, 1 SA-330 Puma, 2 SA-315B Alouette II.
PARA-MILITARY: 6,800 Gendarmerie: 12 VXB-170 APC Customs: 17 coastal patrol craft (11 armed).
GDP 1983/4: D 614.6 m ($208.778 m); 1984/5: D 625.1 m ($152.712 m)
growth 1983/4: 6.0% 1984/5: 1.7%
Inflation 1982/3: 10.2% 1983/4: 6.4%
Debt 1983: $163.0 m
Def bdgt 1985/6: D 7.8 m ($2.210 m)
Def exp 1983/4: D 3.0 m ($1.019 m)
$1=D (1982/3): 2.4759; (1983/4): 2.9438; (1984/5): 4.0933; (1985/6): 3.5289
D = dalasi

Population: 695,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 77,700 65,600
Women: 78,700 59,500
Regulan (600).
Terms of service, voluntary, some compulsory conditions authorized.

ARMY: (125).
1 inf coy (with Confederal Army).

Recce: 8 Ferret.RU4 M-20 3.5-in. (89mm).

Base. Banjul.
Patrol boats: 2 coastal<: 1 31-ton Tracker, 1 17-ton Lance.

AIR: 25.
Tpt 1 Short Skyvan 3M, 1 BN-2 Defender.

GDP 1983: SR 993.4 m ($146.788 m); 1984e: SR 1.050 bn ($148.748 m)
growth 1982: -0.5% 1983: 1.0%
Inflation 1984: 3.2% 1985: 0.9%
Debt 1983: $71.8 m
Def bdgt 1985: SR 60.0 m ($8.410 m); 1986: SR 70.6 m ($11.418 m)
$1=Le (1983): 7.7676; (1984): 7.0589; (1985): 7.1343; (1986): 6.1833
SR = Seychelles rupees

Population: 68,200
   18-30 31-45
Men: 9,200 4,800
Women: 9,100 3,800

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular 1,200.
Terms of service, conscription: 2 years.
ARMY: 1,000.
1 inf bn.
2 arty tps.
Spt coy. .
AFV: recce: 6 BRDM-2, (?8)Shorland.
Arty: guns: 122mm: 3 D-30/M-1963. MRL: 122mm: 4 BM-21. mor: 82mm: 6 M-1937. RL: RPG-7. SAM: SA-7.

MARINE: 100.
Base. Port Victoria.
Patrol craft: 4: 1 Fr Sinus, 1 lt FPB-42; 2 Zhuk, 1 coastal<.
Amph: LCT: 1.

AIR: 100; 2 combat ac.
MR ac: 1 BN-2 Defender, 1 Fairchild Merlin 111B.
Tpt 2 BN-2 Islander,2 Socata R-235.
Hel: 2 SA-316 Alouette III.

PARA-MIUTARY: People's Militia 900.

GDP 1982/3: Le 1.939 bn ($1.536 bn); 1983/4: Le 2.762 bn ($1.180 bn)
growth 1982/3: -1.8%
Inflation 1983/4: 73.0%; 1984/5: 68.0%
Debt 1983: $400.0 m
Def bdgt 1983/4: Le 24.0 m ($9.562 m); 1984/5: Le 26.8 m ($8.532 m)
$1=Le (1982/3): 1.2626; (1983/4): 2.5100; (1984/5): 3.1412
Le = Leones

Population: 4, 016,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 359,000 281,000
Women: 370,000 285,000

Regulan 3,100.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 3,000.
2 inf bns.
2arty btys.
1 engr sqn.
AFV: recce: 4 Saladin. APC 10 MOWAG Piranha.
   mor: 60mm, 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: CarlGustav.
AD: SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 100 (coastguard).
Base. Freetown.
Patrol boat: 1 Tracker H<.
State Security Division: 1 special forces bn.

GDP 1983e S sh 20.0 bn ($1.267 bn); 1984e S sh 23.0 bn ($1.149 bn)
growth 1985: 4.0%
Inflation 1984: 92.0% 1985: 37.8%
Debt 1984e $1.6 bn 1985e $2.0 bn
Def bdgt 1984: S sh 2.601 bn ($129.927 m);
Def exp 1985e: S sh 5.300 bn ($134.221 m)
FMA1984: $33.0 m; 1985: $35.0 m
$1=Ssh (1982): 10.7504; (1983): 15.7877; (1984): 20.0190; (1985): 39.4870
S sh = Somali shillings

Population: 6,728,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 532,000 383,000
Women: 535,000 392,000
Regular 42,700.
Terms of service, conscription (males 18-40), 18 months selective.

ARMY: 40,000 (730,000 conscripts).
4 'corps', 12 'div' HQ (formations in name only, all well below strength in units, men and eqpt).
2 tk 'bdes' (bns).
28 mech inf 'bdes' (bns) (?3 mech).
3 cdo 'bdes' (bns).
1 SAM bde.
30 fd, 1 AA arty bns.
Equipment: *
Tks: 31 T-34, 50 T-54/-55, 100 M-47, 30 Centurion.
AFV: recce: 32 BRDM-2, 15 AML-90.
APC 65 BTR-40/-50/-60, 100 BTR-152, 22 M-113 with TOW, 330 Fiat 6614/6616.
Arty: guns/how: about 100: 76mm: M-1942; 85mm: D-44; 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: 80 M-1938. how. 105mm; 155mm: 12 M-198.
   mor: 81mm: M-1941; 120mm: 50 M-1943.
ATK: RL: 300 STRIM-89. RCL: 106mm: M-40. ATGW: 100 Milan.
AD: guns: 23mm: ZU-23, 4 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60; 100mm: KS-19.
   SAM: 40 SA-2, 10 SA-3, SA-7.

NAVY 700*
Bases: Berbera, Mogadishu, Kismayu.
FAC(G): 3 Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
FAC(T): 4 Mol.
Patrol craft 5 Poluchat large<.
Amph: LCT: 1 Polnocny, LCM: 4 T-4.

AIR FORCE: 2,000; 63 combat ac*
FGA: 3 sqns with 9 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17, 10 BAe Hunter FGA-76, 2 T-77.
Ftr: 3 sqns with 6 MiG-21MF, 30 Shenyang J-6.
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260W.
Tpt 1 sqn with 5 BN-2 Islander, 2 Antonov An-24/-26, 4 Aeritalia G-222, 4 Piaggio P-166-PL3 recce/tpt
Hel: 1 sqn with 6 Mil (4 Mi-4,2 Mi-8), 4 Agusta-Bell AB-212 (2 VIP).
Trg: incl 2 MiG-15UTI, 4 SF-260W.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
(On order SIAIS-211 COIN, 6 CASA C-212 tpt ac, 4 Agusta-Bell hel.)

Police 8,000; 2 Do-28 ac.
Bolder Guards 1,500.
People's Militia 20,000.

Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS) perhaps 1,200.
Somali National Movement (SNM).
* Spares are short, particularly for Soviet eqpt, and much eqpt is unserviceable.

GDP 1984: R 105.413 bn ($64.893 bn) 1985: R 119.060 bn ($59.817 bn)
growth 1984: 5.0% 1985: -1.0%
Inflation 1984: 13.2% 1985: 19.0%
Debt 1984: $24.0 bn 1985: $24.0 bn
Def bdgt* 1985/6: 4.274 bn ($2.147 bn); 1986/7: 5.123 bn ($2.012 bn)
Def exp 1985/6: R 4.519 bn ($2.270 bn)
$1=R (1983/4): 1.1480 (1984/5): 1.6244; (1985/6): 1.9904 (1986): 2.5458
R = rand

Population: 29,556,000 (Black: 15,589,000; White: 4,679,000; Coloured: 2,859,000; Asian: 822,000; Homelands: 5,617,000)
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,802,000 2,920,000
Women: 3,793,000 2,766,000

Regular 106,400 (incl 64,000 National Service).
Terms of service,maximum 24 months (selective) active National Service, followed by mandatory active Reserve Service of up to
   720 days over 62-year cycles (120 days each) in Citizen Force.
Reserves: 317,000.
Active Reserves: 167,000: Army 140,000; Navy 2,000; Air 25,000.
National Reserves: 150,000: after Citizen Force service and depending upon place of residence, reservists then serve 5 years in National Reserve and may be allocated to either Active Citizen Force Reserve or Commando Force, where they serve 12 days a year up to age 55 or on transfer to the National Reserve where they may elect to serve to age 65.

ARMY: 76,400. Regulars: 18,400 (12,000 White, 5,400 Black and Coloured, 1,000 women).
   National Service: 58,000. Part-time Citizen Force and Commando.
11 territorial commands.
1 Corps HQ
1 corps arty bde (2 med, 2 loc regts).
1 armd div HQ.
1 armd bde (2 tk, 2 armd car, 1 mech inf bns).f
1 mech bde (1 tk, 1 armd car, 2 mot inf bns).f
1 mot bde (2nd to form) (3 inf, 1 armd car bns)t
3 fd arty bns, 1 lt AA arty regt (-).
1 engr regt (+), 5 fd engr sqns.
1 inf div HQ
3 mot bdes (each with 3 inf, 1 tk, 1 armd car bnsVf
2 arty bns.
1 lt AA regt (3 btys (1 cadre)).
Sigs, spt units.
4 fd, 1 med, 4+ lt AA regts, some 7 engr sqns, all at partial strength.
1 special recce regt
1 AA missile regt (3 Crotale, 3 Tigercat btys).
3 sigs regts, 3 sigs sqns.
1 para bde (3 para bns) (Quick Reaction Force).
1 task force (SW Africa).
Tks: some 250 Centurion/Olifant.
AFV: recce: 1,600 Eland (90mm gun, 60mm mor). MICV: 1,500 Ratel (20mm/60mm/90mm gun).
   APC: 1,500 incl Buffalo, Hippo, Rhino, Samil, Lynx (wheeled).
Arty: gun/how: 155mm: 40 G-5 towed how: 25-pdr (88mm): 30; 5.5-in (140mm): 75 G-2; 155mm: (?10) G-6SP.
   MRL: 127mm: 20 Valkiri SP. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 120.
ATK: RCL: 84mm, 106mm. guns: 6-pdr (57mm); 17-pdr (76mm); 90mm: M-67. ATGW: SS-11, 120 ENTAC.
AD: guns 20mm; 35mm: 55 K-63 twin; 40mm: 25 1770; 3.7-in (94mm): 15. SAM: 20 Cactus (Crotale), 54 Tigercat.
   Some captured SA-9 SAM and ZU-23-2 AA guns reported in service.
NAVY: 9,000, incl 900 marines, 4,000 conscripts.
Two Commands: Western (HQ, Cape Town); Eastern (HQ, Durban).
Bases: Simonstown, Durban.
Subs: 3 Daphne.
Frigates: 1 President (Br Type-12) ASW with 1 Wasp hel (trg).
FAC(G): 12:
   9 MOD (Minister of Defence) (Reshef/Saar-4-type) with 6 Skorpioen (Gabriel-type) SSM;
   3 Dvora-type with 2 Skorpioen.
Patrol craft: 4 Br Ford, 4 mod Ton, 1 other large; 30 Namacurra armed harbour.
MCMV: 6: 3 Br Ton minesweepers, 3 Ton minehunters.
1 fleet replenishment ship (with hel deck; 2 hel).
1 ocean (2 hel), 1 inshore hydrographie ships.
(On order 3 MOD, some 3 Dvora-typs FAQG).)
MARINES: (900; 600 conscripts).
9 local harbour defence units.
AIR FORCE: 13,000 (2,000 conscripts); 372 combat ac (incl 93 with Citizen Force), some 16 armed hel.
3 Territorial Area Commands; Trg, Tac Spt, Log
Bbrs: 2 sqns:
   1 with 5 BAe Canberra B(J)12, 3 T-4;
   1 with 6 BAe Buccaneer S-50.
FGA: 4 sqns with 32 Dassault Mirage F-1AZ, 80 Aermacchi MB-326M/K Impala VU.
FGA/interceptor/recce 2 Mirage sqns:
   1 with 12 F-1CZ, 1 AD with 19 IIICZ/EZ;
   l flt with 6 IIIRZ/R2Z
Hel: 7 sqns with 14 SA-321 Super Frelon, 50 SA-330 Puma, 80 SA-316C Alouette III.
Tpt 3 sqns:
   1 with 6 C-130B Hercules, 9 Transall C-160Z;
   1 with 5 BAe (4 HS-125 Mercurius, 1 Viscount 781);
   1 with 12 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
Liaison: 3 sqns with 15 AM-3C Bosbok, 25 Atlas C-4M Kudu, 20 Cessna 185.
Recce/Mft 2 sqns:
   1 with some 8 C-47;
   1 with 20 Piaggio P-166S-DL3MAR.
   Some C-130 have a MR role.
Attack/tog: 1 sqn with 24 Impala Vu.
: 1 sqn with G47 and P-166 Albatross.
ASW: 1 hel sqn with 10 Westland Wasp HAS-1, 6 Alouette III.
Training Command (incl OCU):
6 schools: ac 80 T-6G Harvard DAM, 39 Impala LfJ, 25 Mirage JE (some 10 EZ, some R2Z, some 12 D2Z), 12 C-47;
   hel: 30 Alouette II/III.
Reserves 93 Impala COIN ac, 15 L-100 Hercules (civil freight ac).
AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, Sidewinder, Kukri V-3 (Sidewinder-type). ASM: AS-20/30.
(On order. 4 Partenavia (3 AP-68 Spartacus (liaison/tpt), 1 P-68 Observer (patrol)) ac.)
Medical Corps: 8,000.
Conscription: 24 months (all race groups), selective, with Citizen Force (Reserve) commitment
Four Area Commands: 27 Area Force units (similar to South African Commandos).
1 engr, 1 sigs bns.
1 mounted specialized unit
7 lt inf bns.
1 paraba
Air. 1 sqn lt ac (Citizen Force).
Mobile Reserve: 1 mot inf bde (3 mot inf, 1 armd car, 1 arty bns, spt units). 1 mot, 4 lt inf bn Regulars, rest Citizen Force; 3 trg units; 1 engr, 1 sigs bns.
Para-Military.Industrial Defence units.
Commandos 130,000, inf brrtype protective units in formations of 5+; 12 months initial, 19 days annual trg.
Air Commando 20,000; 13 sqns with private ac.
South African Police 35,500 (19,500 White, 16,000 Non-white), Police Reserves 20,000.
Coastguard to form; 7 MR ac planned
South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) combat wing People's liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN): (?8,900) 90% Ovambo.
   Deployment most units in central Angola against UNITA and on rail line security, remainder (?1,500) in southern Angola.
   Possibly 7 field bns APC: BTR. ATGW: RPG-7. SAM: SA-7.
African National Congress (ANC): combat wing: Umkhonto we Sizwe. perhaps 10,000 trained; up to 3,000 based in Angola.
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC): Azanian People's liberation Army: ?inactive.
* Exd intelligence and internal security force budget
t At partial strength; divs would be brought to full strength on mobilization of Citizen Force.

GDP 1982/3: sh 65.976 bn ($6.758 bn); 1983/4: sh 75.658 bn ($5.983 bn)
growth 1983: -0.4% 1984: 2.5%
Inflation 1983: 26.0% 1984: 36.0%
Debt 1983: $1.8 bn 1984: $2.1 bn
Defexp 1983/4E sh 1.55 bn ($122.578 m)
1984/5K sh 1.85 bn ($103.497 m)
$1=sh (1981/2): 8.6468 (1982/3): 9.762; (1983/2): 12.6450 (1984/5): 17.875
sh = Tanzanian shilling

Population 21,993,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,250,000 1,613,000
Women: 2,322,000 1,678,000
Regulan 40,350 (perhaps 20,000 conscripts).
Terms of service, national service incl civil duties, 2 years.
Reserve: 10,000: armed elm of Citizens Militia.
ARMY: 38,500 (some 20,000 conscripts).
3 div HQ.
8 inf bdes.
1 tk bde.
2 fd arty bns, 2 AA arty bns (6 btys).
2 mor bns.
1 SAM bn with SA-3, SA-6.
2ATk bns.
2 sigs bns.
30 Ch Type-59. lt: 30 Ch Type-62, 36 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 20 BRDM-2. APC: 50 BTR-40/-152.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 40 ZIS-3; 122mm: 200; 130mm: 50. MRL: 122mm: 50 BM-21. mor: 350: 82mm; 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 75mm: 540 Ch Type-52.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 280 ZPU-2/-4; 23mm: 40 ZU-23; 37mm: 120 Ch Type-55. SAM: 9 SA-3, 12 SA-6, SA-7.
NAVY: 850.
Bases. Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar.
FAC: 6 Ch Shanghai-II.
Patrol craft: 14 coastal<: 1 GDR Schwalbe, 2 GDR MB-13 50-ton, 3 Ch Yulin, 4 N. Korean Nampo mod LCA; 4 Vosper Thornycroft 75-ft in Zanzibar.

AIR FORCE 1,000; 29 combat ac.
Ftr: 3 sqns with 11 Xian J-7, 18 Shenyang (15 J-6, 3 J-4).
Tpt 1 sqn with 3 BAe (1 HS-125-700, 2 HS-748), 6 DHC-5D Buffalo, 1 Antonov An-2.
Trg: 2 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-15UTL. 6 Piper Cherokee, 8 Cessna (6 310, 2 404), some Piaggjo P-149D.
Hel: 2 Bell 47G, 16 Agusta-Bell (7 AB-205, 9 AB-206).
(On order An-26, An-32 tpt ac.)
Forces Abroad: Mozambique 50 (trg team); up to 3,000 reported on border in combat patrols.
Police Field Force 1,400.
Police Marine Unit (100).
Citizen's Militia; 100,000.

GDP 1983: fr 284.20 bn ($745.814 m); 1984: fr 292.10 bn ($668.482 m)
growth 1982:-2.3%; 1983: -7.9%
Inflation 1984: -3.6% 1985: -1.8%
Debt 1984: $900.0 m 1985e $1.0 bn
Def ddgt 1985: fr 8.20 bn ($18.252 m); 1986: fr 8.50 bn ($24.035 m)
fr = francs CFA (1983): 381.06; (1984): 436.96; (1985): 449.26; 449.26 (1986): 353.65

Population: 2,961,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 281,000 195,000
Women: 340,000 231,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (ail services, incl Gendarmerie, form part of the Army):
Regulan 5,110(incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service, conscription, 2 years (selective).
ARMY: 4,000.
2 infregts:
1 with 1 mech bn, 1motbn;
1 with 2 armd sqns, 3 inf coys; spt units (trg).
1 Presidential Guard regt 2 bns(1 cdo),2 coys.
1 para cdo regt 3 coys.
1 spt regt 1fdarty bty;2AAarty btys; 1 log/tpt/engrbn.
Tks: 7 T-34,2 T-54/-55.
AFV: recce: 6 M-8, 3 M-20, 3 AML-60, 7 -90, 36 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 4 M-3A1, 30 UR-416.
Arty: guns: 105mm: 4 HM-2. mor: 81/82mm: 20.
ATK: guns: 57mm: 5 ZIS-2. RCL: 75mm: 12 Ch Type-52/-56; 85mm: 10 Ch Type-65.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: 38 ZPU-4; 37mm: 5 M-39.
NAVY: 100.
Base. Lome.
Patrol craft 2 coastal<.
AIR FORCE 260; some 11combat ac.
COIN: 6 EMB-326GC Xavante.
COIN/trg: 5 Breguet/Domier Alphq Jet.
Tpt: 1 Boeing 727, 2 DHC-5D Buffalo, 1 Fokker F-28-1000.
Trg: 3 TB-30 Epsilon, lt: 2
Hel: 1SA-330 Puma, 2 SA-315 Lama.
Gendarmerie 750; 2 regional sections, 1 mobile sqa
Presidential Guard 800.

GDP 1983: sh 541.36 bn ($4.901 bn); 1984: sh 778.50 bn ($3.355 bn)
growth 1983: 5.0% 1984: 5.8%
Inflation 19884: 38.0% 1985s 150.0%
Debt 1984: $820.0 m; 1985: $1.0 bn
Def exp* 1983/4: sh 20.40 bn ($87.905 m); 1984/5: sh 1923 bn ($37.859 m)
$1=sh 84.158; (1982/3): 110.458; (1983/4): 232.070 (1984/5): 507.905
sh = Ugandan shillings

Population: 15,224,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,540,000 1,047,000
Women: 1,578,000 1,064,000
Regular Total strength unknown; was 6,000, believed absorbing elms of other groups incl Federal Democratic Movement.
National Resistance Army (NRA): loosely org in bdes and bns,mostly equipped with small arms, some hy machine guns; absorbing former Ugandan Army (UNlA) eqpt
Terms of service, voluntary.
Equipment* incl:
Tks 10T-34/-54/-55,3 M-4.
APC: 150: BTR-40/-152, OT-64, Saracen.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 60; 122mm: 20.
ATGW: 40 AT-3Sagger.
AD: guns 40: 23mm, 37mm. SAN E SA-7.
Ac: 6 FFAAS-202 Bravo trg.
Attitudes to present government of former opposition elms - Uganda National Rescue Front (UNRF, (72,000) in North), Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM) -are undear.

* Exdinternal security services.'
t Serviceability doubtful

GDP 1983: Z 59.134 bn ($4.588 bn); 1984: Z 99.583 bn ($2756 bn)
growth 1983: 1.3% 1984: 27%
Inflation 1984: 17.7% 1985: 20.0%
Debt 1984: $5.8 bn 1985: $4.7 bn
Defexp 1983: Z 1.80 bn ($139.654 m); 1984e: Z 1.95 bn ($57.734 m)
FMA 1984: $7.7 m 1985: $15.0 m
$1=Z (1982): 5.750 (1983): 12.889; (1984): 36.129 (1985): 49.873

Population: 31,600,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,600,000; 2,429,000
Women: 3,493,000 2,566,000
Regular 50,400 (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service, voluntaiy.
ARMY: 22,000.
3 Military Regions.
1 inf div (3 inf bdes).
1 Special Forces div:
   1 para bde (3 para, 1 spt bns) (2nd to form).
   1 special force (cdo/OOlN) bde.
   1 Presidential Guard bde.
1 indep armd bde.
2 indep inf bdes (each 3 inf bns, 1 spt bn).
Tks: some 50 Ch Type-62
AFV: recce 95 AMLr60, 60 -90. APC 12 M-113,12 K-63, 60 M-3.
Arty: guns/how. 75mm: 30 pack; 85mm: 20 Type 56; 122mm: 20 M-1938/D-30; 130mm: 8 Type 59. MRL: 107mm: 20 Type 63.
   mor: 81mm; 42-in (107mm); 120mm: ?100.
   RCL: 57mm, 75mm, 106mm, 107mm.
AD: guns: 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 20mm, M-1 939 37mm, 40mm.

NAVY: 900 incl marines.
Bases: Banana, Matadi (coast), Kinshasa (river), Kalemie (lake).
FAC: 4 Ch Shanghai II
Patrol craft: 4 Huchuan hydrofoils<.

MARINES: (600).

AIR FORCE;2,500; 20 combat ac
Ftr: 1 sqn with 8 Dassault Mirage 5M/5DM.
COIN: 2 sqns with 6 Aermacchi MB-326K, 6 North American AT-6G.
Tpt: 1 wing with 6 130H Hercules; 2 DHC-3 Otter, 2 DHC-5 Buffalo, 8 C-47 (Dougbs DC-3), 2 Mitsubishi MU-2J, 1 Dassault Fakon-20.
Hel: 1 sqn with 3 SA-319B Alouette III, 9 SA-330 Puma, 1 AS-332L Super Puma, 1 SA-321 Super Frelon (VIP).
Trg: incl 21 Cessna (9 310, 12 150), 8 MB-326GB, 9 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260MC
(On order SIAI S-211 COIN/trg, 4 Fokker F-27-500 tpt ac.)

GDP 1983: K 4.181 bn ($3.343 bn); 1984: K 4.733 bn ($1638 bn)
growth 1983: -20% 1984: -1.3%
Inflation 1983: 20.0% 1984: 20.0%
Debt 1984: $28 bn 1985: $3.1 bn
$1=K (1982): 0.9282 (1983): 12506; (1984): 1.7944 (1985): 27137
K = kwacha

Population: 6,958,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 699,000 427,000
Women: 738,000 496,000
Regular 16200.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 15,000.
1 armd regt (incl 1 armd recce bn).
9 inf bns (3 Reserve).
3 arty btys, 2 AA arty btys.
1 engr bn, 2 sigs sqns.
Tks: 30 T-54/55, Ch Type-59. lt: 30 PT-76.
AFV: recce 60 BRDM-1/-2 APC 13 BTR-60.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 30; 130mm: 25. how: 105mm: 18 pack; 122mm: 25 D-30. MRL: 122mm: 50 BM-21.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: 12 M-18; 75mm: M-20; 84mm: Carl Gustav. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 20mm: 50 M-55 triple; 37mm: 40 M-1939; 57mm: 55 S-60; 85mm: 16 KS-12. SAM: SA-7.
AIR FORCE: 1200, 43 combat ac.
FGA: 2 sqns:
   1 with 12 Shenyang J-6;
   1 with 13 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21.
COIN/trg: 1 sqn with 18 Aermacchi MB-326GB.
Tpt 2 sqns:
   1 with 9 Domier Do-28;
   1 with 6 DHC-2 Beaver,5 DHC-4 Caribou, 6 DHC-5D Buffalo,
   1 VTP fit whh 2 Yakovlev Yak-40,1 BAe/HS-748.
Trg: incl 8 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260MZ, 20 SAAB Safari, 2 Ch BT-3, 10 SOKO JastrA/Gdeb.
Hel: 1 sqn with 8 Agusta-Bell (3 AB-205A, 3 AB-206, 2 AB-212), 20 Bell 47G, 11 Mil Mi-8.
SAM: 1 bn; 3 btys: SA-3 Goo.
Gendarmerie 25,000 (to be 27,000); 40 bns.
Civil Guard 25,000.
Police Mobile Unit (PMU) 700; 1 bn of 4 coys.
Police Para-Military Unit (PPMU) 500; 1 bn of 3 coys.
GDP 1983/4e $Z 7.590 bn($US 6.929 bn); 1984/5e $Z 8.008 bn($US 5.456 bn)
growth 1984: 1.0% 1985: 6.0%
Inflation 1984: 25.0% 1985: 10.0%
Debt 1984: $US29 bn 1985: $US3.0 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: $Z 367.00 m ($US 250.065 m); 1985/6: $Z 457.80 m ($US 281.330 m)
$1=$Z (1982/3): (1984/5): 0.8666 (1983/4): 1.0954; (1984/5): 1.4676 (1985/6): 1.6273

Population: 8,733,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 884,000 480,000
Women: 891,000 534,000
Regular 42,000.
Terms of service, conscription; term unknown.

ARMY: 41,000.
7 bde HQ (incl 1 Presidential Guard).
1 armdregt
23 inf bns (incl 3 Guard, 1 mech, 1 odo, 2 para).
1 arty regt.
1 AD regt (2 btys).
7 engr, 7 sigs sqns.
Tks: 8 T-54, 35 Ch T-59.
AFV: recce 90 EB-9 Cascavel(90mm gun), 28 AML-90 Eland, 4 Ferret, BRDM-2
APC 15 BTR-152, 10 Ch Type-63.
Arty: gun/how: 76mm: M-1942; 25-pdr (88mm): 24; 105mm: 18 M-56 pack; 122mm: 16 Ch Type-60. mor: 81mm: 100; 82mm; 120mm: 4.
ATK: Rd; 107mm: 12
AD: guns 14.5mm; 20mm: M-55; 23mm: ZU-23; 37mm: M-1939. SAM: SA-7.

AIR FORCE 1,000; some 49 combat ac; perhaps 25 operational (est numbers in parentheses).
Bbrs: 1 sqn with 5 BAe Canberra B-2 2 T-4 (0).
FGA: 2sqns:
   1 with 13 BAe Hunter FGA-9 (10);
   1 with 12 Xian J-7 (forming).
Ftr: 1 sqn with 7 BAe Hawk T-54 (3).
COIN/recce: 1 sqn with 10 Cessna 337 (O-2) Lynx (3).
Trg/recce/liaison: 2 sqns with 12 SIAJ- Marchetti SF-260W/C/B Genet, 5 SF-260TP (?10 in all).
Tpt: 1 sqn with 6 CASA C-212-200 (VTP) (2), 12 C-47 (Douglas DC-3) (6), 6 BN-2 Islander (6).
Hel: 2 sqns with 10 SA-315B/316 Alowette II/III, 6 Bell/AB 205A (4 all types), 10 Agusta-BeD AB-412 (VIP)(4).
Security: 2 sqns.
(On order 6 SF260 COIN/trg ac.)
Forces Abroad: Mozambique: some 5,000 (varies).
Zimbabwe Republic Police Force, incl Air Wing, 15,000.
Police Support Unit 3,000.
National Militia 20,000. <

Asia and Australia


   Chinese defence policy long maintained a balance, at times uneasy, between two concepts: nuclear force to deter strategic attack, and People's War, involving large scale mobilization, to deter or repel conventional invasion.
   Though some conservatives remain, most of today's leadership has recognized that countering a Soviet limited thrust is probably the most difficult problem facing the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The need to modernize has been recognized. Re-equipment and reorganization programmes are being implemented. Older officers are being retired and a greater degree of professionalism is being encouraged.
   The conventional arms inventory of the PLA, technically much less advanced than that of wealthier nations, is being gradually updated by replacing Soviet and Soviet-type equipment with indigenous designs, often incorporating some Western technology, or by renovating older equipment. China has also purchased computers and radars from western countries and is negotiating the purchase of a wide range of military equipment. Brazil has licenced China to produce APCs. Britain has sold aircraft engines, artillery and fire control equipment and radar. France has sold helicopters, ASW systems and radar. The United States has agreed to sell helicopters, naval engines, artillery ammunition components and blueprints and designs for an artillery ammunition plant. Purchases are often small, representing little more than 'samples'. China appears to wish to examine not only the operational characteristics of the Western systems but also the technologies involved in their manufacture. Given the magnitude of the task of modernization, and the competing demands for foreign exchange, large-scale procurement of foreign equipment appears unlikely. The PLA does need knowledge of the latest foreign military technology. Should China decide to initiate domestic production of modern weapon systems, details of materials technology must also be acquired. Small samples can do much to provide this but complex systems could be most cheaply provided only if Beijing were to seek licence co-production contracts which included advice and assistance in the production of the basic raw materials as well as in the manufacture and assembly of individual systems. Such contracts would carry with them political and economic costs insofar as relations between the Western supplier and other Far Eastern nations are concerned.
   Despite the period of economic readjustment which has led to a succession of cuts in the defence budget since 1980, this year's budget again shows a small increase (which will certainly be swallowed by inflation). Thus the pace of modernization will continue to be slow, although much is being done to make the forces more professional and efficient - through reorganization, better training and scrapping of civil production quotas. The PLA is also benefiting from the general modernization of Chinese industry.
   Nuclear Weapons
   The Military Affairs Committee (MAC) of the Chinese Communist Party directly controls the Strategic Rocket Forces which include ICBMs, SLBMs and bombers. Modernization continues but appears to be concentrating on propulsion and, perhaps, guidance. No new nuclear tests have been recorded since 1984. By that time 27 tests had been atmospheric; there may have been as many as five underground tests. China announced in March 1986 that it would not again test in the atmosphere.
   Two types of ICBM are deployed in only small numbers, one (DF-5) with a range of some 15,000 km, the other (DF-4) some 7,000 km. No indication has been received of the deployment of multiple warheads, but a missile -the Long March (CZ)-2 -has been successfully used (and thus tested) as a launcher for three space research satellites, and a DF-5 was reported in September 1985 to have been tested with a multiple warhead. So far all ballistic missiles have been liquid-fuelled. Solid propellants, being developed, are reported to have fuelled the 1980 ICBM test vehicle, may fuel the DF-5 ICBM and probably fuel the SLBM. China's first SSBN are boats of the Xia class with 12 Julang-l (CSS-NX-4 = Giant Wave) SLBM -a variant of the DF-3 IRBM -the range of which is reported to be of the order of 2,200-3,000 km (probably closer to the lower figure). Four more SSBN are said to be under construction, some - perhaps a distinct Daqingyu class - being reported to have 16 launch tubes. Some 3 Han-class nuclear-powered submarines with six missile tubes are now in service; the cruise missile they are said to carry has been tested to a reported range of 1,600 km. Reports continue to appear of the existence of tactical nuclear munitions: artillery, rockets and mines. A version of the Soviet FROG-7 SSM is said to be under development. If such munitions were available, fighter aircraft could be used for tactical delivery of airdropped variants of them, and for longer ranges some of the Air Force's 120 H-6 medium bombers, with a combat radius of up to 3,000 km, may be nuclear-capable.
   Conventional Forces
   The PLA embraces all arms and services, including naval and air elements. Essentially a defensive force, the PLA continues to lack facilities and logistic support for protracted largescale operations at any significant distance outside Chinese borders.
   Military Developments
   The Armed Forces reductions continue, with the ground forces taking the brunt of the initial cuts, while those for the Navy and Air are still to come. A 1982 programme of reorganization is also in progress. The Field Armies (yezhanjun) are now 'Group Armies' (Jituanjuri).The Regional Army has been reorganized into 7 Military Regions (MR) with 29 Military Districts (MD; or 'Provincial Military Regions'). In peacetime these Regions serve largely an administrative function. In wartime the frontier MRs might become Fronts (zhanxian) or combined into Strategic Sectors (zhanlu'egu). The Field Armies' Main Force (MF) divisions are commanded by the General Staff at the Ministry of National Defence. In wartime, command will be transferred to the Front or Strategic Sector corresponding to the MR in which the divisions are stationed and which are already responsible for their administration. Artillery, engineer and railway units which, until 1983, were independent are now controlled by Departments within the Ministry of National Defence.
   The Navy has added six more Type-033 diesel submarines and three Jianghu frigates. The construction programmes for Hainan patrol craft and Shantou fast attack craft continue, with some 60 of each now in service, but the Shanghai FAC, Huchwan hydrofoil and smaller coastal types have all shown a varying decrease. There is a new Haiju-class fast missile craft in service; details of its armament are still unclear. The naval air arm continues to be shorebased, and the independent Coastal Defence Force appears to be receiving the HY-4 SSM. The naval component remains essentially a coastal defence force, incapable of long-range force projection. The air component of the PLA is organized into 8 Regions and 3 minor geographic commands; combat organization is similar to the Soviet system, with air armies of divisions of three regiments each with some 45 aircraft. It, too, remains essentially a force with limited defence capabilities.
   Major weapons systems include Type-59 MBT, Type-60/-63 amphibious and Type-62 light tanks and Type-531 APC; modified R- and W-class medium-range diesel submarines, SSM destroyers, frigates, fast patrol boats, amphibious transports and landing craft; J-6/-7 and Q-5 fighters, SA-2-type SAM. Much of the older foreign equipment is reportedly retiring, although its retention for training or Reserve duties is probable. Production rates are, at best, broad estimates only. Actual rates in some categories may be considerably lower than many such estimates suggest.
   Bilateral Agreements
   There is a mutual defence agreement with North Korea, dating from 1961, and an agreement to provide free military aid. There are friendship and non-aggression pacts with Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal (1960) and Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge). Chinese military equipment and logistic support have been offered to a number of countries. Major recipients include Albania, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Tanzania.
   Gross National Product and Defence Expenditure
   During the past few years China has exhibited remarkable economic growth, with average real increases in GDP and GNP growth ranging between 8% and 12%. (In 1985 the GNP growth rate amounted to about 11-12%). However, although China is now a member of the IMF, disagreements still exist about assessing the size of the Chinese economy in US dollar equivalents.
   This rapid economic development appears not to be reflected in the defence sector. As a proporation of GNP and government expenditures, defence budgets have actually declined for the past four years. As in most socialist economies, however, defence budgets are usually presented as a single category within the state budget, and do not indicate defence-related expenses incurred by other ministries and economic sectors. In the light of not only the modernization efforts of the PLA, and perhaps some improvements in administrative efficiency, but also the rapidly expanding indigenous military industries -for national consumption and, especially, for export -it is difficult to assess the real costs of the defence sector. The Central Intelligence Agency* has argued that the decreasing defence expenditure reflects the sector's 'diminished priority' in the economic reform programme; but, while this is true to the extent that defence remains only the fourth priority in the modernization plans, it is also true that other sectors of the economy carry considerable military burdens, ranging from improved health programmes to updated industrial machinery. The official budget figures, therefore, must be seen as an indicator of the increasing efficiency of the military administration, rather than a measurement of the actual expenditures. lt would seem likely that the process of 'streamlining', together with substantial manpower reductions, will permit significant modernization, even with constrained budgets.
   * CIA, 'China: Economic Performance in 1985', a Report presented to the Subcommittee on Economic Resources,
Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee (Washington DC, 17 March, 1986).


   Китайская оборонная политика долгое время поддерживала баланс, порой непростой, между двумя концепциями: ядерными силами для сдерживания стратегического нападения и народной войной, включающей широкомасштабную мобилизацию, для сдерживания или отражения обычного вторжения.
   Хотя некоторые консерваторы остались, большинство сегодняшних лидеров признали, что противодействие Советскому ограниченному натиску является, вероятно, самой трудной проблемой, стоящей перед Народно-освободительной армией (НОАК). Была признана необходимость модернизации. Осуществляются программы переоснащения и реорганизации. В настоящее время пожилые сотрудники выходят на пенсию и поощряется повышение профессионализма.
   Запасы обычных вооружений НОАК, технически гораздо менее совершенные, чем у более богатых стран, постепенно обновляются путем замены советского оборудования местными конструкциями, часто включающими некоторые западные технологии, или путем обновления старого оборудования. Китай также закупил компьютеры и радары у западных стран и ведет переговоры о закупке широкого спектра военной техники. Бразилия выдала Китаю лицензию на производство БТР. Британия продала авиационные двигатели, артиллерийское и противопожарное оборудование и радары. Франция продала вертолеты, системы противолодочной обороны и радары. Соединенные Штаты согласились продавать вертолеты, военно-морские двигатели, компоненты артиллерийских боеприпасов и чертежи и проекты артиллерийского завода боеприпасов. Покупки часто бывают небольшими, представляя собой немногим больше, чем "образцы". Китай, как представляется, желает изучить не только эксплуатационные характеристики западных систем, но и технологии, связанные с их производством. Учитывая масштабность задачи модернизации и конкурирующие потребности в иностранной валюте, крупномасштабные закупки иностранного оборудования представляются маловероятными. НОАК действительно нуждается в знании новейших иностранных военных технологий. Если Китай решит начать внутреннее производство современных оружейных систем, то должны быть приобретены и детали технологии материалов. Небольшие образцы могут многое сделать для обеспечения этого, но сложные системы могут быть предоставлены наиболее дешево только в том случае, если Пекин будет запрашивать лицензионные контракты на совместное производство, которые включают консультации и помощь в производстве основного сырья, а также в производстве и сборке отдельных систем. Такие контракты влекут за собой политические и экономические издержки в том, что касается отношений между Западным поставщиком и другими дальневосточными странами.
   Несмотря на период экономической перестройки, который привел к последовательному сокращению оборонного бюджета с 1980 года, бюджет этого года вновь демонстрирует небольшой рост (который, безусловно, будет поглощен инфляцией). Таким образом, темпы модернизации будут по - прежнему медленными, хотя многое делается для того, чтобы сделать эти силы более профессиональными и эффективными-путем реорганизации, улучшения подготовки кадров и отмены квот на гражданское производство. НОАК также получает выгоду от общей модернизации китайской промышленности.
   Ядерное оружие
   Комитет по военным вопросам (ВКП) Коммунистической партии Китая непосредственно контролирует стратегические ракетные силы, в состав которых входят МБР, БРПЛ и бомбардировщики. Модернизация продолжается, но, как представляется, сосредоточена на двигателях и, возможно, управлении. С 1984 года не было зарегистрировано никаких новых ядерных испытаний. К тому времени было проведено 27 испытаний в атмосфере; возможно, было проведено до пяти подземных испытаний. Китай объявил в марте 1986 года, что он не будет снова проводить испытания в атмосфере.
   Два типа МБР развернуты лишь в небольшом количестве: один (DF-5) с дальностью действия около 15 000 км, другой (DF-4) - около 7000 км. Никаких указаний на развертывание нескольких боеголовок получено не было, однако ракета Long March (CZ)-2 была успешно использована (и, таким образом, испытана) в качестве носителя для трех космических исследовательских спутников, а в сентябре 1985 года поступило сообщение о том, что была испытана ракета DF-5 с несколькими боеголовками. До сих пор все баллистические ракеты были заправлены жидким топливом. Согласно сообщениям, разрабатываемые твердотопливные ракетные двигатели были испытаны на МБР 1980 года, могут быть для МБР DF-5 и, вероятно, для БРПЛ. Первые китайские ПЛАРБ - это лодки класса Xia с 12 Julang-1 (CSS-NX-4 = Giant Wave) БРПЛ - вариант DF-3 БРПД - дальность которых, как сообщается, составляет порядка 2200-3000 км (вероятно, ближе к нижней цифре). Еще четыре ПЛАРБ, как говорят, строятся, некоторые - возможно, отдельный класс Daqingyu - сообщается, имеют 16 пусковых труб. В настоящее время на вооружении находятся три атомные подводные лодки класса Han с шестью ракетными установками; крылатая ракета, которую они якобы несут, была испытана на дальность 1600 км. Продолжают поступать сообщения о существовании тактических ядерных боеприпасов: артиллерии, ракет и мин. Говорят, что разрабатывается вариант советской FROG-7". Если бы такие боеприпасы имелись в наличии, то истребители могли бы использоваться для тактической доставки, а на более дальних дистанциях некоторые из 120 средних бомбардировщиков Н-6 ВВС с боевым радиусом до 3000 км могли бы быть ядерными.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   НОАК включает все виды вооружений, включая военно-морские и воздушные элементы. НОАК, будучи по существу оборонительной силой, по-прежнему испытывает нехватку средств и материально-технической поддержки для проведения длительных крупномасштабных операций на любом значительном расстоянии за пределами китайских границ.
   Военные события
   Сокращение численности Вооруженных сил продолжается, причем основную тяжесть первоначальных сокращений берут на себя сухопутные войска, в то время как сокращения для Военно-Морского Флота и авиации еще впереди. Осуществляется также программа реорганизации 1982 года. Полевые армии (ежанджун) теперь являются "групповыми армиями" (Джитуанджури). Региональная армия была реорганизована в 7 военных регионов (MR) с 29 военными округами (MD; или "Провинциальными военными районами"). В мирное время эти районы выполняют в основном административную функцию. В военное время военный регион может стать фронтом (жаньсянь) или объединиться в стратегические сектора (жаньлуэгу). Дивизиями основных сил полевых армий (МФ) командует Генеральный штаб Министерства национальной обороны. В военное время командование будет передано фронту или стратегическому сектору, соответствующему региону, в котором дислоцируются дивизии и которые уже несут ответственность за управление ими. Артиллерийские, инженерные и железнодорожные подразделения, которые до 1983 года были независимыми, в настоящее время контролируются департаментами Министерства национальной обороны.
   Военно-морской флот добавил еще шесть дизельных подводных лодок типа 033 и три фрегата Jianghu. Программы строительства для патрульных судов Hainan и быстроходных ударных судов Shantou продолжаются, и в настоящее время на вооружении находится около 60 таких судов, однако катера Shanghai, катера на подводных крыльях Huchwan и более мелкие прибрежные суда - все они в разной степени сократились. На вооружении находится новый скоростной ракетный корабль класса Haiju, детали его вооружения пока неясны. Морская авиация по-прежнему базируются на береговых аэродромах, а независимые силы береговой обороны, как представляется, получают ПКР HY-4. Военно-морской компонент остается в основном силами береговой обороны, неспособными к дальнему действию. Воздушная составляющая НОАК организована по 8 регионам и 3 небольшим географическим командованиям; боевая организация аналогична советской системе, с воздушными армиями дивизий по 3 полка в каждом по 45 самолетов. Она также остается по существу силами с ограниченным оборонительным потенциалом.
   Основные системы вооружения включают в себя ОБТ Типа-59, легкие танки Тип-60/-63 и Тип-62 и БТР тип - 531; модифицированные дизельные подводные лодки средней дальности R-и W-класса, эсминцы с ПКР, фрегаты, быстроходные патрульные катера, транспорты-амфибии и десантные суда; истребители J-6/-7 и Q-5, ЗРК SA-2. Согласно сообщениям, значительная часть устаревшего иностранного оборудования снимается, хотя его, вероятно, можно сохранить для целей подготовки кадров или для выполнения резервных обязанностей. Темпы производства в лучшем случае являются лишь общими оценками. Фактические ставки в некоторых категориях могут быть значительно ниже, чем предполагают многие такие оценки.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   Есть договор о взаимной обороне с Северной Кореей, начиная с 1961 года и соглашение о предоставлении бесплатной военной помощи. Существуют договоры о дружбе и ненападении с Афганистаном, Бирмой, Непалом (1960 год) и Кампучией (Красные Кхмеры). Ряду стран была предложена китайская военная техника и материально-техническая поддержка. Основными получателями помощи являются Албания, Египет, Ирак, Иран, Пакистан и Танзания.
   Валовой национальный продукт и расходы на оборону
   За последние несколько лет Китай продемонстрировал замечательный экономический рост, при этом средний реальный рост ВВП и ВНП колебался в пределах от 8% до 12%. (В 1985 году темпы роста ВНП составили около 11-12%). Однако, хотя Китай сейчас является членом МВФ, по-прежнему существуют разногласия относительно оценки размера китайской экономики в долларовом эквиваленте.
   Такое быстрое экономическое развитие, как представляется, не находит отражения в оборонном секторе. В последние четыре года оборонные бюджеты фактически сократились относительно ВНП и государственным расходам. Однако, как и в большинстве социалистических стран, оборонные бюджеты, как правило, представляются в рамках государственного бюджета в виде единой категории и не отражают расходы на оборону, потраченные другими министерствами и секторами экономики. В свете не только усилий НОАК по модернизации и, возможно, некоторого повышения административной эффективности, но и стремительного расширения отечественной военной промышленности - для национального потребления и особенно для экспорта - трудно оценить реальные затраты оборонного сектора. Центральное Разведывательное Управление * утверждает, что сокращение расходов на оборону отражает "снижение приоритетности" сектора в программе экономических реформ; но, хотя это верно в той мере, в какой оборона остается лишь четвертым приоритетом в планах модернизации, верно также и то, что другие сектора экономики несут значительное военное бремя, начиная от улучшенных программ здравоохранения и заканчивая обновленным промышленным оборудованием. Поэтому официальные бюджетные показатели следует рассматривать как показатель повышения эффективности военной администрации, а не как показатель фактических расходов. представляется вероятным, что процесс "рационализации" наряду со значительным сокращением людских ресурсов позволит осуществить значительную модернизацию, даже при ограниченных бюджетах.
GDP 1984: yuan 1,388.0 bn ($598,276 bn); 1985: yuan 1,624.0 bn ($553,002 bn)
growth 1984: 12.0% 1985: 10.0%
Inflation 1984: 2.7% 1985: 6.0%
Debt 1983: $5.1 bn 1984: $7.2 bn
Def bdgt 1985: yuan 18.670 bn ($6,357 bn); 1986: yuan 20.020 bn ($6,252 bn)
Def exp 1984: yuan 18.730 bn ($8,073 bn); 1985: yuan 19.148 bn ($6,520 bn)
$1=yuan(1983): 1.9757 (1984): 2.3200; (1985): 2.9367 (1986): 3.2020

Population: 1,052,700,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 133,180,000 103,173,000
Women: 126,753,000 194,911,000
Regular: some 2,950,000 (perhaps 1,350,000 conscripts) (being reduced; men and women ages 18-22).
Terms of Service: selective conscription; Army, Marines 3 years; Navy 5 years, Air 4 years.
   Technical volunteers can serve 8-12 more years to maximum age 35.
Reserves: 75,377,000 (obligation to age 45). Army 75,000,000; Navy 144,000; Marines 7135,000; Air (AD) 200,000; See also Para-military.
Offensive (Strategic Rocket Units): (100,000).
(a) Missiles: org in 6 (perhaps 7) divs, regts and bns; org varies by msl type.
ICBM: 6:
   2 DF-5 (Dong Feng = East Wind; CSS-4); mod tested with MIRV.
   4 DF-4 (CSS-3).
IRBM: 60 DF-3 (CSS-2).
MRBM: 50 DF-2(CSS-l).
(b) Subs:
   2 Xia SSBN each with 12 JL-1
   (Julang = Giant Wave, CSS-NX-4; mod DF-3. Range est in 2,200-3,000 km range -possibly 1 x 2MT warhead; in development).
(On order: ?4 SSBN; some Waqingyu, may have 16 launch tubes).
(a) Tracking stations: Xinjiang (covers central Asia) and Shanxi (northern border) and a limited shipborne anti-ship capability.
(b) Phased-array radar complex. Ballistic missile early warning.
(c) Air Force AD system:
   over 4,000 naval and air force fighters,
   about 100 HQ-2JC Hongqi-2 (Red Flag;SA-2-type) SAM units
   over 16,000 AA guns;
   capable of limited defence of key urban and industrial areas, military installations and weapons complexes.
(d) A civil defence shelter/evacuation/local defence system in Beijing and other key cities.
ARMY: 2,110,000 (perhaps 1,075,000 conscripts) (reductions continue).
Regional Army.
   7 Military Regions, 29 Military Districts (Provincial Regions), 1 indep MD, 3 Garrison Comds.
Group Armies:
   Some 35 Armies (46,300 men) being reorganized, each up to 4 inf divs, comprising: 118 inf divs (some being mech ('all arms')).
   Spt elms, assigned to Group Armies as required.
   13 armd divs (normal org 3 regts, 240 MBT).
   Some 17 field arty divs.
   16 AA arty divs.
   Some indep arty, AA regts.
   Some 21 sigs, CW regts
   20 indep recce, engr, sigs, chemical bns.
   50 indep engr regts.
Regional Forces: 29 provinces; being reorganized (corps org reported).
   73 divs: 70 RF (border/mountain/internal defence).
   3 garrison district.
   140 indep regts.
Tks: 11,450: T-54 (?trg), 6,000 Type-59, T-69 (mod Type-59; not incl T-69 II which is export only).
   lt: 1,200 Type-62, 800 Type-63 amph.
AFV: APC: 2,800 Type 531, YW-534, Type-55 (BTR-40)/-56(BTR-152)/-63, Type 77-1/-2 (Sov BTR-50PK amph);
   M-1984 6x6 wheeled type with 23mm; Type WZ 501 reported, may be Sov BMP-1 mod (export only).
Arty: 12,800:
   guns: 85mm: Type-56; 100mm: Type-59 (fd/ATK); 122mm: Type-60; 130mm: Type-59/-59-1 towed; 152mm: Type-66 towed.
   how: 122mm: Type-54, Type-54-1 SP (Type-531 chassis); 152mm: Type-54, Type-66 towed; Type-81, Type-83 SP.
   MRL: 4,500: 12x107mm: Type-63/-81 (being replaced by 122mm); 40x122mm: Type-81; 24x122mm: Type-83, Type-81 minelayer;
   19x130mm: Type-63 (incl Type-70 SP); 30x130: Type-82; 16x132mm: BM-13-16; 16x140mm: BM-14-16; 10x284mm: Type-74.
   mor: 14,000: 82mm: Type-53/-67, and SP; 100mm: Type-71; 120mm: Type-55; 160mm: Type-56, M-160 (?Type-60).
   (SSM: FROG-7 type reported under development.)
ATK: grenade launchers: 40mm: Type-56, -69; 62mm: Type-69-1/-70-1.
   RCL: 57mm: Type-36; 75mm: Type-52/-56; 82mm: Type-65; 105mm: Type-75 SP. RL: 90mm: Type-51.
   guns: 57mm: Type-55; 76mm: Type-54. ATGW: HQ-73 (Hongqian 73 = Red Arrow, Sagger-type), SACLOS (TOW/Milan-type).
AD: guns: 15,000: 12.7mm: Type-54, -77; 14.5mm: Type-75, -75-1 towed, Types-56, -58, -80 twin SP; 37mm: Type-55, -63 twin SP;
   57mm: Type-59; 85mm: Type-56; 100mm: Type-59.
   SAM: HN-5, HN-5A (SA-7 type); HQ-61 (Hongqian - Red Arrow) twin SP.

