Докштейн С. Я., Макарова Е. А., Радоминова С. С.: другие произведения.

Практический курс перевода

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  • Аннотация:
    С. Я. ДОКШТЕЙН, Е. А. МАКАРОВА, С. С. РАДОМИНОВА ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК) Издание 3-е, исправленное и дополненное Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени ВОЕННОЕ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО МИНИСТЕРСТВА ОБОРОНЫ СССР МОСКВА —1973

  С. Я. ДОКШТЕЙН, Е. А. МАКАРОВА,
  С. С. РАДОМИНОВА
  
  
  
  ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА
  НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
  (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
  
  
  
  
  
  Издание 3-е,
  исправленное и дополненное
  Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени
  ВОЕННОЕ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО
  МИНИСТЕРСТВА ОБОРОНЫ СССР
  МОСКВА -1973
  4И(Англ)
  
  
  
  
  
  Докштейи С. Я., Макарова Е. А., Радомииова С. С.
  д-63 Практический курс перевода научно-технической
  литературы (английский язык). Изд. 3-е, исправл.
  М., Военное издательство, 1973. 448 с.
  
  
  Учебник имеет целью помочь учащимся, имеющим сравнительно
  небольшую подготовку по английскому языку, овладеть навыками
  перевода научно-технической литературы в предельно сжатые сроки.
  Тексты учебника взяты из оригинальной иаучно-техиической литера-
  литературы и по тематике относятся к различным отраслям науки и техники.
  Учебник предназначается для слушателей высших военно-инже-
  военно-инженерных учебных заведений и студентов гражданских технических
  вузов, а также для инженеров, научных работников и других специа-
  специалистов, желающих научиться читать и переводить научно-техническую
  литературу или подготовиться к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по
  английскому языку.
  
  
  0714-125
  Сарра Яковлевна Докштейн, Елена Александровна Макарова,
  Серафима Сергеевна Радоминова
  ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
  (Английский язык)
  Издание 3-е
  Редактор Крупенникова И. А.
  Редактор-лексикограф Черемухина Н. В.
  Художник Карпиков И. И.
  Художественный редактор Прозоровская Р. И.
  Технический редактор Слепцова Е. Н.
  Корректор Шабалина 3. С.
  Сдано в набор 30.12.71 г. Подписано к печати 31.10.72 г.
  Формат бумаги бОхЭО'/ц. Печ. л. 28. (Усл.-печ. л. 28). Уч.-изд. л. 32,113
  Буиага типографская Љ 1. Тираж 40 000 экз. Изд. Кг 11/5526 Зак. 8)9. Цена 1 р. 36 к.
  
  
  
  Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени
  Военное издательство Министерства обороны СССР
  101160, Москва, К-160
  Набрано в 1-й типографии Воениздата
  103006, Москва, К-6. проезд Скворцова-Степаиова, дон 3
  Отпечатано во 2-й типографии, г. Ленинград, Д-65, Дворцовая пл., д. 10
  