DEPLOYMENT (current re-org may alter totals):
Excl arty and engrs, MF and RF divs may be:
North-East: Shenyang MR (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning MD):
   ?7 Army HQ, ?2 msl, 5 armd, 23 inf; 13 RF*.
North: Beijing MR (Beijing, Tianjin Garrison District Comds; Nei Monggol, Hebei, Shanxi MD):
   ?8 Army HQ, 1 msl, 4 armd, 25 inf; 1 AB (Air Force); 13 RF*.
West: Lanzhou MR (incl Ningxia, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, North, South and East Xinjiang MD):
   ?4 Army HQ, 2 msl, 1 armd, 13 inf; 9 RF*.
South-West: Chengdu MR (incl Sichuan, Sanxia, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang MD:
   ?4 Army HQ, 1 msl, 15 inf; 6 RF)*.
South: Guangdong MR (Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guanxi, Hainan (MD-equivalent)):
   ?4 Army HQ, ?16 inf; 12 RF*.
Centre. Jinan MR (Shandong, Henan, MD):
   ?3 Army HQ, 2 armd, 10 inf, 3 AB(Air Force); 6 RF.
East. Nanjing MR (Shanghai District; Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Anhui MD):
   ?5 Army HQ, 1 armd, 16 inf; 14 RF.
NAVY: 350,000 incl Coast Defence, Marines and Naval Air (some 115,000 conscripts); 3 SSN, 113 SS/SSG, 44 major surface combatants.
   SSGN: 3 Han; 6 SY-2 cruise missiles.
   SSG (trials):
   1 Type-200 'Wuhan' (Sov G-class),
   1 Type-031 (Sov R-class mod), 6-8 C-801/SY-2 SSM.
   SS: 112:
   90 Type-033 (Sov R-class),
   20 W-class IV/V (?trg; 5 in reserve),
   2 Ming (mod R-class) trg.
Destroyers: GW: 15:
   11 Type-051 Luda (Kotlin-type) with 2 triple HY-2 SSM;
   4 Anshan (ex-Sov Gordy) with 2 twin HY-2.
Frigates: 31:
   26 GW:
   20 Type-037 Jianghu and 053H mod Jianghu with 2 twin HY-2 SSM;
   2 Type-053J Jiangdong, 1 with 2 twin HQ-61 SAM;
   4 Chengdu (ex-Sov Riga) with 1 twin HY-2 SSM;
   5 Jiangnan (Riga-type).
Patrol escorts: 14: 9 ex-Jap, 1 ex-Br, 1 ex-Aus, 3 Ch (probably in reserve).
Patrol craft: large: 81: 60 Hainan, 1 Haijai (mod Hainan), 20 Kronshtadt,
   coastal/river: some 100: 1 Beihai, 40 Huang-pu, 40 Yulin, some Yingkou (with Militia), 8 other.
FAC(G): 232 with HY-2: 120 Osa/Huangfen (4 msls) to be replaced by H-3, 1 Hola, 110 Houku (Hegu)<, 1 Houma hydrofoil (2 msls);
   new H-3 Haiju class reported; (4 or 8 msls).
FAC: 355: 290 Shanghai I/II/III/IV/V, 3 Haikou, 60 Shantou; 2 Shandong< (hydrofoils).
FAC(T)<: 190: 110 Huchwan I/II hydrofoils; 60 P-6, 20 P-4 (?all in reserve).
Patrol: new 25-m class (? Tsu Chiang) reported.
MCMV: 33 T-43 ocean minesweepers.
Amph: assault tpt: 4 Qiong Sha;
   LST: 16: 3 Yukan/Zoushan, 13 Shan (ex-US 1-511, -542) (Chang-Ming reported);
   LSM: 45: 14 Hua (ex-US LSM-1), 30 Yuliang and Yuling, 1 Yudao;
   LSI: 4 Min (ex-US LSIL);
   LCU: 370: 300 Yunnan, 45 Yuchin, 25 Yuchai;
   LCT: 9 (5/6 ex-Br/US);
   LCM: 165 (140 ex-Br/US);
   hovercraft (LCAC): Dagu, Payi, Type-722 Jingsah types.
Spt: 10 sub (incl 1 repair), 6 other spt, 10 supply ships, 23 tankers.
Msls: SSM: HY-2 (Haiying = Sea Eagle, Styxtype); HY-3 (7/C-101); HY-4 (Styx-type medrange coast def msl); HY-5 (7/C-801).
   SAM: HQ-61 (Hongqian = Red Arrow); raillaunched, radar-guided ship- and truckmounted msl (?mod HQ-2J).
   SLCM: SY-2 (SY = ? Ying) sea skimmer (?Exocet-type) reported; may be HY-5.
(On order (tentative): 3 Han SSN; 9 R-class SS; 4 Luda DDG; 6 Jianghu (4 mod), 2 Jiangdong FFG; H-3, Hegu FAC; 2 Cougar Marine patrol catamarans, 2 Qiongsha assault tpts, 2 Yukan LST.)

Coastal Defence Forces: (38,000).
Indep arty and SSM regts deployed near naval bases, offshore islands and other vulnerable points.
Guns: 85mm, 100mm, 130mm.
SSM: HY-2 ('CSS-N-2'), -4, SY-1 and SY-2/ C-801.
MARINES (Naval Infantry): (56,500) (30,000 conscripts).
9 regts (3 cadre divs): 4 inf, 3 tk, 3 arty bns; spt elms.
Special recce units.
Reserves: On mobilization to total 8 divs (24 inf, 8 tk, 8 arty regts), 2 indep tk regts.
3 ground force divs are also assigned for amph duties.
Tks: 600 T-59. lt: T-60/-63, PT-76.
APC: Type-531,LVT.
Arty: how: Type-54 122mm. MRLType-63.

Northern Naval Region:
North Fleet: about 500 vessels (over half<), incl 1 sub flotilla (2 sqns), 2 SSN, some 5 DDG; from the Yalu River to south of Lianyungang.
   Bases. Qingdao (HQ), Liida, Liishun, Huludao, Weihai, Chengshan.
   Marines: 1 cadre div.
East Fleet: about 750 vessels (about 400<) including some 5 DDG with air, AD and coastal- missile units; from south of Lianyungang to Dongshan.
   Bases: Ningbo (HQ), Zhoushan, Taohua, Dao, Heimen, Wenzhou, Fuzhou.
   Marines: 1 cadre div.
South Sea Fleet, about 600 vessels (some half <), incl 2 sub flotillas (25 subs), 5 DDG, 200 FAC, amph; from Dongshan to Vietnamese frontier.
   Bases: Zhanjiang (HQ), Shantou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Yulin, Beihai.
   Marines: 1 div (-).
Some minor combatants are reportedly being assigned to para-military duties - People's Armed Police, border guards and the militia-or into reserve. Totals should be used with caution; 800 ocean-going vessels, fishing trawlers and several thousand junks; some are mod and could augment existing limited sealift capacity.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (34,000); about 800 shorebased combat act,
Org in 3 bbr, 6 ftr divs, incl:
Bbrs: some 50 H(Hong = bbr)-6, about 130 H-5 and I1-28 torpedo-carrying and lt bbrs.
Ftrs: some 600, incl J(Jian = ftr)-2 (MiG-15)/-5/-6A7.
Recce: H-5.
MR/ASW: 8 ex-Sov Be-6 Madge.
Tpt: Y-8MP (Ch version of Antonov An-12) (on trial).
Hel: 50 Z(Zhi = hel)-5, 12 SA-321 Super Frelon ASW, 1 Z-9 (AS-365 Dauphin) on trial.
Misc: some 60 lt tpt ac; JJ-5/-6 (2-seat) trg ac.
Naval fighters are integrated into the national AD system.

AIR FORCE: 490,000, incl strategic forces and 220,000 AD personnel (160,000 conscripts); some 5,300 combat ac4
7 Military Air Regions, HQ Beijing.
Combat elms org in Armies of varying numbers of air divs (each with 3 regts of 3 sqns of 3 fits of 4-5 ac, 1 maintenance unit, some tpt and trg ac).
Tpt ac in regts only.
Med bbrs: 120 H-6 (some may be nuclear capable), some reported with 2xC-601 (sub-sonic ALCM, HY-2 SSM derivative) anti-ship msls.
Lt bbrs: some 500 H-5.
FGA: ?500 MiG-15 and QiQiang = attack) -5.
Ftrs: ?4,000, incl 400 J-5, some 60 regts with about 3,000 J-6/B/D/E, 200 J -7/J-7M, 30 J-8.
Recce: 130? J-5, 90 JZ-6 (J-6 variant), 40 HZ-5 (H-5 variant) ac.
Tpts: some 550, incl ?300 Y(Yun = tpt)-5/An-2, ?20 Y-7 (An-24), 12 Y-8 (An-12), ?75 ex-Sov Li-2 (DC-3 type), I1-14, U-18 (to be retired),
   18 BAe Trident.
   (It is reported that some 200 tpt ac, of unspecified types, are to be transferred (with crews) to civil aviation.)
Hel: 400: incl Z-5/-6 (mod Z-5), Z-9 (SA-365N Dauphin), SA-316B Alouette III, SA-321 Super Frelon, 4 Bell 214-ST, 6 AS-332 Super Puma,
   24 Sikorsky S-70.
Trainers: 1,500 (some OCU) incl CJ-5/-6 (mod CJ-5), MiG-15UTI, JJ-4/-5/-6 (mod J-4/5/6), HJ-5 (H-5 trg).
AAM: PL-2/-2A, Atoll-type, PL-7.
AB: 1 corps of 3 divs: 1 indep div.
   Spt tps incl comms, engr and CW units.
   Eqpt: 82mm, 120mm mor, 82mm RCL, 37mm AA guns,
AA arty:
   20 divs: 16,000 57mm, 85mm and 100mm guns;
   28 indep AD regts (100 SAM units with HQ-2, -2J (CSA-1), HQ-61 SAM).
(On order: 3 Canadair CL-600/601 Challenger ac; 4 S-76 hel.)
PARA-MILITARY: some 12,000,000.
Militia (Ministry of Defence).
Basic Militia: some 4.3 million; men and women aged 18-28 who have had, or will have, military service, grouped in the Armed Militia;
   serve with the Regulars for 30-40 days per year; org into about 75 cadre divisions and 2,000 regts, a Naval (Maritime) Militia with
   armed trawlers, and a major AD component.
Ordinary Militia: up to 6 million (ages 18-35), incl the Urban Militia, receive some basic training but are generally unarmed.
   Some play a local AD role; all support the security forces.
People's Armed Police Forces (Ministry of Security): ex-soldiers and personnel transferred from some 4 LF divs;
   Internal Defence divs and 30 indep regts; border security, patrol and internal security duties.
   Small arms; Shanghai II FAC, Hainan patrol craft.

* The term 'People's Liberation Army' comprises all services; the Ground, Naval and Air components of the PLAare listed separately for purposes of comparison,
t There are 2-3divs worth of border tps in theseMR.
%Many Chinese aircraft designs stem from Soviet types. Using Chinese terms, H-5 = I1-28, H-6 = Tu-16, J-5 = MiG-17, J-6 = MiG-19, Q-5 = MiG-19 derivative, J-7 = MiG-21 derivative, J-8 = MiG-23 derivative, Y-5 = An-2, Y-7 = An-24, Y-8 = An-12, CJ-5 = Yak-18A ac; Z-5 = Mi-4 hel. In export models the J is generally read as F.


   Security Treaties
   The United States has mutual security and co-operation treaties with Japan (1951, 1960), the Republic of Korea (1954), the Philippines (1951, 1983), Australia and New Zealand (1952). The Manila Pact, signed on 8 September 1954 by Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United States, remains in force, although France and Pakistan subsequently withdrew, and the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), set up to implement it, was disbanded in 1977. The Pact calls for action by each Party to meet the common danger posed by armed aggression, and for consultation if any other threat is posed to the territory, sovereignty or political independence of any Party. Since 1962 the US commitment to Thailand has been based on this Pact.
   In 1951 Australia, New Zealand and the United States signed a tripartite treaty (ANZUS), which came into effect on 29 April 1952 and is of indefinite duration. Each agrees to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of attacks on either metropolitan or island territory of any one of them, or on their armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the Pacific.
   The 1985 refusal of the New Zealand Government to permit visits by nuclear-propelled or nuclear-armed warships was interpreted by the US as being contrary to the spirit of the ANZUS alliance. Direct co-operation between the US and New Zealand was suspended by the Reagan Administration, which has stated that, as the New Zealand Government has legislated to ban visits by nuclear warships, it regards itself as free of obligations under ANZUS towards New Zealand for as long as that legislation remains in effect. Bilateral co-operation continues between Australia and New Zealand. US-Australian links remain close.
   Five-Power Defence Arrangements (Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and Britain), relating to the defence of Malaysia and Singapore, came into effect on 1 November 1971. In the event of any externally organized or supported armed attack or threat of attack against Malaysia or Singapore, the five governments would consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken, jointly or separately. Britain withdrew its forces in March 1976, but New Zealand troops remain in Singapore, as do Australian air units in Malaysia and Singapore, with a small army component attached. Australian and New Zealand naval units visit Malaysia and Singapore regularly.
   The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), set up in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand and joined by Brunei in 1984, is intended to foster regional economic development, not military co-operation. Under the rubric of the promotion of regional peace and security it is concerned with the Vietnamese presence in Kampuchea. It supports the Kampuchean resistance movements politically, but reported arms transfers to the rebels are believed to result from national, rather than multilateral, initiatives.
   The Soviet Union has Treaties of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance with Afghanistan (1978), India (1971), Mongolia (1966), North Korea (1961) and Vietnam (1978). lt concluded a Stationing of Forces Agreement with Afghanistan in April 1980. Bulgaria has Friendship Treaties with Cambodia (1960), Laos (1979), Mongolia (1967) and Vietnam (1979), as have Czechoslovakia with Laos (1980) and Vietnam (1980) and Afghanistan (1981), Hungary with Afghanistan (1982), and East Germany with Vietnam (1977), Kampuchea (1980) and Afghanistan (1982).
   The People's Republic of China has Friendship and Non-Aggression Treaties with Afghanistan, Burma and Nepal (all 1960), and Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) and a Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance with North Korea (1961).
   Cuba and Vietnam signed a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation on 5 October 1982. Libya and North Korea signed a Treaty of Alliance or Friendship and Co-operation in November 1982, which permits exchanges of military data, specialists and supplies. North Korea and Tanzania have an agreement covering defence and security matters.
   Bilateral Agreements
   The Soviet Union signed an agreement with India in December 1982 which provides for collaboration on design and manufacture of naval vessels; other and subsequent co-production arrangements exist. The US also has military co-operation agreements with Australia (1951, 1963, 1974 and 1980); and a military aid agreement with Thailand. Arms supply and production arrangements with Taiwan continue under the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. The US also provides continuing military aid to Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand. There are major US bases in Japan, South Korea and the Philippines (agreement renewed 1983), and air (B-52) and naval refuelling facilities in north and west Australia respectively.
   In 1965 Britain separated the Chagos Archipelago (which included Diego Garcia) from Mauritius and, together with three smaller groups, established it as the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). A small British naval contingent is deployed on Diego Garcia. Agreements in 1966, 1972 and 1976 have provided for the development of a major US naval and air support facility with an indefinite tenure. The three smaller groups of islands have since been turned over to the Seychelles.
   Britain has a Defence Agreement with Sri Lanka (1974) and one with Brunei which provides the latter with Gurkha troops and the British forces with a training area.
   Australia has an agreement and subsidiary arrangements for the development of and assistance to the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, and currently 135 Australian personnel are on loan to Papua New Guinea. Under a number of arrangements Australia has supplied defence equipment to the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and most of the smaller Pacific Island states.
   In July 1977 Vietnam and Laos signed a series of agreements which contained military provisions and a border pact, and may have covered the stationing of Vietnamese troops in Laos. A similar series of agreements seems to have been negotiated between Vietnam and the Heng Samrin regime in Kampuchea in February 1979 and December 1982.
   Military Developments
   There is little real evidence on the state of Afghanistan's forces. Reports suggest they play an increasingly active role against the Mujaheddin, which would argue that they will receive more and perhaps better equipment. The only evidence that this has happened is the replacement of the Su-7 by Su-22 FGA. Earlier assessments of Mi-24 Hind strengths appear to have been high. On the other hand, reports of desertions and of failure to report for military service when conscripted continue to indicate that morale is low. On the guerrilla side, efforts are being made to unify guerrilla forces and co-ordinate their actions. The Mujaheddin have suffered severe casualties in pitched battles with Government and Soviet forces. The latter's 'scorched earth' policies have reduced the guerrillas' ability to live and conceal themselves in the populated areas. The Mujaheddin still have trouble getting adequate arms, particularly anti-air weapons; there is no firm evidence that the muchheralded Stinger SAM have actually reached the groups in the field. The Government and its Soviet ally still have not won the war. Nor have the guerrillas lost it. Yet Government consolidation continues to improve, and the rebels are coming under increasing pressure.
   The Dibb Report on the future role of the Australian forces is too recent for its impact to be reflected in force structure changes. The roles of the Army and Air Force have received special emphasis, and a strengthening of the Navy's submarine capability is also possible as a result of the report.
   Burma's Army has increased its efforts against the many rebel forces. Some local successes have been reported, but no end to the conflict is in sight, and the Government has not been able to procure the equipment necessary to give its field units the mobility and firepower they lack.
   The Indian Army entry this year has been expanded on the basis of additional knowledge - not as the result of any expansion ofthat Service. Deliveries of the T-72 tank order continue. The purchase of 400 Bofors FH-7B 155mm howitzers from Sweden adds a new source to India's list of suppliers. Its Navy has bought the British Hermes ASW carrier, which will perhaps use a mix of Sea Harrier and Sea King. The Air Force continues to replace its Marut FGA with MiG-23BN; the Ajeet fighter earlier reported as being phased out, appears to have earned a reprieve, with additional orders being placed. Pakistan has added some 50 M-48 and perhaps another 50 Type-59 tanks. The Army has also received a small quantity of RBS-70 SAM. No significant deliveries are reported for the other two Services.
   The internal security challenge faced by the Sri Lankan government has resulted in the procurement of a greater quantity and variety of equipment than at almost any time in the country's history. Because the process is continuing, quantities of individual items are difficult to confirm. There is no doubt, however, that the expanding force will take time to absorb the armour, artillery, patrol craft, aircraft and helicopters reported.
   Malaysia has received some 120 SIBMAS reconnaissance vehicles, and the second A-4 FGA squadron is now operational. The long-reported Naval Air element is still expected, but there is no evidence that aircraft for it to use have been received. There has been no significant change reported for Singapore or for Indonesia. The role of the Philippines' forces remains that of internal security. Reports that reorganization is to take place have not so far been translated into visible change. There appears to have been a substantial increase in the Thai Marine force; it may be that an earlier increase was missed.
   Little change has been reported in Vietnam, or in Laos. In Kampuchea, the Heng Samrin Government appears to be continuing its slow development of the armed forces. An additional infantry division has apparently been formed, and there are reports of increases in the inventories of tanks, artillery and aircraft. The opposing Coalition of Democratic Kampuchea is confining its operations to small-scale raids and sabotage. These appear, however, to be quite deep inside Kampuchea and relatively widespread.
   In North-east Asia, North Korea is apparently also carrying out a measure of reorganization. Details are as yet unavailable, apart from some details of the artillery field structure which represent new information rather than evidence of change. The Navy lost a submarine last year; it has probably been replaced from domestic production. Reports have also appeared of the existence of perhaps five midget submarines which could be used to infiltrate agents. A new Fast Attack Craft type has been reported; no details are available. The Air Force has received some 50 MiG-23 interceptors which will significantly enhance the mix of MiG-19 and -21 already in inventory.
   South Korea has received additional M-48A5 tanks and some M-110 203mm SP howitzers. The naval HDF-2100 frigate programme is well under way, with two Harpoon equipped Ulsan-class now in service. The Japanese modernization programmes continue. The Type-74 tank continues to replace the Type-61. Additional Type-73 APC are in inventory, and the 155mm FH-70 SP howitzer is now being delivered. One new Type-171 and two new Type-122 guided missile destroyers are now in service.
   Economic Factors
   After the economic recovery of 1983-4, the region's economic growth fell from just under 5% in 1984 to just above 3.5% in 1985. Although international trade rose by some 9%, trading patterns were very uneven, in particular within the Asian region. Equally uneven was regional economic output. China led with a remarkable growth rate of 10-11%, while the Philippines suffered another decline in growth of-5%.
   At least four countries achieved growth rates of 6-7% (Burma, South Korea, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea), while those of most others ranged between 4% and 5%. Only New Zealand appears to have achieved no growth at all, while at the same time increasing its debt to some $16.0 bn.
   In comparison to other developing regions in the world, Asia is still far better off - despite occasional economic downturns. Unlike Africa, which in 1985 experienced a per capita real GDP decrease of 1.3%, Asia achieved a regional increase of 3.8%. Even the states with low per capita income (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) have achieved notable economic growth.
   Some economies, however, experienced contractions as a result of their dependence on oil-generated revenues. The incomes of Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia were seriously affected as oil demand and prices fell drastically (Indonesia lost about 20% of its sales revenue over 1984, and Brunei about 30%). The international oil price collapse had positive effects on the oil importers; if, as many observers believe, prices stabilize over the next few years at around $15-18 per barrel, this would have a substantial impact on their economies. (Last year the non-industrialized Asian states spent some $35 bn on oil imports, so a 50% reduction in oil prices would significantly affect their foreign trade balances).
   Unlike the situation in Latin America and some African states, inflation has also been well contained, with the Philippines (22%),. New Zealand (17%) Pakistan (10%) and Bangladesh (10%) the worst cases in the region. Debt, however, has also become a major issue. Asia's toial debt has reached $239 bn, an increase of some 12% over 1984. Again, the weakest state is the Philippines, with a gross external debt/GDP ratios of over 80%, followed by South Korea, Malaysia and New Zealand with about 60% debt/GDP ratios. Although in relation to Africa and the western hemisphere the debt issue has not yet reached crisis proportions, some countries are heading for repayment problems: the Philippines at present has a debt/service ratio of 190%, followed by Australia, South Korea, New Zealand and Thailand with some 60%. Until the US and European economies attain a higher growth rate the newly industrializing countries of the region will continue to experience a slowdown in growth, if not actual recession.
   As the principal oil producers in the Gulf reduce their spending - due to drastically reduced incomes - and with the US Congress becoming more protectionist, the Asian countries (especially ASEAN) will be forced to accelerate their trade and industrial co-operation negotiations. In the short run, greater regional co-operation may well be the salvation of the rather fragile economies of the region.


   Договоры о безопасности
   Соединенные Штаты имеют договоры о взаимной безопасности и сотрудничестве с Японией (1951, 1960 годы), Республикой Корея (1954 год), Филиппинами (1951, 1983 годы), Австралией и Новой Зеландией (1952 год). Манильский пакт, подписанный 8 сентября 1954 года Австралией, Великобританией, Новой Зеландией, Пакистаном, Соединенными Штатами, Таиландом, Филиппинами и Францией, остается в силе, хотя впоследствии Пакистан и Франция вышли из него, а Организация Договора о Юго-Восточной Азии (СЕАТО), созданная для его осуществления, была распущена в 1977 году. Пакт призывает каждую сторону принять меры для устранения общей угрозы, создаваемой вооруженной агрессией, и провести консультации, если какая-либо другая угроза угрожает территории, суверенитету или политической независимости любой из сторон. С 1962 года обязательства США перед Таиландом основывались на этом пакте.
   В 1951 году Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Соединенные Штаты подписали трехсторонний договор (ANZUS), который вступил в силу 29 апреля 1952 года и является бессрочным. Каждый из них соглашается "действовать в ответ на общую опасность" в случае нападения на столичную или островную территорию любого из них или на их вооруженные силы, суда или самолеты в Тихом океане.
   Отказ правительства Новой Зеландии разрешить посещение страны военными кораблями с ядерными двигателями или ядерными боевыми кораблями был истолкован США как противоречащий духу альянса ANZUS. Прямое сотрудничество между США и Новой Зеландией было приостановлено администрацией Рейгана, которая заявила, что, поскольку правительство Новой Зеландии приняло законодательство о запрете посещений ядерных военных кораблей, оно считает себя свободным от обязательств по ANZUS в отношении Новой Зеландии до тех пор, пока это законодательство остается в силе. Продолжается двустороннее сотрудничество между Австралией и Новой Зеландией. Связи между США и Австралией остаются тесными.
   С 1 ноября 1971 года вступили в силу Соглашения об обороне пяти держав (Австралии, Малайзии, Новой Зеландии, Сингапура и Великобритании), касающиеся обороны Малайзии и Сингапура. В случае любого организованного или поддерживаемого извне вооруженного нападения или угрозы нападения на Малайзию или Сингапур правительства пяти стран будут проводить совместные консультации с целью принятия решения о том, какие меры следует принимать совместно или по отдельности. Британия вывела свои войска в марте 1976 года, но новозеландские войска остались в Сингапуре, как и австралийские авиационные подразделения в Малайзии и Сингапуре, с небольшим армейским компонентом. Австралийские и новозеландские военно-морские подразделения регулярно посещают Малайзию и Сингапур.
   Ассоциация государств Юго-Восточной Азии (ASEAN), созданная в 1967 году Индонезией, Малайзией, Сингапуром, Таиландом и Филиппинами и объединенная Брунеем в 1984 году, призвана содействовать региональному экономическому развитию, а не военному сотрудничеству. Что касается содействия региональному миру и безопасности, то он обеспокоен присутствием Вьетнама в Кампучии. Он поддерживает Кампучийские движения сопротивления в политическом плане, однако сообщения о поставках оружия повстанцам, как полагают, являются результатом национальных, а не многосторонних инициатив.
   Советский Союз заключил договоры о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Афганистаном (1978 год), Индией (1971 год), Монголией (1966 год), Северной Кореей (1961 год) и Вьетнамом (1978 год). в апреле 1980 года она заключила соглашение о дислокации сил с Афганистаном. Болгария имеет договоры о дружбе с Камбоджей (1960 год), Лаосом (1979 год), Монголией (1967 год) и Вьетнамом (1979 год), а также Чехословакия с Лаосом (1980 год) и Вьетнамом (1980 год) и Афганистаном (1981 год), Венгрия с Афганистаном (1982 год) и Восточная Германия с Вьетнамом (1977 год), Кампучией (1980 год) и Афганистаном (1982 год).
   Китайская народная республика заключила договоры о дружбе и ненападении с Афганистаном, Бирмой и Непалом (все 1960 года) и Кампучией (Красные Кхмеры), а также Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Северной Кореей (1961 год).
   5 октября 1982 года Куба и Вьетнам подписали Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве. Ливия и Северная Корея подписали Договор о Союзе или дружбе и сотрудничестве в ноябре 1982 года, который разрешает обмен военными данными, специалистами и поставками. Северная Корея и Танзания заключили соглашение по вопросам обороны и безопасности.
   Двусторонние соглашение
   В декабре 1982 года Советский Союз подписал с Индией соглашение, предусматривающее сотрудничество в области проектирования и производства военно-морских судов; существуют другие и последующие соглашения о совместном производстве. США также имеют соглашения о военном сотрудничестве с Австралией (1951, 1963, 1974 и 1980 годы); и соглашение о военной помощи с Таиландом. Соглашения о поставках и производстве оружия с Тайванем продолжают действовать в соответствии с Законом о тайваньских отношениях 1979 года. США также оказывают постоянную военную помощь Индонезии, Южной Корее, Малайзии, Пакистану, Филиппинам и Таиланду. Имеются крупные базы США в Японии, Южной Корее и на Филиппинах (соглашение возобновлено в 1983 году), а также военно-воздушные (В-52) и военно-морские заправочные базы в Северной и Западной Австралии соответственно.
   В 1965 году Великобритания отделила архипелаг Чагос (в который входил Диего-Гарсия) от Маврикия и вместе с тремя меньшими группами создала его как британскую территорию в Индийском океане (BIOT). Небольшой британский военно-морской контингент развернут на Диего-Гарсия. Соглашения 1966, 1972 и 1976 годов предусматривали создание крупного объекта военно-морской и воздушной поддержки США на неопределенный срок. С тех пор три небольшие группы островов были переданы Сейшельским островам.
   Британия заключила соглашение об обороне со Шри-Ланкой (1974 год) и с Брунеем, в соответствии с которым последний получает войска Гуркха, а британские силы-учебный район.
   Австралия заключила соглашение и заключила дополнительные соглашения о создании Сил обороны Папуа-Новой Гвинеи и оказании им помощи, и в настоящее время 135 австралийских военнослужащих предоставлены Папуа-Новой Гвинее в аренду. В соответствии с рядом договоренностей Австралия поставила вооружение Филиппинам, Малайзии, Сингапуру, Таиланду, Индонезии и большинству малых островных государств Тихого океана.
   В июле 1977 года Вьетнам и Лаос подписали ряд соглашений, которые содержали военные положения и пограничный пакт, и, возможно, охватывали размещение вьетнамских войск в Лаосе. Аналогичная серия соглашений, по-видимому, была заключена между Вьетнамом и режимом Хэн Самрина в Кампучии в феврале 1979 года и декабре 1982 года.
   Военные события
   Существует мало реальных свидетельств о состоянии афганских сил. Согласно сообщениям, они играют все более активную роль в борьбе с моджахедами, что свидетельствует о том, что они получат больше и, возможно, лучшее оборудование. Единственным свидетельством того, что это произошло, является замена Су-7 на Су-22. Более ранние оценки силы Ми-24, как представляется, были завышены. С другой стороны, сообщения о дезертирстве и неявке на военную службу по призыву по-прежнему свидетельствуют о низком моральном духе. На Партизанской стороне предпринимаются усилия по объединению партизанских сил и координации их действий. Моджахеды понесли тяжелые потери в боях с правительственными и советскими войсками. Политика последних в отношении "выжженной земли" снизила способность партизан жить и скрываться в населенных районах. Моджахеды по-прежнему испытывают трудности с получением адекватного оружия, особенно противовоздушного; нет никаких твердых доказательств того, что ЗРК Stinger достиг группировок на местах. Правительство и его советский союзник до сих пор не выиграли войну. И партизаны ее не проиграли. Тем не менее, консолидация правительства продолжает улучшаться, и повстанцы подвергаются все большему давлению.
   Доклад Дибб о будущей роли Австралийских сил является слишком недавним для того, чтобы его воздействие отразилось на изменениях в структуре сил. Особое внимание уделяется роли армии и Военно-Воздушных сил, и в результате доклада возможно также укрепление подводного потенциала ВМС.
   Армия Бирмы активизировала свои усилия против многочисленных повстанческих сил. Сообщалось о некоторых успехах на местах, но конца конфликту не видно, и правительство не смогло закупить вооружение, необходимое для обеспечения своих полевых подразделений мобильностью и огневой мощью, которых им не хватает.
   Вступление индийской армии в этом году было расширено на основе дополнительных знаний - не в результате какого-либо расширения этой службы. Поставки танка Т-72 продолжаются. Покупка 400 гаубиц Bofors FH-7B 155mm из Швеции добавляет новый источник в список поставщиков Индии. Его флот купил британский авианосец Hermes, который, возможно, будет использовать смесь Sea Harrier и Sea King. ВВС продолжают заменять свой Marut на Миг-23БН; истребитель Ajeet, ранее сообщенный как поэтапный, похоже, заработал отсрочку, с размещением дополнительных заказов. Пакистан добавил около 50 танков М-48 и, возможно, еще 50 танков типа 59. Армия также получила небольшое количество ПЗРК RBS-70. По двум другим службам не сообщается о значительных поставках.
   Проблема внутренней безопасности, с которой сталкивается правительство Шри-Ланки, привела к закупке большего количества и большего разнообразия оборудования, чем когда-либо в истории страны. Поскольку процесс продолжается, количество отдельных элементов трудно подтвердить. Однако нет никаких сомнений в том, что расширяющимся силам потребуется время для поглощения бронетехники, артиллерии, патрульных кораблей, самолетов и вертолетов, о которых сообщалось.
   Малайзия получила около 120 разведывательных машин SIBMAS, и в настоящее время действует вторая эскадрилья штурмовиков A-4. Давно сообщалось, что военно-морской воздушный элемент все еще ожидается, но нет никаких доказательств того, что самолеты для его использования были получены. По Сингапуру и Индонезии не было отмечено каких-либо существенных изменений. Роль филиппинских сил по-прежнему заключается в обеспечении внутренней безопасности. Сообщения о том, что реорганизация должна состояться, пока не трансформировались в заметные изменения. Как представляется, произошло существенное увеличение численности морских сил Таиланда; возможно, более раннее увеличение было упущено.
   Мало что изменилось во Вьетнаме или в Лаосе. В Кампучии, правительство Хенг Самрина, как представляется, продолжает медленное развитие вооруженных сил. По-видимому, была сформирована дополнительная пехотная дивизия, и поступают сообщения об увеличении числа танков, артиллерии и авиации. Оппозиционная коалиция Демократической Кампучии ограничивает свои операции мелкими рейдами и саботажем. Однако они, по-видимому, находятся довольно глубоко внутри Кампучии и относительно широко распространены.
   В Северо-Восточной Азии Северная Корея, по-видимому, также проводит реорганизацию. Подробности пока недоступны, за исключением некоторых деталей структуры полевой артиллерии, которые представляют собой новую информацию, а не свидетельство изменений. В прошлом году ВМС потеряли подводную лодку, вероятно, ее заменили на отечественную. Появились также сообщения о существовании, возможно, пяти миниатюрных подводных лодок, которые могут быть использованы для проникновения агентов. Сообщается о новом типе быстроходного ударного корабля; подробности отсутствуют. ВВС получили около 50 истребителей-перехватчиков МиГ-23, что значительно увеличит состав уже находящихся на вооружении МиГ-19 и -21.
   Южная Корея получила дополнительные танки М-48А5 и некоторые 203-мм гаубицы М-110. Фрегатная программа ВМС HDF-2100 идет полным ходом, в настоящее время на вооружении находятся два корабля вооруженных ракетами Harpoon класса Ulsan. Японские программы модернизации продолжаются. Танк Типа-74 продолжает заменять танк Типа-61. В наличии имеются дополнительные БТР Типа 73, и в настоящее время поставляется 155-мм гаубица FH-70 SP. В настоящее время на вооружении находятся один новый эсминец Типа-171 и два новых эсминца Типа-122.
   Экономические факторы
   После экономического подъема 1983-1984 годов экономический рост в регионе снизился с чуть менее 5% в 1984 году до чуть более 3,5% в 1985 году. Хотя международная торговля выросла примерно на 9%, торговые модели были очень неравномерными, особенно в Азиатском регионе. Столь же неравномерным был и региональный экономический выпуск. Китай лидировал с замечательными темпами роста 10-11%, в то время как Филиппины потерпели очередное снижение роста - 5%.
   По крайней мере четыре страны достигли темпов роста 6-7% (Бирма, Южная Корея, Пакистан и Папуа-Новая Гвинея), в то время как в большинстве других стран они колебались между 4% и 5%. Появляется только Новая Зеландия добилась роста нет вообще, а в то же время увеличивая свой долг до примерно 16,0 млрд долл.
   По сравнению с другими развивающимися регионами мира Азия по - прежнему находится в гораздо лучшем положении, несмотря на периодические экономические спады. В отличие от Африки, где в 1985 году реальный ВВП на душу населения сократился на 1,3%, Азия добилась регионального роста на 3,8%. Даже в государствах с низким доходом на душу населения (Индия, Пакистан и Бангладеш) добились заметного экономического роста.
   В то же время в некоторых странах наблюдался спад в результате их зависимости от поступлений от продажи нефти. Доходы Брунея, Малайзии и Индонезии серьезно пострадали, поскольку спрос на нефть и цены резко упали (Индонезия потеряла около 20% своих доходов от продаж за 1984 год, а Бруней - около 30%). Международный обвал цен на нефть оказал положительное влияние на импортеров нефти; если, как считают многие наблюдатели, цены стабилизируются в течение следующих нескольких лет на уровне около $15-18 за баррель, это окажет существенное влияние на их экономику. (В прошлом году неиндустриальные азиатские государства потратили около $35 млрд на импорт нефти, поэтому снижение цен на нефть на 50% существенно повлияло бы на их внешнеторговые балансы).
   В отличие от ситуации в Латинской Америке и некоторых африканских государствах, инфляция также была хорошо сдержана, с Филиппинами (22%). Новая Зеландия (17%) Пакистан (10%) и Бангладеш (10%) - наихудшие случаи в регионе. Однако задолженность также стала серьезной проблемой. Долг Азии достиг $ 239 млрд, увеличившись примерно на 12% по сравнению с 1984 годом. Опять же, самым слабым государством являются Филиппины с валовым соотношением внешнего долга / ВВП более 80%, за которыми следуют Южная Корея, Малайзия и Новая Зеландия с соотношением долга/ВВП около 60%. Хотя в отношении Африки и Западного полушария проблема задолженности еще не достигла кризисных масштабов, некоторые страны сталкиваются с проблемами погашения: Филиппины в настоящее время имеют соотношение долга/обслуживания 190%, за которыми следуют Австралия, Южная Корея, Новая Зеландия и Таиланд с примерно 60%. До тех пор, пока экономика США и Европы не достигнет более высоких темпов роста, новые индустриальные страны региона будут продолжать испытывать замедление роста, если не фактическую рецессию.
   Поскольку основные производители нефти в Персидском заливе сокращают свои расходы - из - за резкого сокращения доходов - и Конгресс США становится более протекционистским, азиатские страны (особенно АСЕАН) будут вынуждены ускорить свои переговоры о торговле и промышленном сотрудничестве. В краткосрочной перспективе более широкое региональное сотрудничество вполне может стать спасением довольно хрупкой экономики региона.

GDP 1984/5: Afs 152.70 bn ($3,018 bn); 1985/6: Afs 162.15 bn ($3,205 bn)
growt 1984/5: 6.2%
Inflation 1985: 20.0%
Debt 1983e: $1.5 bn 1984e: $2.4 bn
Def bgdt 1984: Afs 10.60 bn ($209,486 m); 1985: Afs 14.52 bn ($286,996 m)
FMA see note.*
$1=Afs (1983/4/5/6): 50.60
Afs = afghanis

Est population: 14-17,000,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,063,000 1,425,000
Women: 1,965,000 1,363,000
Regular: 50,000.
Terms of service. Males 15-55: volunteers 2 years, conscription 3 years+, noncombatants 4-5 years.
Reserves: No formal force identified; call-up from ex-servicemen, Youth League and regional tribes from age 20 to age 40.

ARMY: 45,000 (mostly conscripts).!
3 corps HQ.
3 armd divs (under strength bdes)
11 inf divs (under strength bdes)
1 mech inf div/bde.
1 cdo bde (1 cdo and 1 para regt).
2 mountain regts.
1 AA bde.
Tks: 50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62. lt: 60 PT-76.
AFV: MICV: 40 BMP-1. APC: 550 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 950; 100mm: M-1944. how: 122mm: M-30; 152mm: D-1. MRL: 132mm: 50 BM-13-16. mor: 82mm; 120mm: 100; 160mm.
ATK: RCL: 73mm: SPG-9, 82mm. guns: 76mm, 100mm.
AD: guns: 550 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP.
AIR FORCE: 5,000 (incl AD Comd); some 115 combat ac, some 13 armed hel.t
Lt bbrs: 1regt (3 sqns) with some 18 IlyushinI1-28.
FGA: 3 regts.
   1 with some 30 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17;
   1 with 30 MiG-21 Fishbed;
   1 with 15 Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter A, 20 Su-22 Fitter).
OCU: 1: 6 MiG-15UTI, MiG-17/-19/-23U, 2 MiG-21U, Il-28U.
Attack hel: 1 regt: some 13 Mil Mi-25.
Tpt: ac: 1 regt: 1 VIP sqn with 2 I1-18D, 12 Antonov An-14; 2 sqns with some 10 An-2, 30 An-26, An-30;
   hel: 1 regt with some 12 Mi-4, up to 25 Mi-8.
Flying school: Yakovlev Yak-18, Aero L-39C.
AD: 1 div (probably Soviet):
   2 SAM bdes (each 3 bns) with 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3;
   1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bns).
Border Guard (under Army) some 7,000; 9 'bdes', 60 bns.
Ministry of Interior Sarandoy (Defence of the Revolution) some 7,000.
Khad (secret police) some 35,000.
Regional militias incl, Village militia, Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth, tribal, National Fatherland Front.
Perhaps 130,000 guerrillas (possibly 30,000 intermittently active) supported by about 110,000 'reserves' in some 37 exile political groups
   (7 'official'; 30 regional 'unofficial').
Equipment (captured):
Tks: T-34, T-55 MBT.
Arty. 76mm guns, D-30 122mm how, 107mm, 122mm MRL; AGS-17 30mm grenade launchers; 2-in. (51mm), 60mm, M-41 82mm mor.
ATK: RPG-7 RL; SPG-9, 75mm, 82mm RCL, ATK and anti-personnel mines.
AD: 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 20mm AAguns, SA-7SAM.