  
  =================================================
  
   ОТ АВТОРОВ
  
  Настоящий Практический курс перевода представляет собой учебник, пред-
  предназначенный для обучения переводу научно-технической литературы с англий-
  английского языка на русский.
  Целью учебника является развитие навыков перевода на основе изучения
  лексики и грамматических конструкций, характерных длч этого вида литера-
  литературы.
  Учебник предназначен для слушателей высших военно-инженерных учеб-
  учебных заведений Советской Армии и студентов гражданских высших учебных
  заведений. Кроме того, учебник может быть использован для занятий с адъюнк-
  адъюнктами и аспирантами, а также лицами, имеющими некоторую подготовку по
  языку и желающими самостоятельно, в сжатые сроки научиться читать и пере-
  переводить литературу по своей специальности.
  Учебник состоит из двенадцати уроков, упражнений на отработку отдель-
  отдельных переводческих задач, поурочных разработок слов, справочника и алфавит-
  алфавитного англо-русского словаря.
  Этому учебному материалу предшествует вводная статья, рассматриваю-
  рассматривающая некоторые лексические н грамматические особенности стиля научно-техни-
  научно-технической литературы и вопросы методики обучения переводу.
  Каждый урок учебника содержит:
  1. Основной текст для перевода с английского языка на русский.
  2. Упражнения на решение грамматических, лексических и словообразова-
  словообразовательных задач, специальные упражнения на перевод терминов и упражнения
  в чтении.
  3. Дополнительные тексты для перевода с английского языка' на русский.
  4. Контрольные вопросы по материалам урока.
  Основные тексты уроков подобраны таким образом, чтобы каждый из них
  отражал определенные грамматические н лексические явления, прорабатывае-
  прорабатываемые в уроке. Новая лексика, предназначенная для усвоения, выделена в тексте
  шрифтом и снабжена ссылочными номерами, указывающими, под каким номе-
  номером данное слово прорабатывается в разделе "Поурочные разработки слов".
  Новые грамматические явления выделены в тексте разрядкой.
  Тексты составлены на материале американской и английской научно-техни-
  научно-технической литературы. По содержанию они освещают некоторые вопросы из
  области кибернетики, счетно-решающих устройств, нсслсдованнй космоса, радио-
  радиоэлектроники, ракетной техники н авиации. Тексты подобраны таким Образом,
  чтобы оии представляли интерес для возможно более широкого круга спе-
  специалистов.
  Грамматические упражнения уроков преследуют цель создания граммати-
  грамматических навыков перевода. Они решают всю сумму вопросов, возникающих при
  переводе на русский язык отдельных грамматических явлений: 1. узнавание
  данного грамматического явления в тексте по формальным признакам (напри-
  (например, по окончанию) нли с учетом его синтаксических связей; 2. нахождение
  соответствий (грамматических илн лексических) для изучаемого явления в рус-
  русском языке.
  К каждому уроку даются упражнения на те грамч?тическне явления из
  предыдущих уроков, твердое усвоение которых требует многократного повто-
  повторения.
  Лексические упражнения служат для закрепления слов, предназначенных
  для усвоения и выработки необходимых лексических навыков перевода '. Они
  включают перевод слова в предложении с учетом значения другого слова, син-
  синтаксически с ним связанного (например, перевод глагола в зависимости от
  лексического значения прямого дополнения), перевод многозначных слов, слу-
  служебных слов, слов одного словообразовательного ряда, значение которых по
  тем или иным причинам нелегко вывести из значения основного слова.
  Лексические упражнения не содержат незнакомых слов и 1рачматики и,
  помимо своей основной цели - закрепления новых слов, служат для повторе-
  повторения материала предыдущих уроков.
  В качестве материала для грамматических и лексических упражнений
  используются предложения и отрывки, взятые из оригинальной научно-техни-
  научно-технической литературы.
  Словообразовательные упражнения имеют целью научить учащегося пере-
  переводить слова, в состав которых входят префиксы н суффиксы, часто встре-
  встречающиеся в научно-технической литературе.
  Упражнения на перевод терминов служат для того, чтобы показать, как
  можно раскрыть значение сложного термина путем установления смысловых
  связей между его компонентами.
  Упражнения в чтении должны помочь учащемуся приобрести навык чтеннл
  путем сознательного членения предложений на смысловые группы и соблюдения
  фразовых ударений. В каждом уроке имеются также упражнения на чтение
  слов, включающих трудные для чтения буквосочетания.
  В конце каждого урока приведено несколько текстов для перевода без
  словаря н для перевода с общим англо-русским словарем. Эти тексты подо-
  подобраны так, что они содержат только пройденные грамматические явления и
  некоторое количество незнакомых слов. В текстах для перевода без словаря
  количество незнакомых слов является минимальным и значения их даются
  непосредственно после текстов. Тексты для перевода со словарем содержат при-
  примерно 10% незнакомых слов. Они являются дополнительным материалом для
  обучения переводу с листа и для контроля усвоения пройденной лексики и
  грамматики.
  Контрольные вопросы служат для проверки усвоения изучаемого материала.
  После уроков даются дополнительные упражнения на решение отдельных
  переводческих задач. К ним относятся упражнения на перевод предложений,
  требующих изменения порядка слов в русском языке, упражнения иа объясни-
  объяснительный перевод, упражнения на перевод образных выражений и др.
  В поурочные разработки слов включена лексика, предназначенная для
  усвоения. В них даются различные значения н приводятся случаи употребления
  слова, свойственные научно-технической литературе, а также показываются
  словообразовательные возможности слов. Для более полного раскрытия значе-
  значений слова даются дополнительные пояснения на русском языке. Значения слов,
  как правило, иллюстрируются примерами.
  В справочнике рассматриваются грамматические явления, которые обычно
  представляют значительные трудности при переводе: инфинитив и инфинитивные
  конструкции, причастие н причастные конструкции, герундий, сослагательное
  наклонение, инверсия, эллиптические конструкции, фразеология, средства связи
  самостоятельных предложений, модальные слова и некоторые другие темы.
  В нем указываются также внешние признаки, позволяющие опознать кон-
  конструкцию в предложении, раскрывается ее значение и даются наиболее распро-
  распространенные способы перевода (готовые соответствия), которые учащиеся могут
  использовать при переводе научно-технической литературы.
  ' В заданиях к лексическим упражнениям после слооа указывается номер
  урока и номер, под которым данное слово помещено в "Поурочных разработ-
  разработках слов", например: absence C,5) озна 1ает: урок 3-й, номер слова в поуроч-
  поурочной разработке 5-й.
  Англо-русский словарь включает слова поурочных разработок и слова,
  которые должны быть известны учащимся до начала работы по этому учеб-
  учебнику '.
  Учебник рассчитан примерно на 70-80 часов аудиторных занятий.
  Независимо от того, ведется ли работа под руководством преподавателя
  или учебник прорабатывается учащимися самостоятельно, изучение уроков
  рекомендуется начинать с проработки грамматического материала.
  Учащийся самостоятельно прорабатывает указанный в рамке урока пара-
  параграф справочника, частично выполняет грамматические упражнения (пять -