* Total Soviet military assistance since 1980 not known. US, Western, friendly Islamic states' assistance to Afghan rebels est at $600 m 1979-84, $200-350 m in 1985.
t Actual strength suspect. Divs reported to average 2,500 (about quarter strength). Desertion is common. The Soviet High Command in Afghanistan (see USSR entry for Soviet forces deployed) effectively controls the Afghan forces; it is not possible to differentiate between Soviet and Afghan Forces' holdings of identical equipment.

GDP 1984/5: $A197.28bn($US152.61 bn); 1985/6e: $A223.00bn($US 155.76 bn)
growth 1984/5: 4.9% 1985/6: 3.8%
Inflation 1984/5: 6.7% 1985/6: 9.1%
Debt 1984: $US43.0bn; 1985: $US51.0bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: $A 6.323 bn ($US 4.416 bn); 1986/7: $A 6.929 bn ($US 4.628 bn)
$US 1=$A (1983/4): 1.1033 (1984/5): 1.2927; (1985/6): 1.4317(1986): 1.4972
$A = Australian dollars

Population: 15,852,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,768,000 1,697,000
Women: 1,683,000 1,612,000

Regular 70,456.
Terms of Service, voluntary.
Reserves: 26,112.

ARMY: 32,116.
1 inf div with 3 bdes of 2 inf bns.
1 armd regt (3 sqns).
1 cav regt.
1 APC regt.
4 arty regts (1 med, 2 fd, 1 AD); 1 locating bty.
1 fd engr, 1 construction, 1 fd survey regts.
5 sigs regts.
1 Special Air Service regt.
3 tpt regts (one air support).
Army Aviation:
1 regt (2 recce, 1 comd spt, 1 utility sqns).
1 avn school + base workshop bn.
Tks: 103 Leopard 1A3.
AFV: MICV: 63 M-113 with 76mm gun (48 with Scorpion, 15 with Saladin turrets). APC: 725 M-113 (incl variants).
Arty: how: 105mm: 258; 155mm: 36 M-198.
ATK: RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 70 M-40. ATGW: 10 Milan.
AD: SAM: Redeye, 20 Rapier launchers.
Avn: ac: 14 1 PC-6 Turbo-Porter, 13 GAFN-22B Missionmaster, hel: 47 Bell 206B-1 Kiowa.
Marine: 16 LCM, 87 LARC-5 amph craft.
(On order: 59 105mm lt guns, 60 RBS-70 SAM launchers.)
NAVY: 15,553 (incl Fleet Air Arm).
Bases: Sydney (HQ), Melbourne, Jervis Bay, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Cockburn Sound.
Subs: 6 Oxley (RAN mod Oberon).
Destroyers: 3 Perth (US Adams) ASW with 1 Standard SAM, 2 Ikara ASW.
Frigates: 10:
   4 Adelaide (FFG-7) with 1 Harpoon SSM, 1 Standard SAM, 2 AS-350 hel;
   6 River with 1 quad Seacat SAM/SSM, 1 Ikara ASW (1 in reserve).
Patrol craft, large: 21: 15 PCF-420 Freemantle, 6 Attack (5 Reserve trg; 1 in reserve).
Minehunters: 2: 1 mod Br Ton coastal, 1 Bay-class catamaran.
Amph: LCT: 6 (1 Reserve trg, 3 in reserve).
Spt: 1 hy amph tpt ship; 1 destroyer tender with 1 Wessex hel (comd); 2 trg ships (1 Daring destroyer, 1 ex-ocean ferry (trg/log spt));
   1 replenishment tanker, 3 survey ships.

FLEET AIR ARM: (1,202): combat: 2 ac, 8 hel.
ASW: 1 hel sqn with 8 Westland-Sikorsky Sea King Mk 50; 2 BAe/HS-748 EWac.
Utiliry/SAR: 2 sqns:
   1 hel sqn with 10 Westland- Sikorsky Wessex 31B;
   1 composite sqn with 6 Bell (3 UH-1B, 3 206B), 6 AS-350B Ecureuil (Squirrel) hel, 2 BAe/HS-748 ac.
(On order: 2 FFG-7 frigates, 1 tfay-class MCM catamaran; 16 Sikorsky S-70B2 ASW hel).

AIR FORCE: 22,787; some 127 combat ac.
FGA/recce: 2 sqns: 23 General Dynamics (15 F-111C, 4 F-111A, 4 RF-111C).
Interceptor/FGA: 3 sqns: 56 Dassault Mirage IIIO/D.
MR: 2 sqns: 20 Lockheed P-3C Orion.
OCU: 1 with some 10 A-21 (McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18), 14 Aermacchi MB-326H.
Forward air control: 1 fit with 4 CA-25 Winjeel.
Tpt: 6 sqns:
   2 with 24 C-130E/H Hercules;
   1 with 4 Boeing 707-338C (to be tanker ac);
   1 with 4 CC-08 (DHC-4 Caribou) ac, 4 Bell UH-1B hel;
   1 with 17 CC-08;
   1 with 4 BAe (2 BAC-111, 2 HS-748), 3 Dassault Mystere 20.
Tpt: 1 med hel sqn with 8 CH-47 Chinook.
Utility: 2 hel sqns: 30 UH-1B/H Iroquois.
Trg: 82 MB-326H (life-extended), 8 HS-748T2, 48 CT-4/4A Airtrainer ac, 18 AS-350 Ecureuil (Squirrel) hel.
AAM: Sparrow AIM-7M, Sidewinder AIM-9L, -9M, Matra R-350, -550.
ASM: AGM-84 Harpoon.
(3 Chinook hel in reserve.)
(On order: some 65 F/A-18 FGA/interceptor/trg ac, 8 Sikorsky UH-60 hel.)
Forces Abroad:
Egypt (Sinai MFO): 110; 8 UH-1H hel.
Malaysia/Singapore: 1 sqn with 20 Mirage IIIO, 1 fit with CC-08 ac.
Papua New Guinea: 135; trg/spt unit, 2 engr units, 106 advisers.
Indian Ocean: 2 destroyers, 1 amph.
Trg gps in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore.
Bureau of Customs; 10 GAF N-24 Searchmaster MR ac.

GDP 1983/4: Tk 349.920 bn($ 14.026 bn); 1984/5: Tk 397.750 bn ($14.798 bn)
growth 1983/4: 4.2% 1984/5: 3.8%
Inflation 1983/4: 10.6% 1984/5: 10.7%
Debt 1983e: $4.0 bn 1984e: $4.4 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: Tk 5.01 l b n ($167.502 m)
$1=Tk (1983/4): : 24.9485 (1984/5): 26.8780; (1985/6) 29.9160 (1986): 30.3000
Tk = Taka

Population: 104,269,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 12,119,000 8,330,000
Women: 11,235,000 7,854,000

Regular: 91,300.
Terms of service: voluntary.
Reserves: 30,000 (Bangladesh Rifles).

ARMY: 81,800.
5 inf div HQ.
13 inf bdes.
2 armd regts.
6 arty regts.
6 engr bns.
Equipment: *
Tks: 20 Ch Type-59, 30 T-54/-55.
Arty: guns/how: 105mm: 30 Model 56 pack, 50 M-101; 122mm: 20 Type-54. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 50 Type-53.
ATK: RCL: 106mm: 30 M-40. guns: (57mm): 18 6-pdr, 76mm: Ch Type-54.

NAVY: 6,500.*
Bases: Chittagong (HQ), Dacca, Khulna, ChaНna.
Frigates: 3 Br (1 Type 61, 2 Type 41).
FAC(G): 4 0-24 (Ch Hegu) with 2 HY-2 SSM;
FAC(P): 14: 6 Ch Hainan; 8 Ch Shanghai II.
FAC(T): 4 Type-123K (P-4)<.
Patrol craft: 6 large: 2 Singapore Meghna, 2 Incl Akshay, 1 Jap Akaqi (mod); 1 Bishkali (river).
Patrol boats: 5 Pabna (Kacha) river<.
Misc: 1 trg, 1 barracks, 1 log spt ships, 1 repair vessel, 2 O-69 coastal survey craft.
(On order: 2 Hainan FAC(P).)

AIR FORCE: 3,000: 30 combat ac.
FGA: 2 sqns with 18 Shenyang J-6.
Interceptor: 1 sqn with 10 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21MF, 2 MiG-21U.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 Antonov An-24, 4 An-26; (1 Yakovlev Yak-40, 1 Douglas DC-6).*
Hel: 1 sqn with 9 Bell (7 212, 2 206L), 6 Mil Mi-8, 4 SA-316C Alouette III.
Trg: 12 Ch CJ-6, 6 CM-170 Magister, 4 MiG-15UTI.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
Bangladesh Rifles 30,000 (border guard).
Armed Police: 5,000.
Ansars (Security guards) 20,000.

* Spares are short; some eqpt unserviceable.

GDP 1984: $B 8.052 bn ($US 3.775 bn); 1985: $B 7.200 bn ($US 3.272 bn)
growth 1984: 2.1% 1985: -6.2%
Inflation 1984: 3.1%
Def exp 1983s: $B 5 50.00 m ($US 260.281 m); 1984e: $B 650.00 m ($US 304.721 m)
$US1=$B(1982): 2.140 (1983): 2.113 (1984): 2.133 (1985): 2.200
$B = Brunei dollars

Population: 247,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 31,900 27,500
Women: 24,000 15,900
TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular: 4,050 incl 150 women.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 3,380.
2 inf bns.
1 armd recce sqn.
1 AD bty: 8 dets with Rapier.
1 engr sqn.
1 sigs sqn.
Tks: lt: 16 Scorpion.
AFV: recce: 2 Sultan. APC: 24 Sankey AT-104.
Arty: mor: 16 81mm.
AD: SAM: 12 Rapier/Blindfire.
NAVY: (470).
Base. Muara.
Org: incl River Division and 1 special boat sqn.
FAC(G): 3 Waspada each with 2 Exocet MM-38SSM.
Patrol craft(: 6: 3 Perwira coastal, 3 Rotork.
Amph<: 2 Loadmaster landing craft, 24 inf assault boats.
Spt: 3 23-ton utility craft.

AIR FORCE: (200); 6 armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 MBB BO-105 gunship hel.
Hel: 1 sqn with 10 Bell 212.
Composite sqn: 2 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260 ac, 2 Bell 206A7B hel.
VIP fit: 2 Boeing 727-200, 1 Gulfstream III ac; 1 MBB BO-105, 1 Bell 212, 1 Sikorsky S-76 hel.
Misc hel: 2 Bell 205 hel.
(On order 1 Sikorsky AUH-76 (S-76) armed hel.)
PARA-MILITARY: Royal Brunei Police (1,750); Gurkha Reserve Unit (900).

GDP 1983/4: K 49.730 bn ($6.130 bn); 1984/5: K 54.042 bn ($6.314 bn)
growth 1983/4: 4.7%; 1984/5: 6.6%
Inflation 1984: 4.8%; 1985: 6.8%
Debt 1984: $3.7 bn; 1985: $3.9 bn
Def exp 1985/6: K 1.863 bn ($228.253 m)
Def bdgt 1986/7: K 1.800 bn ($247.518 m)
FMA 1984: $1.4 m; 1985: $1.7 m
$1=K (1983/4): 8.1124; (1984/5): 8.5584; (1985/6): 8.1620; (1986):7.2722

Population: 40,481,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 4,289,000 2,820,000
Women: 4,302,000 2,913,000

Regular: 186,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 170,000.
8 Regional, 1 Garrison, commands.
6 lt inf div HQ (under central control):
   3 with 3 Tactical Operational Comds (= bdes);
   3 with 1 or 2 TOC; each TOC up to 10 bns.
16 Tactical Operational Comds (bdes).
   91 inf bns (some 25 indep).
2 armd bns.
4 arty bns.
1 AA bty.
Tks: 24 Comet.
AFV: recce: 40 Humber, 45 Ferret.
Arty: guns: 25-pdr (88mm): 50. guns/how: 5.5-in. (140mm). how: 76mm: 120 M-1948; 105mm: 80 M-101. mor: 120mm: 80.
ATK: RCL: Carl Gustav 84mm. guns: 50 6-pdr (57mm) and 17-pdr (76.2mm).
AD: guns: 10 40mm.*

NAVY: 7,000 incl 800 Marines.
Bases: Bassein, Mergui, Moulmein, Seikyi, Sinmalaik, Sittwe.
Corvettes: 4: 2 US (1 PCE-827, 1 Admirable), 2 Nawarat.
Gunboats: 30: 9 coastal, 12 120-ton, 9<.
Patrol craft: 36 river<.
Amph: LCU: 1 US; LCM: 8 US.
1 spt vessel.
(On order: ?3 33-ft patrol craft.)

MARINES: (800): 1 bn.

AIR FORCE: 9,000; 22 combat ac."
COIN: 2 sqns: 16 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 6 Lockheed AT-33A.
Tpt: 3 sqns: 1 Fokker F-27F, 5 Fairchild FH-227, 7 PC-6/-6A Porter, 5 DHC-3D Otter.
Liaison fit: 6 Cessna 180, 1 Cessna 550.
Hel: 4 sqns: 20 Bell 205/206, 10 SA-316B Alouette III.
Trg: incl 16 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260MB, 9 Cessna T-37C.
People's Police Force (38,000); People's Militia (35,000).
Fishery Dept: 12 patrol boats (3 Osprey, 3 coastal, 6 inshore<).

Burmese Communist Party: 12,000 regulars; 8,000 militia.
Kachin Independence Army: 5,000; 4 bdes.
Karen National Liberation Army: some 5,000; 5 bdes, 3 indep bns.
Karenni Army: perhaps 600; 4 'bdes'.
Kawthoolei Muslim Liberation Front (Karen linked; absorbed Ommat Liberation and Rohingya Patriotic Fronts).
Kayan New Land Party: perhaps 100.
Mon State Army: two groups: one some 500; other perhaps 200.
Palaung State Liberation Army: some 500.
Pa-O National Army: some 500.
Shan State Army: some 3,500.
Shan United Army: 3,000.
Shan United Revolutionary Army: 900-1,200.
Wa National Army: some 300.
Most of the smaller groups are grouped loosely under the National Democratic Front (NDF).

* Spares are short; most eqpt unserviceable.

GDP 1984: $F 1.231 bn ($US 1.139 bn); 1985e: $F 1.272 bn ($US 1.103 bn)
growth 1984: 9.4% 1985: -1.7%
Inflation 1984: 5.3% 1985: 4.8%
Debt 1983: $US432.4ml984: $US450.0m
Def exp 1985E: $F 15.900 m ($US 13.795 m)
Def bdgt 1986: $F 16.319 m ($US 14.360 m)
FMA 1985: $US1.0m 1986: $US1.2m
$US 1 =$F(1983): 1.0161 (1984): 1.0811; (1985): 1.1526 (1986): 1.1364
$F = Fiji dollar

Population: 713,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 86,600 60,000
Women: 85,600 60,600
Regular: 2,670.
Terms of service: voluntary.
Reserves: some 5,000 (to age 45).
ARMY: 2,500.
3 inf bns (1 reserve). 1 engr coy. Spt units.
Mon 12 81mm.
NAVY: 170.
Base: Suva.
Patrol: 3 mod US 370-ton coastal minesweepers, 2 with hel deck.
Misс: 2 marine survey, 1 research vessels.
(On order 102-ft patrol craft.)
Forces Abroad: 1,127; 2 inf bns.
Lebanon (UNIFIL) (627);
Egypt (Sinai MFO) (500).

GDP 1983/4: Rs 1,938.4 bn($ 187.924 bn); 1984/5: Rs 2,131.8 bn ($179.342 bn)
growth 1984/5: 3.6% 1985/6: 4.5%
Inflation 1984: 8.4% 1985: 5.6%
Debt 1984: $29.0 bn 1985: $35.8 bn
Def exp 1985/6e: Rs 77.471 bn ($6.331 bn)
Def bdgt 1986/7: Rs 87.300 bn ($6,956 bn)
$1=Rs (1983): 10.3148(1984): 11.8868 (1985): 12.2370 (1986): 12.5500
Rs = rupees

Population: 778,000,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 88,860,000 65,500,000
Women: 83,000,000 63,200,000
Regular: 1,260,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: Army 200,000. Territorial Army 40,000. Air Force (Regular, Air Defence, Auxiliary) exist, strengths unknown.
ARMY: 1,100,000.
HQ: 5 Regional Comd (=Fd Army), 8 Corps.
2 armd divs (Type: 2 tk, 1 mech bdes, SP arty, engr regts).
1 mech div (Type: 3 mech bdes, SP arty, engr regts).
22 inf divs (Type: 3 inf bdes (9 bns), arty, engr regts; hy divs may have 4 or 5 bdes).
7 mountain divs (Type: 3 bdes, mountain arty.engrs).
19 indep bdes: 7 armd, 10 inf, 1 mountain, 1 para/cdo.
4 army arty bdes.
4 AD bdes.
3 army engr bdes.
These formations comprise:
   46 tk regts.
   17 mech, 329 inf bns.
   9 para/cdo bns.
   164 arty regts: 1 hy, 5 MRL, 50 med (incl 5 SP),
   69 fd (incl 3 SP), 39 mountain.
   29 AA arty regts, perhaps 10 SAM groups (3-5 btys each).
Avn: 29 air observation/fire control fits (hy hel units to form).
Tks: 2,790 (?500 in reserve): 1,040 T-54/-55 (800 to be mod), 350 T-72, 1,250 Vijayanta. lt: 150PT-76.
AFV: MICV: 600 BMP-1. APC: 400 OT-62/-64, 360 BTR-60.
Arty: guns: some 2,230 (some 90 SP): 76mm: 200 Yug M-48; 25-pdr (88mm): 800 (retiring); 100mm: 185 M-1944;
   105mm: 340 incl 60 Abbot SP; 130mm: 500 M-46 (some 100 SP); 5.5-in. (140mm): 140 (retiring).
   how: 1,658: 75mm: 75/24 mountain; 105mm: (incl M-56 pack).
   MRL: 120mm: 120 BM-21. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 500; 160mm: 50.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: M-18; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: M-40. guns: 6-pdr (57mm). ATGW: SS-11-B1, Milan, AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 2,665: 23mm: 180 ZSU 23-2, 50 ZSU-23-4 SP; 40mm: 1,245 L40/60, 790 L40/70; 3.7-in. (94mm): 500.
   SAM: 120 SA-6, SA-7, 48 SA-8A, SA-9, 18 Tigercat launchers.
(On order Arjun, 1,550 T-72M MBT, BRDM recce, BMP-1/-2, BMD MICV, 105mm Mk-II guns, 400 Bofors FH-77B 155mm how, SA-8 SAM).

NAVY: 47,000, incl naval air force.
Bases: Western Fleet: Bombay, Goa, Kerwar (building). Southern Fleet: Cochin. Eastern Fleet: Vishakapatnam, Port Blair.
Subs: 8 Sov F-class.
Carrier: 1 Br Majestic (capacity 18 attack, 4 ASW ac/hel).
Destroyers: 3 Sov Kashin II GW with 4 Styx SSM, 2 twin SA-N-1 SAM, 1 Kamov Ka-25 hel.
Frigates: 23:
   2 Godavari (mod Leander) with 2 Styx SSM, 1 SA-N-4 SAM, 2 Westland-Sikorsky Sea King hel;
   6 Br Leander (4 with 2 quad, 2 with 1 quad Seacat SAM, 1 Alouette or Sea King hel);
   2 Br Whitby with 3 Styx SSM, 1 SA-316B Alouette hel;
   10 Sov Petya II;
   3 Br Leopard (trg).
Corvettes: 4:
   3 Sov Nanuchka II with 4 SS-N-2 SSM, 1 SA-N-4 SAM;
   1 Veera.
FAC(G): 14: 6 Sov Osa-I, 8 Osa-II with 4 Styx SSM.
Patrol craft: 9: 6 SDB-2, 2 Osa-1, 1 Abhay.
MCMV: 18: 8 Sov Natya ocean; 4 Br Ham, 6 Sov Yevgenya( inshore hunters.
Amph: LST: 1; LCT: 7 (2 Sov, 5 Pol Polnocny); LCU: 4.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (2,000); combat: some 25 ac, 25 hel.
Attack: 1 sqn with 8 BAe Sea Harrier FRS Mk-51,2T-60trg.
ASW: 1 ac sqn with 5 Breguet Alize 1050 (4 in carrier);
   5 hel sqns with 5 Kamov Ka-25 Hormone A (in Kashins), 9 Westland-Sikorsky Sea King, 11 SA-316B Alouette III (in frigates).
MR: 2 sqns: 4 Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation, 3 Ilyushin I1-38 May, 3 Tupolev Tu-142M Bear.
Comms: 1 sqn with 18 BN-2 Defender (?2MR).
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 10 Alouette III.
Trg: 2 sqns: 7 HAL HJT-16 Kiran, 2 BAe Sea Hawk FB-5, 10 BN-2 Islander ac; 4 Hughes 300 hel.
Other ac inch 5 Alize 1050, 4 Sea King.
(On order: 4 Sov F-class, 2 Type-1500 subs, 1 ASW carrier, 3 Kashin GW destroyers, 1 Godavari FFG (1986), 3 Nanuchka, 5 Tarantul
corvettes, 4 Ataya MCMV, 4 Polnocny CLCT, 1 survey ship, Exocet SSM; 10 Sea Harrier Mk 51, 1 T-60; 3-5 Tu-142M Bear MR, 24 Dornier Do-228 MR ac; 12 Sea King Mk 42B ASW hel; Sea Eagle SSM; Exocet AM-39 ASM.)
AIR FORCE: 113,000; combat: 728 ac; some 60 hel.
5 Air Commands.
Bbrs: 3 sqns (1 maritime role):
   35 BAe Canberra B(I)58/B(I)12 (to be replaced), 18 Sepecat Jaguar.
FGA: 11 sqns:
   2 with some 24 Dassault Mirage 2000H;
   2 with 50 Jaguar GR-1, 6 T-2;
   1 with 18 HAL HF-24 Marut (Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-23BN to replace);
   3 with 72 MiG-23BN Flogger H;
   2 with some 24 MiG-27 Flogger D/J.
   (1 with some 10 BAe Hunter F-56A nonoperational - exhibition ac only; Jaguar to replace);
AD: 20 sqns:
   2 with 45 MiG-23MF FloggerB;
   14 with 259 MiG-21/FL/PFMAAMF/bis;
   4 with 72 HAL Ajeet.
   Air Defence Ground Environment System.
Recce: 2 sqns:
   1 with 8 Canberra PR-57, 4 BAe/HS-748;
   1 with 7 MiG-25R, 1 MiG-25U.
Tpt: ac: 11 sqns:
   5 with 93 Antonov An-32 Sutlej;
   2 with 30An-12B;
   2 with 20 DHC-3 Otter,
   1 with 16 DHC-4 Caribou;
   2 with 28 HS-748, 2 Boeing 737-248 (leased),
   3 Ilyushin I1-76 Gajraj; ,
   hel: 6 sqns with 72 Mil Mi-8/-17.
Comms: 1 HQ sqn with 7 BAe/HS-748M.
Liaison ac fits and dets: 16 HS-748, C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
Liaison hel: 7 sqns (army-assigned).
   3 with 99 SA-316B Chetak (Alouette III);
   4 with 60 SA-315B Cheetah (Lama);
   some with 4 AS-11B ATGW.
Trg Comd: 3 trg and conversion sqns:
   11 Canberra T-4/-13/-67, 25 Hunter T-66, 40 MiG-21/U, 13 MiG-23UM Flogger C/L; 5 Jaguar, 7 Mirage 2000H, 60 HT-2, 83 Kiran,
   15 Marut Mk IT, some 20 HAL HPT-32 (replacing HT-2), 44 PZL TS-11 Iskra, 27 BAe/HS-748 ac; 20 Chetak hel.
AAM: R-23R/T Apex, R-60 Aphid, R-550 Magic, AA-2 Atoll.
ASM: AS-30; AS-11B (ATGW), AS-7 Kerry (with MiG-27).
SAM: 30 bns: 280 Dwina V75SM/VK (SA-2), SA-3.
(On order some 40 MiG-29, some 18 Dassault Mirage 2000H, 31 Jaguar (to be locally assembled), some 165 MiG-27M, MiG-21bis ftrs; 69 An-32, some 17 I1-76, 116 Do-228 tpts; 90 Kiran Mk 2, some 120 HPT-32 trg ac; 6 SA-365 Dauphin, 21 Westland W-30, Mi-17, 10 Mi-26, 45 Chetak hel; R-23R Apex, R-60 Aphid AAM.)
National Security Force: 112,000.
Border Security Force: 90,000; some 90 bns, small arms, some lt arty, tpt/liaison air spt.
Assam Rifles: 37,000.
Indo-Tibetan Border Police: 14,000.
Coastguard 2,000; 2 Br Type 14 frigates, patrol vessels (2 P-957 offshore, 2 SDB-2 fast, 19 inshore);
   2 air sqns with 2 Fokker F-27, 5 BN-2 Defender ac, 4 Chetak hel.
(On order: 1 offshore, 3 inshore defence patrol vessels, 9 lt tpt ac, 6 hel.)

GDP 1983/4: Rp 73,698.0 bn ($74.942 bn); 1984/5: Rp 85,914.0 bn ($81.862 bn)
growth 1983/4: 4.2% 1984/5: 2.8%
Inflation 1984: 10.4% 1985: 4.7%
Debt 1984: $31.0 bn 1985e: $37.4 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: Rp 2,600.0 bn ($2.321 bn); 1986/7: Rp 2,318.0 bn ($2.048 bn)
FMA 1984/5: $58.0 m. 1985/6: $55.0 m
$1=R p (1983/4): 983.4 (1984/5): 1,049.5; (1985/6): 1,120.2 (1986): 1,132.0
Rs = rupiahs

Population: 163,924,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 18,152,000 12,763,000
Women: 19,278,000 13,485,000
Regular: 281,000.
Terms of service, conscription, 2 years selective.
Reserves: 800,000: Army (planned): cadre units; numbers, strengths unknown, obligation to age 45 for officers.

ARMY: 216,000.
10 Military Area Commands (reorg 1985/6).
2 inf divs (KOSTRAD).
1 armd cav bde (-) (2 cav bns, spt units).
3 inf bdes (9bns).
2 AB inf bdes (6 bns).
2 fd arty regts (6 bns).
1 AA arty regt (2 bns).
1 fd engr regt (2 bns).
4 special warfare gps.
8 indep cav bns.
63 indep inf bns (under Military Province Commands (KOREM)).
4 indep AB inf bns.
7 indep fd arty bns.
6 indep AA arty bns; 4 indep btys.
4 construction engr bns.
Fd engrs: 6 indep bns; 10 indep dets.
Army Avn: 1 composite sqn; 1 hel sqn.
Tks: lt: some 195 AMX-13, 41 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 56 Saladin, 58 Ferret. MICV: 200 AMX-VCI. APC: 56 Saracen, 60 V-150 Commando, 80 BTR-40, 24 BTR-152.
Arty: guns/how: 76mm: some 30 M-1938 pack; 105mm: 170M-101. mor: 81/82mm: 480; 120mm: M-43.
ATK: RCL: 90mm: 480 M-67; 106mm: M-40.
AD: guns: 20mm: 20; 40mm: 90 M-1; 57mm: 200 S-60. SAM: RBS-70, Rapier.
Avn: 8 NC-212 Aviocar, 2 Rockwell Aero Commander 680, 1 Beech Super-lS ac; 16 Bell 205, 4 SA-316B Alouette III, 16 MBB BO-105 hel.
Amph: LST: 1; LCU: 20 300-ton.
Marine spt: 14 tpts.
(On order: 6 Bell 212, AS-332 Super Puma hel; Rapier SAM.)
DEPLOYMENT: E. Timor: 15,000; 20 inf bns.
NAVY: 38,000 incl naval air and marines.
Bases: Jakarta-Tanjung Priok (HQ), Surabaya (HQ), Belawan, Bintan, Ujung Pandang (to be HQ), Ambon.
2 Fleets.
Subs: 2 Cakra (Type-1300); 1 W-class (trg, non-operational).
Frigates: 13:
   4 GW with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM: 3 Fatahillah (1 with 1 Westland Wasp hel); 1 Hadjar Dewartana (Yug; trg, 1 hel);
   3 Br Tribal with 2 quad Seacat, 1 Wasp hel;
   4 US Jones;
   2 Sov Riga.
FAC(G): 4 PSMM-5 Mandau (Dagger)with 4 Exocet SSM.
FAC(T): 2 Beruang (Lurssen TNC-45).
FAC(P): 2 Andau (Lurssen PB-57).
Patrol vessels: 31 :
3 Pandorong (Sov Kronshtadt (?2 in reserve)), 1 Hiu (US PC-461), 3 Layang (Yug Kraljevica), 8 Sibarau (Aus Attack), 2 Kelabang,
   1 US PGM-39, 1 Jalasena, 2 Akabri, 1 Komar (no msls), 6 Samadar (Aus Carpentaria) coastal<, 3 Jetfoil 429 hydrofoil.
Minesweepers: 2 Pulau Rani (Sov T-43) ocean.
Comd/spt ships: 2.
Amph: LST: 12 (4 with up to 3 hel); LCU: 5; LCM: 38, 20 LCVP.
Spt: 19: 4 cargo ships, 4 tankers (3 harbour), 2 tpts, 2 repair, 2 trg ships, 3 survey, 1 sub tender, 1 auxiliary.

NAVAL AIR: (1,000); combat: 17 ac, 12 hel.
ASW: 10 Westland Wasp, 2 AS-332 Super Puma hel.
MR: 17: 11 GAF N-24 Searchmaster B, 6 N-24 Searchmaster L.
Other ac: incl 6 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 4 NC-212 Aviocar, 2 Rockwell Aero Commander,
   hel: 2 AS-332F Super Puma, 1 SA-318C Alouette II, 4 MBB BO-105.

MARINES: (12,000).
5 regts: 2 inf (each 6 bns), 1 combat spt, 1 admin spt, 1 trg.
Tks: lt: 30 PT-76.
AFV: MICV: 40 AMX-10 PAC-90.
APC: 57 incl 25 AMX-10P, BTR-50P.
Arty: how: 122mm: 40 M-38.
MRL 140mm: BM-14.
AD: guns: 40mm, 57mm.
(On order. 1 Type-1300 sub, 2 Neth Van Speijk frigates, 4 PSMM-5 FAC(G), 6 PB-57 FAC, 1 Aus Attack patrol, 2 Tripartite (Alkmaar), MCMV, 1 Jetfoil 429 patrol boat,* 30 patrol launches; 1 survey ship; 18 NC-235 tpt ac; some 20 Super Puma hel,* Harpoon SSM.)

AIR FORCE: 27,000; 84 combat aircraft.
2 Air Operations Areas:
FGA: 2 sqns: 32 McDonnell-Douglas Skyhawk A-4 (30 -4E, 2 TA-4H).
Interceptors: 1 sqn with 15 Northrop F-5 (11 -E, 4-F).
COIN: 1 sqn with 13 OV-l OF Bronco.
MR: 1 sqn with 3 Boeing 737-200, 5 HU-16 Albatross.
Tpt: 4 sqns:
   2 with 21 C-130B/H/HS, 1 L-100-30;
   2 with 1 C-140 Jetstar, 7 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 SC-7 Skyvan, 9 Fokker (1 F-28, 8 F-27), 5 NC-212A4, 1 Boeing 707, 12 Cessna 207/401/402.
Hel: 3 sqns:
   1 with 9 Sikorsky S-58 (UH-34T);
   2 with 5 Bell 204B, 12 SA-330L Puma, 12 Hughes 500; 6 Nurtanio-MBB NBO-105 (with Forestry).
Trg: 3 sqns: 16 BAe Hawk T-53, 15 Beech T-34C1, 20 AS-202 Bravo ac; 12 Bell 47G hel.

Quick Reaction Forces:
5 COIN bns.
Spt vessels: 6: 600-ton RoRo cargo ships.
(On order: 8 General Dynamics F-16 FGA; 8 NC-212-200, 32 NC-235, 3 Transall C-160 tpt ac; NBO-105, SA-332 Super Puma, Bell 412, MBB BK-117 hel.)

Other HQ:
KOSTRAD = Strategic Reserve Command: (16,500-19,000 men); main national force under direct control of the Commander of theArmed Forces;
   2 divs, cav bde, special force gps, spt arms and services.
KOPKAMTIB = Command for the Restoration of Order and Security; no forces assigned.
KOPPASSANDHA = Special Forces Command: 4,000; 4 special para/cdo gps.
Department of Defence and Security Police mobile bde org in coys: 12,000; 2 BO-105 hel.
Militia, about 70,000.
Coastguard; many small patrol boats.
Customs; 12 28-metre, 8 57-metre Lurssen patrol boats (12 FPB-38 on order).
Civil Defence Force (millions registered).
Maritime Security Agency. 6 patrol boats. Police Patrol craft incl 15 armed DKN 140-ton.
Sea Communications (Transport Ministry): 9 SAR craft.

Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETLIN): some 1,500; small arms.
Free Papua Movement (OPM): perhaps 100 armed.

* May be for Coastguard.
GDP 1983/4: yen 280,257.0 bn ($1,182.1 bn); 1984/5: yen 298,084.0 bn ($1,220.7 bn)
growth 1983/4: 5.1% 1984/5: 4.6%
Inflation 1984: 2.3% 1985: 2.1%
Debt 1984: $115.0 bn 1985: $148.0 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: yen 3,137.00 bn ($14.189 bn); 1986/7: yen 3,345.00 bn ($20,129 bn)
$1= yen (1983/4): 237.078 (1984/5): 244.193; (1985/6): 221.085 (1986): 166.180
Population: 123,365,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 11,000,000 15,285,000
Women: 10,900,000 15,220,000

Regular: 243,000.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: Army 43,000; Navy 600.

ARMY: 155,000.
5 Army HQ (Regional Commands).
1 armd div.
12 inf divs (5 at 7,000, 7 at 9,000 men each).
2 composite bdes (1 hel-borne, 1 trg).
1 AB bde.
1 arty bde, 2 arty gps; 8 SAM gps (each of 4 btys).
1 sigs bde.
5 engr bdes.
Avn: 1 hel bde: 24 sqns. 2 ATK hel platoons forming.
Tks: some 470 Type 61 (retiring), some 600 Type 74 (increasing).
AFV: APC: 430 Type 60, 135 Type 73.
Arty: guns/how: 105mm: 330 (incl some 20 Type 74); 155mm: some 373 SP (incl 193 Type 75, 20 FH-70); 203mm: 92 (incl some 32 SP).
   MRL 130mm: some 60 Type 75 SP. SSM: 50 Type 30. mor: 81mm: 780; 107mm: 560 (some SP).
ATK: RCL: 75mm: 1,840; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm (incl Type 60 SP). ATGW : 220 Type 64, some 40 Type 79.
AD: guns: 35mm: 100 twin; 37mm; 40mm: (incl M-42 SP); 75mm.
   SAM: 35 Stinger, some 15 Type 81 Tan, 70 HAWK, 130 Improved HAWK.
Avn: ac: 32: 21 LR-1 (Mitsubishi MU-2), 2 TL-1 (Fuji KM-2), 9 Cessna U 9 .
   hel: 390: 150 Fuji-Bell (10 AH-1S, 60 UH-1B, 80 UH-1H), 60 Kawasaki-Vertol 107, 180 Kawasaki-Hughes (30 TH-55, 150 OH-6D/J).
(On order 60 Type 74 MBT; 16 Type 73 APC; 13 Type 75, 43 FH-70 (total 176 planned) 155mm, 12 M-110A2 203mm SP how; 12 Type 79 hy ATGW; 223 84mm RCL; 27 Stinger, 8 Type 81 Tan SAM launchers; 8 AH-IS ATK, 7 OH-6D lt, 5 UH-1H, 3 CH-47 Boeing-Vertol 414 (Chinook) tpt hel.)

NAVY: 44,000 (including naval air) plus 4,300 civilians.
Bases: Yokosuka, Kure, Sasebo, Maizuru, Ominato.
Subs: 15: 7 Yushio (Type 573); 7 Uzushio (Type 566); 1 Asashio (Type 565) (to retire).
Destroyers: 34: 4 ASW gps.
   1 Hatakaze (Type 171) DDG with 8 Harpoon SSM, Tartar SAM, 1 octuple ASROC ASW, hel deck.
   2 Shirane (Type 143) with Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 octuple ASROC, 3 ASW hel;
   2 Haruna (Type 141) with 1 octuple ASROC, 3 ASW hel;
   9 Hatsuyuki (Type 122) with 2 quad Harpoon SSM, 1 Sea Sparrow, 1 octuple ASROC, 1 ASW hel;
   3 Tachikaze (Type 168) with 1 Tartar/Standard SAM, 1 octuple ASROC;
   1 Amatsukaze (Type 163) with 1 Standard SAM, 1 octuple ASROC;
   4 Takatsuki (Type 164) with 1 octuple ASROC;
   6 Yamagumo (Type 113) (2 to be modernized) with 1 octuple ASROC;
   3 Minegumo (Type 116) with 1 octuple ASROC; 1 Akizuki (Type 162);
   2 Ayanami (Type 103).
Frigates: 18:
   2 Yubari (Type 227) with 2 quad Harpoon SSM
   1 Ishikari (Type 226); with 2 quad Harpoon SSM
   11 Chikugo (Type 215) with 1 octuple ASROC;
   4 Isuzu (Type211).
Patrol craft: 11: 2 Mizutori large; 9 coastal <.
FAC(T): 5 35-metre.
MCMV: 49: 1 comd, 2 spt ships, 34 coastal mine-sweepers (15 Hatsushima, 19 Takami), 6 Nanago ('75') boats, 6 diving tenders.
Trg: 9: 1 Katori, 1Azuma, 2 Ayanami, 5 81-GO.
Spt: 2 Harukaze, 3 Ayanami, 3 Murasame, 2 Umitaka, 1 Akizuki; 1 Chiyoda sub depot, 1 sub rescue; 1 spt ship, 1 spt, 24 harbour tankers, 14 tenders.
Amph: LST: 6 (3 Miura, 3 Atsumi); LSU: 2 Yura; LCM: 15; LCVP: 22.

NAVAL AIR ARM: (12,000); combat: 122 ac, 72 hel.
6 Air Wings.
MR: 8 sqns:
   3 sqns with 26 Lockheed P-3C (1 more to form);
   55 Lockheed P-2J, 13 Shin Meiwa PS-1.
ASW: 6 hel sqns with 56 HSS-2/2A/B Sea King.
MCM: 1 hel sqn with 7 Kawasaki-Vertol 107.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 4 NAMC YS-1 IM.
ECM: 1 sqn with 4 Kawasaki-Lockheed UP-2J.
Test: 1 sqn with 2 P-3C, 3 P-2J ac; 5 HSS-2 (3 -A, 2 -B) hel.
SAR: 7 fits: 8 Shin Meiwa US-1/1A ac, 14 Sikorsky S-61A/2 hel.
Trg: 5 sqns: incl OCU with 19 P-2J, 6 YS-1 IT, 24 Beech (20 TC-90 King Air, 4 B-65 Queen Air), 32 Fuji KM-2 ac;
   10 HSS-2, 6 Kawasaki Hughes OH-6J/D, 3 Bell 47G hel.
(On order 3 Yiishio subs; 2 Type 171, 3 Improved Hatsuyuki (Type 134) DDG; 3 Type 227 frigates, 2 Hatsushima MCMV; 10 P-3C, 1 Gates Learjet 36 (U-36A), 1 TC-90 ac; 2 SH-60B Seahawk ASW, 10 Sikorsky S-61, 2 OH-6D hel; Type 80 ASM.)

AIR FORCE: 44,000; some 311 combat ac.
6 combat air wings; 1 combat air gp; 1 recce sqn.
FGA: 3 sqns: 50 Mitsubishi F-1.
Interceptors: 11 sqns:
   4 with some 83 Mitsubishi/McDonnell Douglas F-15J/DJ;
   6 with 110 Mitsubishi/McDonnell-Douglas F-4/EJ;
   1 with 30 Mitsubishi/Lockheed F-104J.
Recce: 2 sqns:
   1 with 10 RF-4 EJ; 1 EWng with 6 Grumman E-2C.
Aggressor trg: 1 sqn with 5 Mitsubishi T-2, 6 Lockheed T-33.
Tpt: 1 tactical wing: 3 sqns: 20 Kawasaki C-1, 10 NAMC YS-11, 4 C-130H Hercules.
SAR: 1 wing (9 dets) with Mitsubishi MU-2 ac, 32 Kawasaki-Vertol KV-107 hel.
Test: 1 wing with 20 F-4EJ, 2 F-15J, F-104J/DJ, 2 Fuji T-1, 10 T-2, 2 Fuji T-3, T-33A, C-1, 2C-130H.
Air traffic control/weather: 1 wing with YS-11, MU-2J, T-33A.
Trg: 5 wings: 10 sqns: 40 T-1A/B, 60 T-2, 40 T-3, 50 T-33A.
AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder.

Air Defence:
Aircraft control and warning: 3 wings and 1 group; 28 radar sites.
SAM: 6 gps: 19 sqns: 180 Nike-J (Patriot replacing).
   1 Airfield Def sqn: 20mm Vulcan AA guns, Type 81 Tan, Stinger SAM.
(On order 14 F-15J-/DJ ftrs, 2 C-130H tpt ac; 1 Boeing-Vertol Chinook, 5 KV-107, 3 AS-332L Super Puma hel; 5 Type 81 Tan SAMlaunchers,
1 bty Patriot SAM (24 btys planned).)
Maritime Safety Agency (Coast Guard) 12,000:
   44 large (7 with 1 Bell 216 hel), 47 med, 19 small, 221 coastal patrol vessels; 98 Misc service, 83 tender/trg vessels;
   1 C-130HMP Hercules, 5 NAMC YS-11 A, 2 Short Skyvan, 15 Beech King Air, 1 Cessna U-206G ac;
   29 Bell 212, 4 206B, 2 Hughes 269S hel.
(On order: 1 large, 2 med, 1 coastal patrol craft.)

Est Population: 6-7,000,000.
Regulan some 35,000.
Terms of service, conscription, 18 months minimum.

ARMY: some 35,000.
5 inf divs.
3 regional security (inf) bdes.
1 armd regt (2-3 tk bns).
Some 50 indep cav (recce), arty, AD, provincial militia inf bns.
Tks: 60: T-54/-55, some Type 59. lt: 10 PT-76.
AFV: APC: some 150: BTR-40/-60/-152, V-100, M-113.
Arty: some 350: gun: 76mm: M-1942; 122mm: M-1938. how: 122mm: D-30.
   MRL 107mm: Type-63; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16. mor: 82mm: M-37; 120mm: M-43.
ATK: RCL: 82mm: B-10; 107mm: B-11.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: ZPU 1/-2/-4; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60.
Avn: ac: 5 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-19 (probably non-operational), ?12 MiG-21 reported, ? in service 1986. hel: 6 Mi-8.
(On order: tks, arty, patrol craft, ac, Mi-8 hel reported; details unknown.)

Provincial Forces: HQ; bn, coy district and subdistrict units: org of units based on inf bn with lt wpns, strengths unknown.
PARA-MILITARY: Militia, Regional Armed
Forces/Self Defence forces (org in coys),
People's Police force: strengths, eqpt unknown.

Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK): Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge), some 35,000 org in divs and regts.
Kampuchean People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF), some 15,000;
   small arms, incl 12.7mm machine guns, 60mm, 82mm mor, RPG-7 RL, DK-75mm mor, RCL.
Armee Nationale Sihanoukienne (ANS), perhaps 9,000.
These groups are not formally merged but are members of the tripartite CGDK. They operate largely independently and at times are engaged in hostilities with each other.

* No reliable data since April 1975 available.

GDP 1984: won 37.570 bn ($39.968 bn); 1985e: won 38.590 bn ($41.053 bn)
growth 1984: 4.0% 1985: 4.0%
Inflation 1984: 2.0% 1985: 2.0%
Debt 1983: $3.3 bn 1984: $3.6 bn
Def bdgt 1985: won 3.94 bn ($4.196 bn)
1986: won 4.02 bn ($4.277 bn)
$1=won (1983/4/5/6): 0.94*

Population: 20,600,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,464,000 1,654,000
Women: 2,513,000 1,643,000
Regular: 840,000.
Terms of service. Army 5, Navy 5(-10) years; Air Force 3-4 years.
Reserves: Army 500,000, Navy 40,000, Air Force (reserves believed to exist).
   Mobilization claimed by 12 hours; up to 5,000,000 have some Reserve/Militia commitment. See Para-Military.