  шесть примеров нз каждого упражнения) и с помощью контрольных вопросов
  проверяет, в какой ст/^енн им усвоен прорабатываемый материал.
  Грамматические упражнения можно выполнять как письменно, так и устно.
  При выполнении упражнений письменно учащимся рекомендуется выписать
  в тетрадь ту часть английского предложения, в которой содержится прораба-
  прорабатываемая конструкция, а затем письменно перевести все предложение, подчер-
  подчеркивая ту его часть, которая соответствует выписанной английской конструкции.
  Например, прорабатывая грамматическую тему "инфинитич в составе сложного
  дополнения", учащийся, переводя предложение Не thought these data to differ
  greatly from the information received from his experiments делает в тетради
  следующую запись:
  ...thought these data to differ... Он думал, что эти данные очень от-
  отличаются от данных, полученных на
  основе его опытов 2.
  Прорабатывая грамматический материал, всегда следует иметь в виду
  лексическую сторону грамматического явления. Например, выполняя упражне-
  упражнения на конструкцию "инфинитив как часть сказуемого" (is expected to come),
  рекомендуется повторить (по справочнику или по упражнениям), какие глаголы
  употребляются в качестве первого компонента этой конструкции (to expect,
  to believe, to think, to assume, to find и др.) и как они переводятся на русский
  язык.
  В процессе дальнейшей работы рекомендуется выполнить все или по край-
  крайней мере большинство предложенных упражнений, с тем чтобы создать прочный
  навык перевода изучаемой грамматической конструкции.
  К переводу основного текста следует приступать после первичного закре-
  закрепления грамматического материала. Ввиду того что основной текст относи-
  относительно велик по объему и содержит значительное количество лексических и
  грамматических трудностей, рекомендуется делить текст на две части и отво-
  отводить время для работы над ним на двух занятиях. Переведенная на первом
  занятии часть текста задается на дом для повторения, а на втором занятии
  контролируется усвоение этой части и переводится вторая часть текста; на
  третьем занятии проводится контрольный перевод всего текста.
  Следует всегда иметь в виду, что перевод текста должен занимать цен-
  центральное место в аудиторной работе, так как перевод в присутствии препода-
  преподавателя дает возможность формировать у учащегося правильные навыки пере-
  перевода: умение воспринимать слово как определенную часть речи, умение узнавать
  грамматическую конструкцию и находить для нее соответствие в русском
  языке; умение правильно выбирать значение, слова в зависимости от его связей
  с другими словами в предложении, а также в зависимости от более широкого
  1 Слова, уже известные учащимся, отмечены в словаре нулем @). После
  слов, содержащихся в поурочных разработках, указывается номер урока и
  порядковый номер слова в разработке.
  2 При переводе некоторых предложений, приводимых в качестве примеров,
  авторы, стремясь подчеркнуть грамматическую сторону того или иного явления
  или различные случаи употребления отдельных слов, намеренно несколько
  отходили от литературных вариантов перевода этих предложений.
  контекста; умение ориентироваться в предложении, например, временно обойти
  незнакомое слово, с тем чтобы вернуться к непонятному месту после перевода
  остальной части предложения. Таким образом, на связном тексте учащийся
  комплексно решает самые разнообразные задачи переьода, кгторые он по
  частям учится решать на грамматических, лексических и других видах упраж-
  упражнений.
  Усвоение лексики происходит в процессе изучения поурочных разработок
  слов, в процессе перевода текстов и прн выполнении текснческих упражнений.
  Изучать поурочную разработку слов можно до перевода основного текста
  нли непосредственно после него. В обоих случаях учащимся выполняет эту
  работу самостоятельно. Изучая поурочную разработку слов, учащийся знако-
  знакомится со всеми нужными ему значениями нового слова и стучаями употребле-
  употребления этого слова в научно-технической литературе.
  Дальнейшее закрепление новой лексики и создание лексических навыков
  перевода осуществляются в процессе выполнения лексических упражнений.
  Одна часть лексических упражнений предназначена дтя закрепления трудных
  для усвоения слов (например, многозначных и многофункциональных), другая-
  для развития лексических навыков перевода. К последним относятся упраж-
  упражнения на выбор значений слов, на догадку, на перевод словосочетаний и т. п.
  Лексические упражнения следует, как правило, выполнять устно. На за-
  заключительном этапе работы рекомендуется проводить письменный контроль
  усвоения слов данного урока с включением в него некоторого количества ста-
  рых слов.
  Чтение отрабатывается на специальных упражнениях и в ходе проработки
  основного текста на каждом занятии. По завершении работы над текстом
  рекомендуется проводить контрольное чтение основного текста.
  Дополнительные тексты можно использовать как при самостоятельной
  работе учащихся, так и при работе в аудитории.
  На изучение каждого урока следует отводить шесть - восемь часов ауди-
  аудиторных занятий.
  В данный учебник, с разрешения Ю. П. Фунт, включены обработанные ею
  трн текста: "Computers", "Semiconductors", "Nuclear Power for Aircraft", за
  что авторы приносят ей благодарность.
  Авторы выражают благодарность преподавателям кафедр иностранных
  языков Военно-воздушной инженерной орденов Ленина и Октябрьской Рево-
  Революции Краснознаменной академии имени профессора Н. Е. Жуковского и
  Военной инженерной Краснознаменной академии имени А. Ф. Можайского,
  принимавшим участие в обсуждении рукописи.
  Все замечания по содержанию и оформлению настоящего учебника просим
  направлять по адресу: Москва, К-160, Военное издательство.
  О НЕКОТОРЫХ ОСОБЕННОСТЯХ ЯЗЫКА
  НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
  И МЕТОДИКИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ПЕРЕВОДУ
  Понятие "научно-техническая литература" объединяет, как
  известно, разную по своему характеру литературу: монографии,
  различные учебники, журнальные статьи, технические описания,
  справочники, наставления и инструкции, патенты и т. п. Эти ви-
  виды научно-технической литературы отличаются друг от друга по
  языку. Например, язык монографий, научных трудов и жур-
  журнальных статей, как правило, богаче и ярче, чем язык техни-
  технических справочников и руководств, наставлений и инструкций.
  Тем не менее все виды научно-технической литературы имеют
  много общего в языке и в характере изложения. В научно-тех-
  научно-технических работах материал излагается кратко, точно и логично
  и вместе с тем достаточно полно и доказательно. И это находит
  свое отражение в составе используемой лексики и граммати-
  грамматическом построении предложений. С этой точки зрения у всех
  видов научно-технической литературы имеется много общего,
  что и дает возможность говорить об общих лексических и грам-
  грамматических особенностях научно-технической литературы.
  Лексические особенности научно-технической литературы
  Лексика научно-технической литературы состоит из обще-
  общеупотребительных слов и большого количества специальных тер-
  терминов.
  Одна часть общеупотребительных слов, таких как to work
  работать, to know знать, place место, new новый и др., обычно
  известна учащимся из школьного или другого начально-
  начального курса английского языка и, как правило, не вызывает затруд-
  затруднений при переводе.