ARMY: 750,000.
HQ: 1 armd (2 divs), 3 mech, 7 all-arms corps (major re-org reported).
2 armd divs.
5 mot and mech inf divs.
24 inf divs.
7 indep armd bdes.
9 indep inf bdes (5-8 bns: up to 8,500 men).
25 Special Ops bdes incl 3 cdo, 4 recce, 1 river crossing regts, 3 amph, 5 AB bns (80,000-100,000).
   'Bureau of Reconnaissance Special Forces'.
Arty Command: Fd (Army): 2 hy arty, 2 mor regts; 6 SSM bns.
Corps: 4 bdes incl 122mm, 152mm SP, MRL bdes.
AD: 2 AA divs; 7 AA regts.
Reserve: 23 inf divs.
Tks: 3,275: 300 T-34, 2,800 T-54/-55/-62, 175 Type-59. lt: 100 Type-63, 50 Type-62.
AFV: recce: 140 BA-64. MICV: 150 BMP-1. APC: 1,400 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, Ch Type-531.
Arty: 4,750: guns: 76mm: M-1942; 85mm: D-44, Type-56; 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: M-1931/-37, D-74, Type-60; 130mm: M-46, Type-59.
   gun/how: 152mm: M-1937, D-20 towed. how: 122mm: Type-54, D-30; 152mm: M-1938.
   MRL: 2,100: 107mm: Type-63; 122mm: BM-21; 130mm: Type-63; 140mm: RPU-14, BM-14-16; 200mm: BMD-20; 240mm: BM-24.
   SSM: 15 Scud B, 54 FROG-5/-7.
   mor: 82mm: 11,000; 120mm; 160mm; 240mm.
ATK: RCL: 82mm: 1,500 B-10; 107mm: 1,000 B-11.
   guns: 45mm: M-1942; 57mm: M-1943; 75mm: Type-52; 85mm: D-48 towed; 800 SU-76 and SU-100 SP.
   ATGW.AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 8,500: 23mm; 37mm: Type-55, M-1939; 57mm: S-60, Type-59; 85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19 towed; ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP.
   SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 35,000.
Bases: East Coast: Wonsan, Cha-ho, Chongjin, Kimchaek, Toejo. West Coast: Nampo, Haeju, Pipaqo, Sagwon-ri.
2 Fleet HQ.
Subs: 25:
   4 Sov W-class;
   4 Ch, 12 local-built (Type-033/R-class);
   (?5) miniature subs reported, characteristics unknown.
Frigates: 2 Najin (1 may have 1 twin Styx SSM).
FAC(G): 32:
   8 Soju (Osa-I-type); 10 Osa-I with 4 Styx SSM
   8 Komar<, 6 Sohung (Komar-type) witg 2 Styx SSM
FAC(T): 136: 45 Sov (3 Shershen, 34P-6<, 8 P-4<), 91< (15 Iwon, 6 An Ju, 70 Ku Song/Sin Hung).
FAC: 167: 15 Shanghai I/II, 4 Chodo, 4 K-48, some 144< (20 Sov MO-V, 8 Shantou, 66 Chaho,40 ChongJin (Chong-Ju-class reported); ?10 Sinpo).
Patrol craft: 35 large: 15 SO-1 (6 Sov), 2Sov Tral, 3 Sariwan, 6 Ch Hainan, 9 Taechong; 30<: 10 Sov KM-4 coastal, 20 Misc inshore).
Amph: LSM: 6Hantae, LCU: 9 Hanchon, 95 Nampo assault/landing craft; LCM: 18<.
Coast defence: 2 msl regts: Samlet in 6 sites;
   guns: 122mm: M-1931/-37; 130mm: SM-4-1; 152mm: M-1937 guns.
(On order (?3)miniature SS, 2 Sohung, 2 Soju FAC(G), 1Taechong patrol craft, Hantae LSM).

AIR FORCE: 55,000; some 854 combat ac.
Bbrs: 3 lt sqns with 80 Ilyushin I1-28.
FGA: 10 sqns:
   1 with 20 Sukhoi Su-7;
   6 with some 280 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-15/-17;
   3 with some 100MiG-19/Q-5.
Interceptors: 12 sqns 160 MiG-21, some 60 MiG-19, some 50MiG-23.
Tpt: perhaps 25 sqns: 250 Antonov An-2, 10An-24, 5 D-14, 4 D-18, 2 Tupolev Tu-154B, 1D-62.
Hel: 170 incl 40 Mil Mi-4, 20 Mi-8, 80 Hughes -300, -500 (some 60 reported to be armed).
Trg: incl 4 Mig-23, 120 Yakovlev Yak-18, 100 MiG-15UTI/-19Un/-21U, Il-28, 30 Nanchang CJ-6.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
SAM: 4 bdes (12 bns, 40 btys) with 800 SA-2 in 45 sites.
   Some 30 SA-3 Goa(based round Pyongyang).

Forces Abroad: Iran (300); 10 African countries incl Angola (1,000; plus some 3,000 rivilians), Madagascar (100); Seychelles(50).
Security forces and border guards: 38,000.
Workers-Peasants Red Guards (militia); some 3 million.
Red Youth People's Security Forces Guards some 700,000.
Instruction force (Reserve Military units): ex-Regular and selected Militia staff/trg cadre.
HQ (corps equivalent) in each of 9 Provinces and 3 towns; bde HQ in towns; bns, coys/platoons at village, farm, factory, eta,
   some with small arms, mor to 120mm, some AA arty.

* Official exchange rate. Trade-weighted rate calculated at about $l =2wong.
GDP 1984: won 67,126.0 bn($83.285 bn); 1985: won 72,362.0 bn($83.173 bn)
growth 1984: 7.9% 1985: 5.1%
Inflation 1984: 2.3% 1985: 2.5%
Debt 1984: $45.0 bn 1985: $46.7bn
Def bdgt 1985: won 3,827.0 bn($4.399 bn)
1986: won 4,309.0 bn($4.854 bn)
Def exp 1984: won 3,690.0 bn($4.578 bn)
FMA 1985: $262.7 m 1986: $500.0m
$1=won (1983): 775.75 (1984): 805.98
(1985): 870.02 (1986): 887.70

Population: 43,050,000.
   18-30 31-45
Men: 5,800,000 3,895,000
Women: 5,425,000 3,770,000
Regular 601,000.
Terms of service, allServices, 30-36 months.
Reserves: 4,822,000. Army: Regular Reserves 1,400,000, Homeland Reserve Defence Force 3,300,000. Navy 7,000. Marines 60,000. Air 55,000.

ARMY: 520,000.
HQ: 3Army (1 Reserve), 5Corps (each 4 divs).
2 mech inf divs (each 3 bdes: 3 mech inf, 3 mot, 3tk, 1recce bns; 1fd arty bde).
19 inf divs (each 3 inf regts, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1 engr bn, arty gp).
7 Special Warfare bdes.
2 AA arty bdes.
2 SSM bns with Honest John.
2 SAM bdes: 3 HAWK bns (24 sites), 2 Nike Hercules bns (10 sites).
1 army aviation bde.
Reserves: 1 Army HQ, 23 inf divs.
Tks: 1,300: 350 M-47, 950 M-48A5.
APC: 450 M-113, 400 Fiat 6614/KM-900/-901.
Arty: guns: 3,300: 155mm: M-59; 175mm: M-107 SP.
   how: 105mm: M-101; 155mm: M-114 towed, 100 M-109A2 SP; 203mm: M-115 towed, M-110SP.
   MRL: 36 x 130mm: 140 Kooryong. SSM: 12 Honest John. mor: 5,300 81mm and 107mm.
ATK: guns: 76mm: 8 M-1 8; 90mm: 50 M-36 SP. RL: LAW. RCL: 57mm, 75mm, 106mm. ATGW: TOW.
AD: guns: 600: 20mm: incl 60 Vulcan;35mm: 20 GDF-003; 40mm: 80.
   SAM: 110 HAWK, 100 Nike Hercules.
Avn: ac: 14 Cessna O-2A. hel: 100 Bell UH-1B/H, 180 Hughes 500MD Defender (50 with TOW).
(On order: Improved HAWK (28 btys), Stinger SAM (133 launchers, 599 reloads).)

NAVY: 25,000.
Bases: Chinhae (HQ), Cheju, Inchon, Mokpo, Mukho, Pukpyong, Pohang, Pusan.
5 Command HQ.
Destroyers: 9 (to be replaced by HDF-2100):
   7 Gearing (5 with 2 quad Harpoon SSM, 1 SA-316B Alouette III hel; 2 with 8 ASROC);
   2 Sumner with 2 quad Harpoon, 1 Alouette III hel.
Frigates: 6 (2,100-ton):
   2 HDF-2100 Ulsan with 2 quad Harpoon;
   4 US (2 Lawrence, 2 Crosley) (reported retiring).
Corvettes: 5 HDP-1000 (1,400-ton).
FAC(G): 11:
   8 PSMM-5 (3 with 2 twin Standard SSM (ARM), 5 with 2 twin Harpoon);
   1 Asheville with 2 twin Standard;
   2 Wildcat with 2 Exocet MM-38.
Patrol craft: 136:
   large: 89: 4 Sea Shark, 33 Sea Dolphin, 8 Cape, 42 Gireogi, 2 other;
   coastal<: 47: 45 Schoolboy/Sea Hawk, 2 other.
Minesweepers: 1 US LSM.
Amph: LST: 8; LSM: 7; LCU: 5; LCM: 7.
Spt ships: 2 supply, 6 tankers.
ASW: 2 sqns:
   1 ac with 18 Grumman S-2A/F;
   1 hel with 10 Hughes 500MD;
   11 fits with SA-316B Alouette III hel.
(On order: 4 Ulsan frigates; 2 'Jupiter1 88-m; 3 HDP-1000, 3 PCL-827 corvettes, 20 FAC(G) (7 types), 1 MCMV (1986), 12 river craft, 75 Harpoon SSM.)

MARINES: 23,000.
2 divs, 1 bde.
Spt units.
Tks: 40 M-47. APC: 60 LVTP-7. How: 105mm, 155mm.
(On order: 40 LVTP-7.)

AIR FORCE: 33,000; some 462 combat ac.
7 combat, 2 tpt wings.
FGA: 18 sqns with 260 Northrop F-5A/B/E/F.
AD: 4 sqns with 65 McDonnell-Douglas F-4D/E.
COIN: 1 sqn with 23 Rockwell OV-10G.
Recce: 1 sqn with 10 RF-5A.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 26 Bell UH-1B/H.
Tpt: 2 wings, 5 sqns: 10 C-54 (Douglas DC-4), 16 FairchildC-123J/K, Rockwell Aero Commander,2 BAe/HS-748, 6 C-130H Hercules.
Trg: incl 20 North American T-28D, 33 Lockheed T-33A, 59 Cessna (39 T-37C, 20 T-41D),35 F-5B, 63 F-5F, perhaps 6 GeneralDynamics F-16.
AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.
(On order: some 30 F-16A, 6 F-16B; 4 F-4E,36 F-5E, 30 F-5F ftrs; 17 OV-10 Bronco COIN;25 T-27 Tucano trg ac; Maverick ASM.)
Civilian Defence Corps (to age 50) 3,500,000.
Student Homeland Defence Corps (Schools)600,000.
Hydrographie Service; 3 MCMV.
Coastguard; 4 HDP-600 Sea Whale/Dragon, 12 Sea Shark, Sea Wolf coastal, some 20 Seagull, Sea Snake inshore patrol craft,
   severalhundred minor craft; 9 Hughes 500D hel.
GDP 1982: kip 16.65 bn ($475.714 m); 1983: kip 18.70 bn ($534.286 m)
FMA 1983e: $125.0 m
$l=kip (1983/4/5/6): 35.00

Population: 3,797,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 337,000 302,000
Women: 357,000 331,000
Regular: 53,000.
Terms of service, conscription, 18 months minimum.

ARMY: 50,000.
Military Regions: 4.
5 inf divs.
7 indep inf regts.
1 engr regt.
2 construction regts, indep construction bns.
5 arty, 9 AA arty bns.
65 indep inf coys.
1 lt ac liaison fit.
Tks: 30 T-34/-55. lt: 25 PT-76.
APC: 60BTR-40/-152.
Arty: guns: 130mm: 10 M-46. how: 75mm: 40 M-116; 76mm: 20 M-1942; 105mm: 25 M-101; 122mm: 40 M-1938and D-30.
   mor: 81mm: M-1; 82mm: M-37; 120mm: M-43.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: M-18/A1; 75mm: M-20;107mm: B-11.
AD: guns: 23mm: ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939;57mm: S-60. SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 1,000.
Patrol craft<: 20 riven most ex-Vietnamese, some Sov Shmel.
(Perhaps 20 more vessels incl 3 LCM, 6 tpts inreserve, probably inoperable.)

AIR FORCE: 2,000; 24 combat ac.
FGA: 1 sqn with some 20 Mikoyan-GuryevichMiG-21.
Tpt: 1 sqn: 2 Yakovlev Yak-40, 5 AntonovAn-24, 2 An-26, 6 An-2, C-47 (Douglas DC-3),Douglas DC-4.
Hel: 1 sqn with 10 Mil Mi-8, 2 Mi-6.
Trg: 10 MiG-15UTI/MiG-17, 4 MiG-21UTI, 8 Yak-18.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
(On order: 12 MiG-21 ac.)
PARA-MILITARY: Militia, Self-Defence forces.

GDP 1984: $M 79.634 bn ($US 33.979 bn); 1985: $M 78.000 bn ($US 31.415 bn)
growth 1984: 7.6% 1985: 2.8%
Inflation 1984: 3.9% 1985: 0.3%
Debt 1984: $US 16.7 bn 1985: $US 18.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985: $M 4.381 bn ($US 1.764 bn); 1986: $M 4.700 bn ($US 1.788 bn)
$US = $M(1983): 2.3213; (1984): 2.3436; (1985): 2.4829; (1986): 2.6290

Population: 16,660,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 335,000 301,000
Women: 356,000 330,000
Regular 110,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
Reserves: 46,600. Army 45,000, Navy 1,000, Air 600.

ARMY: 90,000.
1 corps, 4 div HQ.
9 inf bdes, consisting of 36 inf bns (1 APC), 4 cav, 5 fd arty, 2 AA arty, 5 sigs, 5 engr regts; admin units.
1 Special Service regt (3 bns).
Tks: lt: 26 Scorpion (90mm).
AFV: recce: 186 SIBMAS, 140 AML-60/-90, 60 Ferret (to retire). APC: 140 AT-105, 134 V-100/-150 Commando, 25 Stormer, 460 Condor.
Arty: how: 105mm: 60 Model 56 pack, 56 M-102A1. mor: 81mm.
ATK: RL: 89mm: M-20. RCL: 106mm: 150; 120mm: 5. ATGW: SS-11.
AD: guns: 12.7mm: 70; 40mm: 35 L-70.

NAVY: 9,000.
Bases: Lumut (HQ), Tanjong Gelang, Kuantan (HQ Naval Region), Labuan, Sungei Aute (Sarawak), Woodlands (Singapore; trg base).
Frigates: 4:
   2 Kasturi FFG (FS-1500) with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1 hel;
   2 Yarrow FF.
FAC(G): 12 with Exocet MM-38 SSM:
   8 Handalan (Spica-M) (4 msls);
   4 Perdana (La Combattante II) (2 msls).
FAC: 6 Jerong.
Patrol craft: 21 large: 1 Musytari, 2 Kedah, 4 Sabah, 14 Kris.
Minehunters: 4 Lerici.
Amph: LST: 2 US 511-1152, 29 small vessels.
Spt: 3 comd/comms/cargo ships.
(Naval Air Wing to form ?1986.)
(On order 1 1,300-ton offshore patrol vessel.)

AIR FORCE: 11,000; 61 combat ac.
2 Commands.
FGA: 3 sqns: 2 with 39 McDonnell-Douglas A-4PTM; 1 with 19 Northrop F-5 (13 -E, 4 -F, 2 RF-5E).
MR: 1 sqn with 3 C-130HMP Hercules.
Tpt: 5 sqns: ac: 3: 1 with 6 C-130H; 2 with 2 BAe/HS-125, 2 Fokker F-28, 2 HU-16 Albatross, 11 Cessna 402B; hel: 2 with 36 Sikorsky S-61A-4.
Liaison: 4 sqns: ac: 2 with 13 DHC-4A Caribou; hel: 2 with 24 SA-316B Alouette III.
Trg: 3 sqns: ac: 12 Aermacchi MB-339, 40 Pilatus PC-7; hel: 7 Bell 47, 2 Alouette.
AAM: Sidewinder.
(On order: 4 NC-212 Aviocar tpt, 2 HU-16 Albatross ac (1986); Super Sidewinder AAM.)
Police Field Force 18,000; 4 Bde HQ: 21 bns (incl 2 Aboriginal);
   Shorland armd cars, SB-301 APC, 53 armed patrol boats incl 9 Brooke Marine 25m (27<), 4 Cessna 206 ac.
(On order: 2 cutters with hel.)
Area Security Units (Home Guard): 3,100 men in 89 units.
Border Scouts (in Sabah, Sarawak) 1,200.
People's Volunteer Corps (RELA) over 350,000.

OPPOSITION: some 2,100.
Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) (some 1,200).
Communist Party of Malaya (CPMAL) (800) incl CPM Marxist and Leninist Faction (CPM (ML)) (750), CPM Revolutionary Faction (CPM (RF)) (50).
North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) - East Malaysia (60).

* Excl ringgits 2.8 bn for defence in 5-year plan 1986-90. 1981-85 plan had allocated M$ 6.0 bn. All figures incl internal security budget/expenditure.
GDP 1984B: t 6.65 bn ($1.900 bn); 1985e: t 7.13 bn ($2.123 bn)
growth 1983: 8.3% 1984: 4.5%
Def bdgt 1984: t 763.80 m ($218.229 m); 1985e: t 783.00 m ($233.348 m)
$1=t (1982/3): 3.30 (1984): 3.50; (1985): 3.36

Population: 1,954,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 217,000 153,000
Women: 218,000 152,000

Regular: 25,500 (Perhaps 17,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: Conscription: males 18-40 years; 3 years authorized, actual service may only be 2.
Reserves: Army 200,000.

ARMY: 22,000 (perhaps 17,000 conscripts).
4 motor rifle divs.
Tks: 650 T-54/-55/-62.
AFV: recce: 135 BRDM-2/-RKH. MICV: 350 BMP, 20 BMP M-1976. APC: 350BTR-40/-60/-152.
Arty: guns: 650: 122mm: D-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: ML-20.
   MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16, BM-14-17. mor: 82mm, 120mm, 160mm.
ATK: guns: 100mm: T-12. ATGW: BRDM-2 with AT-3 Sagger.
AD: guns: 200: 14.5mm: ZPU-4; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60. SAM: 300 SA-7.

AIR FORCE: 3,500 (100 pilots); Soviet technicians; 17 combat ac.
(Operates civil air line.)
Ftrs: 1 sqn with 17 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21.
Tpt: at least 2 sqns: 20 Antonov An-2,19 An-24, 1An-26, 1An-32.
Hel: 1 sqn with Mil Mi-8, 10 Mi-4.
Trg: Yakovlev Yak-11/-18, 3 PZL-104 Wilga utility.
Ministry of Public Security (15,000): Militia (Police), internal security troops, frontier guards; BTR-60/-152 APC.

GDP 1983/4: NR 38.184 bn ($2.502 bn); 1984/5: NR 41.738 bn ($2.347 bn)
growth 1983/4: 7.4% 1984/5: 2.8%
Inflation 1984: 2.8% 1985: 8.1%
Debt 1984: $430.0 m 1985e: $520.0 m
Def bdgt 1984/5: NR 530.0 m ($29.805 m); 1985/6: NR 660.8 m ($34.521 m)
Def expl 983/4: NR 660.0 m ($43.250 m); 1984/5e: NR 374.0 m ($21.032 m)
$1=NR (1983/4): 15.2602 (1984/5): 17.7822; (1985/6): 19.1417 (1986): 20.5000

Population: 16,950,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,850,000 1,300,000
Women: 1,745,000 1,300,000
Regular: 30,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
Reserves: none organized.

1 Royal Guard bde: incl 1 cav sqn, 1garrison bn.
5 inf bdes: incl AB bn.
1 spt bde:
1 arty regt, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs regt, 1 cav sqn.
1 log bde: incl 1tpt bn, 1 air sqn (1 ac, 1 hel fits).
AFV: recce: 25 Ferret.
Arty: how: 75mm: 6 pack; 3.7-in. (94mm): 5 mountain; 105mm: 6 pack. mor: 4.2-in. (107mm): 4; 120mm: 18.
AD: guns: 40mm: 2 L/60.
Avn: ac: 2 Short Skyvan, 1 BAe/HS-748. hel: 6 Chetak (Alouette III), 2 SA-330 Puma, 1 AS-332 Super Puma.

Forces Abroad: Lebanon (UNIFIL): 1inf bn (800).
PARA-MILITARY: Police force 25,000.

GDP 1983/4: $NZ34.94bn($US22.96bn); 1984/5: $NZ40.98bn($US21.67bn)
growth 1983/4: 3.9% 1984/5: 1.5% .
Inflation 1984/5: 6.2% 1985/6: 15.4%
Debt 1984: $US14.0bnl985: $US14.7bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: $NZ756.41m ($US399.92m); 1985/6: $NZ911.58m ($US469.35m)
FMA 1984: $US1.2ml985 : $US1.4m
$US1=$NZ (1982/3): 1.3710 (1983/4): 1.5219; (1984/5): 1.8914 (1985/6): 1.9422
$NZ=New Zealand dollars

Population: 3,333,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 384,000 297,000
Women: 351,000 326,000

Regular: 12,615.
Terms of service: voluntary, supplemented by Territorial Army service: 7 weeks basic, 20 days per year.
Reserves 9,352. Regular 2,915: Army 1,370, Navy 755, Air 790. Territorial 6,437: Army 5,728, Navy 489, Air 220.

ARMY: 5,816.
2 inf bns.
1 arty bty.
1 lt armd sqn.
1 SAS bn (?1 sqn).
Territorials: 6 inf bns, 4 fd, 1 med arty btys, 1 recce, 1 APC, 1 ATK sqns.
Tks: lt: 26 Scorpion.
APC: 72M-113.
: guns: 5.5-in. (140mm): 10. how: 105mm: 39 (incl pack), mor. 81mm: 74.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 18 M-40.

NAVY: 2,617.
Base. Auckland.
Frigates: 4 Leander with 1 Wasp hel: 3 have 1 quad Seacat SAM; 1 has 2 quad Seacat, 1 Ikara ASW.
Patrol craft: 8: 4 Lake, 4 Kiwi inshore (Reserves).
Survey vessels: 3.
Oceanographie vessel: 1.
Hel: 7 Westland Wasp (see Air Force).
(On order: 1 12,300-ton tanker, Seacat SAM.)

AIR FORCE: 4,182; 43 combat ac, 7 combat hel.
Ops Gp:
FGA: 2 sqns: 17 McDonnell-Douglas A-4K, 5 TA-4K Skyhawk.
MR: 1 sqn with 6 Lockheed P-3B Orion.
COIN: 1 with 15 BAe/BAC-167 Strikemaster.
ASW hel: 7 Wasp (Navy-assigned).
Tpt: 3 sqns: ac: 1 with 5 C-130H Hercules, 1 with 7 BAe/HS-748 Andover, 2 Boeing 727-100C;
   hel: 1 with 6 Westland Sioux (Bell 47), 12 Bell UH-1D/H.
Comms: 1 flight with 3 Cessna 421C.
Support Gp:
Trg wing: 4 Victa Airtourer, 15 CT-4 Airtrainer, 3 F-27 Friendship ac; 3 Sioux hel.

Forces Abroad:
Singapore: 1 inf bn with log spt, 1 spt hel unit (3 UH-1). Egypt (Sinai MFO): 35; 2 UH-1 hel.

GDP 1983/4: Rs 418.77bn ($31.075 bn); 1984/5e: Rs 474.47 bn ($31.315 bn)
growth 1983/4: 4.4% 1984/5: 7.5%
Inflation 1983/4: 6.6% 1984/5: 5.8%
Debt 1984: $12.7 bn 1985: $14.0 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: Rs 29.65 bn ($1.957 bn); 1985/6: Rs 33.06 bn ($2.067 bn)
FMA 1984/5: $325.0 m 1985/6: $350.0 m
$1 = Rs (1983/4): 13.48 (1984/5): 15.15; (1985/6) : 16.00 (1986): 16.91
Rs = rupees;

Population: 98,125,000*
   18-30 31-45
Men: 11,654,000 7,203,000
Women: 10,480,000 6,543,000
Regular: 480,600.
Terms of Service: voluntary.
Reserves: 513,000. Army 500,000 (obligation to ages 45 (men) or 50 (officers); active liability for 8 years after service), Navy 5,000, Air 8,000.

ARMY: 450,000.
7 Corps HQ.
2 armd divs.
17 inf divs.
4 indep armd bdes.
8 indep inf bdes.
8 arty bdes/bde equivalent.
3 AA arty bdes.
6 armd recce regts.
1 special services group (3 bns).
Tks: 1,600: 450 M-47/-48 (incl A5), 51 T-54/-55, some 1,100 Type-59.
APC: 600M-113,45UR-416.
Arty: guns: 85mm: 180 Type 56; 25-pdr (88mm): some 1,000; 100mm: Type-59; 130mm: Type-59-1/M46; 5.5-in. (140mm) and 155mm: M-59.
   how: 105mm: 12 M-7 SP, incl pack; 122mm: Type 54-1; 155mm: 40 M-114, 75 M-198 towed, 100 M-109A2 SP; 203mm: 40 M-110A2SP.
   MRL: 122mm: BM-21. mor: 81mm, 107mm, 120mm.
ATK: RL: M-20 3.5-in. (89mm). RCL: Type-52 75mm; M-40A 106mm. ATGW: Cobra, 300 TOW (incl 24 on M-901 SP).
AD: guns: 14.5mm; 37mm: Type-55/-65; 40mm; 57mm: S-60/Type 59. SAM: 100 Stinger, 144RBS-70.

Liaison: ac: 1 sqn with 55 Mashshaq (Saab-91 Safari); hel: 4 sqns.
Observation: indep fits: ac: 45 Cessna O-1E, Cessna 421, 50 Mashshaq, Rockwell Turbo Commander, Beech Queen Air,
   hel: some 10 Bell AH-1S Cobra with TOW, 16 Mil Mi-8, 35 SA-330 Puma, 23 SA-316B Alouette III, 13 Bell 47.
(On order: 65 M-48A5 MBT; 110 M-113 APC; 88 M-109A2 SP how; TOW ATGW launchers; some 10 AH-1S hel.)

NAVY: 13,000 (incl Naval Air).
Base: Karachi.
Subs: 11: 2 Agosta; 4 Daphne, 5 SX-404 midget.
Destroyers: 8:
   1 Br County with 2 quad Seacat SAM, 1 Alouette hel;
   6 US Gearing with 1 octuple ASROC ASW;
   1 Br Battle (trg, non-operational).
FAC(G): 8 Ch: 4 Huangfen (4 HY-2 SSM), 4 Hoku( (2 HY-2);
FAC(T): 4 Huchwan hydrofoil<.
FAC(gun): 12 Shanghai-Il.
Patrol craft large: 5: 4 Ch Hainan, 1 Town.
MCMV: 3: 2 US Adjutant, 1 MSC-268 coastal.
Spt: 1 tanker, 1 Br Dido cruiser (non-operational trg ship).
(On order: 3 Type-21 frigates; 16 RGM-84 Harpoon SSM).

NAVAL AIR: 3 combat ac, 6 combat hel.
ASW/MR: 1 sqn: 3 Breguet Atlantic (AM-39 ASM).
ASW/SAR: 2 hel sqns: 6 Westland Sea King ASW with AM-39, 4 SA-316B Alouette III.
Comms: 1 Fokker F-27 ac (Air Force).
ASM: AM-39 Exocet.

AIR FORCE: 17,600; 373 combat ac.
FGA: 8 sqns:
   1 with 17 Dassault Mirage IIIEP (some with AM-39 ASM);
   4 with 50 Mirage 5PA3;
   3 with 41 Nanchang Q-5.
Interceptor/FGA: 11 sqns:
   9 with 170 Shenyang J-6;
   2 with some 30 General Dynamics F-16.
Recce: 1 sqn with 13 Mirage IIIRP.
Tpt: 2 sqns:
   1 with 13 C-130B/E, 1 L-100 Hercules;
   1 with 1 Dassault Mystere-Falcon 20, 2 Fokker F-27-200 (1 with Navy), 2 Beech (1 Super King Air, 1 Bonanza).
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 2 Kaman HH-43B, 4 SA-316B Alouette III.
Utility: 1 hel sqn: 4 SA-321 Super Frelon, 12 Bell 47.
Trg: 1 sqn with 20 Lockheed T-33A, 4 MiG-15UTI; other ac incl 2 Mirage 5DPA2, 3 Mirage IIIDP, 2 J-6, 35 Cessna T-37C,
   45 Shenyang JJ-5 (MiG-17U), 12 Shenyang CJ-6, 24 Reims Cessna FTB-337.
AD: 7 SAM btys: 6 with 6 Crotale (each 4 msls); 1 with 6 CSA-1 (SA-2).
AAM: Sidewinder, R-530, R-550 Magic. ASM: AM-39 Exocet.
(On order 10 F-16, some 100 Q-5 FGA, Xian J-7, some 300 AIM-9L Sidewinder.)

Forces Abroad: 30,000 contract personnel. Saudi Arabia (10,000), Libya, Oman, UAE, Kuwait

National Guard (75,000): Mujahid Force; Janbaz Force; National Cadet corps; Women Guards.
Civil Armed Forces (CAF) (89,000):
   Frontier Corps (65,000); Pakistan Rangers (15,000); Northern Light Infantry (7,000); Coast Guard (2,000).

* Excl Afghan refugees.

GDP 1983: K 1.998 bn ($2,395 bn); 1984: K 1.913 bn ($2,139 bn)
growth 1982: -0.1% 1983: 0.9%
Inflation 1983: 7.9% 1984: 7.5%
Debt 1984: $1.8 bn 1985: $2.1 bn
Def bdgt 1985: K 31.228 m ($31.134m); 1986: K 33.464 m ($34.667 m)
FMA 1983: $13.0 m 1984: $14.5 m
$1=K (1983): 0.8341 (1984): 0.8942; (1985): 1.0030 (1986): 0.9653
K = kina

Population: 3,523,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 391,000 277,000
Women: 363,000 248,000
Regular: 3,232.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,846.
2 inf bns.
1 engr bn.
1 sigs sqn.
Log units.

NAVY: 300.
Bases: Port Moresby, Lombrum.
Patrol craft: 5 Attack large.
Amph: 2 500-ton landing craft.
(On order: 4 Pacific-class patrol vessels (1986-87)).

Tpt: 1 sqn with GAF N-22B Missionmaster, 3 IAI Arava 201 for border patrol, 6 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
PARA-MILITARY: Police (Border Patrol) 4,600.

GDP 1984: P 549.830 bn ($32.926 bn); 1985e: P 623.100 bn ($33.487 bn)
growth 1984: -5.2% 1985: -3.9%
Inflation 1984: 50.4% 1985: 23.1%
Debt 1984: $26.5 bn 1985: $26.3 bn
Def bdgt 1985: P 8.820bn ($474.015 m); 1986: P 10.500 bn ($510.949 m)
FMA $68.0 m 1986: $152.0 m
$1=P (1983): 11.113 (1984): 16.699; (1985): 18.607 (1986): 20.550
P =pesos

Population: 56,449,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 6,804,000 4,536,000
Women: 6,599,000 4,460,000
Regular: 113,000 (plus 42,000 Para-Military).
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: 48,000. Army 20,000 (obligation to age 49), 18 bns, some 75,000 more have commitments; Navy 12,000; Air 16,000 (to age 49).

ARMY: 70,000.
12 Military Regions (being re-org).
5 inf divs (each 3 inf bdes, spt tps).
1 ranger regt (2 scout ranger, 1 mountain bns).
2 engr bdes.
1 lt armd regt.
4 arty regts.
1 Presidential Security Command (6 bns).
1 military police bde (3 bns).
Tks: lt: 28 Scorpion.
AFV: MICV: 45.
APC: 80 M-113, 20 Chaimite, 120 V-150.
Arty: how: 105mm: 260 M-101 and M-102 pack; 155mm: 12 M-114. mor: 81mm; 107mm: 40.
ATK: RCL: 75mm: M-20; 90mm: M-67; 106mm: M-40.

NAVY: 26,000 (9,500 Marines, 2,000 Coast Guard).
Base. Sangley Point/Cavite, Zamboanga.
Frigates: 7:
   4 Casco (to be mod; plan to get Harpoon);
   1 Savage,
   2 Cannon.
Corvettes: 10: 2 Auk, 7 PCE-827, 1 Admirable.
Patrol craft: 86:
   large: 13: 1 command, 1 SAR ship, 4 Kagitingan, 4 PGM-39, 1 PGM-71, 2 US PC-461.
   coastal: 73: 31 de Haviland 9209; 39 Sewart Swift Mks 1, 2, 3; 3 other.
Amph: 3 spt, 24 LST,4 LSM, 61 LCM,7 LCVP, 3LCU.
SAR: 1 sqn with 6 GAF N-24A Searchmaster L ac, 5 MBB BO-105 hel.
Spt: 2 Presidential yachts, 3 repair ships, 1 spt ship, 2 tankers.

MARINES: (9,500):
APC: 30 LVTP-5, 55 LVTP-7.
Arty: how: 105mm: 150M-101. mor: 4.2-in. (107mm): M-30.

Coastguard: (2,000).
Equipment: Some 65 patrol craft incl 3 large SAR, 2 lt ac.
(On order: 2 ex-US destroyers, 3 PSMM-5 FAC(G); 6 Kagitingan (status of order unclear) large, 50 small patrol boats (some 19 Swifttype for Coastguard); 1 LCVP amph.)

AIR FORCE: 17,000; combat: 71 ac, 17 hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 20 Republic F-8H.
AD: 1 sqn with 16 Northrop F-5A, 3 F-5B.
COIN: ac: 2 sqns with 32 North American T-28D; hel: 1 wing with 62 Bell UH-1H, 17 Sikorsky S-76.
Presidential tpt: 1 sqn with: ac: 1 Boeing 707, 1 BAe/BAC-111, 1 NAMC YS-11, 1 FokkerF-28;
   hel: 1 Sikorsky S-62A, 2 Bell UH-1N, 1 SA-330 Puma, 2 Sikorsky S-70AS.
Tpt: 5 sqns: ac: 1 with 3 C-130H Hercules; 1 with 5 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 11 Fokker (8 F-27, 3 F-27MR);
   1 with 9 GAF N22B Missionmaster,
   1 with 22 BN-2 Islander,
   hel: 1 with 11 MBB BO-105.
Liaison: 1 sqn with Cessna O-1E, 1 Cessna U-17A/B, 3 Cessna 210.
Trg: 3 sqns:
   1 with 10 Lockheed T/RT-33A, 12 Cessna T-41D;
   1 with 46 SIAI-Marchetti (30 SF-260MP, 16 SF-260WP);
   1 with 10 Beech T-34A.
Weather: 1 sqn with 3 GAF N-22B Missionmaster.
AAM: Sidewinder.
Ministry of Defence 42,000.
Philippine Constabulary (50,000); 13 Regional Commands, 225 provincial coys.
Civil Home Defence Force 65,000.
Army Reserve Comd: 18 inf bns.
Bangsa Moro Army (armed wing of Moro National Liberation Front) 11,000.
New People's Army (NPA; Maoist) 16,500 (perhaps 11,000 armed; 20,000 more supporters).
Cordillera People's Liberation Army (breakaway from NPA) few hundred; small arms.
Figures must be used with caution.

GDP 1983/4: S 35.171 bn ($16.571 bn); 1984/5: S 38.733 bn ($17.901 bn)
growth 1984/5: -1.7% 1985/6: -2.4%
Inflation 1984: 2.6% 1985: 0.4%
Debt 1984: $2.0 bn 1985: $3.7 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: S 2.263 bn($ 1.046 bn); 1985/6: S 2.614 bn ($1.201 bn)
$1=S (1983/4): 2.1225 (1984/5): 2.1637; (1985/6): : 2.1762 (1986): 2.2188
S = $ Singapore

Population: 2,631,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 368,000 301,000
Women: 347,000 292,000
Regular 55,500, (34,800 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription; 24-30 months.
Reserves: Army 170,000; annual trg to age 40 for men, 50 for officers. Navy (?4,500), Air Force (?7,500).

ARMY: 45,000 (30,000 conscripts).
1 div HQ.
1 armd bde (1 recce, 1 tk, 2 APC bns).
3 inf bdes (each 3 inf bns).
6 arty bns.
1 cdo bn.
6 engr, 3 sigs bns.
Reserves: 2 div, 1 armd bde, 6 inf bde HQ; 18 inf, 1 cdo, 12 arty, 6 engr, 3 sigs bns.
Tks: some 6 M-60 (trg). lt: 270+ AMX-13.
APC: 720M-113.
Arty: how: 155mm: 54: 38 Soltam M-71, 16 M-114A1 (other types incl M-68 and 1 domestic production reported).
   mor: 60mm; 81mm; 120mm: 50 (some SP in M-113).
ATK: RL: 89mm. RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 90.

NAVY: 4,500 (1,800 conscripts).
Base. Pulau Brani (Singapore).
FAC(G): 6 TNC-45 each with 5 Gabriel II SSM.
FAC: 6 Vosper A/B.
Patrol craft: 12 Swift coastal.
Minesweepers: 2 US Redwing coastal.
Amph: 6 US 511-1152 LST (1 in reserve), 8 landing craft<.
Trg: 2 ships.

AIR FORCE: 6,000 (3,000 conscripts); 155 combat ac.
FGA: 3 sqns:
   2 (1 more to form) with 37 McDonnell-Douglas A-4S/SI, 6 TA-4S Skyhawk,
   1 with 21 BAe Hunter FGA-74.
COIN: 3 sqns:
   1 with 18 BAe/BAC-167;
   1 with 20 Lockheed T-33A;
   1 with some 14 SIAIS-211.
AD: 2 sqns with 23 Northrop F-5E, 3 F-5F.
SAM: 4 sqns: 1 with 28 Bloodhound 2; 1 with 10 Rapier, 1 with 6 Improved HAWK; 1 with Bofors RBS-70.
guns: 20mm; 35mm; 40mm: L-70.
APC: 280: 30 V-100, 250 V-150/-200 Commando.
Recce: 1 sqn with 7 Hunter FR-74S, 4 T-75S, 2 Grumman E-2C Hawkeye AEW.
Tpt/SAR: 1 sqn with 8 C-130B/H Hercules, 6 Short Skyvan.
Trg: 11 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260W, 12 -260MS.
Hel: 2 sqns: 36 Bell UH-1B/H, 3 Agusta-Bell AB-212, 6 AS-350B Ecureuil, 6 AS-332 Super Puma.
AAM: AIM-9J/P Sidewinder.
(On order 8 General Dynamics F-16, 70 A-4SI (being rebuilt), some 26 SIAI S-211, 2 E-2C ac; 16 AS-332 hel (local production); Rapier/Blindfire SAM; 200 AGM-65 Maverick ASM.)

Forces Abroad: Brunei: (500); trg school.
Police/marine police 7,500; 56 patrol craft (10 armd).
Gurkha guard bn some 700.
People's Defence Force, some 30,000.

GDP 1984: Rs 152.615 bn ($5.999 bn); 1985: Rs 171.081 bn ($6.298 bn)
growth 1984: 4.1% 1985: 5.1%
Inflation 1984: 16.6% 1985: 1.4%
Debt 1984: $3.7 bn 1985: $4.1 bn
Def bdgt 1985: Rs 6.196 bn ($228.104 m)
1986: Rs 8.700 bn ($311.159 m)*
$1=Rs (1983): 23.529 (1984): 25.438; (1985): 27.163 (1986): 27.960
Rs = rupees

Population: 16,445,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,078,000 1,366,000
Women: 2,059,000 1,364,000
TOTAL ARMED FORCES: 37,660 incl active Reservists.
Regular: 21,560.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: 16,100. Obligation: 7 years post Regular service. Army 14,000, Navy 1,000, Air 1,100.

ARMY: 30,000 incl active Reservists.
5 'Task Forces' (inf bdes: 5 regular, 6 reserve bns).
2 recce regts (bns) (1 reserve).
2 fd arty (1 reserve), 1 AA regts.
1 fd engr, 1 engr plant regts.
1 sigs bn.
1 Special Forces Task Force, 4,000 men.
Support services: log units.
AFV: recce: 18 Saladin, 15 Ferret, 12 Daimler Dingo.
APC: 160: 10 BTR-152, 6 SAMIL 100, 144 other.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 16 Yug M-48; 85mm: 30 Type-56; 25 pdr (88mm). mor: 82mm: 12; 4.2-in. (107mm): 12.
ATK: RCL: 82mm: M-60; 106mm: M-40.
AD: guns: 40mm: 24; 3.7-in. (94mm): 24.
(On order: 6 Saracen APC.)

NAVY: 3,960.
Bases: Trincomalee, Karainagar, Colombo, Tangalla, Kalpitiya.
Comd: 3 ships, 3 tenders.
Patrol craft: large: 2 Jayesagara 40-metre; coastal<: 42: 11 Pradeepa, 6 Dabur-class, 9 Cougar Marine 32-ft, 16 other; harbour<: 4.
FAC: 6 Sooraya (Ch Shanghai-II).
Amph: 4: 2 LCM, 2 lt LCU.
(On order: 3 Jayesagara large, 2 coastal patrol craft<, 6 landing craft (2 late 86).)

AIR FORCE: 3,700; 2 combat hel.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 BAe/HS-748, 2 Douglas DC-3, 2 Riley Heron, 1 DH Heron, 3 Cessna 337, 1 Beechcraft, 1 Cessna 421C.
Hel: 1 sqn with 10 Bell (8 206, 2 212 attack), 2 SA-365 Dauphin.
Trg: incl 6 Cessna 150/152, 8 DH (5 Chipmunk, 3 Dove).
Reserves: Air Force Regt, 3 sqns; Airfield Construction Regt, 1 sqn.
(In storage: 2 BAe Jet Provost Mk 51 ac.)
(On order: 12 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260TP COIN/trg ac, 6 Bell 212, 20 Bell 206 hel).
Police Force 21,000 (increase to 28,000 planned by end 1986).
Volunteer Force 5,000.
Home Guard.

Eelam National Liberation Front (EPNLF): 4 gps:
   Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF).
   Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO).
   Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS).
   Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOT).
(Eelam Revolutionary Communist Party reported, status, strength unknown).
Total strength est 5,000 activists, perhaps 8,000 supporters/reserves; small arms, RPG-7 RL, SA-7 SAM.

* Incl extra allocation of Rs 2.5 bn to meet internal security expenditure.

GNP 1984/5: $NT 2,388.4 bn($US 57.5 bn); 1985/6e: $NT 2,445.0 bn ($US 62.7 bn)
growth 1984: 10.9% 1985: 5.0%
Inflation 1984: 0.0% 1985: -0.2%
Debt 1984: $US 11.5 bn 1985: $US 8.5 bn
Def bdgt 1985/6: $NT 161.3 bn($US 4.1 bn); 1986/7e: $NT 160.3 bn ($US 4.2 bn)*
$1=$NT( 1983/4): 41.60 (1984/5): 41.53; (1985/6): 39.00 (1986): 38.10
$NT = New Taiwan dollars

Population: 20,210,000
   15-30 31-45
Men: 2,560,000 1,842,000
Women: 2,450,000 1,766,000
Regular: 424,000.
Terms of service: 2 years.
Reserves: 1,457,500. Army: 1,300,000 have some Reserve obligation to age 30. Navy 32,500, Marines 35,000, Air 90,000.

ARMY: 270,000.
3 Army, 6 Corps, 1 Special Force HQ.
12 hy inf divs.
6 lt inf divs.
6 mech inf bdes.
2 AB bdes.
4 tk gps.
20 fd arty bns.
5 SAM bns: 2 with Nike Hercules, 3 with HAWK.
6 army aviation sqns.
9 Reserve divs (cadre).
Tks: 309 M-48. lt: 325 M-24 (90mm gun), 795 M-41.
AFV: recce: M-8. APC: M-3 half-track, 1,100 M-113, 150 V-150 Commando.
Arty: guns/how: 155mm: 390 M-59, T-69 (SP).
   how: 75mm: 350 M-116 pack; 105mm: 550 M-101 (T-64); 155mm: 90 M-114 (T-65); 203mm: 10 M-115 towed;
   105mm: 225 M-108 SP; 155mm: 250 M-109A1 (T-69) SP; 203mm: 150M-110SP.
   MRL: 65mm: Kung Feng (Worker Bee); 45x117mm: (Mark VI); 40 x 126mm: (Mark III/IV) towed and SP.
   SSM: Hsiung Feng (Drone Bee = Gabriel-type) coastal defence SSM, Ching Feng (Green Bee = lance-type) SSM/SAM.
   mor: 81mm.
ATK: RCL: 90mm: M-67; 106mm: 500 M-40. guns: 76mm: 150 M-1 8 SP. ATGW : Kun Wu (Fire God= rOW-type), TOW (some SP).
AD: guns: 40mm: 300 (incl M-42 SP). SAM: 400 Nike Hercules, 800 HAWK, 420 Chaparral.
Avn: hel: 118 UH-1H, 2 KH-4, 7 CH-34.

(On order: 75 M-60 MBT, 164 M-113 APC (incl variants); 1,000 TOW, Kun Wu ATGW; 16 launchers, 366 MIM-72F Chaparral msls; 370 Improved HAWK, Tien Kung I (Patriot-type) SAM.)
DEPLOYMENT: Quemoy 55,000, Matsu 18,000.

NAVY: 38,000.
Bases: Tsoying, Makung (Pescadores), Keelung.
Subs: 2 Guppy-II.
Destroyers: 26:
   13 Gearing (3 ?non-operational) with 1 hel (fitting 3 Hsiung Feng (HF) SSM, 10 with 1 octuple ASROC;
   8 Sumner (1 with 1 triple, 2 with 2 twin HF); 4 Fletcher (3 with 1sextuple Sea Chaparral SAM);
   1 Gearing radar picket with 3 HF.
Frigates: 9: 3 Lawrence, 6 Crosley.
Corvettes: 4: 1 domestic, 3 Auk.
FAC(G): 53 with HFSSM:
   2 Lung Chiang (PSMM-5),
   1 Suikiang with 4,
   50 Tzu Chiang( (mod Dvora) with 2.
Patrol craft<: 28 coastal.
MCMV: 8 Adjutant, 2 MSC-268 and 3 MSC-289 coastal.
Amph: LPD: 1; LSD: 2; LST: 22 (1 comd); LSM: 4; LCU: 22; LCM: some 250; LCVP: 150.
Spt: 1 repair ship, 3 tpts, 7 tankers.
Hel: 1 sqn with 12 Hughes 500MD ASW Defender.
(On order: 2 mod Zwaardvis subs; 3 Lung Chiang, 4 Tzu Chiang FAC(G), 8 PSMM-5 FAC(G); 10 ASW hel; ASROC ASW; 170 Standard SM-1, 284 Improved Sea Chaparral SAM.)

MARINES: 39,000.
3 divs.
Spt elms.
APC: LVT-4/-5.
Arty: how: 105mm, 155mm. RCL: 106mm.

AIR FORCE: 77,000; 562 combat ac.
5 combat wings.
FGA: 13 sqns: 225 Northrop F-5E, 30 F-5F, 42 North American F-100A/D, 80 Lockheed F-104G.
Ftrs: 1 sqn with 15 F-104A.
Recce: 1 sqn with 8 RF-104G.
MR: 1 sqn with 9 Grumman S-2A, 20 S-2E.
SAR: 1 sqn with 8 Grumman HU-16B ac, 10 Bell UH-1H hel.
Tpt: 6 sqns: 26 Douglas (20 C-47, 5 C-54, 1 C-l 18B), 50 Fairchild (40 C-l 19, 10 C-123), 5 Boeing (1 720B, 4 727-100).
Hel: 2 sqns: 7 UH-19 (Sikorsky S-55), 10 Bell 47G.
OCU: 82 F-5A/B, 30 F/TF-104G, 6 F-104D, 15F-100F.
Trg: incl 55 AIDC PL-IB Chien Shou, 49 AIDC T-CH-1, 32 Lockheed T-33, Northrop T-38; 10 North American T-28, AIDC AT-3.
AAM: Sidewinder, Shafrir. ASM: Bullpup, AGM-65A Maverick.
(On order: 60 F-5E/F ftr, 12 Lockheed C-130H tpt, 42 Beech T-34C Mentor, 50 AT-3 trg ac; 14 Sikorsky S-70 hel; Sparrow AAM.)
Taiwan Garrison Comd, 25,000.
Ministry of Defence internal security force.
Customs Service (Ministry of Finance): 11 patrol craft 5 ocean (armed), 11 inshore (3 armed).

* Estimates of likely actual expenditures run up to $NT 205 bn for 1985/6 and $NT 220 bn for 1986/7.

GDP 1984: b 991.75 bn ($41.954 bn); 1985: b 1,055.42 bn ($38.861 bn)
growth 1984: 6.0% 1985: 4.1%
Inflation 1984: 0.9% 1985: 2.4%
Debt 1984: $14.7 bn 1985: $15.8 bn
Def bdgt 1984/5: b 41.422 bn ($1.752 bn); 1985/6: b 41.200 bn ($1.517 bn)
FMA 1985: $100.0 m 1986: $85.3 m
$1=b (1983): 23.000 (1984): 23.639; (1985): 27.159 (1986): 26.340
b = baht

Population: 52,850,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 6,643,000 4,600,000
Women: 6,455,000 4,500,000
Regular. 256,000.
Terms of service. 2 years.
Reserves: 500,000.

ARMY: 166,000 (86,000 conscripts).
4 Regions; 4 Army HQ.
1 cav div (2 cav, 1 arty regts).
1 armd div (1 tk, 1 cav, 1 mech regts).
7 inf divs (incl Royal Guard, 5 with 1 tk bn).
2 special forces divs.
1 arty div, 1 AA div (2 AA arty regts).
11 engr bns.
8 indep inf bns.
4 recce coys.
Avn: 3 airmobile coys, some hel fits.
Reserves: 4 div HQ.
Tks: 365: some Ch Type 59 reported, 65 M-48A5; 300 M-41 (most in reserve). lt: 150 Scorpion, 40 M-24 (in reserve).
AFV: recce: 56 EE-9 Cascavel, 32 Shorland Mk 3.
APC: 340 M-113, M-3A1 half-track, 150 V-150 Commando, 20 Saracen.
Arty: guns: 130mm: 18 Type 59. how: 75mm: 300 M-116 pack; 105mm: M-101/-101 mod; 155mm: 110 M-114, 62 M-198.
   mor: 81mm, 4.2-in (107mm), 120mm.
ATK: RL: M-72 LAW. RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20; 106mm: 150M-40. ATGW: TOW, Dragon.
AD: guns: 20mm: 48 M-163 Vulcan; 37mm: some 14 Ch; 40mm: 80 M-1/L-70/M-42 SP. SAM: Redeye.
Avn: ac (tpt): 4 C-47 (DC-3), 1 Beech King Air. (lt): 2 Short 330-UTT, 93 Cessna (80 O-1, 13 U-17A), 1 Beech 99. (trg): 23 Cessna T-41A.
   hel: 107 Bell (99 UH-1B/H, 3 OH-13H, 3 OH-58A, 2 214ST), 11 Hughes TH-55A.
(On order: Ch 85mm ATK guns, Kittikhachorn 105mm MRL; Blowpipe SAM; Short 330-UTT tpt ac.)

NAVY: 42,000 (some conscripts) incl naval air and marines.
Bases: Bangkok, Sattahip, Songkla, Phangnga.
Frigates: 6:
   1 Br Yarrow-type with 1 quad Seacat SAM;
   2 Tapi (US PF-103);
   2 Tachin (US Tacoma);
   1 Cannon (trg).
FAC(G): 6:
   3 Ratcharit (Breda BMB-230) with 4 Exocet SSM;
   3 Prabparapak (TNC-45) with 5 Gabriel SSM.
FAC: 3 Chonburi (Breda MV-400).
Patrol craft: 98: 25 large: 6 Sattahip (PSMM-5), 6 Sarasin (PC-461), 10 T-ll (PGM-71), 3 T-81 (Cape); 33 coastal; 40 river<.
MCMV: 2 Lurssen 48-m minehunters, 4 Ladya (US Bluebird) coastal, 5 boats, 1 spt ship.
Amph: LST: 5; LSM: 3; LSIL: 2; LCG: 1; LCU: 9; LCM: 26; LCA: 4; LCVP: 12.
Trg ships: 2: 1 Br Algerine, 1 Jap Maeklong.
Spt ships: 2 tpts, 1 tanker.
Msls: SSM: MM-38 Exocet, Gabriel; SAM: Seacat.

NAVAL AIR: (900); some 23 combat ac.
MR/ASW: 1 sqn with 9 Grumman S-2F.
MR/SAR: 1 sqn with 4 Fokker F-27MPA, 2 Canadair CL-215, 5 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
MR/COIN: 8 N-24 Nomad Searchmaster, 2 Cessna 337.
Trg/SAR: 1 hel sqn with 11 Bell UH-1H/N.
Observation: 1 sqn with 30 Cessna (13 U-17, 10 O-1 A, 6 O-2).

MARINES: (20,000).
2 regts: 6 inf, 1 arty bns; 1 amph assault bn (lt tk bn forming).
APC: 61 LVTP-7.
Arty: guns/how: 155mm: 24 GC-45.
ATK: TOW, Dragon.
(On order: 3 PFMM-16 corvettes, 3 coastal, 1 hydrofoil patrol craft; 4 Lurssen minesweepers, 6 PS-700 LST; Aspide SAM; Harpoon SSM; 10 Exocet MM-39 coast defence msls; 12 Stingray torpedoes; 3 F-27MPA MR ac; lt tks.)

AIR FORCE: 48,000 (? conscripts); 183 combat ac.
FGA: 1 sqn with 13 Northrop F-5A/B.
AD: 2 sqns: 34 F-5E, 5 F-5F.
COIN: 7 sqns:
   1 with 22 North American T-28D;
   2 with 25 Rockwell OV-10C;
   1 with 13 Cessna A-37B;
   1 with 25 AU-23A Peacemaker,
   1 with 14 AC-47 (Douglas DC-3);
   1 with 14 Lockheed T-33A, 3 RT-33.
Recce: 1 sqn with 4 RF-5A, 6 RC-47D, 3 Arava 201, 1 Queen Air 65, 1 Cessna 340.
Tpt: 3 sqns incl Royal fit:
   1 with 10 C-47, 2 Fairchild Merlin IVA;
   2 with 10 Fairchild C-123B, 4 C-130H Hercules; 8 BAe/HS-748; 1 Boeing 737-200; 5 Nurtanio-CASA NC-212; 20 N-22B Nomad Missionmaster.
Liaison: 3 sqns: 4 Helio U-10, 30 Cessna O-1.
Hel: 2 sqns: 18 CH-34C (Sikorsky S-58), 29 Bell (27 UH-1H, 2 412).
Trg: incl 25 Cessna (10 T-37B, 6 O-1A, 9 T-41A), 16 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260MT, 23 CT-4 Airtrainer, some 4 V-400, -600 Fantrainer.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.
Airfield defence troops: 4 bns; Blowpipe SAM.
(On order 8 General Dynamics F-16A, 4 -16B FGA, 8 F-5E, 6 RC-47, 3 NC-212, 2 Merlin IVA, 4 N-24 Nomad, 6 HS-748, 1 C-130H-30 tpt, some 29 V-400, 14 V-600 Fantrainer trg ac; 4 UH-60 Black HAWK hel; Stingray torpedoes; AIM-9P Sidewinder AAM; Blowpipe SAM.)
Thahan Phran 14,000: volunteer irregular force; 32 regts, 196 indep coys.
Volunteer Defence Corps 33,000.
Marine Police 1,700; 14 patrol craft.
Police Aviation 500; 5 Short (3 Skyvan, 1 Sherpa, 1 330-UTT), 8 Pilatus PC-6, 2 DHC-4 Caribou, 1 Dornier Do-28, 2 Cessna 310, 1 Victa Airtourer,
   1 CT-4 Airtrainer ac; 40 Bell (27 205, 13 206), 1 Sikorsky S-62, 6 Hiller HH-12, 1 KH-4 (Bell 47) hel.
Border Patrol Police 20,000.
Special Action Force 3,800.
Rangers 13,000.
Village Scouts.
National Defence Volunteers; 20 V-150 Commando APC, 1 Coastguard cutter.
(On order 7 Nomad ac.)
Communist Party of Malaya: some 1,500.
Pak Mai (New Party) Vietnam-backed Communist party (?1,500).
Communist Party of Thailand: perhaps 500.
New Communist Party.
Thai People's Revolutionary Movement: some 250.
Patani United Liberation Organization (Islamic): some 500.

GDP 1984e: $US 14-18.0 bn; 1985e: $US 14-19.4 bn
growth 1984: 5.1%
Inflation 1984: 50.0%
Debt 1985e: $4.0-6.7 bn*
FMA 1983e: $50-200.0 m

Population: 61,230,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 7,879,000 3,722,000
Women: 7,704,000 4,451,000
Regular: 1,155,000.
Terms of service. 3 years, specialists 4 years, some ethnic minorities 2 years.
Reserves (all services): 'Tactical Rear Force' 500,000: semi-mobilized first-line quick reinforcement org. Militia Self Defence 2,500,000.

ARMY: 1,000,000.
14 Corps HQ.
61 inf divs. f
10 armd bdes.
10 marine bdes.
some 10 fd arty regts.
8 engr divs.
10-16 economic construction divs; 14 indep engr bdes.J
Equipment: ^
Tks: 1,600 T-34/-54/-55, Type-59. lt: 450: PT-76, Type-62/-63.
AFV: recce: BRDM-1/-2. APC: 1,500 BTR-50/-60, BMP, Ch Type-55/-56, Type-531, 1,200 M-113.
Arty: guns: 76mm: 600; 85mm; 100mm; 122mm; 130mm: 200.
   how: 105mm: M-101/-102; 152mm: 250; 155mm: M-114 (90 SP); SU-76, SU-100, ISU-122.
   MRL: 107mm: Type-63; 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14-16. mor: 60mm, 81mm, 82mm, 120mm, 160mm.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: Type-36; 75mm; 82mm; 88mm: Type-51; 90mm; 107mm.
AD: guns: 23mm: 3,000; 30mm; 37mm; 40mm; 57mm; 37mm: Type-63; ZSU-23-4, ZSU-57-2 SP. SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 40,000 (incl naval inf).ї
Bases: Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ha Tou, Ho Chi Minh City. Kampuchea: Kompong Som, Ream.
Frigates: 6:
   4 Sov Petya II;
   2 US (1 Barnegat (may have 2 Styx SSM); 1 Savage).
FAC(G): 8 Sov Osa-U with Styx SSM;
FAC(T): 12 Shershen, (12) Turya hydrofoil.
FAC (gun): 8 Shanghai, 14 Swatow.
Patrol craft: 26: large: 16: 6 SO-1, 10 US PGM-59/-71; coastal: 10: 6 Zhuk, 2 PO-2, 2 Poluchat.
MCMV: 1 Yurka coastal, 1 Yevgenya inshore<, 10 K-8 boats<.
Amph: LST: 7: 3 US 510-1152, 3 Sov Polnocny, LCM: 20; LCU/LCVP: ?12.


AIR FORCE: 15,000; some 293 combat ac, 65 combat hel (plus many in store).ї
4 Air Divs.
FGA: 2 regts:
   1 (3 sqns) with 38 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-21MF.
   1 (3 sqns) with 45 Sukhoi Su-20/-22.
Ftrs: 4 regts with 200 MiG-21bis/F/PF.
Tpt: 3 regts: some 135 ac incl 20 Antonov An-2, 10 Li-2 (Soviet-built DC-3), 9 An-24, An-12, 50 An-26, 2 An-30,
   6 Tupolev Tu-134, 11 Yakovlev Yak-40, 7 Ilyushin I1-14, 2 I1-18.
   (2 C-130 Hercules, 1 Douglas DC-3, 4 DC-4, . 2 DC-6, 2 Boeing 707, 7 Cessna U-17 (may not now be serviceable.)
Hel: 1 div (3 regts): 200 hel incl 15 Mil Mi-6, 36 Mi-8, 30 Mi-24, 17 Kamov Ka-25; 45 Bell UH-1 (few serviceable).
Trg: 3 regts: 70 ac incl 10 MiG-23, MiG-21, Aero L-29, L-39 ac; Mi-8, Mi-24 hel.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
14 AD divs:
   SAM regts: some 60 sites with SA-2/-3/-9;
   AA arty: 1,000: 85mm, 100mm, 130mm;
   6 radar bdes: 10,000; 100 sites.

Forces Abroad (numbers fluctuate):
Laos 50,000 (4 inf divs and spt tps).
Kampuchea/Cambodia 140,000 (2 Front HQ, 10 army divs, + spt tps, naval base, fighter ac incl MiG-21).
Border Defence Forces 60,000
Peoples Regional Force (militia) 500,000; 1 regt HQ at each provincial capital, local inf coys, small arms. Some Northern regts org in divs. Some AA eqpt.
People's Self Defence Force: (1,000,000): Two components:
   Urban; Rural (People's militia): local coy-sized units in towns, some mobile police function and support. Small arms.

* Includes some $2.3 bn owed to socialist countries,
t Includes forces Abroad. Infantry division strengths vary by geographic location, composition and role from 5,000 to 12,500; 7,500 is 'average'.
% Men beyond normal military age; unit strength omic role; most in northern Vietnam. about 3,000 each, fully armed, with military and econ- ї Much US, some Soviet eqpt probably inoperable.

Caribbean and Latin America

   Continental Treaties and Agreements
   The Act of Chapultepec.
   Signed by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the US, Uruguay and Venezuela in March and April 1945. This Act declared that if any aggression across boundaries established by treaty occurs, or threatens, the signatories will consult to agree upon measures up to and including the use of armed force to prevent or repel it.
   The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Treaty of Rio).
   Signed in September 1947 by all parties to the Act of Chapultepec plus El Salvador and Trinidad and Tobago but except Ecuador and Nicaragua, this treaty expands the Act, constrains signatories to settle disputes among themselves peacefully and provides for collective self-defence should any member be subjected to external attack. lt came into force on 3 December 1948, has been applied some fourteen times since and was expanded in July 1985. Cuba withdrew in March 1960.
   The Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS).
   Dated April 1948, the Charter embraces declarations based upon the Treaty of Rio. The members of the OAS - the signatories to the Act of Chapultepec plus Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, El Salvador, Grenada, Jamaica, St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago (Canada and Guyana are observers) - are bound to settle internal disputes peacefully and take collective action in the event of external attack upon any signatory. It has a Permanent Council empowered to call meetings of the Foreign Ministers to deal with emergencies. Each member has one vote in each OAS agency.
   The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty).
   This treaty, which permits the peaceful use of nuclear materials and facilities but bans 'testing, use, manufacture, production or any acquisition of nuclear weapons', was signed in February 1967 by 25 Latin American countries, 24 of which have ratified it (Argentina has not). Brazil and Chile will not implement it until all other Latin American states have done so. Cuba and Guyana have not signed it. The Treaty therefore is not in force for those five countries. Britain and the Netherlands have ratified it (1977) for the territories within the Treaty area for which they are internationally responsible and, with France and the US, have signed Protocol I (which commits states outside the region to accept, for their territories within it, the Treaty restrictions regarding the emplacement or storage of nuclear weapons); Britain and the US (1971), China, France (1973) and the USSR (1978) have signed Protocol II (an undertaking not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against the parties to the Treaty). An Agency was set up to monitor compliance.
   Regional Agreements
   The 1903 treaty with the Republic of Panama, granting the United States virtual sovereign rights over the Canal Zone in perpetuity, was renegotiated; the 1977 Treaties which resulted came into force in October 1979. About 40% of the former Canal Zone will remain under US control until 31 December 1999. Defence and neutrality of the Canal will be the joint responsibility of both nations, with Panama assuming an increasing role until the total accession of the Canal to her sovereignty. The US has guaranteed the Canal's neutrality after the year 2000. On 13 June 1984 Peru agreed to train Panama's naval forces.
   Belize (formerly British Honduras) became independent on 21 September 1981. Britain agreed to leave troops 'for an appropriate time' as protection and to train the Belizean defence forces. The US has also provided equipment and training. Under the 'Commonwealth Pact' (October 1981), if a threat to Belize's independence occurs, Britain, Barbados, Bahamas, Canada, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago will meet and consult together regarding appropriate action to be taken.
   The Central American Defence Council (CONDECA) was formed in 1965 by El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama to contain subversion. In November 1981 El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras agreed an informal alliance against Cuba, Nicaragua and domestic guerrilla movements in each member country. The US provides assistance to Honduranbased rebels against Nicaragua and to the Government against rebels in El Salvador.
   A similar regional grouping, the Central American Democratic Community (Costa Rica, Honduras and El Salvador; observers: Colombia, the US and Venezuela) agreed in January 1982 to provide mutual aid in case of external aggression.
   Argentina and Peru reportedly entered into a military pact in late 1982.
   In July 1981 Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, and St Vincent and the Grenadines formed the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). Its goals included adopting common points of view on international issues and the promotion of unity and solidarity among the members while defending their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence. A Defence and Security Committee was formed.
   On 29 October 1982 a Regional Security System (RSS) was created following a Memorandum of Understanding signed by Antigua-Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, St Lucia and St Vincent. They were joined by St Kitts-Nevis on 8 February 1984 and Grenada in June 1985. With US support a beginning has been made on the creation of a Regional Coast Guard and a number of 80-man national police Special Service Units. Joint exercises have been held involving Antigua-Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St KittsNevis and St Lucia and small US forces. The US has given military aid to the RSS.
   The US has had a bilateral agreement with Cuba for jurisdiction and control over Guantanamo Bay since 1934. In 1960 the US stated that this could be modified or abrogated only by mutual agreement and that it had no intention of giving such agreement. It has also leased 2.3 square miles from Bermuda for a naval and air base since 1941. The US, which has bilateral military sales arrangements at varying levels with most countries of the region, concluded a status-of-forces agreement with Antigua in 1977/8 and a defence treaty with Honduras in May 1985.
   The USSR has no known formal defence agreements with any of the states in the area.
   Cuba signed a 25-year Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Vietnam in October 1982, and a similar 20-year treaty with North Korea in March 1986. Cuba and the USSR supplied arms to Grenada before October 1983 and to Nicaragua.
   Most countries in the region, however, have obtained their major equipment from Western, rather than Communist, countries. Argentina signed and ratified a Treaty of Peace and Friendship with Chile in early 1986, and an agreement with Israel for the joint production of TAM medium tanks. Belize signed a training agreement with Canada in June 1985.
   Regional Military Developments
   Argentina and Brazil are designing and manufacturing for export their own military equipment. Brazil has sold equipment to the Middle East (Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Tunisia), Africa (Zambia), and Belgium and Canada, as well as Latin America, and has a training agreement with Suriname (1983). Chile is assembling Mirage 50 aircraft and light AFV under licence and reportedly has made some transfers to Paraguay.
   The military situation in Central America remains a cause for concern. Nicaraguan government forces show some increase in total strength, mostly in the numbers of Active Reservists and Militia; equipment totals seem to have levelled off, although figures must be used with caution. Opposition force strengths, stated to be higher than in 1985, may not accurately reflect the active elements of those forces. Indications over the past twelve months suggest that these elements (the 'contras') have been generally unsuccessful against the government forces. A similar situation exists in El Salvador, where a stalemate seems to exist. Here the Navy and Air Force have shown some increase. The Opposition elements' strengths are said to have fallen slightly in almost all groups. Data is still contradictory, and earlier totals may have been high. The Honduran forces seem to have been significantly increased, though equipment levels remain at about the same level.
   In South America generally, economic constraints continue significantly to affect force levels. Argentina is perhaps the worst case, with an overall drop in personnel of 27%. The Navy has been worst affected, losing about half its strength; a number of vessels, including some still under construction, are reported as being for sale, though attempts are being made to reverse this decision. The Chilean forces remain roughly the same, although some reorganization is reported. The Brazilian armed forces are also undergoing a reorganization; the Air Force shows an increase in both strength and combat aircraft.
   There is one change in presentation in this section. The Venezuelan National Guard, previously cited as a para-military Force, is part of the Armed Forces. New totals reflect that fact.
   Economic Factors
   After its decline in 1982 and 1983, the region's GDP grew in 1984 and 1985, by 3.2% and 2.8% respectively. However, this translates into a meagre 0.5% increase in GDP per capita. Per capita GDP is still 9% below the level of 1980.
   If the above-average performance of Brazil (7%) is excluded, this sombre picture turns bleaker, with GDP per capita falling by around 1%. Economies which had shown growth in 1984 were stagnant in 1985, as was the case for Chile and Colombia. Others suffered dramatic falls (8% for Bolivia and 4% for Argentina). Apart from Brazil, only Cuba, Mexico and Paraguay returned some economic growth, according to the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean.
   The inflation record is not much better, with just five countries out of 21 showing figures below 10%. However, in the second half of 1985 the introduction of anti-inflationary packages in the three countries with highest rates - Argentina, Bolivia and Peru did bring inflation under some control there. Nevertheless, Bolivia still registered the highest inflation rate (over 11,000%), followed by Argentina (460%), Nicaragua (233%), Brazil (218%), and Peru (170%).
   The region's massive $368-bn foreign debt continues to pose the main constraint to economic growth. Debt-service ratios leave few resources for domestic investment, and have converted Latin America into a net capital exporter in 1985. Brazil overtook Mexico as the largest debtor, both of them having debts exceeding $100 bn, followed by Argentina with $52 bn. Given the low level of GDP growth and the vagaries of primary commodity markets, on which most of the region's economies depend for their export income, there seems to be little prospect of a rapid economic recovery. Oil exporters are being badly affected, whilst oil importers benefit only slightly. Most of the countries in the region have been involved in debt renegotiation talks, successful conclusion of which has been dependent on their acceptance of IMF-modelled economic packages.
   The poor economic performance is reflected in attempts to control defence budgets. Argentina's shows a small increase after two years of major readjustments, but is still below the levels registered between 1978 and 1983. Peru and Colombia are fighting insurgencies and, despite limited funds, seem likely to allocate additional resources for this purpose. At the same time, their Defence Departments will be asked to economize where possible; Peru, for example, is understood to be trying to sell some of its air inventory. Brazil, however, has started an ambitious modernization of its forces, which might lead to increased expenditures over the rest of the decade. Finally, no end to the conflicts in Central America is in sight; defence expenditure and military aid will probably continue to grow.

Карибский бассейн и Латинская Америка

   Континентальные договоры и соглашения
   Акт Чапультепека.
   Подписан Аргентиной, Боливией, Бразилией, Венесуэлой, Гаити, Гватемалой, Гондурасом, Доминиканской Республикой, Колумбией, Коста-Рикой, Кубой, Мексикой, Никарагуа, Панамой, Парагваем, Перу, США, Уругваем, Чили и Эквадором в марте и апреле 1945 года. В этом законе было заявлено, что в случае любой агрессии через границы, установленные договором, или угрозы такой агрессии подписавшие его стороны будут проводить консультации для согласования мер вплоть до применения вооруженной силы для ее предотвращения или отражения.
   Межамериканский договор о взаимной помощи (договор Рио).
   Подписанный в сентябре 1947 года всеми участниками закона Чапультепека, а также Сальвадором и Тринидадом и Тобаго, за исключением Эквадора и Никарагуа, этот договор расширяет действие этого закона, обязывает подписавшие его стороны урегулировать споры между собой мирным путем и предусматривает коллективную самооборону в случае, если какой-либо член подвергнется внешнему нападению. она вступила в силу 3 декабря 1948 года, с тех пор применялась четырнадцать раз и была расширена в июле 1985 года. Куба вышла из состава совета в марте 1960 года.
   Устав Организации Американских Государств (ОАГ).
   От апреля 1948 года Устав охватывает деклараций на основании договора от Рио. Члены ОАГ-подписавшие закон Чапультепека плюс Антигуа и Барбуда, Барбадос, Гренада, Доминика, Сальвадор, Сент-Китс - Невис, Сент-Люсия, Сент-Винсент, Суринам, Тринидад и Тобаго (Гайана и Канада являются наблюдателями) и Ямайка - обязаны урегулировать внутренние споры мирным путем и принимать коллективные меры в случае внешнего нападения на любого подписавшего. Он имеет постоянный совет, уполномоченный созывать совещания министров иностранных дел для рассмотрения чрезвычайных ситуаций. Каждый член имеет один голос в каждом агентстве ОАГ.
   Договор о запрещении ядерного оружия в Латинской Америке (договор Тлателолко).
   Этот договор, который разрешает мирное использование ядерных материалов и установок, но запрещает "испытания, применение, производство, производство или любое приобретение ядерного оружия", был подписан в феврале 1967 года 25 латиноамериканскими странами, 24 из которых ратифицировали его (Аргентина не ратифицировала). Бразилия и Чили не будут осуществлять его до тех пор, пока это не сделают все другие латиноамериканские государства. Куба и Гайана не подписали его. Поэтому договор не действует для этих пяти стран. Великобритания и Нидерланды ратифицировали его (1977 год) в отношении территорий в пределах договорного района, за которые они несут международную ответственность, и подписали с Францией и США протокол I (который обязывает государства за пределами региона принимать для своих территорий в пределах этого района договорные ограничения в отношении размещения или хранения ядерного оружия); Великобритания и США (1971 год), Китай, Франция (1973 год) и СССР (1978 год) подписали протокол II (обязательство не применять или не угрожать применением ядерного оружия против участников Договора). Агентство было создано для контроля за соблюдением.
   Региональное соглашение
   Договор 1903 года с Республикой Панамой, предоставлявший Соединенным Штатам фактические суверенные права на бессрочное пользование зоной канала, был пересмотрен; договоры 1977 года вступили в силу в октябре 1979 года. Около 40% бывшей зоны канала останется под контролем США до 31 декабря 1999 года. Защита и нейтралитет канала будут совместной ответственностью обеих стран, причем Панама будет играть все более активную роль вплоть до полного присоединения канала к своему суверенитету. США гарантировали нейтралитет канала после 2000 года. 13 июня 1984 года Перу согласилась обучить военно-морские силы Панамы.
   Белиз (бывший Британский Гондурас) получила независимость 21 сентября 1981 года. Британия согласилась оставить войска "на соответствующее время" для защиты и подготовки белизских Сил обороны. США также предоставили вооружение и обучение. В соответствии с "пактом Содружества" (октябрь 1981 года) в случае возникновения угрозы независимости Белиза Британия, Барбадос, Багамские острова, Гайана, Канада, Тринидад и Тобаго и Ямайка соберутся и проведут совместные консультации относительно принятия надлежащих мер.
   Центральноамериканский Совет обороны (CONDECA) был создан в 1965 году Гватемалой, Гондурасом, Панамой и Сальвадором для сдерживания подрывной деятельности. В ноябре 1981 года Гватемала, Гондурас и Сальвадор договорились о неофициальном союзе против Кубы, Никарагуа и внутренних партизанских движений в каждой стране-участнице. США оказывают помощь гондурасским повстанцам против Никарагуа и правительству против повстанцев в Сальвадоре.
   Аналогичная региональная группа - центральноамериканское демократическое сообщество (Гондурас, Коста-Рика и Сальвадор; наблюдатели: Венесуэла, Колумбия и США) - согласилась в январе 1982 года оказать взаимную помощь в случае внешней агрессии.
   Аргентина и Перу, согласно сообщениям, заключили военный пакт в конце 1982 года.
   В июле 1981 года Антигуа-Барбуда, Гренада, Доминика, Монтсеррат, Сент-Китс-Невис, Сент-Люсия и Сент-Винсент и Гренадины образовали организацию Восточнокарибских государств (ОВКГ). Его цели включают принятие общих точек зрения по международным вопросам и поощрение единства и солидарности между членами при защите их суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости. Был сформирован Комитет по обороне и безопасности.
   29 октября 1982 года после подписания Антигуа-Барбудой, Барбадосом, Доминикой, Сент-Винсентом и Сент-Люсией Меморандума о взаимопонимании была создана региональная система безопасности (RSS). К ним присоединились Сент-Китс-Невис 8 февраля 1984 года и Гренада в июне 1985 года. При поддержке США было положено начало созданию региональной береговой охраны и ряда специальных подразделений Национальной полиции численностью 80 человек. Были проведены совместные учения с участием Антигуа-Барбуды, Барбадоса, Доминики, Гренады, Ямайки, Сент-Китсневиса и Сент-Люсии и небольших сил США. США оказали военную помощь РСС.
   США заключили двустороннее соглашение с Кубой о юрисдикции и контроле над заливом Гуантанамо с 1934 года. В 1960 году США заявили, что это может быть изменено или отменено только по взаимному согласию и что они не намерены давать такое согласие. Кроме того, с 1941 года она арендует 2,3 квадратных мили от Бермудских островов для военно-морской и воздушной базы. США, которые имеют двусторонние соглашения о военных продажах на различных уровнях с большинством стран региона, заключили соглашение о статусе сил с Антигуа в 1977/8 году и договор об обороне с Гондурасом в мае 1985 года.
   СССР не имеет официальных оборонных соглашений ни с одним из государств региона.
   Куба подписала 25-летний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Вьетнамом в октябре 1982 года и аналогичный 20-летний договор с Северной Кореей в марте 1986 года. Куба и СССР поставляли оружие Гренаде до октября 1983 года и Никарагуа.
   Однако большинство стран региона получили свое основное оборудование из западных, а не коммунистических стран. Аргентина подписала и ратифицировала Договор о мире и дружбе с Чили в начале 1986 года и соглашение с Израилем о совместном производстве средних танков TAM. Белиз подписал соглашение о профессиональной подготовке с Канадой в июне 1985 года.
   Региональные Военные События
   Аргентина и Бразилия разрабатывают и производят на экспорт собственную военную технику. Бразилия продала оборудование на Ближний Восток (Алжир, Ирак, Ливия, Тунис), в Африку (Замбия), Бельгию и Канаду, а также в Латинскую Америку и заключила соглашение о профессиональной подготовке с Суринамом (1983 год). Чили собирает самолеты Mirage -50 и легкие ВСУ по лицензии и, как сообщается, осуществила некоторые поставки в Парагвай.
   Военная ситуация в Центральной Америке по-прежнему вызывает озабоченность. Никарагуанские правительственные силы демонстрируют некоторое увеличение общей численности, главным образом численности действующих резервистов и ополченцев; общее количество техники, как представляется, выровнялось, хотя цифры следует использовать с осторожностью. Численность оппозиционных сил, которая, как утверждается, выше, чем в 1985 году, может неточно отражать активные элементы этих сил. Данные за последние двенадцать месяцев свидетельствуют о том, что эти элементы ("контрас") в целом не имели успеха в борьбе с правительственными силами. Аналогичная ситуация сложилась в Сальвадоре, где, как представляется, существует тупиковая ситуация. Военно-Морской Флот и военно-воздушные силы показали некоторое увеличение. Говорят, что сила оппозиционных элементов несколько снизилась почти во всех группах. Данные по-прежнему противоречивы, и более ранние итоги могут быть высокими. Гондурасские силы, как представляется, значительно увеличились, хотя уровень оснащенности остается примерно на том же уровне.
   В Южной Америке в целом экономические ограничения по-прежнему в значительной степени сказываются на уровне Вооруженных сил. Аргентина, пожалуй, худший случай, с общим сокращением персонала на 27%. Больше всего пострадал Военно-Морской Флот, потеряв около половины своей численности; ряд судов, в том числе некоторые еще строящиеся, как сообщается, продаются, хотя предпринимаются попытки отменить это решение. Чилийские силы остаются примерно такими же, хотя сообщается о некоторой реорганизации. Бразильские вооруженные силы также проходят реорганизацию; Военно-воздушные силы демонстрируют увеличение как силы, так и боевой авиации.
   В этом разделе есть одно изменение в представлении. Национальная гвардия Венесуэлы, ранее именовавшаяся полувоенными силами, входит в состав Вооруженных сил. Новые итоги отражают этот факт.
   Экономические факторы
   После спада в 1982 и 1983 годах ВВП региона вырос в 1984 и 1985 годах на 3,2% и 2,8% соответственно. Однако это приводит к незначительному увеличению ВВП на душу населения на 0,5%. ВВП на душу населения по-прежнему на 9% ниже уровня 1980 года.
   Если исключить показатели Бразилии выше среднего (7%), то эта мрачная картина становится еще более мрачной: ВВП на душу населения падает примерно на 1%. Экономика, показавшая рост в 1984 году, в 1985 году находилась в состоянии стагнации, как это было в случае Чили и Колумбии. Другие пострадали от резкого падения (8% для Боливии и 4% для Аргентины). По данным Экономической Комиссии ООН для Латинской Америки и Карибского бассейна, помимо Бразилии, только Куба, Мексика и Парагвай вернули некоторый экономический рост.
   Не намного лучше обстоят дела с инфляцией: только пять стран из 21 показывают показатели ниже 10%. Однако во второй половине 1985 года введение антиинфляционных пакетов в трех странах с самыми высокими показателями - Аргентине, Боливии и Перу-привело к некоторому сдерживанию инфляции. Тем не менее, Боливия по-прежнему зарегистрировала самый высокий уровень инфляции (более 11 000%), за которой следуют Аргентина (460%), Никарагуа (233%), Бразилия (218%) и Перу (170%).
   Огромный внешний долг региона в размере $ 368 млрд по-прежнему является основным препятствием для экономического роста. Коэффициенты обслуживания долга оставляют мало ресурсов для внутренних инвестиций и в 1985 году превратили Латинскую Америку в чистого экспортера капитала. Бразилия обогнала Мексику в качестве крупнейшего должника, оба из них имеют долги, превышающие $ 100 млрд, за ними следует Аргентина с $52 млрд. С учетом низкого уровня роста ВВП и неустойчивости рынков первичных сырьевых товаров, от которых зависит экспортный доход большинства стран региона, перспективы быстрого экономического восстановления представляются незначительными. Экспортеры нефти серьезно страдают, в то время как импортеры нефти получают лишь незначительную выгоду. Большинство стран региона участвовали в переговорах о пересмотре условий задолженности, успешное завершение которых зависело от принятия ими экономических пакетов, разработанных по образцу МВФ.
   Низкие экономические показатели отражаются на попытках контролировать оборонные бюджеты. Аргентина демонстрирует небольшой рост после двух лет крупных корректировок, но все еще ниже уровней, зарегистрированных между 1978 и 1983 годами. Перу и Колумбия ведут борьбу с повстанцами и, несмотря на ограниченность средств, вероятно, выделят дополнительные ресурсы на эти цели. В то же время их оборонным ведомствам будет предложено по возможности экономить; например, Перу, как предполагается, пытается продать часть своих воздушных сил. Вместе с тем Бразилия приступила к широкомасштабной модернизации своих сил, что может привести к увеличению расходов в течение оставшейся части десятилетия. Наконец, не видно конца конфликтам в Центральной Америке; расходы на оборону и военную помощь, вероятно, будут продолжать расти.

GDP* 1983: A- 682.7 m ($64.834 bn); 1984e: A-4,620 m ($68.293 bn)
growth 1984: 3.1% 1985: -4.4%
Inflation 1984: 627% 1985: 150%
Debt 1984: $45.5 bn 1985: $48.4 bn
Def bdgt 1985e: A-1.137 bn ($1.889 bn); 1986: A 1.088 bn ($1.335 bn)
$1=A (1983): 0.01053 (1984): 0.06765; (1985): 0.60181 (1986): 0.815
A- = Australes*

Population: 31,328,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,051,000 2,950,000
Women: 3,062,000 2,899,000
Regular: 73,000 (35,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service. Army 6-12 months, Air
Force 1 year, Navy 14 months; some conscripts may serve less.
Reserves: 377,000: Army 250,000 (National Guard 200,000, Territorial Guard 50,000), Navy 77,000, Air 50,000.

ARMY: 40,000 (25,000 conscripts).
HQ: 4 army corps, 5 Military Region.
(Many units cadres only.)
2 armd cav bdes (each 2 armd cav, 1 tk regts, 1 arty bn).
3 mech inf bdes (each 3 regts of 1 bn, plus armd cav sqn, arty bns, engr coys).
3 mountain inf bdes (each 3 inf, 1 arty, 1 engr coy, 1 recce det).
1 jungle bde (3 lt inf, 1 arty (how) bns).
1 indep mech inf bde (3 regts).
1 AB bde (3 AB bns, 1 arty gp).
16 arty bns (10 with bdes -2 to disband).
1 Presidential Guard regt (ceremonial bn).
1 AB trg regt.
6 AD bns (to be 4).
1 indep engr gp (regt), 5 indep engr bns (to be 3).
6 log bns (to be 3).
1 aviation bn (5 dets), 1 spt coy.
Tks: 100 M-4 Sherman, 160 TAM. lt: 60 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: Panhard ERC-90. MICV: 300 AMX-VTP, some 150 TAM VCPT.
   APC: 85 M-3, 125 M-113, 80 MOWAG Grenadier (Roland), 5 BDX.
Arty: guns: 155mm: 50 M-59 towed.
   how: 105mm: 200 incl M-101 and M-56 pack; 155mm: 168: 70 M-114 towed, 24 Mk F3, 68 CITEFA Models 77/-81, 6 M-109 SP.
   MRL: 105mm: SALM-Pampera; 127mm: SAPBA-1.
   mor: 81mm: 200; 120mm: 120 (some SP in GCTM MICV).
ATK: guns: 105mm: 140 Kuerassier SP. RCL: 75mm, 90mm, 105mm; RL: 89mm M-65. ATGW: SS-11/-12, Cobra, Mathogo, Mamba.
AD: guns: 20mm: Rh 202 twin HSS-669; 30mm: HS-83/4; 35mm: K-63; 40mm; 90mm: 50 M-117(trg).
   SAM: Tigercat, Blowpipe, Roland, SAM-7.
Avn: ac: 3 Aeritalia G-222, 3 De Havilland DHC-6, 5 Rockwell Turbo-Commander 690A, 2 Pilatus Turbo-Porter, 5 Fairchild Merlin IIIA,
   2 Beech Queen Air, 1 North American Sabreliner, 49 Cessna (15 182, 20 U-17A/B, 7 207, 2 Citation, 5 T-41).
   hel: 9 Agusta A-109, 29 Bell (7 206, 18 UH-1H, 4 212), 6 Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100, 2 CH-47C Chinook, 6 SA-315B Lama,
   14 SA-330 Puma, 12 AS-332B Super Puma.
(On order 55 TAM MBT; RAM V-2 MICV; 25 155mm SP how conversion kits; 158 Kuerassier SP ATK; 9 A-109 hel.)

NAVY: 18,000 (5,000 conscripts) incl naval air force and marines.
Bases: Buenos Aires, Rio Santiago, Puerto Belgrano, Mar del Plata, Ushuaia.
Subs: 4: 2 Salta (Type 1200); 2 Santa Cruz (TR-1700; may be for sale).
Carrier: 1 (4 Super Etendard, 4 A-4, 3 S-2 ac; 3 SH-3DH, 1 S-61D hel).
Destroyers: 6 with Exocet:
   4 Meko 360H-2 with 2 x 4 MM-40, 1 octuple Aspide, 2 AB-212 hel;
   2 Type 42 with 4 MM-38, 1 twin Sea Dart SAM, 1 hel (for sale).
Corvettes: 5 with Exocet:
   2 Espora (Meko 140) with 4 MM-40, 1 hel (for sale);
   3 Fr A-69 with 4 MM-38.
Patrol ships: 5: 2 US Cherokee, 2 King (1 trg), 1 US Sotoyomo.
Patrol vessel: 1 Surubi<.
FAC: 2 TNC-45.
FAC(T): 2 US Higgins( (? operational).
FAC(P): 4 Dabur coastal<.
MCMV: 6 Br Ton coastal minesweepers/ hunters.
Amph: 2 LST. 4 LCM<. some 13 LCVP<.
Spt: tpl: 5: 3 Costa Sur, 2 Polar.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38, -40;
SAM: Sea Dart, multi-role Aspide.
Coast Defence: some 10 batteries: 12 M-1898 87mm, 16 M-3 155mm, 12 280mm guns.
(On order: 3 TR-1700 subs, 2 Espora corvettes (for sale).)

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (3,000); 33 combat ac, 24 combat hel.
Attack: 3 sqns with 6 A-4Q Skyhawk, 14 Dassault Super Etendard.
MR/ASW: 2 sqns: 1 with 9 S-2E Tracker, 1with 4 L-188E Electra.
ASW hel: 1 sqn with 5 Sikorsky SH-3D/H. 1 S-61D Sea King, 10 Agusta-Bell AB-212, 9 A-103 (SA-316 Alouette III).
Tpt: 2 sqns with 7 Beech Super King Air B-200, 3 L-188A Electra, 1 BAe HS-125, 3 Fokker F-28/3000ac;3S-61Dhel.
Liaison: 1 sqn with 5 Beech B-80 Queen Air, 3 Pilatus PC-6 (Antarctic fit).
Trg: 3 sqns: 11 EMB-326GB Xavante, 6 Aermacchi MB-326B, 5 MB-339A; 11 Beech T-34C.
(Store: 1 Beech C-45, 5 MB-339A, 12 North American T-28 ac; 6 Hughes 500 hel.)
ASM: 20 Exocet AM-39E/H, ASM-2 Martin Pescador (Kingfisher).
(On order 12 A-4 attack ac.)

MARINES: (3,000).
Fleet Forces: 2: each 2 bns, 1 amph recce gp, 1 fd arty bn, 1 hy mor, 1 ATK, 1 engr coys.
Amph spt force: 1: 1 marine inf bn.
1 AA regt.
1 sigs bn.
1 service/log bn.
1 indep inf bn.
6 indep inf (security) coys.
AFV: recce: 12 Panhard ERC-90 Lynx.
APC: 15 LVT-3/-4, 19 LVTP-7, 15 LARC-5, 6 MOWAG Roland, 24 Panhard VCR/TT.
Arty: how: 105mm: 40 M-56. mor: 81mm, 120mm.
ATK: RCU 75mm, 90mm, 105mm: M-1968. ATGW.20 Bantam.
AD: guns: 20mm, 30mm, 35mm: K-63. SAM: 7 Tigercat, Blowpipe.

AIR FORCE: 15,000 (5,000 conscripts); combat: 143 ac, 18 hel (6 more may be armed).
10 air bdes; 10 AD btys; Special Forces (AB) coy.
Air Operations Command (10 bdes):
FGA/intercepton 4 sqns:
   2 (1 OCU) with 14 Dassault Mirage IIIEA, 22 Mirage IIICJ;
   2 with 9 Mirage 5P, 27 IAI Dagger (Nesher).
Bbr: 1 sqn with 5 BAe Canberra B-62, 2 T-64.
FGA: 3 sqns with 24 A-4P Skyhawk.
COIN: 4 sqns: 2 ac with 40 IA-58APucara; 2 hel with 12 Hughes 500M, 6 Bell UH-1H.
SAR: 1 sqn with 5 AS-315 Lama.
Tpt: 5 sqns with:
   ac: 6 Boeing 707, 8 Lockheed C-130E/H, KC-130H, 3 Learjet 35A, 4 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 13 Fokker F-27, 5 Fokker F-28,
   5 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 18 IA-50 Guarani II, 2 Fairchild Merlin IVA;
   hel: 2 Sikorsky S-58T (VIP).
Antarctic: 1 sqn with:
   ac: 1 DHC-6, 1 LC-47;
   hel: 2 Sikorsky S-61R/NR, 4 UH-19 (Sikorsky S-55), 2 CH-47C Chinook (SAR); 15 Bell (3UH-1D, 4 47G.8 212).
Comms: 1 sqn with 13 Rockwell Shrike Commander.
Air Training Command:
   1 demonstration fit with F-86F Sabre.
   24 MS-760 Paris, 12 EMB-326GB Xavante, 48 Beech T-34C.
Msls: AAM: R-530, R-550.
ASM: AS-11/-12, ASM-2 Martin Pescador.
(Store: 37 A-4P FGA, 70 IA-58 PucaraCOIN).
(On order 1 Boeing 707-131 ELINT ac, some 12 IA-63 Pampa, 10 Aermacchi MB-339, 44 EMB-312 Tucano T-27 trg ac.)
PARA-MILITARY (Ministry of Defence): 22,000.
Gendarmerie (mainly frontier duties) 13,000:
3 Regional HQ; org in groups (agrupaciones), sqns, 'gps' (platoons), sections.
AFV: recce: Shorland (RAM V-2 to replace). APC: 40 M-113.
Avn: ac: 22 lt. hel: 3.
Prefectura Naval (coastguard) 9,000;
Patrol ship: 1 Delfln.
Patrol craft large: 12: 3 Lynch, 3 Dorado, 1 Tokina, 5 Halcon with 1 hel (1 more on order); coastal: 17; small: 23.
Avn: ac: 5 Skyvan 3M-200; hel: 6 Hughes 500M Defender, 3 SA-330 Puma.
* All figures in Australes: 1 A = 1000 pesos Argentinos (currency changed July 1985).