  Другая часть общеупотребительных слов учащимся неизвест-
  неизвестна и представляет собой тот основной лексический запас, кото-
  который они должны усвоить в процессе обучения. По мнению спе-
  специалистов, это примерно 2000-2500 слов. Усвоение такого коли-
  количества слов в тех значениях, в которых они употребляются в на-
  научно-технической литературе, обеспечивает довольно быстрый
  темп перевода.
  я
  Эту часть общеупотребительных слов можно условно подраз-
  подразделить на несколько групп:
  1. Слова, употребляемые в научно-технической литературе в
  значениях, отличных от тех, которые учащиеся усвоили в началь-
  начальном курсе. Например, глагол to offer в научном тексте чаще
  употребляется в значении оказывать (сопротивление), а не пред-
  предлагать, глагол to attack - приступить к решению (задачи), а не
  нападать, глагол to happen - оказываться, а не происходить,
  случайно оказаться. Для существительного state основным зна-
  значением в научно-техническом тексте является состояние, положе-
  положение, а не государство. Существительное point часто имеет значе-
  значение проблема, а не точка.
  Особого внимания заслуживают многозначные слова, кото-
  которые учащиеся на основе своего прошлого языкового опыта пере-
  переводят только одним значением. К ним относятся такие слова, как
  time, которое обычно знают только в значении время, well - хо-
  хорошо, then - затем и многие другие. Трудность здесь заключает-
  заключается в том, что учащимся кажется, что они хорошо знают эти сло-
  слова, поэтому при переводе они смело подставляют те значения, ко-
  которые им известны, и получают предложения, лишенные смысла.
  Например, в предложении The matter of interplanetary travel
  received a great deal of attention учащиеся иногда переводят сло-
  слово matter как материя и получают, конечно, бессмысленное пред-
  предложение (Материя межпланетного полета привлекла большое
  внимание). В этом предложении слово matter имеет значение
  проблема, вопрос, а не материя. (Проблема межпланетного по-
  полета привлекла большое внимание).
  К этой же группе следует отнести и некоторые служебные
  слова, такие как for, as, since, after, before и др. Особенностью
  этих слов является то, что они могут выполнять функции различ-
  различных частей речи и, кроме того, некоторые из них имеют различ-
  различные значения в пределах одной части речи. Например, слово for
  может быть предлогом и союзом. В качестве предлога for, поми-
  помимо своего наиболее распространенного значения для, имеет зна-
  значение в течение, а в качестве союза - значение так как. Как
  правило, учащиеся не знают всех необходимых значений этих
  служебных слов и не умеют определять их значения.
  2. Слова, которые на начальном этапе обучения обычно не
  изучаются. Например: to regard рассматривать, считать, to
  specify точно определять, to design конструировать, to assume
  предполагать, принимать (форму), to average в среднем рав-
  равняться, conclusion вывод, заключение, standpoint точка зрения,
  promising перспективный, available имеющийся, inherent прису-
  присущий, свойственный н др. Сюда же следует отнести большое ко-
  количество служебных слов, не изучавшихся ранее, таких как on
  account of из-за, вследствие, due to благодаря, according to
  согласно, with reference to в отношении, н таких как provided,
  provided that, providing если только, при условии, что, following
  8
  вслед за, given если дано и др., внешне схожих с другими частя-
  частями речи. Поскольку эти слова вообще не известны учащимся, то
  запоминание их требует больших усилий памяти.
  3. Слова и словосочетания, обеспечивающие логические связи
  между отдельными частями текста н, следовательно, обеспечива-
  обеспечивающие логичность изложения. К ним относятся: to begin with преж-
  прежде всего, furthermore кроме того, более того, alternatively и на-
  наоборот, summing up говоря вкратце и др. Некоторые из них по
  форме совпадают с наречиями, но отличаются от них по зна-
  значению. Например, still как наречие имеет значение еще, а как
  союз - однако, again - снова и кроме того, also - также и кро-
  кроме того.
  4. Слова и словосочетания, служащие для выражения отно-
  отношения автора к излагаемым фактам или для уточнения этих
  фактов. Например: needless to say не вызывает сомнения, un-
  unfortunately к сожалению, strictly speaking строго говоря, in a
  sence в известном смысле, at most в лучшем случае и др.
  Эти слова и словосочетания, если их значения твердо не зау-
  заучены, могут вызвать известные затруднения при переводе.
  5. Фразеологические (несвободные) словосочетания, количе-
  количество которых довольно велико (свыше тысячи единиц, из них
  примерно двести являются наиболее распространенными).
  Особенностью фразеологических словосочетаний, употреб-
  употребляемых в научно-технической литературе, является то, что они
  более или менее нейтральны по окраске. К наиболее типич-
  типичным словосочетаниям такого рода относятся: to be in a posi-
  position быть в состоянии (что-л. сделать), to be under way осу-
  осуществляться, (проводиться) в данное время, to bring into action
  начинать действовать, to take advantage использовать, with
  respect to в отношении, along with наряду с (чём-л.), on the part
  со стороны кого-л.), for the time being в настоящее время и др.
  Следует помнить, что фразеологические словосочетания
  играют очень важную роль в предложении и поэтому их необ-
  необходимо твердо знать.
  Вторым слоем научно-технической литературы являются тер-
  термины - слова и словосочетания, принятые для обозначения
  специальных понятий в той или иной области науки и техники.
  Например: guidance наведение, combustion chamber камера
  сгорания, force of gravity сила тяжести, air-to-ground missile
  ракета класса "воздух - земля" и др.
  Для перевода терминов особое значение имеет понимание
  явлений н процессов, о которых идет речь в данном тексте, и
  знание соответствующей русской терминологии. Если специа-
  специалист хорошо знает русскую терминологию, то, встретив в ан-
  английском тексте незнакомый термин, он может в ряде случаев
  сам, не прибегая к словарю, догадаться, каким соответствую-
  соответствующим русским термином его следует переводить.
  Наибольшую трудность для понимания и перевода пред-
  представляют термины, состоящие не нз одного слова, а из группы
  слов. Такие термины обычно называют сложными, или много-
  многокомпонентными. Раскрытие их значения требует определенной
  последовательности действий н знания способа перевода от-
  отдельных компонентов. Можно рекомендовать начинать перевод
  многокомпонентных терминов с последнего слова. Затем по
  порядку справа налево переводить стоящие перед ним слова,
  учитывая смысловые отношения между компонентами. Напри-
  Например, при переводе термина liquid-propellant power plant сна-
  сначала следует перевести power plant - силовая установка, а за-
  затем слово propellant - топливо и наконец связанное с ним
  дефисом слово liquid - жидкость, жидкий. Зная соответствую-
  соответствующую русскую терминологию, легко получить перевод всего тер-
  термина - силовая установка на жидком топливе.
  При переводе терминов следует также учитывать и то, что
  многие из них многозначны, т. е. имеют несколько значений не
  только в разных областях науки и техники, но даже в одной
  и той же области. Например, термин stage в радиотехнике
  имеет значения 1. каскад; 2. фаза, стадия, а в ракетной техни-
  технике- ступень (ракеты). Перевод таких терминов требует зна-
  ния предмета, о котором идет речь, так как выбор нужного
  значения обусловливается контекстом.
  Учитывать контекст приходится и в том случае, когда мы
  встречаемся с появлением у термина новых значений, с рас-
  расширением нли, наоборот, с сужением его значения. Так, напри-
  например, широко распространенный английский термин container
  контейнер сейчас часто используется для обозначения более
  широкого понятия - вместилище - и может в зависимости от
  контекста переводиться как резервуар, приемник, корпус, бак,
  сосуд н т. д. Наоборот, термин arrangement размещение в
  авиации стал применяться в более узком значении - схема
  (самолета).
  В настоящее время в связи с бурным развитием науки и
  техники новые значения терминов возникают так быстро, что
  специальные и терминологические словари иногда не успевают
  нх своевременно зарегистрировать. Если в словаре нет какого-
  либо нового термина, его следует перевести дословно, а затем
  подобрать соответствующий русский эквивалент. Если же в
  русском языке еще нет необходимого эквивалента, следует или
  дать описательный перевод, или воспользоваться транслите-
  транслитерацией, т. е. написать этот иностранный термин русскими
  буквами, или транскрипцией. Именно таким образом были соз-
  созданы и вошли в русскую терминологию такие термины, как
  миксер (от английского mixer), импеданс (от английского
  impedance) и др.
  В английском языке, так же как и в русском, сравнительно
  широко употребляются слова, образованные от латинских
  10
  греческих слов. Иногда они оказываются "ложными друзьями"
  переводчика. Имея сходное звучание в русском и английском
  языке, эти термины иногда различаются по своим значениям.
  Так, например, английскому термину specific thrust в русском
  языке соответствует термии удельная тяга, а не специфическая
  тяга, как можно было бы подумать, исходя из перевода англий-
  английского слова specific специфический.
  Чтобы не делать подобных ошибок, рекомендуется, если
  точно неизвестно, какому русскому термину соответствует дан-
  данный английский, обращаться к соответствующему словарю по
  специальности.
  Таким образом, подводя итог, следует подчеркнуть, что
  усвоение строго отобранного и сравнительно ограниченного
  количества слов дает возможность специалисту читать научно-
  техническую литературу, почти не обращаясь к общему аигло-
  русскому словарю и пользуясь только специальными словарями.
  Грамматические особенности научно-технической литературы
  Особенности изложения материала в научно-технической
  литературе сказываются и иа грамматической структуре тек-
  текстов. Тексты изобилуют сложными по структуре, развернутыми
  предложениями с сочинительными и подчинительными связями
  внутри них. Например:
  The relative value of vertical Относительную ценность
  sounding rockets and satellites зондирующих ракет с верти-
  has been very fairly assessed кальиым запуском и спутни-
  by Massey, who pointed out ков довольно правильно опре-
  that many of the quantities to деляет Мэсси, который указы-
  be measured in the upper atmo- вает, что многие величины,
  sphere are highly variable in подлежащие измерению в
  time and space, and for this верхних слоях атмосферы, под-
  reason it is advantageous to вержены значительным изме-
  use a satellite if it will stay up неииям во времени и про-
  long enough. странстве. По этой причине
  искусственный спутник может
  быть с успехом использован
  только в том случае, если он
  будет оставаться в космосе
  достаточно продолжительное
  время.
  Перевод таких предложений требует умения разбираться
  в их грамматической структуре, требует твердого знания слу-
  служебных слов - предлогов, с помощью которых осуществляются
  связи между словами, и союзов, с помощью которых осуще-
  осуществляются связи между отдельными частями сложного пред-
  предложения или между предложениями.
  11
  В английских научно-технических текстах обращает на себя
  внимание употребление большого количества причастных, герун-
  герундиальных и инфинитивных оборотов.
  Individual fuel cells when Отдельные топливные эле-
  combined in parallel or in series менты при параллельном или
  make fuel batteries. последовательном соединении
  образуют топливные батареи.
  Эти конструкции вызывают при переводе особые трудности
  и являются источннком многих грубых ошибок. Учащиеся иногда
  путают похожие по внешнему виду глагольные формы: при-
  причастие II в составе определительного оборота и глагол-сказуе-
  цое в прошедшем времени, герундий н причастие I.
  Для научно-технического текста характерно также употреб-
  употребление групп существительного с несколькими левыми опреде-
  определениями (так называемых "цепочек" существительного), обес-
  обеспечивающих краткость изложения.
  The purpose of this article is Цель данной статьи - обсу-
  to discuss some intercontinental дить некоторые проблемы вхо-
  ballistic missile reentrance pro- да в атмосферу межконтинен-
  blems. тальной ракеты.
  Перевод таких развернутых групп существительного требует
  знания правил последовательности перевода слов в "цепочке",
  а также умения установить смысловые связи между отдельны-
  отдельными словами.
  Одной из самых распространенных особенностей научно-
  технического текста является широкое употребление предложе-
  предложений с глаголом-сказуемым в страдательном залоге, т. е. употре-
  употребление пассивных конструкций:
  Thermoelectric generators Были разработаны термо-
  with power ratings from a few электрические генераторы с
  watts to 5 kilowatts have been номинальной мощностью от
  developed and generators with нескольких ватт до 5 киловатт,
  ratings of hundreds of thous- и в настоящее время рассма-
  ands of kilowatts are being тривается вопрос о создании
  considered. генераторов с номинальной
  мощностью в согни тысяч ки-
  киловатт.
  Это объясняется тем, что научно-технический текст чаще
  всего представляет собой описания процессов или фактов и
  поэтому автор стремится сосредоточить внимание имеиио на
  самих процессах и фактах. Как правило, перевод таких пред-
  предложений не вызывает затруднений, за исключением тех слу-
  случаев, когда переходность английского и русского глаголов не
  совпадает.
  Для английских научно-технических текстов характерно
  также выделение (логическое или эмоциональное) главного из
  12
  основной массы сообщаемых фактов. Это достигается употреб-
  употреблением особого порядка слов (инверсии) н использованием
  специальных выделительных конструкций.
  Перевод текста
  Обычно учащийся, если у него нет достаточной языковой
  подготовки, стремится переводить отдельные слова в том по-
  порядке, в котором они встречаются в тексте. Знакомые слова
  он переводит теми значениями, которые ему известны (чаще
  всего это только ол.но значение), а незнакомые находит в сло-
  словаре, причем чаще всего берет первое (или одно нз первых)
  словарное значение. При переводе как знакомых, так н незна-
  незнакомых слов не всегда учитывается их принадлежность к опре-
  определенной части речи и, как правило, совсем не учитывается
  связь переводимого слова с другими словами в предложении.
  Затем переведенные слова связываются "по смыслу" в зависи-
  зависимости от тех или иных ассоциаций, которые они вызывают у
  учащегося в соответствии с имеющимися у него сведениями по
  данному предмету.
  В тех случаях, когда учащийся имеет дело с очень простым
  по структуре и лексике предложением, такой метод иногда мо-
  может дать возможность правильно передать смысловое содер-