GDP 1983e: $B 1.540 bn ($US 1.540 bn); 1984e: $B 1.648 bn ($US 1.648 bn)
growth 1983: 1.5% 1984: 3.0%
Inflation 1984: 3.9% 1985: 3.8%
Debt 1984: $US 250 m 1985: $US 258 m
Def bdgt 1985: $B 10.6 m ($US 10.6 m); 1986*: $B 34.0 m ($US 34.0 m)
Def exp 1984: $B 8.6 m ($US 8.6 m)
FMA 1985: $US 5.4 m
$US 1=$B (1983/4/5/6): 1
$B = Bahamian dollar

Population: 238,900
   18-30 31-45
Men: 24,600 20,100
Women: 26,900 20,900

Regular: 496.
Terms of Service, voluntary.
Coastguard: 496.
1 103-ft (109-ton), 5 60-ft (30-ton) Vosper Thornycroft, 4 29-ft Phoenix armed, 1 50-ft, 1 148-ft, 1 94-ft supply vessels.
(On order: 3 Protector-class 100-ton fast patrol boats (1986).)

* Incl Police allocation.

GDP 1984: $BZ 364.7 m ($US 182.35 m); 1985: $BZ 385.0 m (SUS 192.50 m)
growth 1983: 2.0% 1984: 0.7%
Inflation 1983: 2.0% 1984: 6.0%
Debt 1984: $US 69.4 m 1985: $US 71.3 m
Def bdgt 1983e: $BZ 6.5 m ($US 3.25 m); 1984e: $BZ 7.2 m ($US 3.60 m)
FMA 1985: $US 0.5 m 1986: $US 1.0 m
$US1 = (1983/4/5/6): $BZ 2
$BZ = $ Belize

Population: 163,400
   18-30 31-45
Men: 16,900 6,100
Women: 17,100 9,200

Terms of Service: voluntary.
Reserves (militia): (300).
ARMY: 545.
1 inf bn (three Regular, three Reserve coys).
Equipment: mor: 81mm: 6.
Patrol boats: 4 fast: 2 Souter 20-m, 1 Brooke 12-m.
MR/tpt: 2 BN-2B Defender.

GDP 1983: pB 1,332.41 bn ($5.793 bn); 1984: pB 19,023.8 bn ($8.221 bn)
growth 1984: - 3 % 1985: -4.8%
Inflation 1984: 2,200% 1985: *14,000%
Debt 1984: $4.2 bn 1985: $4.7 bn
Def exp 1983: pB 45.0 bn ($ 195.652m); 1984: pB 500.0 bn ($216.076 m)
FMA 1985: $3.0 m; 1986: $6.0 m
$1=p B (1982): 64.0; (1983): 230.0; (1984): 2,314.0; (1985): 75,000.0
pB = pesos Bolivianos

Population: 6,524,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 688,000 479,000
Women: 710,000 511,000

Regular: 27,600 (some 16,800 conscripts).
Terms of Service. 12 months, selective.

ARMY: 20,000 (some 15,000 conscripts).
HQ: 6 Military Regions.
Army HQ direct control:
2 armd bns.
1 mech cav regt.
1 Presidential Guard inf regt.
1 Military Police bn.
9 divs (5 cadre).
6 cav regts (5 horsed, 1 mot).
1 mech inf regt (2 bns).
12 inf regts (2 mountain), each with 2 bns.
3 arty regts.
2 ranger regts.
1 para bn.
6 engr bns.
AFV: recce: 24 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 60 M-113, 15 V-100 Commando, 24 MOWAG Roland, 24 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: 83: guns: 75mm: 26. how: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 105mm: 6 M-101. mor: 60mm; 81mm: 45.
ATK : guns: 105mm: 36 JPz-SK Kuerassier SP. RCL: 6mm.

NAVY: 3,600 (incl 1,000 marines) (perhaps 1,800 conscripts).
Bases: Riberalta, Tiquina, Puerto Busch, Puerto Horquilla, Puerto Villaroel, Trinidad, Puerto Suarez.
5 Naval Districts; each 1 Flotilla.
Patrol craft: 41 lake and riven (38<) incl 1 66-ft gunboat, 2 ex-US PBR II (clinic) launches, 2 hospital.
Ac: 1 Cessna 206G.
Marines: 1 bn (600; coy+ in each District).

AIR FORCE: 4,000; 29 combat ac, 9 armed hel.
Ftr/trg: 1 sqn with 10 Lockheed T-33A, 12 T-33N, 2 North American F-86F.
COIN: 5 North American AT-6G.
Special ops: 1 gp with 9 Hughes 500 armed hel.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 6 SA-315B Gaviao (Lama).
Tpt: 1 sqn with 3 Lockheed (1 Electra, 1 L-100-30, 1 C-130H), 1 North American Sabreliner, 2 Lear jet, 2 A1-201 Arava, Convair CV-440,
   3 CV-580, 8 Douglas C-47, 3 Beech King Air, 4 Fokker F-27 (?operational), 2 U-3A (Cessna 310).
Utility: ac: incl 1 Turbo-Porter, 27 Cessna (3 172K, 3 Turbo-Centurion, 8 185/U-17A, 9 206C/G, 2 414, 2 421).
   hel: 1 Bell UH-1H, 2 Bell 212.
Trg ac: incl 2 Cessna T-41D, 18 T-23 Uirapuru, 3 SIAI SF-260M, 24 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer.
1 airbase defence regt (Oerlikon twin 20mm, some truck-mounted guns).
(On order: 6 Lockheed T-33N.)
PARA-MILITARY: Carabineros: some 14,000.

* Inflation estimates range between 11,000%, and some as high as 50,000%.

GDP 1984: Cz$ 386.968 bn ($209.398 bn); 1985e: CZ$ 1,331.17 bn ($214.705 bn)
growth 1984: 4.5% 1985: 7.0%
Inflation 1984: 223% 1985: 237.5%
Debt 1984: $100.2 bn 1985: $104.5 bn
Def bdgt 1983: Cz$ 753.2 m ($1.305 bn); 1984: Cz$ 1.95 bn ($1.055 bn)
$1=Cz$ (1983): 0.577 (1984): 1.848
(1985): 6.2 (1986): 12.741
Cz$ = cruzados*

Population: 139,443,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 16,866,000 11,945,000
Women: 16,784,000 11,965,000

Regular: 283,400 (137,700 conscripts).
Terms of Service. 12 months (can be extended by 6 months).
Reserves: Trained first-line 1,115,000; 400,000 subject to immediate recall.
   Second-line (limited trg) 225,000; state military police schools, centres. Para-Military (q.v.) 240,000.

ARMY: 182,900 (to be 296,000); (135,500 conscripts).
HQ: 7 military comd, 12 military region; 8 div.
1 armd cav bde.
3 armd inf bdes.
4 mech cav bdes.
10 motor inf bdes (2 indep).
2 'jungle' bdes (7 bns).
1 AB bde (3 AB, 1 Special Forces bns).
1 AA arty bde (indep).
10 arty regts (2 hy, 1AB).
6 coast arty gps and 3 btys.
3 AA arty gps.
2 engr gps: 18 bns (to be increased to 34 bns).
Equipment: Tks: lt: some 140 M-3, some 80 X-1A, 30 X-1A2 (M-3mod); 315 M-41B.
AFV: recce: 140 EE-9 Cascavel, 30 M-8. APC: 150 EE-11 Urutu, 20 M-59, ?600 M-113.
Arty: guns: some 240 57mm to 12-in. (304.8mm) coast incl 26 Mk 5 6-in. (152mm).
   how: 105mm: 480 incl some 60 M-7/-108 SP; 155mm: 150 M-114 towed.
   MRL 108mm: SS-06, 180mm: SS-40, 300mm: SS-60 incl SP. mor: 81mm, 4.2-in. (107mm), 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: 240 M-18A1; 75mm: 20; 106mm. RL: 3.5-in. (89mm). ATGW: 300 Cobra.
AD: guns: 12.7mm: M-55 quad; 35mm: 30; 40mm: 60; 57mm: some 180; 90mm: M-1A1. SAM: 4 Roland II.
Avn: Army Air Arm to be formed.
(On order: EE-T1 Osorio MBT; GH N-45 155mm gun/how (some to be SP), SS-60 (FGT-X40) 300mm MRL, T O W A T G W , 40mm L/70 BOFI
AD system, M-55 mod quad 12.7mm.)

NAVY: 49,800 (2,200 conscripts) incl naval air and marines.
Bases: Rio de Janeiro, Aratu (Salvador, Bahia) Val de Caes (Belem, Para), Rio Grande (do Sul), Natal (Rio Grande do Norte);
   river: Ladario (Mato Grosso), Manaus (Amazonas).
Naval Districts: 7 (1 Comd).
Subs: 7: 3 Oberon; 4 US Guppy II/III (to be replaced).
Carrier: 1: 19,900-ton ASW (capacity 20 ac: 7-8 S-2E ASW ac; 8 SH-3D/ASH-3H Sea King hel).
Destroyers: 10:
   5 Sumner (1 with 1 quad Seacat SAM, 4 with 1 Wasp hel);
   2 Gearing with ASROC ASW, 1 Wasp hel;
   3 Fletcher.
Frigates: 6 Niteroi with 2 triple Seacat SAM,1 Lynx hel (2 GP with 2 twin MM-30; 4 ASWwith Ikara).
Corvettes: 9 Imperial Marinheiro.
River ships: 6:
   patrol: 5: 2 Pedro Teixeira, 3 Roraima;
   mor:itor: 1 with 1x3-in. (76mm), 2x47mm, 2x40mm, 6x20mm guns.
Patrol craft large: 6 Piratini.
MCMV: 6 Aratu (Schiitze-type) minesweepers.
Amph: LST: 2 US;
LCU: 3 US 1610, 28 landing craft<.
Spt: 7 trg ships (3(); 1 fleet spt, 2 river tankers; 26 tpts (2 12,000-ton, 4 7,300-ton, 18 harbour, 2 river), 1 repair, 1 sub rescue ship;
   8 survey ships (2 oceanographie), 6 survey launches, 5 ocean, 19 coastal tugs, 2 hospital ships.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38; ASW: ASROC, Ikara; SAM: Seacat.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (600); 20 combat hel.
ASW: 2 hel sqns with 8 Sikorsky SH-3D, 4 ASH-3H Sea King, 8 WG-13 Sea Lynx.
Utility: 1 hel sqn with 6 Westland Wasp HAS-1, 15 AS-350B Esquilo (Ecureuil).
Trg: 1 hel sqn with 16 Bell Jetranger II (to be replaced with Jetranger III).

MARINES: (15,000).
Fleet Force:
1 amph div (1 comd, 3 inf, 1 Toneleros special operations bns, 1 arty gp (2 fd, 1 AD btys), 1 service bn).
Reinforcement Comd: 5 bns incl 1 engr, supply.
Internal Security Force: 6 regional, 1 special ops gps.
AFV: recce: 6 EE-9 Mk IV Cascavel. APC: 40 M-113, 5 EE-11 Urutu, 12 LVTP-7A1.
Arty: how: 105mm: 8 M-102, 155mm: 8 M-114. MRL: 108mm: SS-06. mor: 81mm: M-29.
ATK: RL: 3.5-in. (89mm): M-20. RCL: 106mm: M-40.
AD: guns: 40mm: 8 M-1 towed.
(On order 2 Tupi (Type 1400) subs, 4 V-28 frigates, 2 river patrol ships, 1 gunboat, 2 log spt ships; 12 Exocet AM-39 SSM; Sea Skua ASM; 60 Tigerfish torpedoes; 6 AS-332M Super Puma, 11 AS-355F Ecureuil hel.)

AIR FORCE: 50,700; 180 combat ac.
AD Command: 1 Gp (17 combat ac):
Interceptors: 2 sqns with 15 F-103E (Dassault Mirage IIIEBR), 2 F-103D (Mirage IIIDBR).
Tactical Command: 10 Gps (130 combat ac).
FGA: 3 sqns with 31 Northrop F-5E, 4 F-5B.
COIN: 3 sqns with 75 AT-26 (EMB-326) Xavante.
Recce: 2 sqns with 8 RC-95 Bandeirante, 12 RT-26 Xavante.
Spt/observation/liaison: 6 sqns: 1 ac with 7 T-25A Universal (to be replaced with 8 T-27 Tucano);
   5 hel with 6 SA-330 Puma (to be replaced), 30 Bell UH-1H; Bell47.
   All sqns with some EMB-810 (Piper Seneca II) for liaison.
Maritime Command: 4 Gps (33 combat ac).
ASW (afloat): 1 sqn with 8 S-2E Tracker, 7 S-2A (trg).
MR/SAR: 4 sqns with: ac: 3 RC-130E Hercules, 14 EMB-110B Bandeirante (C-95), 15 EMB-111 Bandeirante (P-95); hel: UH-1H armed.
Transport Command: 6 Gps (6 sqns), 7 regional indep sqns: Hy: 2 sqns: 1 with 10 C-130E/H Hercules; 1 with2KC-130H.
   Med/lt: 2 sqns: 1 with 12 C-91 (HS-748); 1 with 28 C-95A/B (EMB-110 Bandeirante).
   Tac: 1 sqn with 20 C-l 15 (DHC-5 Buffalo).
   VIP: 1 sqn with 2 VC-96 (Boeing 737), 1 VC-91 (Vickers Viscount) 11 VC/VU-93 (HS-125, to be withdrawn), VU-9 (EMB-121 Xingu).
   Indep sqns: 7 with 7 C-115, 68 C-95A/B, VU-9.
Training Command:
Ac: 80 T-25 Universal (being replaced), some 100 T-27 Tucano, 60 AT-26, some EMB-110, 5 EMB-C-42/U-42;
Hel: 16 Bell 47 (H-13J, to be replaced), 8 Bell UH-1D.
Calibration unit: 1 with 2 HS-125 (EC-93, U-93), 2 C-95A, 4 EC-95.
AAM: R-530, Piranha (MAA-1).
(On order 79 AMX FGA, 4 Boeing 707 tkrs, 12 EMB-120 Brasilia tpts, 100 YT-17 (A-123) Tangara, some 30 T-27 (EMB-312) trg ac;
8 AS-332 Super Puma, 15 AS-350 Ecureuil, some 32 UH-1H hel; Piranha AAM.)
PARA-MILITARY: Some 240,000
   Public Security Forces in state, military police orgs (State Militias) under Army control and considered an Army Reserve.

* On 1 March a new currency unit called the Cruzado replaced the 'Cruzeiro' (1 cruzado = 1,000 cruzeiros).

GDP 1984: pC 1,893.4 bn ($19.191 bn); 1985: pC 2,576.6 bn ($15.996 bn)
growth 1984: 5.5% 1985: 2.0%
Inflation 1984: 23% 1985: 30.7%
Debt 1984: $20.4bn 1985: $21.1 bn
Def exp 1984e: pC 160.0 bn ($1.622 bn); 1985e: pC 200.0 bn ($1.242 bn)
$1=p C (1982): 50.91 (1983): 78.84
(1984): 98.66 (1985): 161.08
pC = pesos Chilenos

Population: 12,307,500
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,508,000 1,182,000
Women: 1,485,000 1,197,000

Regular: 101,000 (32,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service: 1 year Army/Air Force, 2 years Navy.
Reserves: 100,000 active; all able-bodied citizens have a Reserve obligation to age 45.

ARMY: 57,000 (30,000 conscripts).
HQ: 6 div (3 of them under strength).
2 armd regts.
3 armd cav regts.
24 inf regts (8 mot, 7 inf, 9 mountain; 8 with recce unit and arty gp).
1 indep inf bde (regt).
7 indep arty regts and 3 indep arty gps.
6 engr regts and 6 bns.
7 sigs regts and 6 bns.
1 hel-borne ranger unit.
6 cdo bns.
1 cav div (4 horsed regts -to be armd cav).
1 hei regt (under a div comd).
1 composite gp with 1 log bn and spt unit.
Tks: 70 M-4A3, 21 AMX-30. lt: 47 AMX-13, 50 M-24, 15 M-3, 60 M-41.
AFV: recce: 30 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 280: 100 M-113, 150 Cardoen/MOWAG Piranha, 30 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: how: 105mm: 108: 72 M-101, 36 M-56; 155mm: 12MkF3SP. mor: 81mm: M-1, 120mm.
ATK: RCL: 57mm: M-1 8, 106mm. ATGW: Milan/Mamba.
AD: guns: 20mm: HS-639, 35mm: K-63 twin. SAM: 50 Blowpipe.
Avn: tpt: 6 CASA C-212, 1 Cessna Citation, 8 Piper Dakota 236, 3 Piper Navajo. trg: 18 Cessna R-172 Hawk XP.
   hel: 11 SA-330FL Puma, 1 AS-332 Super Puma, 10 SA-315B Lama, 2 Agusta-Bell AB-206B.

NAVY: 29,000 (2,000 conscripts), incl naval air and marines.
Bases: Talcahuano, Valparaiso, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Puerto Williams, Iquique.
3 Naval Zones. 3 Naval Districts:
Subs: 4: 2 Type 1300; 2 Oberon.
Cruisers: 2 Br County with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1 twin Seaslug II, 2 twin Seacat SAM, 1 hel (1 in reserve, 2nd to follow).
Destroyers: 4:
   2 Almirante with 4 MM-38 SSM, 2 quad Seacat SAM;
   2 US Sumner with 1 hel.
Frigates: 2 Leander with 4 MM-38 SSM, 1 quad Seacat SAM, 1 hel.
FAC(G): 2 Saar-IV with 6 Gabriel SSM.
FAC(T): 4 Lurssen-type.
Patrol craft: large: 4: 2 Sotoyomo, 1 Cherokee, 1 PC-1638. coastal: 6.
Amph: LST: 3 Batral, 2 Orompello lt.
: 4 tankers, 4 tpts, 1 sub spt vessel.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38, Gabriel. SAM: Seacat, Seaslug II.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (500); some 16 combat ac.
2 Air Groups.
MR: 6 EMB-111N maritime Bandeirante.
Utility: 3 EMB-110N Bandeirante, 4 CASA C-212A.
Hel: 8 Alouette III, 4 SH-57 (Bell 206A).
Trg/COIN: 10 Pilatus PC-7.

MARINES: (5,200).
4 gps: each 2 inf bns, 1 cdo coy, 1 fd arty btys.
1 amph bn.
AFV: APC: MOWAG Roland, 30 LVTP-5.
Arty: how: 105mm: 16; 155mm: 35 M-114. coast guns: 155mm: 16 GPFM-3. mor: 60mm: 50; 81mm: 50.
AD: SAM: Crotale.
(On order: 1 4,500-ton tpt.)

AIR FORCE: 15,000; 105 combat ac.
4 Air Bdes: 4 combat wings and 2 gps; each wing incl comms fit with ac/hel.
FGA: 2 sqns with 32 BAe Hunter F-71/FGA-9, 13 Northrop F-5E, 3 F-5F.
COIN: 2 sqns with 29 Cessna A-37B.
Ftr/recce: 1 sqn with 15 Dassault Mirage 50FC, 9 C-101 Aviojet.
Recce: 2 photo sqns with 2 BAe Canberra PR-9, 2 Gates Learjet 35-A.
Tpt: 1 sqn with: ac: 1 Boeing 727-22C, 1 707-351C, 2 Lockheed C-130H, 5 Douglas DC-6B, 10 Beech (9 99A, 1 King Air 90).
   hel: 2 SA-315B Lama, 1 Bell 47.
Utility/liaison fits: ac: incl 17 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 3 Beech Twin Bonanza. hel: 3 Sikorsky S-55T, 4 SA-315 Lama.
Trg: 1 wing, 3 flying schools: ac: 4 Hunter 1-12, 30 Beech T-34A, 25 Cessna T-37B/C, 8 Cessna T-41A, some 26 Piper T-35A/B Pillan,
   5 JT-3 Halcon (C-101), 10 Cessna 180, 10 Piper Dakota 236.
   hel: 6 Bell UH-1H, 3 Bell 212.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, Shafrir. ASM: AS-11/-12.
AD: 1 regt (5 gps) with guns: 20mm: S-639/-665, GAI-CO1 twin, 35mm: 36, K-63 twin;
SAM: Blowpipe, 12 Cactus (Crotale);
radar: 4 sqns.
(On order: 3 Mirage 50 ftrs (status unclear), 21 C-101BB COIN, 2 EMB-120 tpts, Dakota, some 45 T-35A, -35B Pillan trg ac; 3 Super Puma hel, BO-105 hel (licence-built)).
PARA-MILITARY: Carabineros: 27,000.
   Coastguard: 10 Anchova patrol craft<, 13 SAR craft<, 3 service launches<, 10 BO-105, 1 Bell 206B hel.

GDP 1984: pC 3,828.6 bn ($37.975 bn); 1985e: pC 4,651.5 bn ($32.686 bn)
growth 1984: 3.0% 1985: 3.0%
Inflation 1984: 18.3% 1985: 22.4%
Debt 1984: $11.6bn 1985: $13.4bn
Def bud 1985e: pC 39.0 bn ($274.05 m)
Def exp 1984: pC 43.0 bn ($426.50 m)
FMA 1985: $25.0 m 1986: $20.0m
$1=p C (1982): 64.08 (1983): 78.85; (1984): 100.82 (1985): 142.31
pC = pesos Colombianos

Population: 20,546,988
   18-30 31-45
Men: 3,725,000 2,433,000
Women: 3,701,000 2,397,000

Regular: 66,200 (30,900+ conscripts).
Terms of Service: 2 years (all services).
Reserves: 116,600. Army 100,000, Navy 15,000, Air 1,600.

ARMY: 53,000 (24,000 conscripts).
12 inf bdes ('Regional Bdes'): 7 with 3 inf, 1 arty bns, 1 engr gp, 1 mech or horsed cav gp; 4 with 2 inf bns only; 1 other, org unknown.
1 trg bde, incl Presidential Guard (mech bn).
1 indep mech gp.
1 Ranger, 1 para, 1 AA bns.
Tks: 12M-3A1.
AFV: recce: 20 M-8, 120 EE-9Cascavel; APC: 50 M-113, 76 EE-11 Urutu, 45 M-3A2 half-track.
Arty: how: 105mm: 50 M-101; mor: 81mm: 100; 107mm: 148.
AD: guns: 40mm: 30 M-1A1.

NAVY: 9,000 (incl 5,000 marines) (some conscripts).
Bases: Cartagena, Buenaventura; river: Puerto Legufzamo, Puerto Orocue, Bahia de Malaga (building).
Subs: 2 Type 1200; 2 SX-506 midget (reserve).
Destroyer (trg/cmd): 1 (reserve).
Frigates: 4 FS-1500 with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
Patrol craft: large: 5: 4 US Cherokee, 1 Abnaki. coastal: 2. river<: 8.
Gunboats: 6: 2 Asheville, 3 Arauca, 1 Barranquilla.
Spt: 1 tanker, 4 tpts.

MARINES: 2 bns, 3 indep coys, cdo units. No hy eqpt (to get EE-9 Cascavel, EE-11 Urutu).

NAVAL AIR: forming.
Recce: some Cessna lt ac.
Hel: 4 MBB BO-105.
AIR FORCE: 4,200 (some 1,900 conscripts); 43 combat ac, 33 hel (16 armed).
Combat Command:
FGA: 2 sqns with 10 Dassault Mirage 5COA, 2 5COR, 1 5COD.
COIN: ac: 1 sqn with 12 Lockheed AT-33A, 15 Cessna A-37B/D;
   hel: 1 sqn with 10 Hughes 500M (OH-6A Cayuse), 6 Hughes 500-MG Defender.
Recce: 1 sqn with: ac: 3 RT-33ю; hel: 7 Hughes 300C, 10 Hughes 500C.
Military Air Transport Command:
Ac: 1 sqn with C-130E Hercules, 2 C-130H, 4 C-54 (Douglas DC-4), 12 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 8 BAe HS-748, 2 IAI-201 Arava,
   2 Fokker F-28, 10 DHC-2 Beaver, 1 Rockwell Aero Commander 560A, 12 PC-6 Turbo-Porter.
Hel: 1 sqn with 19 Bell UH-1B/H, 13 Bell 205.
Training and Spt Command:
Ac: 9 Cessna T-37C, 20 Cessna T-41D, 3 Lockheed RT-33, 12 T-33A, 25 Beech T-34A/B.
Hel: 5 Bell 47 (OH-13 Sioux), 2 Hughes 300C, 2 Hughes 500E.
AD: 3 Skyguard/Sparrow system sites.
AAM: R-530.
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO) 500.
National Police Force 50,000; 1 HS-748 ac, 30 hel; Carabineros 37,500; Coastguard: 9 craft (5<). (On order Bell hel: 2 212, 2 412.)

OPPOSITION: some 17,000 (estimates vary widely).
(1) Revolutionary Workers'. Party: (M-19 perhaps 2,000, National Liberation Army (ELN),
   Popular Liberation Army (ELP), Free Fatherland, Quintin Lame (Indian)).
(2) Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC) some 12,000: Ricardo Franco Front.

GDP 1984: C 158.674 bn ($3.563 bn); 1985: C 183.556 bn ($3.626 bn)
growth 1984: 7.5% 1985: 1.6%
Inflation 1984: 12% 1985: 15%
Debt 1984: $4.1 bn 1985: $4.5 bn
Def bdgt 1983: C 1.15 bn ($27.985 m)*
Def exp 1984e: C 900 m ($20.21 m)*
FMA 1985: $13.0 m 1986e: $3.7m
$1=C (1982): 37.407 (1983): 41.094; (1984): 44.533 (1985): 50.62

Population: 2,617,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 345,600 220,000
Women: 334,000 218,000
Regular: 9,500 (incl 3,000 reserves).

Civil Guard: 6,000.
Presidential Guard: 1bn, 7 coys.
1 COIN bn (forming).
1 Air Wing.
1 UR-416, M-113APC, 81mm mor, 90mm RL, M-203 grenade launchers.
Patrol craft: 1 Swift ships 105-ft fast, 4 65-ft, 1 42-ft, 2 34-ft coastal(, 8 18-ft inshore<.
Avn: ac: 4 Cessna: 2 206, 1 180, 1 U-17A; 6
Piper; hel: 1 Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100 (VIP), 2 Hughes 500E.
(To get 3 Swift ships patrol craft (1986); 2 Cessna T-41, 1 CASA C-212 Aviocar ac; 2 Hughes 500E hel.)
RESERVES: incl Air element; 30 lt ac and hel.

Rural Guard
(Ministry of Government and Police): 3,500.
Small arms: 5 18-ft inshore patrol craft.
Numerous private armed guard units.

* Figures for Public Security and Civil Guard.

NMP 1983: pC 13.35 bn ($15.76 bn); 1984e: pC 14.75bn ($17.15 bn)
growth 1984: 7.4% 1985: 4.8%
Debt* 1984: $3.5bn; 1985: $3.9bn
Def bdgt 1984: pC 1.167 bn ($1,357 bn); 1985: pC 1.471 bn ($1,612 bn)
FMA: see note t
$1=p C (1982): 0.7910; (1983): 0.8471; (1984): 0.8602; (1985): 0.9123
pC = pesos Cubanos

Population: 10,211,000.
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,261,000 983,000
Women: 1,207,000 959,000

Regular: 162,000 (99,500 conscripts).
Terms of service. 3 years.
Reserves: 7165,000. Army: 120,000 Ready Reserves (serve 45 days per year) to fill out Regular and Reserve units; Navy: 712,000, Air: 718,000.
   See also Para-Military.
ARMY: 130,000 (760,000 conscripts) (plus some 15,000 Ready Reserve).
HQ: 4 Regional Command, 3 Army, 1 Isle of Youth.
4 corps.
1 armd div.
4 mech inf divs.
7 inf divs (at about 60%strength).
AD: 26 arty regts and SAM bdes.
8 cadre inf divs.
Special Force (1,500): 2bns.
1 AB assault bde.
8 indep inf regts.
3 fd arty bdes.
Tks: 650 T-54/-55, 350 T-62 (some 325 T-34 in reserve or static coast defence). lt: 60 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 100 BRDM-1/-2. MICV: 50 BMP. APC: 500BTR-40/-60/-152.
Arty: guns/how: 1,400: incl 76mm: M-1942; 85mm; 100mm: 100 SU-100 SP; 122mm; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: D-1, D-2, ML-20.
   MRL 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14; 240mm: BM-24. SSM: 65 FROG-4/-7.
   mor: 120mm: M38-43.
   static defence arty: some 15 JS-2 (122mm) hy tks, T-34 (85mm) MBT, SU-100 (100mm) SP guns reported.
ATK: guns: 600: 57mm: M-1943; 85mm: M-45; 100mm: T-12.RCL: 57mm. ATGW: AT-3 Sagger, AT-1 Snapper.
AD: guns: 1,600 incl 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4, 30mm: M-53 (twin)/BTR-60P SP; 37mm; 57mm: towed and ZSU-57 SP;85mm; 100mm.
   SAM: 12 SA-6, SA-7/-9.

NAVY: 13,500 (8;500 conscripts).
Bases: Cienfuegos, Cabanas, Havana, Mariel, Punta Movida, Nicaro.
3 Territorial, 3 operational (FAC(G), -(T), -(ASW)) Flotillas.
Subs: 3 F-class.
Frigates: 2 Koni with 1 twin SA-N-4 SAM.
FAC(G) with Styx SSM: 23: 5 Osa-I, 13 Osa-II, 5 Komar<.
FAC(T): 8: 4 P-6<, 4 P-4<.
FAC(P): 44: 9 Turya, 35 Zhuk<.
Patrol craft: 20: 4 SO-1 large, 4 Stenka; 12 coastal <.
MCMV: 15 minesweepers: 4 Sonya, 11 Yevgenya<.
Amph: 2 Polnocny LSM, 6 T-4 LCM.
Spt: 1 replenishment ship.
Misc: 1 intelligence collector.

1 amph assault bn.

Arty: guns: 122mm: M-1931/37; 152mm: M-1937; 130mm: M-46.
   SSM: 50 Samlet (inactive).

AIR FORCE: 18,500, incl air defence forces ( 11,000 conscripts); 250 combat ac, some 42 armed hel.
FGA: 4 sqns:
   1 with 15 Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-17;
   3 with 36 MiG-23BN Flogger F.
Interceptors: 16 sqns:
   2with 30 MiG-21F;
   3 with 34 MiG-21PFM;
   2 with 20 MiG-21PFMA;
   8 with 100 MiG-21bis;
   1 with 15 MiG-23 Flogger E.
Tpt: 4 sqns: 16 Ilyushin I1-14, 35 Antonov An-2, 3 An-24, 22 An-26, 4 Yakovlev Yak-40.
Hel: 8 sqns: 60 Mil Mi-4, 40 Mi-8 (perhaps 20 armd), 18 Mi-24 Hind D, 4 Mi-14 Haze ASW.
Trg: incl 12 MiG-21U, some An-2, 30 Zlin 326, some Aero L-39.
AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid.
AD: 37 SAM sites: 25 SA-2, 12 SA-3.
Civil Airline: 10 I1-62, 7 Tupolev Tu-154 used as tp tpts; 2 I1-76 long-range tpts.
Forces Abroad:
Angola 27,000: (some 13 inf regts, plus some 8,000 civilian advisers). Congo 500, Ethiopia 4,000 (?being withdrawn), Mozambique 900,
   S. Yemen 500, Nicaragua 3,500 (incl 3,000 civilian), Afghanistan (reported).
Ministry of Interior: State Security 15,000. Frontier Guards 3,500, some 100 craft.
Ministry of Defence: Youth Labour Army 100,000; Civil Defence Force: 50,000; Territorial Militia 1,200,000.

* Excl debt to COMECON countries and the USSR (est at $7-22 bn and $7-8 bn respectively),
t The economy is heavily subsidized through Soviet aid est at $4 bn in 1983). In 1985 Granma reported that Cuba would receive Roubles 8.2 bn in aid but the level of military assistance is unknown.

GDP 1984: $RD10.705 bn ($US10.705 bn); 1985: $RD14.488 bn($US4.656 bn)
growth 1984: 1.5% 1985s: -2%
Inflation 1984: 24% 1985: 20%
Debt 1984: $2.9 bn 1985: $3.3 bn
Def bdgt 1985: $RD 175.8 m ($US 56.48 m); 1986e: $RD 203.93 m ($US 68.89 m)
FMA 1985: $US 5.0m 1986: $US 4.0 m
$1=$RD (1983/4): 1 (1985): 3.1126; (1986): 2.96
$RD = pesos Republica Dominicana

Population: 6,275,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 781,000 459,000
Women: 774,000 461,000

Regular: 21,300.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 13,000.
5 Defence Zones.
5inf bdes(ll bns).
1 arty bns.
1 armd bn.
1 Presidential Guard bn.
1 engr bn.
Tks: lt: 2 AMX-13, 12 M-41A1 (76mm).
AFV: recce: 20 AML. APC: 8 V-150 Commando, 2 M-3A1 half-track.
Arty: how: 105mm: 22 M-101. mor: 81mm; 120mm: 24.
ATK: RCL: 106mm.

NAVY: 4,000, incl naval inf.
Bases: Santo Domingo, Las Calderas.
Frigate: 1 Can River (trg).
Patrol craft: 16: 5 large (+3 US Argo, in reserve), 8 coastal<.
Amph: LSM: 1; LCU: 2.
Auxiliary/misc service craft: 11.
Naval inf: 1 bn; 1 cdo unit.

AIR FORCE: 4,300; 26 combat ac.
Ftrs: 1 sqn with 8 Cessna A-37B, 9 T-34B Mentor, 6 T-41D Mescalero, 3 AT-6A Texan.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 6 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 Beech Queen Air 80, 1 Rockwell Aero Commander, 1 Mitsubishi MU-2.
Hel: 1 SAR/tpt sqn with 8 Bell 205, 3 OH-6A (Hughes 369), 3 Alouette II/III, 1 SA-360 Dauphin; 6 Bell 206.
AB: 1 para gp.
AD: 1 AA bn with 10 40mm guns.
PARA-MILITARY: National Police 'special ops unit' 1,000.

GDP 1983: ES 560.27 bn ($12.70 bn); 1984: ES 805.70 bn ($12.884 bn)
growth 1984: 4.1% 1985: 2.7%
Inflation 1984: 31.2% 1985: 28%
Debt 1984: $7.0 bn 1985: $7.8 bn
Def bdgt 1983: ES 9.50 bn ($215.346 m)*
Def exp 1984e: ES 14.0 bn ($223.871 m)*
FMA 1985: $2.0 m 1986: $3.8 m
$1=ES (1982): 30.026 (1983): 44.115; (1984): 62.536 (1985): 69.556
ES = Ecuadorean sucres

Population: 10,408,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 1,018,000 659,000
Women: 1,011,000 654,000

Regular: 42,000.
Terms of service. 1 year, selective; most are volunteers.
Reserves: system in force, ages 18-47, numbers unknown.

ARMY: 35,000.
HQ: 4 Military zones: 10 bdes.
2 armd cav bdes
5 inf bdes
3 'jungle bdes
   (4 armd cav, 15 inf, 8 jungle, 4 arty, 3 engr bns, 5 cav gps, 3 recce sqns.)
1 Special Force (AB) bde of 3 units.
1 Presidential Guard sqn.
3 AA btys.
Tks: lt: 30 M-3, 81 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 27 AML-60, 10 EE-9 Cascavel, some EE-3 Jararaca. APC: 20 M-113, 55 AMX-VCI, 18 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: how: 105mm: M-56 pack, 50 towed; 155mm: 10 M-1 98 towed, 10 Mk F3 SP. mor: 81mm: 400; 160mm: 12.
ATK: RCL: 90mm, 106mm.
AD: guns: 20mm: 28 M-1935; 35mm: 30 GDF-002 twin; 40mm: 30. SAM: 240 Blowpipe.
Avn: ac: 3 PC-6 Turbo-Porter, 1 Gates Learjet, 2 Beech King Air, 3 IAI-201 Arava, 2 Cessna (1 172G, 1 182) tpt.
   hel: 5 SA-330 Puma, 6 AS-332 Super Puma, 26 SA-341 Gazelle, 2 SA-315 Lama, Bell 214.

NAVY: 4,000, incl some 1,500 marines.
Bases: Guayaquil, Jaramijo, Galapagos Islands.
Subs: 2 Type 1300.
Destroyers: 2: 1 Gearing; 1 Lawrence.
Corvettes: 6 Esmeraldas with 4 MM-40, 1 quad Albatros SAM, 1 hel.
FAC(G): 6: 3 Quito (Lurssen) with 4 Otomat; 3 Manta with 4 Gabriel.
Patrol craft: 10 coastal <.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-40, Otomat, Gabriel; SAM: Albatros/Aspide.
Amph: LST: 1; LCVP: 6 9-ton Rotork.
Avn: ac: 1 Beech Super King Air, 3 Beech T-34C, 1 IAI-201 Arava, 1 Cessna 320E; hel: 2 SA-316 Alouette III.
Marines: 3 bns: 2 on garrison duties, 1 cdo (no hy weapons, eqpt).

AIR FORCE: 3,000; 60 combat ac.
4 Wings:
Interceptor: 1 gp with 15 Dassault Mirage F-1JE, 1 F-1JB.
FGA: 2 gps:
   1 with 8 Sepecat Jaguar S, 2 -B;
   1 with 12 IAI Kfir C-2.
COIN: 1 gp with 6 Cessna A-37B.
COIN/trg: 2 gps: 1 with 6 BAC-167 Strikemaster Mk 89; 1 with 10 Lockheed T/AT-33A.
Military Air Transport Gp (incl civil/military airline): 3 Boeing 727-2T3, 4 707, 2 720, 5 Lockheed (3 Electro, 1 C-130H, 1 L-100-30),
   1 Transall C-160, 3 DHC-5D Buffalo, 3 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 1 Beech King Air 90, 1 Cessna 337D, 2 BAe HS-748, 5 IAI-201 Arava.
Liaison/SAR: hel fits: 6 SA-316 Alouette III, 1 Bell 212.
Trg: incl 20 Beech T-34C, 8 Cessna T-41.
AAM: R-550 Magic, Super 530.
1 para sqn.
(In store: 3 English Electric CanberraB-6 bbrs.)
(On order: 25 Lockheed T-33 ODIN, 1 Fokker F-28-4000 tpt.)
Coastguard (200): 12 40-ft patrol craft.

* Excl internal security budget.
GDP 1984: C 11.41 bn ($4,564 bn); 1985: C 14.02 bn ($5,606 bn)
growth 1984: 1.5% 1985: 1.6%
Inflation 1984: 11.6% 1985: 22.2%
Debt 1984: $1.6 bn 1985: $2.1 bn
Def exp* 1985e: C 630 m ($252 m)
Def bdgt 1986: C 800 m ($177.778 m)
FMA 1985: $144.7 m 1986e: $125.4 m
$1=C (1983/4/5): 2.5 (1986): 4.5
C = colones

Population: 5,622,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 631,000 390,000
Women: 622,000 393,000

Regular: 42,640.
Terms of service, conscription, selective, 2 years: all services.
Reserves: ex-soldiers registered.

ARMY: 38,650 (some conscripts).
6 Military Zones (14 Regions).
6 inf bdes (21 med, 14 lt bns); cadre: 12 inf regts, up to 39 bns.
1 mech cav regt (2 bns).
1 arty bde (3 bns).
1 engr bn.
6 indep COIN bns (1,100-1,400 men).
1 para bn "I Army personnel,
1 AA arty bn J Air Force control.
Tks: 12 AMX-13U.
AFV: recce: 5 M-3A1, 10 AML-90. APC: 20 M-113, 8 UR-416.
Arty: how: 105mm: 50: 30 M-101, 6 M-102, 14 Yug M-56; 155mm: 6 M-114. mor: 81mm: 111; 120mm: 8 UB-M52.
ATK: RCL: 90mm: 430 M-67. RL: LAW.
(On order: 66 M-37B1 (mod) APC.)

NAVY: 1,290 (incl 600 Marine bn, 200 cdo) (some conscripts).
Patrol boats: 20, incl 3 31-m Camcraft, 1 20-m Sewart, 1 20-m Swiftships, 2 40-ft coastguard utility.

AIR FORCE: 2,700 (incl AD, security gp; some conscripts); 24 combat ac, some 16 armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 8 Dassault Ouragan.
COIN: ac: 1 sqn with 2 Douglas C-47AFSP (armed), 7 Cessna A-37B Dragonfly,
hel: 1 sqn with 4 Hughes 500MD attack, some 12 Bell UH-1M gunship, 41 UH-1H tpt, 3 SA-315 Lama tpt, 3 SA-316 Alouette III tpt.
Recce: 1 fit with 7 O-2A (Cessna 337).
Tpt: ac: 1 sqn with 9 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 1 Douglas DC-6B, 3 IAI-201 Arava, 2 Fairchild C-123K.
Trg: 1 fit with 3 Cessna T-41, 6 CM-170Magister.
AB: 1 para bn
AD: 1 AA arty bn (24 Yug M-55 20mm guns, 4 SP)
(On order: some UH-1M gunships, 6 Hughes TH-55 trg hel.)
National Guard 3,600. National Police 6,000.
Treasury Police 2,000. Defensa Civil (territorial civil defence force) 7,000.

OPPOSITION: Direction Revolucionaria Unificada (DRU):
   political wing Frente Democratico Revolucionaria (FDR), co-ordinating body for political elements and military forces.
Military wing is Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN): perhaps 10,000 combatants.
(1) Peoples' Revolutionary Army (ERP): (4,000).
(2) Farabundo Marti Popular Liberation Forces (FPL): (2,200).
(3) Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN or RN): (1,500).
(4) Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers (PRTC): (perhaps 1,100).
(5) Armed Forces of Liberation (FAL): (perhaps 1,000).

* Incl 'Public Security Sector' budget.

GDP 1983: q 9.035 bn ($9.035 bn); 1984: q 9.397 bn ($9.397 bn)
growth 1984: 0.4%; 1985e: -1.5%
Inflation 1984: 3.4%; 1985: 16.0%
Debt 1984: $2.2 bn; 1985: $2.5 bn
Def bdgt 1983: q 169.6 m ($169.6 m); 1984: q 179.8 m ($179.8 m)
FMA 1985: $2.0 m; 1986: $4.8 m
$1=q (1982/3/4/5/6): 1.00
q = quetzales

Population: 8,616,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 988,000 658,000
Women: 1,009,000 653,000

Regular. 32,000.
Terms of service, conscription; 24-30 months.
Reserves: Army 10,000, Navy (some), Air 200.

ARMY: 30,300.*
HQ: 4 Regional bdes.
1 armd bn.
12 inf bns.
4 fd arty gps (8 btys).
1 AA arty bn (2 btys).
1 Military Police bn.
1 engr bn.
4 recce sqns.
1 Presidential Guard bde (2 bns).
1 Special Forces bde (2 bns).
Tks: lt: 10 M-41A3, 7 M-3A1.
AFV: recce: 5 M-8, 10 RBY-1; APC: 10 M-113, 7 V-150 Commando.
Arty: how: 75mm: 96 M-116 pack; 105mm: 4 M-101. mor: 81mm: M-1; 4.2-in. (107mm): 12 M-30; 120mm: 12 EC1A.
ATK: RCL: 106mm.
AD: guns: 40mm: 12 M-1A1.

NAVY: 1,000 incl 650 marines (4 coys), (900 conscripts).*
Bases: Santo Tomas de Castillas, Sipacate, Puerto Quetzal.
Patrol craft<: 8 inshore, 36 small (some 30 armed).
Amph<: 1 LCM, 2 8-ton tp carriers, 12 Zodiactype assault boats (marines).

AIR FORCE: 700 (500 conscripts); 12 combat ac,
4 armed hel.*
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 Cessna A-37B, 6 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 8 Douglas (1 DC-6B, 7 C-47), 6 IAI-201 Arava.
Comms: 1 sqn with M Cessna (4 170A/B. 8 172K, 2 180, 2 206C, 1310).
Hel: 1 sqn with 22 Bell (perhaps 3 operational): 4 UH-1D (armed), 2 212, 6 412, 5 206B, 5 206L-1.
Presidential fit: 1 Beech Super King Air 200.
Trg: 5 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 3 Lockheed T-33A, 3 Cessna T-37C, 12 Cessna T-41.
(On order: 12 PC-7.)
National Police 9,500.
Regular and special naval police corps.
Treasury Police 2,100.
Territorial Militia (900,000) formed.

OPPOSITION: some 2,000.
Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG):
   4 Groups (Ejercito Guerrillero de los Pobres(EGP), Partido Guatemalteco del Trabajo (PGT),
   Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes (FAR), Organization del Pueblo en Armas (ORPA)).

* National Armed Forces are combined; the Army provides logistic support to the Navy and Air Force.

GDP 1984: $G 1.700 bn ($US 443.68 m); 1985: $G 1.964 bn($US 461.90 m)
growth 1984: 3.8%; 1985e: 4%
Inflation 1983: 15.0
Debt 1985: $1.3 bn
Security budget 1984: $G 153.7 m ($US40.114 m); 1985: $G 190.8 m ($US 44.874 m)
$1=$G (1982/3): 3.0; (1984): 3.8316; (1985): 4.2519
$G = S Guyanese

Population: 852,500
   18-30 31-45
Men: 114,000 62,000
Women: 112,500 65,500

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services are part of the Army):
Regular: 5,450.
Terms of service: voluntary.
Reserves: some 3,000 (People's Militia). See Para-Military.