  содержание предложения. Однако для научно-технической литера-
  литературы типичны предложения, сложные по структуре и лексике
  и, как правило, большие по объему. Перевод таких предложе-
  предложений "по словам" почти всегда приводит к искажению смысла,
  сам процесс протекает крайне медленно, с постоянным обра-
  обращением к словарю и при этом у учащегося нет уверенности в
  том, что перевод сделан правильно.
  Перевод, который удовлетворял бы специалиста, должен
  правильно передавать смысл иностранного текста, соответство-
  соответствовать нормам русского языка и стилю научно-технической литера-
  литературы. Чтобы добиться этого, учащийся должен овладеть
  определенными знаниями в области грамматики, приобрести
  соответствующий запас слов и усвоить определенные приемы
  работы с иностранным текстом.
  Какие же навыки работы с иностранным текстом необхо-
  необходимо приобрести, чтобы с успехом переводить научно-техннче-
  скую литературу? Условно эти навыки работы можно назвать
  грамматическими и лексическими навыками перевода.
  Грамматические навыки перевода
  При чтении и переводе иностранного текста необходимо
  помнить, что именно грамматика является одним из основных
  средств, которое дает возможность правильно понять, а сле-
  13
  довательно, и перевести тот или иной текст. Необходимые
  грамматические навыки перевода вырабатываются при изуче-
  изучении грамматики под определенным практическим углом зрения,
  применительно к переводу научно-технического текста. Изучая
  отобранный по определенной системе грамматический мате-
  материал, учащийся запоминает значения грамматических форм
  (нлн конструкций), характерных для научно-технической лите-
  литературы, внешние формальные признаки, по которым их можно
  узнать в тексте, знакомится с их функциями в предложении.
  Одновременно ои знакомится и с конкретными способами (об-
  (образцами) их перевода, с приемами и последовательностью ра-
  работы при переводе данных грамматических форм.
  Переходя от изучения одной грамматической формы (или
  конструкции) к другой, усваивая частные правила, учащийся
  постепенно накапливает и расширяет свои знания и умения
  и приобретает необходимые практические навыки работы над
  текстом.
  Рассмотрим два примера*, показывающих, как, по мнению
  авторов, должен проходить процесс перевода незнакомого
  текста.
  Пример 1. Как определить по внешним признакам принад-
  принадлежность слова к той или ниой части речи и его функцию в
  предложении? Возьмем английское предложение
  The discovery of the third fundamental particle solved this
  problem.
  Начинаем переводить предложение с первого слова.
  На первом месте стоит артикль the. Предполагаем, что он
  относится к слову discovery (по предлогу of, стоящему за ним
  и показывающему границу первой группы существительного).
  Делаем вывод, что discovery является существительным н вы-
  выполняет функцию подлежащего (по месту, занимаемому в пред-
  предложении, и по отсутствию предлога перед ним). Переводим слово-
  discovery, отвечающее на вопрос "что?", словом открытие.
  Далее мы видим предлог of. Он показывает, что начинается
  следующая группа существительного, которая выполняет функ-
  функцию определения к существительному discovery, т. е. отвечает
  прн переводе на вопрос "чего?" или "какое?" (открытие).
  Теперь определяем, к какому конкретному слову относятся
  предлог of и артикль the, стоящий за ним. Решаем, что of и the
  относятся к слову particle - последнему слову в группе суще-
  существительного (по глагольной форме с окончанием -ed - solved,
  которая показывает границу данной группы существительного).
  Переводим слово particle:
  Открытие... частицы...
  Возвращаемся к словам third fundamental, которые мы вре-
  временно опустили. По месту, которое они занимают между артик-
  1 Лексические вопросы перевода в данных примерах не рассматриваются.
  14
  лем the и основным словом группы существительного particle,
  решаем, что это определения и, следовательно, при переводе
  должны отвечать иа вопрос "какой частицы?".
  Получаем:
  Открытие третьей основной частицы ...
  Переходим к слову solved. По окончанию -ed предполагаем,
  что это может быть глагол-сказуемое. Для проверки обра-
  обращаемся к словам, стоящим справа. Видим прежде всего место-
  имеине this. Делаем вывод, что слово problem, стоящее за ним,
  является существительным. Это подтверждает наше предпо-
  предположение о том, что solved - сказуемое (по наличию за иим
  существительного без гТредлога - прямого дополнения). Зная,
  что окончание -ed является показателем прошедшего времени
  и что при переводе слово solved должно ответить на вопрос
  "что сделало открытие?", переводим:
  Открытие третьей основной частицы решило эту проблему.
  Пример 2. Как определить синтаксические связи между сло-
  словами, если с первого взгляда они неясны?
  The method of propelling incendiaries is assumed to have
  been discovered by the Chinese.
  The method of....
  Способ (чего?)...
  На этот вопрос может ответить слово propelling (если это
  герундий) или слово incendiaries (если propelling причастие).
  Отсутствие артикля (или другого определителя) между ними
  не позволяет установить значение этих слов по внешним при-
  признакам.
  Пробуем перевести propelling как причастие:
  The method of propelling incendiaries...
  Способ движущихся зажигательных веществ... - такой пе-
  перевод лишен смысла.
  Тогда переводим propelling как герундий и получаем:
  Способ движения зажигательных веществ...
  Теперь основная задача решена. Смысл ясен. Осталось
  лишь внести исправления в перевод, чтобы приблизить его к
  нормам русского языка, и перевести вторую часть предло-
  предложения:
  Способ метания зажигательных веществ, как полагают, был
  открыт китайцами.
  К такому методу работы учащийся должен прибегать толь-
  только в тех случаях, когда одна и та же форма слова (например,
  слова с окончаниями -ing н -ed) имеет разные значения, а
  внешние признаки не позволяют сразу понять, какую функцию
  в предложении оиа выполняет. Следовательно, для того чтобы
  научиться хорошо и быстро переводить научно-техническую
  литературу, необходимо овладеть определенными грамматиче-
  грамматическими навыками перевода.
  15
  Лексические навыки перевода
  Для того чтобы правильно понимать и переводить научно-
  технические тексты, необходимо предварительно усвоить зна-
  значительное количество слов, которые наиболее часто употребля-
  употребляются в научно-технической литературе. Однако простого знания
  даже большого количества слов часто оказывается недоста-
  недостаточно. Многие слова имеют несколько различных значений,
  поэтому возникает вопрос, какое же значение выбрать в каж-
  каждом конкретном случае. Некоторые как будто бы знакомые
  слова в тексте могут встретиться в незнакомых значениях, ко-
  которых нет в словаре. Как их переводить? Кроме того, естест-
  естественно, что почти в каждом тексте встречаются и совсем незна-
  незнакомые слова. Нужно ли при этом всякий раз обращаться к
  словарю? Чем руководствоваться при выборе значения много-
  многозначного слова? Механическая подстановка значений слов (по
  памяти илн по словарю) часто ведет к грубым искажениям
  смысла переводимого текста. Чтобы избежать подобных оши-
  ошибок, необходимо овладеть определенными навыками работы со
  словами и словарем. Условно назовем их лексическими навы-
  навыками перевода. Эти навыки приобретаются и развиваются по-
  постепенно, в течение сравнительно длительного периода-в