ARMY: 5,000.
2 inf bns.
1 guard bn.
1 special forces bn.
1 arty 'bn' (bty).
1 engr coy.
AFV: recce: 6 EE-9 Cascavel,2 Shorland.
Arty: guns: 130mm: 6 M-46. mor: 81mm: 12; 82mm: 18; 120mm: 20 Ch T-53.
AD: SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 270.
Patrol craft: 11: 1 Vosper large, 5 N. Korean Sin Hung, 6 coastal.

Tpt: ac: 6 BN-2A Defender, 2 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 1 Short Skyvan Srs 2, 1 Beech Super King Air 200, 1Cessna 206F;
   hel: 10 Bell (5 206B, 3 212, 2 214).
Guyana People's Militia (GPM) some 3,000.
Guyana National Service (GNS) perhaps 2,000.

GDP 1984: G 9.104bn ($1.821 bn); 1985e: G 10.652 bn ($2.130 bn)
growth 1984: 2.7% 1985: 1.5%
Inflation 1984: 8% 1985: 15%
Debt 1983: $612.1 m 1984: $677.1 m
Def bdgt 1983: G 140m ($28 m)
1984e: G 150m ($30 m)
FMA 1985: $1.1 m 1986: $0.5 m
$1=G (1982/3/4/5): 5
G = gourdes

Population: 5,543,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 622,500 404,000
Women: 641,000 447,500

Regular: 6,900.
Terms of service, voluntary.

ARMY: 6,400.
Presidential Guard (1 inf bn, 1armdsqn).
1 inf bn.
1 Special Forces bn.
1 arty gp (2 btys).
6 Garrison dets (21coys).
Tks, lt: 6 M-5Al.
APC: 5 M-2, 6 V-150 Commando.
Arty: how: 10: 75mm: 4 M-1A1 pack; 105mm: 6 M-101. mor: 60mm: 36; 81mm.
ATK: guns: 37mm: 10 M-3; 57mm: 10 M-1.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 106mm: M-40.
AD: guns: 20mm: 10: 6 RAMTA TCM-20, 4 other; 40mm: 6; 57mm: 4.

NAVY: 300 (Coastguard).
Patrol craft: 14: 1 Sotoyomo, 13 coastal (2 Sewart, 9 3812-VCF, 2 Bertram).

AIR FORCE: 200; 7 combat ac.
COIN: 7 Cessna 337.
Tpt: 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 DHC-2 Beaver, 3 DHC-3 Otter, 1 Beech Baron, 2 Cessna: 1 140, 1 402.
Trg: 4 SIAI S-211, 4 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260TP, 1 Beech Bonanza, 4 Cessna: 3 152, 1 172.
Hel: 5 CH-34C (Sikorsky S-58), 3 Hughes 269C/369C.

GDP 1984: L 6.297 bn ($3.149 bn); 1985: L 6.719bn ($3.360 bn)
growth 1984: 2.8% 1985: 3%
Inflation 1984: 4.8% 1985: 5%
Debt 1984: $2.4bn 1985e: $2.5bn
Def bdgt* 1983: L 140m ($70 m); 1984: L 180m ($90 m)
FMA 1985/6: $61.3m 1986/7: $87.0 m
$1=L (1982/3/4/5): 2
L = lempiras

Population: 4,507,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 487,000 303,000
Women: 481,000 300,000

Regular: 19,200; (13,000 conscripts).
Terms of service, conscription, 24 months.
Reserves: 50,000 (personnel only; no units).

ARMY: 17,000 (12,000 conscripts).
10 Military Zones: 3 inf bdes (each 3 inf, 1 arty bns).
1 armd cav regt.
3 indep inf bns.
4 arty regts.
1 engr bn.
1 special forces bn.
1 Presidential Guard coy(ceremonial).
Tks: lt: 12Scorpion, 3 Scimitar.
AFV: recce: 72 Saladin, 10 RBY Mk1.
Arty: how: 105mm: 24 M-101/-102. mor: 60mm; 81mm: M-1; 120mm: 30 Soltam M-65.
ATK: RCL: 106mm. RL: Carl Gustav.
(On order: M-198 155mm how.)

NAVY: 700 (450marine conscripts).
Bases: Puerto Cortes, Amapala.
Patrol craft: 11 Swiftships: 4 103-ton, 2 50-ton, 5 33-ton<; 6 patrol launches.
Spt: 1 log ship.
AIR FORCE: 1,500 (700 conscripts); 28 combat aircraft.
FGA: 1sqn with 13 Dassault Super Mystere B2.
COIN: 1 sqn with 15 Cessna A-37B.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 C-130D Hercules, 11 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 2 IAI-201 Arava, 1 Lockheed Electro, 1 IAI-1124 Westwind.
Spt: 1 sqn with: ac: 1 Beech Baron, 4 Cessna (2 180, 2 185), 1 Piper Cheyenne,
hel: 1 Sikorsky S-76.
Hel: 1 sqn with 11 Bell UH-1H, 11 UH-1B, 1 Hughes 500, 8 TH-5 (Hughes 300).
Trg: 4 CASA C-101BB, 12 EMB-312 Tucano, 8 Cessna T-41 A.
(On order 2 CASA C-101 ac, 5 Bell 412 hel.)
PARA-MILITARY: Public Security Forces (FUSEP) (national police) 5,000.

* Excl internal security costs.

GDP 1983: $J 6.75 bn ($US 2.916 bn); 1984: $J 9.37 bn ($US 2.132 bn)
growth 1984: -0.4% 1985: -3.0%
Inflation 1984: 31.0% 1985: 25.7%
Debt 1984: $US 3.0 bn 1985: $US 3.2 bn
Def bdgt 1983/4e: $J 90.0 m ($US 38.877 bn); 1984/5e: $J 112.3 m ($US 25.557 bn)
FMA 1985/6: $US 5.0m. 1986/7: $8.0m
$1=$J (1982/3): 1.7814 (1983/4): 2.3150; (1984/5): 4.3942 (1985/6): 5.6261

Population: 2,349,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 295,000 122,000
Women: 296,000 146,000

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular: 2,100.
Terms of service, voluntary.
Reserves: some 1,030 (1 inf bn, some 400 may be serving with the regular units).
ARMY: 1,780.
2 inf bns, 1 spt bn.
APC: 15 V-150 Commando.
Arty: 12 81mm mor.

NAVY: 150.
Patrol boats: 1 107-ton, 3 60-ton coastal.

Ac: 2 BN-2 Islander, 1 Beech King Air, 4 Cessna: 1 210 Centurion, 1 337, 2 185.
Hel: 7 Bell: 4 202, 3 212.
PARA-MILITARY: Mobile Reserve: 1,000 (part of the police).

GDP 1983: pM 17,141.7 bn ($142.74 bn); 1984: pM 29,438.9 bn ($175.41 bn)
growth 1984: 3.5% 1985: 3.9%
Inflation 1984: 65.5% 1985: 64.0%
Debt 1984: $95.0 bn 1985: $98.0 bn
Def exp 1985e: pM 300.1 bn ($1.168 bn)
Def bdgt 1986: pM 374.2 bn ($659.616 m)
$1=p M (1983): 120.094 (1984): 167.828; (1985): 256.870 (1986): 567.300
pM = pesos Mexicanos

Population: 81,162,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 9,452,000 5,815,000
Women: 9,287,000 5,979,000

Regular: 139,500 (?120,000 rural militia).
Terms of service. Regulars, voluntary; militia: part-time conscription (by lottery).
Reserves: 300,000.

ARMY: 105,000 regular (760,000 reservists).
1 mech inf bde (Presidential Guard) (3 bns).
2 inf bdes: each 2 inf, 1 armd recce, 1 arty bns.
3 armd regts.
36 Zonal Garrisons inch 21 indep mot cav, 3 arty regts, 75 indep inf bns.
AA, engr and spt units.
Tks: lt: 45 M-3/-8.
AFV: recce: 40 Panhard ERC-90F (Lynx), 40 Panhard M-11 VBL, DN-3/-4/-5 Caballo. APC: 40 HWK-11, 30 M-3.
Arty: how: 75mm: 23: 18 M-116 pack, 5 M-8 SP; 105mm: 50 M-101. mor: 1,500 60mm, 81mm; 120mm: 60.
ATK: guns: 37mm: 30 M-3. RCL: 106mm. ATGW: Milan (incl 8 Panhard M-11 VBL).
AD: guns: 40 12.7mm.

NAVY: 28,000, incl naval air force and marines.
2 Areas (Gulf, Pacific) of 6 Zones (8 Sectors) and 11 Zones (6 Sectors) respectively.
Bases: Gulf: Vera Cruz, Tampico, Chetumal, Ciudad del Carmen, Yukalpeten.
Pacific: Acapulco, Ensenada, La Paz, Puerto Cortes, Guaymas, Mazatlan, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Puerto Madero, LДzaro Cardenas.
Destroyers: 2 Gearing.
Frigates: 6: 4 US Lawrence/Crosley, 1 Durango, 1 US Edsall (trg ship).
Corvettes: 6 Hakan (B-120) each with 1 BO-105 hel.
Patrol ships: 35: 18 Auk, 16 Admirable exminesweepers, 1 Guanajuato.
Patrol craft: 31 Azteca large; 6 coastal( (5 Polimar, 1 Azueta); 14 river( (8 Olmeca, 6 AM-4).
Amph: LST: 3 US 511-1152; LCU: 7 Pegaso<.
Spt: 1 repair ship; 1 tpt, 2 harbour tankers.
Coastal defence: guns: M-1902/-1906 75mm, L/27 120mm (probably de-activated).

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (500); 11 combat ac.
MR: 1 sqn with 11 HU-16 Albatross.
Liaison: 1 sqn with 1 Gates Learjet 24D, 1 Fokker F-27, 11 Beech Bonanza; 3 Cessna.
Hel: 1 sqn with 4 Alouette III, 6 MBB BO-105.

MARINES: (6,500).
13 Groups.
30 security coys.
(On order: 4 Aguila corvettes (mod Hakan); 5 Olmeca river patrol boats; 10 CASA C-212 MP ac; 6 BO-105 hel.)

AIR FORCE: 6,500 (incl 2,000 AB bde); 87 combat ac.
Interceptors: 1 sqn with 9 Northrop F-5E, 2 F-5F.
COIN: 6 sqns with 50 Pilatus PC-7, 12 Lockheed T-33.
Recce: 1 photo sqn with 14 Rockwell Aero Commander 500S.
SAR: 2 sqns: 1 ac with 8 IAI-201 Arava; 1 hel with 3 Alouette III, 2 SA-330 Puma, 18 Bell (1 47G, 5 206B, 8 212, 4 205A).
Presidential (tpt) sqn: ac: 9 Boeing 727, 1 Fokker F-27, 1 BAe/HS-125-400, 6 T-39 Sabreliner, 1 Cessna310R(U-3A);
   hel: 2 Bell 212, 2 SA-330 Puma, 2 AS-332L Super Puma.
Tpt: 5 sqns: 29 Douglas (1 DC-7, 12 C-118, 4 C-54, 12 C-47), 3 Short Skyvan, 1 BN Islander, 3 F-27, 1 Cessna 206E.
Trg: 54 Beech: 20 Bonanza, 34 Musketeer, 5 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 20 Mudry CAP-10B.
1 AB bde (2 regular, 1 trg bns).
(On order 25 PC-7 COIN, 21 Bonanza F33C trg ac.)
PARA-MILITARY: Rural Defence Militia 120,000.

GDP 1983: $C 35.783 bn ($US 3.560 bn); 1984e: $C 53.670 bn ($US 5.340 bn)
growth 1984: -1.4% 1985: 2%
Inflation 1984: 53.2% 1985e: 300%
Debt 1984: $US 3.7 bn 1985e: $US 4.4 bn
Def exp 1983e: $C 3.5 bn ($US 348.259 m)*; 1984e: $C 6.3 bn ($US 598.04 m)
$1=$C (1982/3/4): 10.05 (1985): 26.504
$C = cordobas

Population: 3,317,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 363,000 218,500
Women: 362,000 224,500

Regular: 72,000 incl active duty reserves and Militia (720,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, males 17-23, 2 years service plus 2 years reserve.
Reserves: All males 25-40 required to register, total perhaps 250,000. Army 740,000 (76,000 active duty). Navy and Air totals unknown.

ARMY: 69,000: 30,000 Regular (720,000 conscripts), 34,000 Active Reserves and militia, 5,000 Border Guard.
3 Military Zones with 6 Militia, 1 Special Military Regions.
2 mot inf bdes (other bde orgs reported).
5 armd bns.
17 inf bns (1 AB, some COIN).
6 Border Guard bns.
1 fd arty bde.
4 fd arty gps.
4 engr bns.
1 AA arty gp.
Reserves/Militia: some 160 'bns'.
Tks: some 110 T-54/55. lt: 25 PT-76.
AFV: recce: 50 BRDM-2, 2 Staghound. APC: 22 BTR-60, 105 BTR-152.
Arty: guns: 76mm: some M-1942. gun/how: 122mm: 30 D-30; 152mm: 36 D-20. MRL: 122mm: 24 BM-21. mor: 60mm, 82mm, 120mm: 24 M-43.
ATK: guns: 57mm: 98 ZIS-2.
AD: guns: 14.5mm: some 100 ZPU-1/-2/-4; 23mm: some 30 ZU-23; 37mm: 56 M-1939; 100mm: 18 KS-19. SAM: 350 SA-7.

NAVY: 1,000 (some conscripts).
Patrol craft<: 2 Fr, 3 Sov Zhuk, 2 N. Korean Sin Hung, 2 N. Korean Kimjin, 6 Hatteras, 3 Dabur, 7 other coastal.
MCMV<: 4 Pol K-8, 2 Sov Yevgenya inshore.
Amph: 1 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 2,000, incl AD (some conscripts); 14 combat ac, 10+ armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 3 Lockheed AT-33A, 2 SIAI-Marchetti SF-260 Warrior, 9 Cessna (7 337, 2 185).
Tpt: 1 sqn with 2 Antonov An-26, 2 CASA C-212A, 1 IAI-201 Arava, 3 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 6An-2.
Hel: 1 sqn with 2 OH-6A (Hughes 500M), 6 Mil Mi-2, 18 Mi-8/-17, 10 Mi-24 Hind, 1 Sikorsky S-58T, 1 Hughes 300.
AD (Army/Air Force): radar: 4 installations.
(On order: 6 An-2, 5 An-26 ac; Mi-8/-17 hel.)
Border Guard (Tropas Guardafronteras (TGF): some 5,000; 6 bns (under Army).
Civilian Militia (Milicia Popular Sandinistd): perhaps 50,000.
Ministry of Interior Troops (Tropas Pablo Ubeda): 2,000.

United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO); some 24,000 reported. Active strength 12-15,000;
   ammunition, equipment and clothing reported in short supply, and inter-group feuds hamper operations.
Northern Front (Honduras): Fuerza Democratica Nicaraguense (UNO/FDN) (US-backed), est range 10-20,000, ?12,000 active.
Caribbean Coast: Miskito, Sumo, Rama and Sandinistan Unity (= Misurasata) 800. Miskito, Sumo, Rama (= Misurd).
Nicaraguan East Coast Indian Unity KISAN (UNO)perhaps 2,500.
FARN (UNO) 150.
Southern Front (Costa Rica): Union Democratica Nicaraguense (UDN)/Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Nicaraguenses (FARN) range
   est 500 to 3,500. Frente Revolucionario Sandino (FRS), Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE) (US-backed) 2,500, ?1,000 active.

* Official government figures claim defence expenditure was 25% of the 1984budget, while FSLN claims it was up to 63%.Value of Soviet, East European and Cuban aid not known.

GDP 1984: B 4.541 bn ($4.541 bn); 1985: B 4.677 bn ($4.677 bn)
growth 1984: -0.4% 1985: 1.5%
Inflation 1984: 1.6% 1985: 1.0%
Debt 1984: $4.0 bn 1985: $4.2 bn
Def bdgt 1985: B 96.5 m ($96.469 m); 1986e: B 100 m ($100 m)
FMA 1985: $10.0 m; 1986: $14.4 m
$1=B (1983/4/5/6): 1
B = balboas

Population: 2,147,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 253,500 180,000
Women: 241,500 169,500

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: Regular. 12,000.
Terms of service, voluntary (conscription authorized).

ARMY (National Guard): 11,500.
7 lt inf coys (1 Special Forces; 1 AB(1,500 men)).
AFV: recce: 28: 16 V-150, 12 V-300 Commando.
Arty: mor: 60mm.
ATK: RL: 3.5-in.

NAVY: 300.
Patrol craft: 2 Vosper large, 6 coastal <.
Amph: 2 Batral lt tpts, 1 LSM, 1 LCM.

Recce: 1 sqn.
SAR: 1sqn.
Tpt: 'Service'.
Ac: 1 Lockheed Electra, 2 BN-2B Defender, 2 CASA C-212, 2 DHC-3 Otter, 2 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 1 Short Skyvan,
   1 Dassault Mystere 20 (VIP), 12 Cessna: 6 180, 5 185/U-17A, 1402.
Hel: 3 Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100, 17 Bell UH-1B/D/H/N.

GDP 1984: Pg 1,070.44 bn ($5.326 bn); 1985: Pg 1,393.90 bn ($5.808 bn)
growth 1984: 3.1%; 1985: 4.0%
Inflation 1984: 20.4%; 1985: 24.7%
Debt1984: $1.7 bn; 1985: $1.9 bn
Def bdgt 1985: Pg 18.33bn ($76.375 m); 1986: Pg 18.75 bn ($78.138 m)
$1=Pg (1983): 126; (1984): 201; (1985/6): 240
Pg = guaranies

Population: 3,487,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 424,000 271,000
Women: 420,500 275,000

Regular: 15,970 (9,800 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months; Navy 2 years.
Reserves: some 36,300. Army 30,500, Navy 2,200 (incl some 400 Marines), Air 3,600.

ARMY: 12,500 (8,100 conscripts).
HQ: 6 Military Regions, 3 corps.
Army HQ:
1 Presidential Escort regt.
1 inf bn.
1 arty bn.
5 engr bns.
Log spt, sigs bns.
3 corps:
1 cav div (bde) (2 mech, 2 horsed cav regts, 1 mot inf bn, 1 arty bty).
8 inf divs (8 inf regts and 16 reserve cadre regts/bns).
2 frontier inf bns.
Tks: 2 M-4A3; lt: 2M-3A1.
AFV: recce: 12 M-8, 25 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 3 M-2 med, 10 EE-11 Urutu.
Arty: coastal guns: 6 Mk V 6-in. (152mm). how: 75mm: 25 Model 1927/1934; 105mm: 10 Model 1927. mor: 81mm, 4.2-in. (107mm).
ATK: RCL: 75mm.
AD: guns: 20mm: 20; 40mm: 10 M-1A1.
Avn: ac: 8 Fokker S-l 1. hel: 3 Bell 47G.

NAVY: 2,500 (1,000 conscripts) (incl Marines, Coast Defence Corps, Coast and River Guard).
Bases : Asuncion/Puerto Sajonia, Bahfa Negra, Puerto Presidente Stroessner.
River defence vessels: 2 Paraguay, 1 Itaipu. 2 Arg Bouchard ex-minesweepers.
Patrol craft: 5 coastal <.
Amph: 1 US LSM (with hel deck, carries UH-12), 2 LCU.
Spt/cargo: 3.

MARINES: (500 (200 conscripts)).
1 marine 'regt' (bn).
1 cdo 'bn'.

4 btys.
Guns: 3-in. (76.2mm): 8 M-1911; 152mm: 6 Mk V.

Utility: 1 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 4 Cessna (2 206, 2 150M).
Trg: 5 North American T-6G.
Hel: 2 OH-13 (Bell 47G), 2 UH-12E (Bell 47J).
(On order: 2 HB-35OB Esquilo hel.)

AIR FORCE: 970 (690 conscripts); 5 combat ac.
Composite sqn: 1.
COIN fit: 5 EMB-326 Xavante.
Liaison fit: 2 Cessna (1 337, 1 402).
Hel fit: 3 OH-13A, 2 UH-12.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 7 Douglas (2 DC-6B, 5 C-47), 1 DHC-6 Twin Otter (VIP), 1 DHC-3 Otter, 2 CASA C-212, PBY-5A Catalina.
Trg: 4 T-25 Universal, 4 T-23 Uirapuru, 15 North American T-6, 5 Cessna T-41D.
1 para regt (bn).
PARA-MILITARY: Capital Police Force, Special Police Service: 6,000.

GDP 1983: I 26.315 bn ($16,154 bn); 1984: I 58.865 bn ($16,979 bn)
growth 1984: 4.5% 1985: 1.8%
Inflation 1984: 110% 1985: 170%
Debt* 1984: $14.3 bn 1985: $15.2 bn
Def bdgt 1984: I 4.60 bn ($1,327 bn); 1985e: I 7.03 bn ($640,605 m)
FMA 1984: $10.7 m 1985f: $28.16 m
$1=I (1982): 0.698 (1983): 1.629; (1984): 3.467 (1985): 10.974

Population: 20,342,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,201,000 1,455,000
Women: 2,296,000 1,530,000

Regular: 127,000 (42,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 2 years, selective.
Reserves: Army only (7175,000).

ARMY: 85,000 (35,000 conscripts).
5 Military Regions:
4 armd divs (bdes).
1 cav div (3 mech, 1 horsed regts).
8 inf divs (bdes, each of 4 bns, 1 arty gp).
1 AB div (bde; 3 para bns).
1 jungle div (bde).
1 armd car det (bde).
2 indep fd arty gps; 2 indep arty bns.
1 indep AA gp, 1 indep SAM gp.
4 indep inf bns.
7 indep 'jungle' inf bns.
4 indep engr bns.
3 hel sqns.
Tks: 280 T-54/-55. lt: 110 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 60 M-8/-20, 20 Fiat 6616. APC: 140 M-113, 150 UR-416.
Arty: guns: 130mm: 30 M-46. guns/how: 155mm: 36. how: 105mm: 180: 10 M-56 pack; 122mm: 30 D-30.
   MRL: 122mm: 14 BM-21. mor: 120mm: 300.
ATK: RCL: 105mm, 106mm.
AD: guns: 35 ZSU-23-4 SP, 40 40mm towed. SAM: SA-3/-7.
Avn: hel: 25 Mil Mi-8, 6 AS-318 Alouette II.

NAVY: 27,000 (5,000 conscripts) incl naval air, marines.
Bases: Callao, San Lorenzo Island, Paita, Talara; lake: Puno; river: Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado.
Subs: 12: 6 Type 1200; 2 Guppy IA; 4 Abtao.
Cruisers: 2 Neth De Ruyter (1 with 3 SH-3D hel, 1 on long refit, other to follow).
Destroyers: 8: 2 Br Daring with 8 MM-38; 6 Friesland.
Frigates: 3 Carvajal (mod Lupo) with 8 Otomat, 1 AB-212 hel.
FAC(G): 6 PR-72P Velardewith 4 MM-38.
River gunboats: 4.
Patrol craft: 4 lake<.
Amph: 5.
Spt: 2 tpts; 3 replenishment, 2 tankers.
Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38, Otomat;
SAM: Albatros/Aspide.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: 13 combat ac, some 10 combat hel.
ASW/MR: 4 sqns with: ac: 7 S-2E Tracker, 2 Fokker F-27MPA, 4 Beech Super King Air B-200T;
   hel: some 10 (Agusta-Sikorsky AS-61, Augusta-Bell 212).
Utility: 1 hel sqn with 4 Bell 206B, 6 AB-212.
Tpts: 2 C-47 (Douglas DC-3).
Trg: ac: 6 Beech T-34C; hel: 2 Bell 206B.
Msls: ASM: 40 Exocet AM-39.
MARINES: (3,500).
1 Marine bde (3 bns).
AFV: recce: V-100. APC.40 V-200 Chaimile.
Arty: RCL: 106mm. RL: 84mm. mor: ?18 120mm.
AD: guns: twin 20mmSP.
Coast defence: 3 btys with 18 155mm how (may have been deactivated).
(On order: 1 Carvajal frigate; 3 EMB-111 MR ac.)

AIR FORCE: 15,000 (2,000 conscripts); 96 combat ac, 12 armed hel.
Bbr: 1 Gp (3 sqns) with 20 BAe Canberra B-2/B(I)-8.
FGA: 4 Gps (9 sqns): 2 with 15 Dassault Mirage5P; 5 with 30 Sukhoi Su-22; 2 with 25 Cessna A-37B.
COIN: 1 hel sqn with 12 Mil Mi-25 (probably Army-assigned).
Recce: 1 photo sqn with 2 Beech Queen Air A-80, 4 Gates Learjet (2 36A, 2 25).
Tpt: 2 Gps (3 sqns): ac: 4 Lockheed L-100-20/C-130H, 2 Douglas DC-8-62CF, 13 Antonov An-26, 8 DHC-6 Twin Otter,
   14 CC-115 (DHC-5 Buffalo), 4 PC-6Turbo-Porter,
   hel: 2 sqns with 32 Bell (6 206, 20 212, 6 214), 3 Alouette III, 6 Mi-6, 5 Mi-8, 3 MBB BO-105;
   liaison: 10 Beech Queen Air A-80.
Presidential Fit: 1 Fokker F-28 ac.
Trg: 4 sqns with 42 Cessna (19 T-41D, 23 T-37B/C), 13 Aermacchi MB-339A.
ASM: AS-30.
(On order some 13 Mirage 2000P/DP ac (1986); 8 Sikorsky UH-60A hel (status uncertain).)

Guardia Civil, 36,000; MOWAG Roland APC.
Coastguard (600); 23 patrol craft.
Republican Guard 15,000.
Rondos Campesinas (self-defence force or People's Militia) forming: no details.

Sendern Luminoso (Shining Path) some 2,000-rural gp.
Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru (MRTA) - urban gp.

* Arms purchase debt to USSR some $1 bn.
t Incl $20 m loan from Argentina for building military complex for Peruvian Air Force at Collique.
% New currency unit, the Inti, replaced the Sol from 1 Jan 1986 (1 Inti = 1,000 Soles). All economic data given here are in Intis.

GDP 1983: gld 1.846 bn ($ 1.034 bn); 1984: gld 1.809 bn ($1.013 bn)
growth 1983: -2.0% 1984: -3.0%
Inflation 1984: 3.7% 1985e: 11.7%
Debt 1983s: $350 m 1984e: $425 m
Def bdgt 1983: gld 73.56 m ($41.21 m); 1984E: gld 77.30 m ($43.31 m)
$1=gld (1982/3/4/5): 1.785
gld = guilders

Population: 380,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 55,000 15,000
Women: 53,000 21,000

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form part of the Army):
Regular: 2,535.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,350.
1 inf bn (4 inf (1 cdo), 1 armd car coy).
1 Guard bn.
1 Military Police bn.
AFV: recce: 6 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 9 YP-408, 15 EE-11 Urutu.
Mor: 6 81mm. RCL: 106mm.

NAVY: 125.
Patrol craft: 9: 3 large, 6< (3 coastal, 3 river).

4 BN-2 Defender ac.
PARA-MILITARY: National Militia 900.

GDP 1982: $TT 17.56 bn ($US 7.316 bn); 1983e: $TT 21.10 bn ($US 8.792 bn)
growth 1983: -4.0% 1984: -6.0%
Inflation 1984: 13.4% 1985: 7.7%
Debt 1984: $US 1.4 bn 1 985E: $US 1.6 bn
Def bdgt 1983e: $TT 195 m ($US 81.25 m); 1984e: $TT 180 m ($US 75.00 m)
$1=$TT( 1982/3/4): 2.4 (1985): 2.45

Population: 1,191,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 148,500 97,000
Women: 153,000 97,500

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services are part of the Army):
Regular: 2,130.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 1,500.
1 inf bn.
1 reserve bn (3 coys).
1 spt bn.
Arty: mor: 6 81mm.

Base: Staubles Bay.
Patrol craft: 6 large (2 Swed Type CG-40 133-ft, 4 Vosper 103-ft (2 to retire)); 7 coastal< (incl 4 Souter 55-ft).

Hel: 2 SA-341 Gazelle, 2 Sikorsky S-76 (SAR).
PARA-MILITARY: Police (4,000); 2 armed patrol craft.

GDP 1984: $N 295.55 bn ($US $5.27 bn); 1985e: $N 512.59 bn ($US $5.05 bn)
growth 1984: -1.8% 1985: -1.3%
Inflation 1984: 66.6% 1985: 83.0%
Debt 1984: $US $4.6 bn 1985: $US$4.8bn
Def bdgt 1986e: $N 16.43 bn ($US 124.442 m)
Def exp 1984e: $N 8.30 bn ($US 147.963 m)
FMA 1986/7: $US 2.5 m
$1=$N (1983): 34.540 (1984): 56.122; (1985): 101.422 (1986): 132.029
$N = new Urugayan pesos

Population: 2,922,000*
   18-30 31-45
Men: 303,500 262,000
Women: 297,500 267,000

Regular 31,900 (to be reduced).
Terms of service: voluntary; 1-2 years, extendable.

ARMY: 22,300.
4 Military Regions.
Army troops: Presidential Escort (1 cav regt).
1 inf bde (1 AB, 1 mot bns).
1 engr bde (3 bns).
1 sigs bde (2 bns).
4 inf divs: 3 cav bdes with 4 mech, 1 mot,
5 horsed regts.
4 inf bdes: 12 bns (incl 1 armd, 1 mot, 1AB).
5 fd arty gps.
1 AA gp.
4 engr bns.
Tks, lt: 17 M-24, 28 M-3A1, 22 M-41A1.
AFV: recce: 12 FN-4-RM-62, 18 EE-3 Jararaca, 15 EE-9 Cascavel. APC: 18 M-113, 55 Condor.
Arty: how: 75mm: 12 Bofors M-1902; 105mm: 28: 20 M-101A1, 8 M-102; 155mm: 6 M-114A2. mor: 40 81mm, 5 4.2-in. (107mm).
ATK: guns: 57mm: 30 M-1. RL: 57mm. RCL: 10 106mm.
AD: guns: 20mm: 6 M-167 Vulcan; 40mm: 2 L/60.
(On order: 15 Scorpion lt tks.)

NAVY: 6,600 incl naval air, naval infantry.
Base. Montevideo.
Frigates: 3: 1 Dealey, 2 Cannon.
Corvette: 1 US Auk.
Patrol craft: 7: 4 large: 1 US Adjutant, 3 Vigilante.
Amph: 5: 2 LCM, 3 LCU.
Spt: 2 tankers, 1 transport.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (390); 7 combat ac.
ASW: 1 fit with 6 S-2A/G Tracker.
MR: 1 fit with 1 Beech Super King Air B-200T.
Tpts: 2 Beech Expeditor (C-45J); 1 Piper Super Cub utility.
Trg: 5 North American T-28, 1 Beech T-34B, 1 T-34C ac.
Hel: 1 fit with 1 Sikorsky S-58 (SH-34G), 1 Bell 47 (OH-13H).

NAVAL INFANTRY: (450); 1 bn.
AIR FORCE: 3,000; 30 combat ac.
COIN: 2 sqns: 1 with 4 Lockheed AT-33A, 6 Cessna A-37B; 1 with 6 IA-58B Pucara.
Recce/trg: 1 sqn: 3 North American T-6G.
MR: 6 EMB-110B Bandeirante, 5 CASA C-212.
SAR: 1 sqn with: ac: 6 Cessna 185C (U-17A);
hel: 2 Bell 212, 8 UH-1B/H.
Tpt: 3 sqns with 5 CASA C-212, 6 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 6 Beech Queen Air B-80, 1 Gates Lear jet (VIP), 5 EMB-110B/C Bandeirante,
   2 Fokker F-27, 2 Fairchild FH-227.
Trg: 6 Cessna T-41D, 30 Beech T-34B.

Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO), 70.
Metropolitan Guard 650.
Republican Guard 520.
Coastguard 1,500; 6 coastal patrol craft<.

* Preliminary results of 1985census.

GDP 1983: Bs 285.26 bn ($66.378 bn); 1984: Bs 348.45 bn ($49.654 bn)
growth 1984: -1.4%; 1985: -0.4%
Inflation 1984: 12.2%; 1985: 9.1%
Debt 1984: $33.3 bn; 1985: $35.0 bn
Def bdgt 1983: Bs4.1 bn ($954.043 m)
Def exp 1984e: Bs7.5bn ($1.069 bn)
$1=Bs (1983): 4.2975; (1984): 7.0175; (1985/6): 7.5
Bs = bolfvares

Population: 18,911,000
   18-30 31-45
Men: 2,269,000 1,504,000
Women: 2,226,000 1,531,000

Regular 71,000 incl National Guard (perhaps 18,000 conscripts).
Terms of service. 2 years selective, all services.

ARMY: 34,000 (incl conscripts).
HQ: 5 div (regional) incl 1 cav.
1 armd bde (2 med, 1 lt tk, 1 SP arty, 1 AD bns).
6 inf bdes (2 mech, 11 hy, 13 lt inf bns).
1 cav regt (5 sqns).
7 arty bns.
2 AA arty bns (1 SP), 3 indep AA arty gps (2 more gps forming).
5 engr bns.
1 AB regt (2 bns).
Tks: 81 AMX-30. lt: 35 M-18, 36 AMX-13.
AFV: recce: 10 AML-245, 30 M-8, 60 M-706E1. APC: 25 AMX-VCI, 61 V-100.
Arty: how: 105mm: 40 M-56 pack, 30 M-101 towed; 155mm: 20 Mk F3, 10 M-109 SP.
   MRL: 160mm: 36 LAR SP. mor: 81mm: 100; 120mm: 85.
ATK: RCL: 106mm. ATGW: SS-11, AS-11.
AD: guns: 40mm: 60: 18 Breda L/70 towed; 20mm: 12 AML S-530 twin SP; 40mm: 20 M-42A1 twin SP.
Avn: ac: 1 tpt sqn with 1 BN-2 Islander, 4 IAI-202 Arava, 3 Beech (1 Super King Air, 1 King Air, 1 Queen Air), 8 Cessna 182;
   hel: 1 sqn with 2 Bell 206; 4 Bell UH-1H, 4 Agusta A-109 ATK, 4 Augusta-Sikorsky AS-61D.
(On order 18 40mm L/70 AD system.)

NAVY: 10,000 (some conscripts) incl naval air, marines and coast guard.
Bases: Caracas, Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, Puerto de Hierro, Punto Fijo, Puerto La Cruz, El Amparo (Arauca River).
Subs: 3: 2 Type 1300; 1 Guppy III (on refit).
Frigates: 6 Sucre (Lupo) with 8 Otomat SSM, 1 octuple Albatros/Aspide SAM, 1 Augusta-Bell AB-212hel.
Amph: 7: 5 LST (1 on refit), 2 LCU.
Spt: 2 transports, 3 cargo vessels.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (2,500); combat: 4 ac, 6 hel.
MR: 1 sqn with 4 S-2E Tracker ac.
ASW: 1 hel sqn (afloat) with 6 AB-212AS.
SAR: 1 sqn with 3 CASA C-212/200 MR.
Tpt: 1 sqn with 1 De Havilland DHC-7, 1 BAe/ HS-748, 1 Beech King Air B-90, 3 Cessna: 2 310R/310Q, 1 402.

MARINES: (4,500).
4 bns.
1 arty bn.
1 amph bn.
1 AA coy.
APC: 11 LVTP-7 (to be mod to -7A1), 30 EE-11 Urutu, 10 Fuchs/Transportpanzer 1.
How: 18 105mm.
AA: guns: 6 M-42 40mm twin SP.
(On order: 1 river patrol boat; 2 tpt ac; 35 M-41Clttks.)

COAST GUARD: (?800).
Frigates: (patrol vessels) 2 Almirante Clemente.
FAC: 6 Vosper 121-ft: 2 msl, 4 gun.
Patrol: 2 Cherokee.

AIR FORCE: 5,000 (some conscripts); 102 combat ac.
Bbr/recce: 2 sqns with 20 BAe Canberra (12 B-82, 5 B(I)-82, 1 PR-83, 2 T-84).
FGA: 1 sqn with 13 Dassault Mirage (6 IIIEV, 5 5V, 2 5DV).
Interceptor/FGA: 3 sqns: 1 with 17 Northrop (15 F-5A, 2 F-5D); 1 with 16 Mirage (10 IIIEV, 4 5V, 2 5DV);
   1 with 24 General Dynamics F-16A/B/D.
COIN: 1 sqn with 12 OV-10E Bronco.
Presidential (tpt) sqn: ac: 1 Boeing 737, 1 McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, 1 Gulfstream II, 1 Cessna 500; hel: 4 Bell (2 214, 2 412).
Tpt: 2 sqns with 5 Lockheed C-130H, 5 C-47 (Douglas DC-3), 6 Fairchild C-123A, 6 Aeritalia G-222.
Utility/liaison/recce: 2 sqns with: ac: 2 Cessna Citation, 12 Beech (3 King Air, 9 Queen Air), 8 Cessna 182N;
   hel: 13 SA-316B Alouette III, 10 Bell UH-1D/H, 6 Agusta A-109A.
Trg: 10 BAe Jet Provost, 20 Rockwell T-2D Buckeye (12 armed), 23 Beech T-34 Mentor.
AAM: R-530 Magic.
1 para bn.
(On order. 15 F-5A ftrs, 24 IA-58 Pucara (6 trg), 4 F-5B, 30 EMB-312 Tucano trg ac; 16 Bell 206, 4 A-109A hel.)

NATIONAL GUARD: Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperation 22,000:
AFV: MICV: 25 UR-416. APC: 15 Shorland.
Arty: mor: 120 60mm.
Avn: ac: 3 IAI-201 Arava, 1 BN-2 Islander, 4 Beech (1 King Air B-90, 3 Queen Air B-80), 17 Cessna,
   hel: 3 Agusta 109A, 12 Bell (6 47J, 5 206B, 1 206L);
Coastal patrol craft: 46: 22 Type-A, 12 Bertram, 10 Lago, 2 other.




Estimating the Strategic Nuclear Balance

   The debate over the nature of the Soviet American strategic nuclear balance has been confusing and frustrating for those wanting a simple comparison of US and Soviet nuclear forces. Part of the problem is that there are different reasons for estimating the balance, and the underlying assumptions and methods of calculation will vary according to the purpose to be served.
   For example, a static aggregation of strategic nuclear warheads may be sufficient to establish whether there is essential equivalence between the super-powers or whether one side is militarily superior. But in order to assess the likelihood of nuclear war (in terms of the incentives for either side to strike first in a crisis), or to determine how successful US nuclear forces might be in carrying out their strategic objectives in the face of known Soviet capabilities, a dynamic analysis involving nuclear exchanges may be needed. And if the purpose is to evaluate the record of past arms-control agreements and the implications of current proposals, it will be necessary to count the number of weapons according to the rules which have been defined to verify those agreements.
   Static and Dynamic Measures
   Many would argue that only dynamic analyses of nuclear exchanges should be used in estimating the strategic nuclear balance. These take into account the accuracy, reliability and operational readiness of each side's nuclear forces, their basing modes (and so their survivability), and the functioning of command-and-control systems, as well as the different target sets in the United States and the Soviet Union. But such models of nuclear exchanges present difficulties. They all involve a very large number of assumptions, not only about offensive nuclear forces but also about defences, and their outcomes are particularly sensitive to the assumptions made concerning several key variables: warning times, which side attacks, and whether ICBM are launched under attack.
   Static comparisons of numbers of missiles and bombers, and of missile warheads and bomber weapons, simplify and distort reality. But they do provide a general sense of the size and the characteristics of nuclear force postures. They suggest the character of the offensive capability (for example, silo-based ICBM have quick hardtarget kill capability) and the survivability of the overall force posture (for instance, sea-based systems provide greater survivability). They also enable judgments about survivability to be made in terms of the ratio of one side's missile warheads to the other's land-based missiles.
   It is important, therefore, first to decide the purpose to be served by any estimate of the Soviet-American balance, and whether a dynamic or static analysis is most appropriate to that purpose. War planners and force planners will tend to make their judgments using more elaborate dynamic analyses. Arms-control negotiators and political leaders are likely to need to be able to justify their actions to public opinion in the simpler terms of the numbers of nuclear weapons and warheads that each side possesses.
   What follows is an introduction to how to estimate the Soviet-American strategic nuclear balance, using static measures. An estimate of the Soviet-American strategic nuclear balance for 1986 is presented in a Table at the end of this essay.
   In this analysis, as in all others, it is important to define critical assumptions explicitly. These tend to fall into three categories: - what nuclear systems will be included and excluded? - which of these systems will be counted? - what number of weapons will be assigned to each nuclear system?
   Systems Included
   In estimating the strategic nuclear balance, the first question is what nuclear systems to define as 'strategic'. Over the past twenty years the United States and the Soviet Union have differed on this point. The Soviet Union has argued that all nuclear systems that can strike the territory of the other side should be included; specifically, it has sought to include US forward-based systems deployed in Europe and Asia, as well as British, French and Chinese nuclear forces. The United States has instead sought to define a class of central strategic systems which serve primarily to deter attacks against the homelands of the two super-powers. In the SALT I and SALT II treaties, the Soviet Union accepted the American position.
   Agreed Statement A to the SALT I Interim Agreement on Strategic Offensive Arms defined a land-based ICBM launcher as having a range 'in excess of the shortest distance between the northeastern border of the continental US and the northwestern border of the continental USSR'. The SALT II Treaty (Article II) went on to define this range as being 'in excess of 5,500 kilometres'.
   SLBM were defined in the SALT II Treaty (Article II, Paragraph 2) as 'launchers of ballistic missiles installed on any nuclear-powered submarine or launchers of modern ballistic missiles on any submarine, regardless of its type'. Both are adequate as definitions for 'strategic' ballistic missiles. In the case of SLBM, there is no doubt about the propulsion system of a class of submarines, and 'modern' is further denned asany missile deployed after 1965 (SALT II Treaty, Agreed Statement to Article II, Paragraph 2).
   Bombers present a more complicated problem, for it is difficult to define their range, which varies with payload, flight profile and re-fuelling. Consequently, the SALT II Treaty (Article II, paragraphs 3-5) provided detailed definitions of the heavy bombers to be covered. Some aircraft were designated by type: for the United States the B-52 and B-1 bombers, andfor the Soviet Union the Tupolev-95 (Bear) and Myasishchev-4 (Bison) bombers. Heavy bombers were also defined as any equipped with air-to-surface ballistic missiles (ASBM) or cruise missiles capable of ranges in excess of 600 kilometres. As a result, the US FB-111A was excluded. After considerable controversy, the Soviet Backfire bomber was also excluded, but was separately limited in a side agreement. In estimates of the strategic nuclear balance, the Reagan Administration will include the Backfire bomber, while the USSR will generally include US forward-based systems in Europe and Asia and omit the Backfire as well as its other nuclear forces threatening Europe and Asia.
   Another issue involves whether to include long-range cruise missiles as 'strategic' systems. In SALT II, air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM) were covered and limited in connection with heavy bombers. In the SALT II Treaty Protocol, sea- and land-based cruise missiles with a range in excess of 600 kilometres were banned for three years. Subsequently, the US and the Soviet Union decided that ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCM) were appropriate for negotiation not with strategic nuclear systems but rather with other intermediate-range nuclear forces. Whether sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCM) should be included in the strategic nuclear balance is still a matter of debate.
   Counting the Systems Included
   In estimating the strategic nuclear balance, assumptions maybe made to reflect the fact that not all the launchers belonging to systems which meet the definition of strategic are operationally ready and on alert at any one time. The alternative, which the SALT treaties adopted, is to include all strategic systems launchers which are theoretically available -except those for testing and training.
   The ICBM on both sides arein a very high state of readiness or alert, being powered by solid fuel or store able liquid fuel. But some will always be undergoing maintenance. In the case of the United States, up to 8 Minuteman II may be reserved for communications.
   For SLBM a considerable difference exists between the forces in the inventory and those on alert (estimates of the figure for alert forces vary widely, depending upon assumptions about the amount of strategic warning that would be received - and acted upon). About 60%of US SSBN are assumed to be at sea at all times, whereas the Soviet Union, because of its single crewing and deployment pattern, may have no more than 15% of its boats at sea in peacetime. Both countries could, however, increase their deployments; submarines in port, changing crews or undergoing minor repairs and routine maintenance, could be deployed within days. Moreover, an increasing fraction of US and Soviet SLBM consists of missiles with sufficient range to reach the territory of the other side from their ports (for the Soviet Union, the SS-N- 8, SS-N-18 and SS-N-20 missiles; for the United States the Trident I or C-4 missile). Submarines on long refit are not operationally ready for sea and could be discounted.
   Some bombers will always be undergoing overhaul, repair and modernization. Given the high costs, bombers are not maintained on airborne alert, but rather depend upon warning to take off from their bases. Bombers can also deliver conventional as well as nuclear weapons and may not be planned for nuclear missions. In fact the United States has changed the mission of some 60 of its B-52 bombers to a conventional role.
   In determining which nuclear systems should be included, the SALT I and SALT II Treaties required that all launchers for 'strategic' systems be counted, except those for testing and training. In the case of missiles, it is important to recognize that the treaties only limited the number of launchers, so that the number of missiles in the inventory of each side will exceed the number of launchers (the extra missiles providing spares and test vehicles). Since the treaties counted bombers as launchers, this rule would bring into the calculation the 200+ old moth-balled bombers in the United States.
   Weapon Numbers Assigned to Included Systems.
   In estimating the overall number of strategic nuclear warheads it will first be necessary to decide how to count warheads on ICBM which have been modified to carry MIRV. Second, a decision will be needed on whether to make assumptions about the operational loadings of individual nuclear systems, or whether to follow the SALT II precedent for missile warheads: to establish counting rules based on maximum numbers established from testing (which can be verified by national technical means). Finally, for bomber weapons, two questions arise: whether to use the ALCM counting rules from SALT II, and how to determine the number of gravity bombs where SALT provides no criteria.
   (a) ICBM Modifications.
   Over their lifetime, ICBM will be modified in various ways. A given booster can be fitted with different post-boost vehicles (PBV) containing different numbers of warheads of different characteristics (weight, yield, accuracy). In the case of the Soviet SS-18, for example, four versions (mods) are believed to have been deployed with from one to ten warheads. This fact is known from the observation of testing, but it is not possible to know with any confidence how many of which mods are deployed.
   The SALT I Treaty did not assign numbers of weapons to individual nuclear systems, since it did not seek to constrain warheads - only launchers. In SALT II, constraints were placed on the number of launchers with MIRV warheads, and so rules were devised for taking modifications of missiles into account. The First Agreed Statement to Paragraph 5 of Article II stated: 'if a launcher has been developed and tested for launching an ICBM or an SLBM with MIRV, all launchers of that type shall be considered to have been developed and tested for launching ICBM or SLBM equipped with MIRV'.
   (b) Operational Loadings.
   The number of weapons actually deployed on individual nuclear systems will vary depending upon the mission and the deployment areas from which they would fire their weapons. For example, the Poseidon missile has been tested with 14 warheads, but its actual loading has to take account of the fact that missile range will vary with the number of warheads (the farther from the Soviet Union a missile is deployed, the fewer warheads it will carry). Depending on the target and the capabilities of Soviet defences, warhead numbers might also be reduced to make room for penetration aids. With bombers the problem is even more complex, since an individual aircraft can deliver ALCM and SRAM warheads as well as gravity bombs. The loading will depend upon whether the bomber will stand-off from or seek to penetrate Soviet territory, and also on whether it will be part of the early stage of an attack - when it will be necessary to destroy air defences as well as specific targets.
   Operational loadings for US nuclear systems are defined as part of the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) and are highly classified. One could make an estimate of the average loading of ICBM, SLBM and bombers, but this would be arbitrary and would not necessarily represent the actual loadings at any particular time.
   (c) Arms-control Counting Rules for Missile Warheads.
   SALT II did not directly constrain the overall number of strategic nuclear weapons, and thus defined no specific set of counting rules for missile warheads or for bomber weapons. SALT II did, however, impose a maximum permissible number of MIRV warheads on ICBM and SLBM. According to Article IV, Paragraph 10, 'each party undertakes not to flight test or deploy ICBM of a type flight tested as of 1 May, 1979 with a number of re-entry vehicles greater than the maximum number of re-entry vehicles with which an ICBM ofthat type has been flight tested as ofthat date'. For SLBM, Article IV, Paragraph 12, states that 'each party undertakes not to flight test or deploy SLBM with a number of re-entry vehicles greater than the maximum number of re-entry vehicles with which an SLBM of either Party has been flight-tested as of 1 May 1979, that is, fourteen'.
   One way of assigning numbers of nuclear warheads to ballistic missile launchers is to use these SALTII counting rules. These numbers will not in some cases be the actual operational loadings, and for the USSR they will not be the theoretically possible numbers, given the throw weight of Soviet missiles. These counting rules present a problem in the particular case of the US Poseidon C-3 missile, for it was tested with 14 warheads but is assumed to carry on average only 10. For other systems in the US and Soviet arsenals, the number of warheads tested approximates to the actual loadings.
   (d) Bomber Weapons
   For heavy bombers, SALT II only established the number of ALCM to be deployed on cruise missile carriers. Article IV, Paragraph 14, limits the number of ALCM to 28, with the Second Agreed Statement establishing that no bomber of the B-52, B-l, Bear or Bison type will be equipped with more than 20 ALCM. Twenty ALCM is more than the most likely average loading of the B-52G/H and Bear H bombers, but is less than the theoretical maximum that the B-l could carry (though, in its initial deployment, the B-l Downloaded by will be a penetrating bomber carrying gravity bombs and SRAM).
   Assigning weapons to bombers is the most difficult task, because bombers are capable of delivering a mix of weapons which cannot be verified by national technical means. SALT II did not address this issue, since it placed no constraints on gravity bombs or SRAM. Various formulae have been suggested for counting bomber weapons, relying primarily on aircraft gross take-off weight, but they each require somewhat arbitrary assumptions. There is the additional problem that bombers confront air defences which are not constrained by any armscontrol regime. Many, therefore, argue that the counting rules for bomber weapons should take air defences into account, for example by reducing the effectiveness of bomber weapons by 50%.
   The current debate over the Soviet-American strategic nuclear balance is focused primarily on the arms-control negotiations. As the current proposals emphasize limits on nuclear weapons, rather than strategic nuclear delivery vehicles, any estimate of the balance will need to define assumptions not only about the systems to be included as 'strategic' but also about the number of weapons to be assigned to each of the systems. To provide background for the arms-control debate, we give overleaf a table providing an estimate of the strategic nuclear balance in 1986. The table is designed primarily for arms-control purposes, and is based on the following assumptions:
   - the nuclear systems defined as 'strategic' are those so defined in SALT I and SALT II, with the FB-111A and Backfire bombers excluded, as well as SLCM and US forward-based systems. (The conflicting intelligence estimates of the Backfires unrefuelled range that originally served as a basis for its inclusion as a strategic system appear to have been resolved in favour of a shorter range, which would suggest exclusion.)
   - all launchers for strategic nuclear systems are included except those for testing and training and the 200+ old mothballed US heavy bombers. No discount is made for operational readiness or for systems converted to conventional missions.
   - no attempt has been made to define the actual operational loadings of the individual systems.
   - SALT II counting rules are used for ballistic missile warheads and ALCM.
   - for B-1 bombers and those B-52G/H not des ignated as ALCM carriers, 12 bombs are assumed, with no discount for air defences.See Table 1 (p. 222) for the various possible loadings.

Оценка стратегического ядерного баланса

   Дебаты о природе советского американского стратегического ядерного баланса сбивают с толку и расстраивают тех, кто хочет простого сравнения американских и советских ядерных сил. Частично проблема заключается в том, что существуют различные причины для оценки баланса, и лежащие в его основе предположения и методы расчета будут варьироваться в зависимости от цели, которой они будут служить.
   Например, статическая совокупность стратегических ядерных боеголовок может быть достаточной для установления того, существует ли существенная эквивалентность между сверхдержавами или же одна из сторон обладает военным превосходством. Но для того, чтобы оценить вероятность ядерной войны (с точки зрения стимулов для любой из сторон нанести первый удар в кризисе) или определить, насколько успешными могут быть ядерные силы США в выполнении своих стратегических задач перед лицом известных советских возможностей, может потребоваться динамический анализ, включающий ядерные обмены. И если цель состоит в том, чтобы оценить историю прошлых соглашений о контроле над вооружениями и последствия нынешних предложений, то необходимо будет подсчитать количество вооружений в соответствии с правилами, которые были определены для проверки этих соглашений.
   Статические и динамические показатели.
   Многие утверждают, что при оценке стратегического ядерного баланса следует использовать только динамический анализ ядерных обменов. Они учитывают точность, надежность и боеготовность ядерных сил каждой стороны, режимы их базирования (а значит, и их живучесть), функционирование систем командования и управления, а также различные целевые установки в Соединенных Штатах и Советском Союзе. Но такие модели ядерных обменов представляют трудности. Все они включают в себя очень большое число предположений не только о наступательных ядерных силах, но и об обороне, и их результаты особенно чувствительны к предположениям, сделанным в отношении нескольких ключевых переменных: время предупреждения, какие стороны атакуют и запускаются ли МБР под атакой.
   Статические сравнения количества ракет и бомбардировщиков, ракетных боеголовок и бомбардировочного оружия упрощают и искажают реальность. Но они дают общее представление о размерах и характеристиках ядерных сил. Они предполагают характер наступательного потенциала (например, МБР на базе шахт обладают способностью быстро и жестко убивать) и живучесть (например, системы морского базирования обеспечивают большую живучесть). Они также позволяют судить о живучести с точки зрения соотношения боеголовок ракет одной стороны и ракет наземного базирования другой стороны.
   Поэтому важно прежде всего решить, какой цели должна служить любая оценка советско-американского баланса и является ли динамический или статический анализ наиболее подходящим для этой цели. Военные планировщики и планировщики сил будут склонны делать свои суждения, используя более сложный динамический анализ. Участники переговоров по контролю над вооружениями и политические лидеры, вероятно, должны быть в состоянии оправдать свои действия перед общественным мнением в более простых терминах количества ядерного оружия и боеголовок, которыми обладает каждая сторона.
   Далее следует введение в то, как оценить советско-американский стратегический ядерный баланс, используя статические показатели. Оценка советско-американского стратегического ядерного баланса за 1986 год представлена в таблице в конце настоящего очерка.
   В этом анализе, как и во всех других, важно четко определить критические предположения. Они, как правило, делятся на три категории: - Какие ядерные системы будут включены и исключены? - какая из этих систем будет учитываться? - какое количество оружия будет присвоено каждой ядерной системе?
   Системы включены
   При оценке стратегического ядерного баланса первый вопрос заключается в том, какие ядерные системы следует определить как "стратегические". За последние двадцать лет Соединенные Штаты и Советский Союз расходились в этом вопросе. Советский Союз утверждал, что все ядерные системы, которые могут нанести удар по территории другой стороны, должны быть включены; в частности, он стремился включить системы передового базирования США, развернутые в Европе и Азии, а также британские, французские и китайские ядерные силы. Вместо этого Соединенные Штаты стремятся определить класс центральных стратегических систем, которые служат главным образом для сдерживания нападений на родину двух сверхдержав. В договорах по ОСВ I и ОСВ II Советский Союз принял американскую позицию.
   В согласованном заявлении, а к временному соглашению по стратегическим наступательным вооружениям ОСВ I было определено, что наземная пусковая установка МБР имеет дальность, "превышающую кратчайшее расстояние между северо-восточной границей континентальной части США и северо-западной границей континентальной части СССР". Далее в договоре по ОСВ II (статья II) этот диапазон определяется как "превышающий 5500 километров".
   БРПЛ были определены в договоре ОСВ II (статья II, пункт 2) как "пусковые установки баллистических ракет, установленные на любой атомной подводной лодке или пусковые установки современных баллистических ракет на любой подводной лодке, независимо от ее типа". Оба адекватные определения для стратегических баллистических ракет. В случае БРПЛ нет никаких сомнений в двигательной установке подводных лодок класса, и "современная" далее определяется как ракета, развернутая после 1965 года (договор ОСВ II, согласованное заявление к статье II, пункт 2).
   Бомбардировщики представляют собой более сложную проблему, поскольку трудно определить их дальность, которая варьируется в зависимости от полезной нагрузки, профиля полета и дозаправки. Соответственно, в договоре по ОСВ II (статья II, пункты 3-5) содержатся подробные определения тяжелых бомбардировщиков, которые должны быть охвачены. Некоторые самолеты были обозначены по типу: для США бомбардировщики В-52 и B-1, а для Советского Союза бомбардировщики Ту-95 и М-4. Тяжелые бомбардировщики были также определены как любые, оснащенные баллистическими ракетами класса "воздух-поверхность" (БРВБ) или крылатыми ракетами дальностью свыше 600 километров. В результате был исключен американский FB-111A. После значительных споров советский бомбардировщик Backfire был также исключен, но был отдельно ограничен в другом соглашении. По оценкам стратегического ядерного баланса, администрация Рейгана будет включать бомбардировщик Backfire, в то время как СССР, как правило, будет включать в себя системы передового базирования США в Европе и Азии и опускать Backfire, а также другие свои ядерные силы, угрожающие Европе и Азии.
   Другой вопрос заключается в том, следует ли включать крылатые ракеты большой дальности в качестве "стратегических" систем. В ОСВ II крылатые ракеты воздушного базирования (ALCM) были прикрыты и ограничены в связи с тяжелыми бомбардировщиками. В протоколе к Договору ОСВ-II крылатые ракеты морского и наземного базирования дальностью свыше 600 километров запрещены на три года. Впоследствии США и Советский Союз решили, что крылатые ракеты наземного базирования (КРНБ) подходят для переговоров не со стратегическими ядерными системами, а с другими ядерными силами средней дальности. Вопрос о том, следует ли включать крылатые ракеты морского базирования в стратегический ядерный баланс, по-прежнему является предметом обсуждения.
   Подсчет включенных систем
   При оценке стратегического ядерного баланса могут быть сделаны предположения, отражающие тот факт, что не все пусковые установки, принадлежащие системам, отвечающим определению стратегических, в любой момент времени находятся в оперативной готовности и в состоянии боевой готовности. Альтернативой, которую приняли договоры по ОСВ, является включение всех теоретически доступных пусковых установок стратегических систем, за исключением тех, которые предназначены для испытаний и обучения.
   МБР с обеих сторон находятся в очень высоком состоянии готовности, с твердым топливом или долгохранящимся жидким топливом. Но некоторые всегда будут проходить техническое обслуживание. В случае Соединенных Штатов для связи может быть зарезервировано до 8 Minuteman II.
   Для БРПЛ существует значительная разница между силами, находящимися и не находящимися в состоянии боевой готовности, (оценки численности сил, находящихся в состоянии боевой готовности, широко варьируются в зависимости от предположений относительно объема стратегического предупреждения, которое будет получено и по которому будут приняты меры). Предполагается, что около 60% американских ПЛАРБ постоянно находятся в море, в то время как Советский Союз из-за своей единой схемы экипажей и развертывания может иметь не более 15% своих лодок в море в мирное время. Однако обе страны могут увеличить свое присутствие; подводные лодки в порту, сменяющие экипажи или проходящие мелкий ремонт и текущий ремонт, могут быть развернуты в течение нескольких дней. Кроме того, все большая доля американских и советских БРПЛ состоит из ракет с достаточной дальностью, чтобы достичь территории другой стороны из их портов (для Советского Союза-ракеты SS-N-8, SS-N-18 и SS-N-20; для Соединенных Штатов-ракеты Trident I или C-4). Подводные лодки на длительном переоборудовании не готовы к выходу в море и могут быть дисконтированы.
   Некоторые бомбардировщики всегда будут проходить капитальный ремонт, ремонт и модернизацию. Учитывая высокие затраты, бомбардировщики не находятся в состоянии боевой готовности, а скорее зависят от предупреждения о взлете со своих баз. Бомбардировщики могут также доставлять как обычное, так и ядерное оружие и могут не планироваться для ядерных миссий. На самом деле Соединенные Штаты изменили миссию примерно 60 своих бомбардировщиков B-52 на обычную роль.
   При определении того, какие ядерные системы должны быть включены, договоры по ОСВ I и ОСВ II требуют, чтобы все пусковые установки для "стратегических" систем учитывались, за исключением пусковых установок для испытаний и обучения. Что касается ракет, то важно признать, что договоры ограничивают лишь число пусковых установок, с тем чтобы число ракет в инвентарном запасе каждой стороны превышало число пусковых установок (дополнительные ракеты, обеспечивающие запасные части и испытательные транспортные средства). Поскольку в договорах бомбардировщики рассматривались в качестве пусковых установок, это правило включало в расчет более 200 старых бомбардировщиков в Соединенных Штатах.
   Количество оружия включенных систем.
   При оценке общего количества стратегических ядерных боеголовок сначала необходимо будет решить, как считать боеголовки на МБР, которые были MIRV. Во-вторых, необходимо будет принять решение о том, делать ли предположения относительно эксплуатационных нагрузок отдельных ядерных систем или следовать прецеденту ОСВ II для ракетных боеголовок: установить правила подсчета на основе максимальных чисел, установленных в результате испытаний (которые могут быть проверены национальными техническими средствами). Наконец, для бомбардировочного оружия возникают два вопроса: следует ли использовать правила подсчета КРВБ из ОСВ II и как определить количество свободнопадающих бомб, где ОСВ не дает критериев.
   (а) Модификации МБР.
   В течение жизни МБР будут модифицироваться различными способами. Данная ракета-носитель может быть оснащена различными средствами после разгона (PBV), содержащими различное количество боеголовок с различными характеристиками (масса, мощность, точность). В случае советских SS -18, например, четыре версии (модификации), как полагают, были развернуты с от одной до десяти боеголовок. Этот факт известен из наблюдения за испытаниями, но невозможно с уверенностью знать, сколько модификаций развернуто.
   Договор ОСВ-1 не присваивает числа боеголовок отдельным ядерным системам, поскольку он не направлен на ограничение боеголовок - только пусковых установок. В ОСВ II были установлены ограничения на количество пусковых установок с боеголовками MIRV, и поэтому были разработаны правила учета модификаций ракет. В первом согласованном заявлении к пункту 5 статьи II говорится: "если была разработана и испытана пусковая установка для запуска МБР или БРПЛ с MIRV, то все пусковые установки этого типа считаются разработанными и испытанными для запуска МБР или БРПЛ, оснащенных MIRV".
   (b) Эксплуатационные загрузки.
   Количество оружия, фактически развернутого на отдельных ядерных системах, будет варьироваться в зависимости от миссии и районов развертывания, из которых они будут стрелять своим оружием. Например, ракета Poseidon была испытана с 14 боеголовками, но ее фактическая загрузка должна учитывать тот факт, что дальность действия ракеты будет меняться в зависимости от количества боеголовок (чем дальше от Советского Союза ракета развернута, тем меньше боеголовок она будет нести). В зависимости от цели и возможностей советской обороны количество боеголовок также может быть сокращено, чтобы освободить место для средств проникновения. С бомбардировщиками проблема еще сложнее, так как отдельные самолеты могут доставлять боеголовки ALCM и SRAM, а также свободнопадающие бомбы. Загрузка будет зависеть от того, будет ли бомбардировщик действовать с расстояния или стремиться проникнуть на советскую территорию, а также от того, будет ли он частью ранней стадии атаки - когда необходимо будет уничтожить ПВО, а также конкретные цели.
   Эксплуатационные загрузки для ядерных систем США определены как часть единого комплексного оперативного плана (SIOP) и являются строго засекреченными. Можно было бы произвести оценку средней загрузки МБР, БРПЛ и бомбардировщиков, но это было бы произвольным и необязательно представляло бы фактические нагрузки в любой конкретный момент времени.
   (c) Правила учета ракетных боеголовок в рамках контроля над вооружениями.
   ОСВ II напрямую не ограничивала общее количество стратегических ядерных вооружений и, таким образом, не определяла никакого конкретного набора правил подсчета ракетных боеголовок или бомбардировочного оружия. Однако ОСВ II не допускают максимальное допустимое количество боеголовок в РГЧ на МБР и БРПЛ. В соответствии с пунктом 10 статьи IV "каждая сторона обязуется не проводить летные испытания или не развертывать МБР типа, испытанного в полете, по состоянию на 1 мая 1979 года, с числом средств, возвращающихся в атмосферу, превышающим максимальное число средств, с которыми МБР этого типа была испытана в полете на указанную дату". Что касается БРПЛ, то в пункте 12 статьи IV говорится, что "каждая сторона обязуется не проводить летных испытаний или развертывания БРПЛ с числом средств, возвращающихся в атмосферу, превышающим максимальное число средств, возвращающихся в атмосферу, с которыми БРПЛ любой из сторон была испытана в полете по состоянию на 1 мая 1979 года".
   Одним из способов присвоения количества ядерных боеголовок пусковым установкам баллистических ракет является использование этих правил подсчета ОСВ II. Эти цифры в некоторых случаях не будут являться фактическими оперативными нагрузками, а для СССР они не будут теоретически возможными числами, учитывая забрасываемый вес советских ракет. Эти правила подсчета представляют проблему в частном случае американской ракеты Poseidon C-3, поскольку она была испытана с 14 боеголовками, но, как предполагается, несет в среднем только 10. Для других систем в арсеналах США и СССР количество испытанных боеголовок приближается к фактическим нагрузкам.
   (д) Бомбардировочное вооружение
   Для тяжелых бомбардировщиков ОСВ II установила только количество КРВБ, которые будут развернуты на воздушных ракетоносцах. Пункт 14 статьи IV ограничивает число КРВБ 28, а второе согласованное заявление устанавливает, что ни один бомбардировщик типа В-52, B-1, Bear или Bison не будет оснащен более чем 20 КРВБ. Двадцать КРВБ - это больше, чем наиболее вероятная средняя загрузка бомбардировщиков B-52G/H и Bear H, но меньше теоретического максимума, который мог нести B-1 (хотя, в своем первоначальном развертывании, B-1 загруженный будет проникающим бомбардировщиком, несущим свободнопадающие бомбы и SRAM).
   Назначение оружия бомбардировщикам является наиболее сложной задачей, поскольку бомбардировщики способны доставлять смесь вооружений, которые не могут быть проверены национальными техническими средствами. ОСВ II не рассматривала этот вопрос, поскольку она не накладывала никаких ограничений на свободнопадающие бомбы или SRAM. Были предложены различные формулы для подсчета оружия бомбардировщиков, основанные главным образом на общем взлетном весе самолета, но каждая из них требует несколько произвольных предположений. Существует дополнительная проблема, что бомбардировщики сталкиваются с ПВО, которые не ограничены каким-либо режимом контроля над вооружениями. Поэтому многие утверждают, что правила подсчета для бомбардировочного оружия должны учитывать средства ПВО, например, путем снижения эффективности бомбардировочного оружия на 50%.
   Нынешние дебаты о советско-американском стратегическом ядерном балансе сосредоточены прежде всего на переговорах по контролю над вооружениями. Поскольку в нынешних предложениях подчеркиваются ограничения на ядерное оружие, а не на стратегические средства доставки, любая оценка баланса должна будет определять предположения не только о системах, которые должны быть включены в качестве "стратегических", но и о количестве оружия, которое должно быть присвоено каждой из систем. В качестве основы для обсуждения вопросов контроля над вооружениями мы приводим таблицу, содержащую оценку стратегического ядерного баланса в 1986 году. Таблица предназначена главным образом для целей контроля над вооружениями и основана на следующих предположениях:
   - ядерные системы, определенные как "стратегические", - это те, которые определены в ОСВ I и ОСВ II, за исключением бомбардировщиков FB-111A и Backfire, а также КРМБ и американских систем передового базирования. (Противоречивые оценки разведывательных данных о Невосполненной дальности поражения, которые первоначально служили основой для ее включения в качестве стратегической системы, как представляется, были решены в пользу меньшей дальности, что предполагает исключение.)
   - все пусковые установки для стратегических ядерных систем включены, за исключением тех, для испытаний и обучения и 200+ старых законсервированных тяжелых бомбардировщиков США. Не делается никаких скидок на оперативную готовность или на системы, преобразованные в обычные миссии.
   - не было предпринято попыток определить фактические эксплуатационные нагрузки отдельных систем.
   - Правила подсчета ОСВ II используются для боеголовок баллистических ракет и КРВБ.
   - для бомбардировщиков B-1 и тех B-52G/H, которые не были использованы в качестве носителей ALCM, предполагается 12 бомб без скидки на ПВО.См. таблицу 1 (стр. 222) для различных возможных нагрузок.
   For the table accompanying this essay, see overleaf

The East-West Conventional Balance in Europe

   The table on pp. 226-7 is designed to show highly aggregated numerical comparisons between the major elements in the conventional composition of the forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Europe. The table is a summary of the data listed in the individual country entries of the two Pacts, qualified by what is known of peacetime deployment, planned reinforcement and mobilization. The statistics are grouped for each Bloc under the (somewhat arbitrary) geographic headings 'North' and 'South'; for NATO, the US, British and Canadian Forces shown are all actually in Europe or available for immediate reinforcement. The total of entries in both regions is given. The Warsaw Pact is grouped similarly: non-Soviet forces in the north and south and the Soviet Union's forces also in those regions are included, as they are in the overall totals.
   The regions are denned as follows: NATO, North: Norway, Denmark, West Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium; forces deployed from Britain, Canada, US (Atlantic deployments) and France (Army, Navy, Air, deployed Atlantic).
   Warsaw Pact, North: East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia; Soviet forces in those countries and in the Leningrad, Baltic, Belorussian and Carpathian MDS.
   NATO, South: Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France (Navy deployed Mediterranean), US Sixth Fleet, and forces deployed in Southern Europe.
   Warsaw Pact, South: Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania and Soviet forces in Hungary and the Odessa, Kiev, North Caucasus and Trans Caucasus MDS.
   The total number of men in uniform for all countries in both Pacts is given, followed by the total of all Reserve forces. The totals then given for the ground forces and their reserves are a proportion of - not in addition to - these totals. The strengths shown for the ground forces actually in the regions described must be used with caution. For the European NATO and Warsaw Pact countries it includes all non-combat HQ, logistic and base personnel. The Soviet totals are estimated. The British, Canadian and French figures for NATO in Europe and the Soviet figures in North and South Europe (shown in brackets), are forces specifically stationed in the region in peacetime. Spanish forces are shown separately under NATO South. Spain, like France, is not a part of the NATO integrated military structure; unlike France (some of whose forces are deployed in West Germany), no Spanish troops are deployed outside Spanish territory (which includes Ceuta and Melilla). Paramilitary forces, border guards and such security elements as the KGB, which also has a wartime role, are not included.
   The smallest self-contained independent tactical formation with its own logistic support is the division. In all cases 'Tank' includes tank and armoured divisions; 'Mech' includes motorized and motor rifle as well as mechanized divisions (both are 'heavy' divisions in US terms). 'Other' includes infantry, airborne, air-portable, air assault, mountain, amphibious and marine and 'light' infantry (in US terms 'light divisions'). An artificial equivalent to a division is taken to be three brigades (some nine battalions of armour, infantry, or a mix of them). lt must be remembered that this grouping would often lack essential support such as engineer, artillery and logistic elements. These appear in the 'other' divisional category.
   The NATO divisions (or equivalents) listed as 'deployed in Europe' are those actually at or near full combat readiness in the forces of the Continental states adjacent to the NATO fronts: Britain's BAOR, the Canadian brigade group, the French corps, and the US Army in Europe. For the Warsaw Pact the total includes all the Soviet and East European Pact formations at Category 1 level (i.e. fully manned in peacetime) in Europe and in the relevant MDs in the Soviet Union. 'Divisions available for reinforcement' includes those cadre and reserve formations in the same regions. Mobilization times obviously vary; we have made no attempt to estimate the actual state of readiness of these formations or the time required to deploy them. Details of the Soviet formation deployments are contained in the USSR country entry.
   Totals are based on operational equipment inventories in the national entries. They include equipment available to the Reserves where such totals-are known. The totals do not include equipment shown as 'in store' because of the incompleteness of such data. For those countries outside the European theatre, stocks refer only to those holdings known, or estimated to be in Europe. Naval strengths for NATO are those vessels presumed normally to be in the Atlantic, Channel, North Sea and Mediterranean. The NATO South entry includes the US Sixth Fleet; the 'US' column lists the Atlantic-based vessels only. For the Warsaw Pact, we include the Soviet Northern, Baltic and Black Sea Fleets and the non-Soviet navies in the Baltic and Black Seas. The Soviet Mediterranean Squadron comprises submarines from the Northern Fleet and surface vessels detached from the Black Sea Fleet. Their numbers are reflected in the 'South' totals of the USSR. Classification of ships and naval aircraft reflects the usage in the country entries. The increasing use of multi-role aircraft complicates listings, but the national air force categorization by primary mission, and deployments, are also taken from the country entries. Possible reinforcements from the Continental US are not included; Soviet estimates show aircraft deployed in the countries and MDs cited above. Bomber figures include medium-range aircraft.
   Ratios have been calculated between the respective totals of the two Blocs. What are not shown in the numerical presentation are such factors as geography, quality of training, doctrine, political and military leadership, morale and technological development. Such considerations must in any case be set within the wider political and strategic contexts, including the nuclear balance, world-wide force deployments (including naval and air forces), logistics and mobilization and reinforcement policies.
   Obviously, the Warsaw Pact enjoys the primary and important advantage of having a generally common range of weapons and of tactical doctrines. Differing rates of equipment modernization have reduced some of this advantage, but not significantly. NATO suffers from doctrines by no means identical and from a great diversity of everything from weapon systems to support equipment, with consequent duplication of supply systems and major difficulties of inadequate interoperability. Certain NATO countries, too, still lack sufficient spares and ammunition, although determined efforts are being made to remedy this situation. Some Pact nations may also suffer from shortages, but the fact that their equipment is generally standardized would enable them to restock more quickly. The Pact logistic system, using a mix of rail, road and pipeline, has been greatly improved, and, because of the more widespread and organized system of para-military control, it may be judged somewhat less vulnerable to sabotage and interception than comparable systems in NATO territories. The Warsaw Pact has long had an advantage in numbers of surface-to-surface missiles to deliver high-explosive, nuclear and chemical weapons against targets deep in NATO rear areas.
   These could not be intercepted; replacement systems entering service are certainly more accurate and may be more reliable. The Pact inventory of modern fighter-bombers (many nuclear-capable) continues to grow, providing an increasingly significant and more flexible long range air threat to NATO. The Pact's defence against air attack combines a large number of interceptors with extensive deployment of surface-to-air missiles and artillery. Electronic counter-measures (ECM) could probably go some way to neutralize these defences, but NATO air forces nevertheless face an increasingly formidable task in providing close air support for NATO ground forces and longer-range interdiction. This could be critical, given the fact that NATO continues to depend on its air forces to counter Warsaw Pact superiority in ground force numbers. The fact that NATO still does not have a standard Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) system further impairs its air defence effectiveness. It enjoys a (narrowing) margin of overall electronic superiority, and may enjoy greater flexibility in command and control in combat conditions. The Soviet Union has a very large number of modern airfields. NATO has too few airfields and, because of the improving but still poor interoperability of aircraft types, lacks operational flexibility, although considerable improvements are being made in the provision of hardened aircraft shelters and pre-stocking of airfields for rapid reinforcement aircraft from outside the theatre.
   Though reorganizations and equipment deliveries have changed individual ratios, there has been no significant change in the numerical balance of conventional forces in Europe over the past year. We do show Spanish forces but do not include them in NATO totals. Though Spain's political position with regard to NATO has been clarified, its forces' roles have yet to be agreed. Considerations of geography, organization, doctrine and standards of training, not normally considered, cannot be overlooked in this instance. lt will be some years before the bulk of Spain's armed forces will be considered truly combat capable.
   Gaps between technology in conventional equipment may be continuing to narrow. Because of the presence in the equation of so many unknown and unknowable factors, it would be most unwise to predict the outcome of a war in Europe. NATO would not necessarily be defeated, nor would the Warsaw Pact necessarily see its numerical advantages as being sufficient to risk an attack. It may depend critically upon warning time and how this is used. One can conclude that there is still sufficient danger in the trend to require remedies by the Western Alliance, particularly as manpower shortages become more of a problem for many countries towards the end of the 1980s. One can also conclude that any significant raising of the nuclear threshold, through NATO acquisition of markedly greater conventional capabilities, would appear to be out of reach for the time being, due mainly to budgetary constraints. The ratio of forces, while no worse, is certainly no better than before.
   Our conclusion remains that the conventional military balance is still such as to make general military aggression a highly risky undertaking for either side. Though possession of the initiative in war will always permit an aggressor to achieve a local advantage in numbers (sufficient perhaps to allow him to believe that he might achieve limited tactical success in some areas), there would still appear to be insufficient overall strength on either side to guarantee victory. The consequences for an attacker would still be quite unpredictable, and the risks, particularly of nuclear escalation, remain incalculable.

Неядерный баланс Восток-Запад в Европе

   Таблица на стр. 226-7 предназначена для того, чтобы показать высоко агрегированные численные сравнения между основными элементами состава обычных сил НАТО и Варшавского договора в Европе. Таблица представляет собой резюме данных, перечисленных в отдельных страновых позициях двух пактов, с учетом того, что известно о развертывании в мирное время, планируемом укреплении и мобилизации. Статистика сгруппирована по каждому блоку под (несколько произвольными) географическими заголовками "Север" и "Юг"; для НАТО показанные силы США, Великобритании и Канады, которые фактически находятся в Европе или доступны для немедленного подкрепления. Приводится общее количество записей в обоих регионах. Варшавский пакт сгруппирован аналогичным образом: в него включены силы, не относящиеся к Советскому Союзу, на севере и юге, а также силы Советского Союза в этих регионах, поскольку они входят в общие итоги.
   Регионы определяются следующим образом: НАТО, Север: Норвегия, Дания, Западная Германия, Люксембург, Нидерланды и Бельгия; силы, развернутые из Великобритании, Канады, США (атлантическое развертывание) и Франции (армия, флот, воздух, атлантическое развертывание).
   Варшавский договор, Север: Восточная Германия, Польша, Чехословакия; советские войска в этих странах и в Ленинградской, Балтийской, белорусской и Карпатской МДС.
   НАТО, Юг: Турция, Греция, Италия, Испания, Португалия, Франция (флот развернут в Средиземном море), Шестой флот США и силы, развернутые в Южной Европе.
   Варшавский договор, Юг: Венгрия, Болгария и Румыния и советские войска в Венгрии и Одессе, Киеве, Северном Кавказе и Закавказье.
   Личный состав
   Приведено общее число людей в форме для всех стран в обоих пактах, за которым следует общее число всех резервных сил. Итоговые данные по Сухопутным войскам и их резервам составляют часть этих итогов, а не дополнение к ним. Необходимо с осторожностью использовать силы стороны сухопутных войск, фактически действующих в описанных районах. Для стран европейского НАТО и Варшавского договора она включает в себя все небоевые штабной, материально-технический и базовый персонал. Подсчитаны советские итоги. Британские, канадские и французские данные по НАТО в Европе и советские данные по Северной и Южной Европе (указаны в скобках) являются силами, специально размещенными в регионе в мирное время. Испанские войска отображаются отдельно под НАТО на юге. Испания, как и Франция, не является частью интегрированной военной структуры НАТО; в отличие от Франции (часть сил которой дислоцирована в Западной Германии), испанские войска не дислоцируются за пределами испанской территории (включая Сеуту и Мелилью). Военизированные формирования, пограничники и такие элементы безопасности, как КГБ, который также играет роль военного времени, не включены.
   Наименьшим автономным самостоятельным тактическим формированием с собственной материально-технической поддержкой является дивизия. Во всех случаях "Tank" включает танковые и бронетанковые дивизии; "Mech"включает моторизованные и мотострелковые, а также механизированные дивизии (обе - "тяжелые" дивизии американским терминам). "Other" включает в себя пехоту, воздушно-десантные, воздушно-штурмовые, горные, морской пехоты и 'легкие' пехотные (по американским терминам легкие дивизии). Искусственным эквивалентом дивизии считаются три бригады (около девяти батальонов бронетехники, пехоты или их смеси). Следует помнить, что этой группировке часто не хватает необходимой поддержки, такой как инженерные, артиллерийские и материально-технические элементы. Они относятся к категории " other ".
   Дивизии НАТО (или их эквиваленты), перечисленные как "развернутые в Европе", фактически находятся в полной или почти полной боевой готовности в силах континентальных государств, прилегающих к фронтам НАТО: британской BAOR, канадской бригадной группы, французского корпуса и армии США в Европе. Что касается Варшавского договора, то в него входят все советские и восточноевропейские формирования на уровне категории 1 (т. е. полностью укомплектованные в мирное время) в Европе и в соответствующих ВО в Советском Союзе. "Дивизии, доступные для подкрепления", включают эти кадровые и резервные формирования в тех же регионах. Очевидно, что сроки мобилизации различаются; мы не пытались оценить фактическое состояние готовности этих формирований или время, необходимое для их развертывания. Детали развертывания Советского формирования содержатся на странице СССР.
   Итоговые данные основаны на инвентаризации эксплуатационного вооружения в национальных позициях. Они включают в себя вооружение, имеющееся в резерве, где известны такие итоги. Итоговые данные не включают вооружение, показанное как "в запасе" из-за неполноты таких данных. Для стран за пределами европейского театра действий акции относятся только к тем холдингам, которые известны или предположительно находятся в Европе. Военно-морские силы НАТО - это те суда, которые, как предполагается, обычно находятся в Атлантике, Ла-Манше, Северном море и Средиземном море. НАТО на Юге включает в себя Шестой флот США; в колонке "США" перечислены только суда Атлантического базирования. К Варшавскому договору мы относим Советский Северный, Балтийский и Черноморский флоты, а также несоюзные флоты в Балтийском и Черном морях. Советская Средиземноморская эскадра состоит из подводных лодок Северного флота и надводных кораблей Черноморского флота. Их численность отражена в "южных" итогах СССР. Классификация судов и военно-морской авиации отражает использование в стране записей. Более широкое использование многоцелевых самолетов затрудняет включение в списки, однако классификация национальных Военно-воздушных сил по основным миссиям и развертываниям также берется из страновых позиций. Возможные подкрепления из континентальных США не включены; советские оценки показывают, что самолеты развернуты в странах и ВО, упомянутых выше. Бомбардировщики включают самолеты средней дальности.
   Были рассчитаны соотношения между соответствующими общими показателями двух блоков. В численном выражении не показаны такие факторы, как география, качество подготовки, доктрина, политическое и военное руководство, моральный дух и технологическое развитие. Такие соображения в любом случае должны учитываться в более широком политическом и стратегическом контексте, включая ядерный баланс, развертывание сил во всем мире (включая военно-морские и военно-воздушные силы), материально-техническое обеспечение и политику мобилизации и укрепления.
   Очевидно, что Варшавский пакт обладает главным и важным преимуществом, заключающимся в наличии общего арсенала оружия и тактических доктрин. Различные темпы модернизации оборудования уменьшили часть этого преимущества, но не значительно. НАТО страдает от доктрин, отнюдь не идентичных друг другу, и от огромного разнообразия всего - от систем вооружения до вспомогательного оборудования, - что приводит к дублированию систем снабжения и серьезным трудностям, связанным с неадекватной эксплуатационной совместимостью. Некоторые страны НАТО также по-прежнему не имеют достаточного количества запасных частей и боеприпасов, хотя предпринимаются решительные усилия по исправлению этой ситуации. Некоторые страны пакта могут также страдать от нехватки, но тот факт, что их оборудование в целом стандартизировано, позволит им быстрее пополнять запасы. Логистическая система пакта, использующая сочетание железнодорожного, автомобильного и трубопроводного транспорта, была значительно усовершенствована, и в силу более широкой и организованной системы полувоенного контроля ее можно считать несколько менее уязвимой для саботажа и перехвата, чем аналогичные системы на территориях НАТО. Варшавский пакт уже давно имеет преимущество в количестве ракет класса "земля-земля" для доставки фугасного, ядерного и химического оружия против целей в тылу НАТО.
   Они не могут быть перехвачены; системы, поступающие в эксплуатацию, безусловно, более точны и могут быть более надежными. Арсенал современных истребителей-бомбардировщиков (многие из которых обладают ядерным потенциалом) продолжает расти, обеспечивая НАТО все более значительную и гибкую угрозу с воздуха на большие расстояния. Защита пакта от воздушного нападения сочетает в себе большое число перехватчиков с широким развертыванием ракет класса "земля-воздух" и артиллерии. Электронные контрмеры (РЭБ), вероятно, могли бы каким-то образом нейтрализовать эти оборонительные сооружения, но, тем не менее, перед военно-воздушными силами НАТО стоит все более трудная задача по обеспечению непосредственной воздушной поддержки сухопутных сил НАТО и их перехвата на большие расстояния. Это может иметь решающее значение, учитывая тот факт, что НАТО по-прежнему зависит от своих военно-воздушных сил, чтобы противостоять превосходству Варшавского договора в численности наземных сил. Тот факт, что НАТО по-прежнему не имеет стандартной системы идентификации, дружественной или враждебной (IFF), еще больше снижает эффективность ее противовоздушной обороны. Оно обладает (сужающимся) запасом общего электронного превосходства и может обладать большей гибкостью в командовании и управлении в боевых условиях. Советский Союз имеет очень большое количество современных аэродромов. У НАТО слишком мало аэродромов, и из-за улучшающейся, но все еще плохой эксплуатационной совместимости типов воздушных судов ей не хватает оперативной гибкости, хотя в настоящее время вносятся значительные улучшения в обеспечение укрепленных укрытий для самолетов и предварительное размещение аэродромов для быстрого усиления самолетами за пределами театра действий.
   Хотя реорганизация и поставки оборудования изменили индивидуальные соотношения, за последний год не произошло никаких существенных изменений в численном балансе обычных вооруженных сил в Европе. Мы показываем испанские силы, но не включаем их в общую сумму НАТО. Хотя политическая позиция Испании в отношении НАТО была уточнена, роль ее сил еще предстоит согласовать. В данном случае нельзя упускать из виду соображения географии, организации, доктрины и стандартов подготовки, которые обычно не учитываются. пройдет несколько лет, прежде чем основная часть вооруженных сил Испании будет считаться действительно боеспособной.
   Разрыв между технологиями в области обычного вооружения, возможно, продолжает сокращаться. Из-за наличия в уравнении так много неизвестных и непознаваемых факторов, было бы неразумно предсказывать исход войны в Европе. НАТО не обязательно потерпит поражение, и Варшавский пакт не обязательно увидит свое численное преимущество достаточными, чтобы рискнуть атакой. Это может критически зависеть от времени предупреждения и как это используется. Можно сделать вывод о том, что по-прежнему существует достаточная опасность того, что тенденция требовать от западного альянса принятия мер по исправлению положения, особенно с учетом того, что нехватка рабочей силы становится все более серьезной проблемой для многих стран к концу 80-х годов. Можно также сделать вывод о том, что любое значительное повышение ядерного порога за счет приобретения НАТО заметно большего обычного потенциала, как представляется, в настоящее время недоступно, главным образом из-за бюджетных ограничений. Соотношение сил, хотя и не хуже, конечно, не лучше, чем раньше.
   Мы по-прежнему считаем, что обычный военный баланс по-прежнему таков, что общая военная агрессия является весьма рискованным предприятием для обеих сторон. Хотя обладание инициативой в войне всегда позволит агрессору достичь местного преимущества в численности (достаточного, возможно, для того, чтобы он мог поверить, что он может достичь ограниченного тактического успеха в некоторых областях), все же, по-видимому, будет недостаточно общей силы с обеих сторон, чтобы гарантировать победу. Последствия для нападающего по-прежнему были бы совершенно непредсказуемыми, а риски, особенно ядерной эскалации, остаются неисчислимыми.
   For the table accompanying this essay, see overleaf


Government Expenditure: Selected Items 1973-83

   These charts are designed to show the relationship between total government revenue and total government expenditure, with specific emphasis on the proportions of expenditure devoted to (1) Health, Education, and Social Security (H/E/SS), (2) defence, and (3) government interest payments. To make a selective comparison, we have charted the data for six NATO countries (three nuclear and three major conventional powers) and two non-NATO states (one highly developed, the other a 'newly industrializing country'). All data has been deflated to 1980 prices in local currencies.
   The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has developed a standard budget and revenue reporting method, and the data for our charts comes from The Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, vol IX (Washington DC: IMF, 1985), which uses this.* Government revenue includes grants. Government expenditure is defined as 'non-repayable payments'. The Social Security element of Health, Education and Social Security expenditure (H/E/SS) includes welfare payments and state pensions schemes (including military) but excludes housing and community expenditure. Interest outlays represent all payments by government for money it has borrowed. Defence expenditure exclude pension schemes (shown as social security) - and, for this reason, should not be compared with the NATO-definition defence expenditures used elsewhere in this volume (which include military pension schemes). The IMF Manual on Government Finance Statistics (Washington DC: IMF, 1986) provides more detailed definitions.
   Our charts show trends in government spending from 1973 to 1983 (1975 to 1982 for France). The total of H/E/SS, interest and defence expenditures as a proportion of total government expenditure has in many cases risen to the point where it is difficult to see further increases in any of these items without a reduction in one or more of the others. In the US the total reached 85% of government expenditure in 1983. In West Germany it was almost the same, at 84%. On the other hand, Turkey's percentage fell from 45% to 35% between 1973 and 1983. The largest individual item, H/E/SS, amounts to 69% of West German government expenditure by itself, and in France the percentage is nearly as high, at 67%. Turkey has proportionately the lowest outlays, at 15%. Significantly, the British H/E/SS budget (38% of government spending in 1973) now stands at 52%. The US has also been forced to increase H/E/SS outlays, from 43% to 47%. Even conservative governments like those in the US, Britain and West Germany seem unable to withstand the pressures for increased social spending. Interest payments, which have mirrored declines in revenue and increases in government spending, have doubled - and in some cases tripled -between 1973 and 1983. The US and Sweden devoted almost 15% of 1983 government expenditure to interest; ten years earlier they had spent 6.1% and 3.6% respectively. The lowest spenders in this category are West Germany and France, with 5.2% and 3.4% (compared with 1.6% and 2.1%). These upward trends are not reflected in defence spending. Here South Korea and the US led with 32% and 24% of government spending respectively - but the former is continuing a downward trend, while US defence spending increases appear to have ended in 1986. For France the proportion remained stable at between 7.5% and 7.3%, but all the other countries show downward trends.
   * The 1983 figures for Britain are adapted from Statement on the Defence Estimates 1986 (Cmnd 9763).

Государственные Расходы: Отдельные Статьи 1973-1983 годов

   Эти диаграммы призваны показать взаимосвязь между совокупными государственными доходами и совокупными государственными расходами с уделением особого внимания долям расходов на (1) здравоохранение, образование и социальное обеспечение (H/E/SS), (2) оборону и (3) выплаты государственных процентов. Чтобы провести выборочное сравнение, мы нанесли на карту данные по шести странам НАТО (трем ядерным державам и трем крупным обычным державам) и двум государствам, не входящим в НАТО (одно высокоразвитое, а другое- "недавно индустриализовавшаяся страна"). Все данные были дефлированы до цен 1980 года в местных валютах.
   Международный валютный фонд (МВФ) разработал стандартный метод отчетности о бюджете и доходах, и данные для наших диаграмм взяты из ежегодника государственной финансовой статистики, том IX (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: МВФ, 1985 год), в котором используется этот метод.* Государственные доходы включают субсидии. Государственные расходы определяются как "невозвратные платежи". Элемент социального обеспечения расходов на здравоохранение, образование и социальное обеспечение (H/E/SS) включает социальные выплаты и государственные пенсионные программы (включая военные), но исключает расходы на жилье и общинные расходы. Процентные расходы представляют собой все платежи правительства за заимствованные деньги. Расходы на оборону исключают пенсионные схемы (показанные как социальное обеспечение) - и по этой причине не следует сравнивать с опре