  процессе изучения соответствующих разделов справочника и
  поурочных разработок слов и выполнения различных лексиче-
  лексических упражнений, н, конечно, прн переводе текстов.
  Изучая поурочную разработку слов, учащийся получает
  всестороннюю характеристику слова, узнает те его значения,
  в которых оно встречается в научио-техиической литературе,
  и получает указания (когда это возможно), в каких случаях
  данное слово употребляется в том или ниом значении. Напри-
  Например, изучая глагол to appear, учащийся узнает из поурочной
  разработки, что данное слово имеет два значения: 1. появлять-
  появляться и 2. казаться - и получает указание, что во втором значении
  (казаться) глагол to appear употребляется только в конструк-
  конструкции "инфнннтив как часть сложного сказуемого" (т. е. когда
  за ним следует инфинитив другого глагола), как, например,
  в предложении
  This device appears to differ Этот прибор, кажется (по-
  from the old ones. видимому), отличается от ста-
  старых приборов.
  Другой пример: глагол to make up имеет два значения:
  1. составлять (если дальше стоит предлог of илн предлога
  вообще нет) и 2. компенсировать, восполнять (если дальше
  стоит предлог for илн by).
  Выполнение лексических упражнений помогает учащемуся
  не только запоминать различные значения слов, но и приоб-
  приобрести навык выбора нужного значения слова.
  Существенную роль в создании лексических навыков пере-
  перевода играет изучение раздела справочника "Указания по вы-
  выбору значения слов", а также выполнение специально разра-
  разработанных для этой цели упражнений и перевод связных
  текстов.
  Обычно учащемуся известно, что если слово имеет несколь-
  несколько значений, то выбор нужного значения будет во многом
  зависеть от значений других слов нли, как часто говорят, от
  "общего смысла" предложения. При этом некоторые полагают,
  что это в равной степени относится ко всем словам, входящим
  в состав предложения. Но это не так.
  Известно, что в предложении слова связаны между собой
  не одинаково: одни связаны более тесно, связи других слов -
  более слабые, а третьи совсем не связаны между собой непо-
  непосредственно н осуществляют эту связь через какое-либо другое
  слово. Например, смысловая связь подлежащего и сказуемого
  или сказуемого и дополнения является очень тесной, связь ска-
  сказуемого с обстоятельством - менее тесная, а связь подлежащего
  и дополнения осуществляется только через сказуемое.
  Изучение связей между словами в предложении показывает,
  что для определения значения какого-либо слова не надо во
  всех случаях определять значения всех слов в предложении.
  Достаточно выяснить значения тех слов, которые с инм наибо-
  наиболее тесно связаны (т. е. входят в состав словосочетания). По-
  Поэтому для определения необходимого значения слова в боль-
  большинстве случаев можно ограничиться рамками словосочетания.
  Только в некоторых случаях приходится прибегать к более ши-
  широкому контексту, т. е. учитывать смысл всего предложения и, в
  очень редких случаях, общее содержание текста.
  Изучая раздел справочника "Указания по выбору значения
  слов", учащийся знакомится с тем, какие смысловые связи яв-
  являются наиболее существенными для разных частей речи, а сле-
  следовательно, значение каких слов надо учитывать при переводе
  глагола, существительного, прилагательного и наречня.
  Например, при выборе значения переходного глагола (т. е.
  глагола, имеющего прямое дополнение) следует учитывать в
  первую очередь значение прямого дополнения, например:
  to launch a rocket запускать ракету
  to launch a ship спускать на воду корабль
  Понятно, что выбор значения глагола to launch целиком оп-
  определяется значением существительного - прямого дополнения
  (rocket ракета или ship корабль).
  Выполняя специально разработанные упражнения на выбор
  значения данной части речи (например глагола) в зависимости
  от ее синтаксических связей, учащийся закрепляет ранее усвоен-
  усвоенный материал и одновременно приобретает навык видеть при
  17
  переводе не только то слово, которое он в данный момент пере-
  переводит, но и те слова и конструкции, на которые он будет опи-
  опираться при переводе данного слова.
  Не менее важным навыком, который вырабатывается при
  выполнении этих специальных упражнений, является навык по-
  последовательности перевода слов, синтаксически связанных меж-
  между собой. Ведь если выбор значения переходного глагола зави-
  зависит от значения существительного - прямого дополнения, то
  очевидно, что для того, чтобы правильно перевести глагол, надо
  сначала перевести прямое дополнение, а потом уже как бы "при-
  "примерить", какое из значений глагола следует выбрать в данном
  случае.
  Рассмотрим пример, показывающий, какие лексические за-
  •дачи приходится решать при переводе предложений, как следу-
  следует при этом выбирать необходимые значения слова и в какой
  последовательности переводить слова, синтаксически связанные
  между собой.
  Переводим предложение
  It was very difficult in the early days of atom smashing to
  deliver a direct hit on the nucleus.
  Перевод первой части предложения до предлога in никаких
  трудностей с точки зрения выбора значений слов не представ-
  представляет:
  It was very difficult...
  Было очень трудно-
  Теперь возьмем группу существительного:
  После перевода слов
  ... in the... days в ... дни...
  возвращаемся к временно опущенному слову early, отвечающе-
  отвечающему на вопрос "какие дии?".
  Подбираем перевод слова early, учитывая значение слова
  days:
  ... in the early days в первые дни ...
  (а не в ранние дни, как можно перевести эго слово, если не учи-
  учитывать значения слова days).
  Получаем:
  Было очень трудно в первые дни ...
  Переходим к переводу следующей части предложения (пра-
  (правого определения к слову days):
  ... of atom smashing ...
  ... расщепления атома...
  Убеждаемся, что надо внести поправку в перевод существи-
  существительного days, которое определяется группой of atom smashing.
  По-видимому, лучше сказать:
  ... в первый период работ по расщеплению атома ...
  Далее мы должны перевести глагол to deliver. Помня, что пе-
  перевод глагола зависит от лексического значения слов, с ним свя-
  связанных, мы, прежде чем перевести этот глагол, переводим груп-
  13
  ny прямого дополнения a direct hit, которая стоит в предложе-
  предложении за глаголом to deliver:
  ... a direct hit прямой удар ...
  Теперь возвращаемся к глаголу to deliver и пытаемся соче-
  сочетать слова прямой удар с теми значениями, которые имеет гла-
  глагол to deliver: I. освобождать, избавлять; 2. доставлять, разно-
  разносить; 3. передавать; 4. сдавать; 5. наносить. Убеждаемся, что
  подходит только вариант наносить (удар).
  Перевод последнего отрезка предложения ...on the nucleus
  не вызывает никаких трудностей - ... по ядру.
  Получаем перевод всего предложения:
  В первый период работ по расщеплению атома было очень
  трудно нанести прямой удар по ядру.
  Вносим редакционную поправку в перевод: заменяем слова
  нанести прямой удар словами получить прямое попадание.
  Окончательный вариант перевода:
  В первый период работ по расщеплению атома очень трудно
  было получить прямое попадание в ядро.
  О развитии языковой догадки
  Навык определения смысла переводимого слова с учетом
  значений других слов, синтаксически с ним связанных, и навык
  перевода словосочетания в определенной последовательности
  способствуют развитию яз.ыковой догадки, дают возможность
  при переводе незнакомого слова не обращаться к словарю (осо-
  (особенно, если незнакомым словом является глагол или наречие).
  Выше было сказано, что значение переходного глагола во мно-
  многих случаях определяется по лексическому значению прямого
  дополнения:
  We draw certain conclusions Мы делаем определенные
  From the experiment. выводы из этого опыта.
  Очевидно, что перевод слова draw не потребует обращения к
  словарю, если сначала будет переведено прямое дополнение
  conclusions выводы.
  В данном случае догадка основывается на том, что слово
  выводы чаще всего сочетается с глаголом делать.
  Рассмотрим еще один пример, когда такой метод работы да-
  дает возможность использовать и специальные знания учащегося
  в какой-либо отрасли науки и техники:
  When a current flows through Когда ток течет по провод-
  а wire, it sets up a magnetic нику, он создает магнитное
  field. поле.
  Перевод глагола set up словом создавать основан на специ-
  специальных знаниях учащегося о том, какие отношения существуют
  между током, протекающим по проводнику, и магнитным полем.
  19
  Развитие языковой догадки очень важно, поэтому в учебнике
  для этой цели даются специальные упражнения.
  Редактирование перевода
  При письменном переводе научно-технического текста уча-
  учащемуся, кроме грамматических и лексических задач, приходится
  также решать чисто стилистические задачи. В первую очередь
  это относится к порядку слов. В переведенном предложении сло-
  слова должны быть расположены так, чтобы оин правильно пере-
  передавали смысл английского предложения, но при этом стиль все-
  всего предложения должен соответствовать нормам русского языка.
  В данном курсе перевода имеется ряд специальных упражне-
  упражнений на случаи изменения порядка слов.
  Сравнение порядка слов в английских и русских предложе-
  предложениях показывает, что расхождения в расположении слов при
  переводе сводятся, главным образом, к расположению подлежа-
  подлежащего и сказуемого. Существуют случаи, когда при переводе не-
  необходимо изменить порядок слов: поставить сказуемое перед
  подлежащим. Это, например, необходимо сделать при переводе
  следующего английского предложения:
  The nature of the shape of Дается объяснение природы
  the luminescence pulse produc- люминесцентного импульса,
  ed by a short duration screen создаваемого кратковремен-
  excitation is explained. ным возбуждением экрана.
  Иногда возникает необходимость внести и некоторые другие
  редакционные поправки в перевод:
  - заменить одно слово другим, соответствующим стилю ли-
  литературы по данному предмету; например, вместо нанести
  прямой удар по ядру (атома) сказать получить прямое попа-
  попадание в ядро;
  - добавить слово, отсутствующее в английском тексте;
  например:
  ... to force the current through ... заставить ток течь по про-
  the wire ... воднику...
  - опустить слово, если оно ничего не прибавляет к смыслу
  предложения, а только усложняет его; например:
  The waves travel away from Волны распространяются
  the splash in ever widening (прочь) от места падения рас-
  circles, ходящимися кругами.
  Однако все эти исправления следует вносить очень осторож-
  осторожно, так как замена одного слова другим или перегруппировка
  членов предложения без достаточных к тому оснований может
  привести к искажению смысла переводимого предложения.
  20
  О пользовании англо-русскими словарями
  При переводе научно-технической литературы словари яв-
  являются необходимым справочным материалом. Как бы ни был
  велик запас слов у читающего, в тексте всегда может встретить-
  встретиться незнакомое слово или знакомое слово в каком-то новом, не-
  неизвестном значении. Поэтому учащийся должен уметь пользо-
  пользоваться словарями. ї••
  Прежде всего необходимо знать, каким словарем пользовать-
  пользоваться в каждом конкретном случае; кроме того, важно знать систе-
  систему построения словаря, чтобы быстро найти нужное слово и
  правильно выбрать нужное значение.
  Для перевода научно-технической литературы с английского
  языка на русский рекомендуется пользоваться общими и специ-
  специальными англо-русскими словарями.
  В общих словарях слова и словосочетания обычно располо-
  расположены строго по алфавиту (не только первой буквы, но и всех
  последующих). По этой системе построен, например, Большой
  англо-русский словарь1, Англо- русский военный словарь под ре-
  редакцией Г. А. Судзиловского2 и многие другие как общие, так и
  специальные словари.
  Другой, довольно распространенной системой построения
  словарей, особенно словарей специальных, является алфавитно-
  гнездовая. При этой системе слова также располагаются по ал-
  алфавиту, но словосочетания (например, многокомпонентные тер-
  термины) собраны по определенному признаку в одном месте, з
  "гнезде". Чаще всего гнездо строится по основному слову, в
  большинстве случаев по определяемому существительному. В та-
  таком словаре, например, термин guided missile нужно искать на
  слово missile, где будут даны по алфавиту все термины, входящие
  в гнездо missile.
  Прн такой системе словаря иногда трудно бывает, особенно
  вначале, найти нужное словосочетание (многокомпонентный
  термин), но эта система имеет и свои преимущества. Располо-
  Расположение всех сложных терминов в одном гнезде дает возможность
  сопоставлять их и даже при отсутствии нужного термина в сло-
  словаре переводить его по аналогии с другими терминами данного
  гнезда.
  При переводе научно-технической литературы с английского
  языка, особенно на первом этапе обучения, когда запас слов у
  учащегося невелик, ему приходится довольно часто обращаться
  к общему англо-русскому словарю. Для этой цели можно реко-
  1 Большой англо-русский словарь. Колл. авторов, под общ. руководством
  И. Р. Гальперина. М., "Советская энциклопедия", 1972.
  1 Англо-русский военный словарь. Сост. Г. А. Судзиловский и др. Изд. 2-е,
  М., Воениздат, 1968.
  21
  Мендовать широко известный Большой англо-русский словарь, яв-
  являющийся в настоящее время наиболее полным и научно разрабо-
  разработанным словарем. Всякого рода краткие словари E000, 10 000 и
  даже 20 000 слов) не могут служить справочным материалом при
  переводе сложного оригинального текста, так как в них не всегда
  можно найти нужное слово или какое-то его более редкое значе-
  значение.
  В дальнейшем, когда учащийся усвоит необходимый мини-
  минимум слов, ему придется в основном работать со специальными
  словарями.
  Среди специальных переводных словарей имеются политехни-
  политехнические, в которых собраны термины всех областей науки и техни-
  техники, и отраслевые, в которые включены термины данной отрасли
  , науки или техники.
  Наиболее полными англо-русскими политехническими слова-
  словарями являются Англо-русский политехнический словарь1 и Анг-
  Англо-русский военио-технический словарь2. Эти словари, безуслов-
  безусловно, окажут большую помощь при переводе научно-технической
  литературы.
  Для того чтобы найти какие-то узкоспециальные термины,
  следует обращаться к специальному словарю по данной отрас-
  отрасли науки или техники.
  В научно-технической литературе встречается много различ-
  различных сокращений и условных обозначений, которые трудно рас-
  расшифровать и перевести без словаря. В общих, политехнических
  и отраслевых словарях, как правило, приводятся списки наибо-
  наиболее часто употребляемых сокращений. Однако их бывает недо-
  недостаточно. Тогда следует обращаться к специальным словарям
  сокращений, таким, как Словарь английских и американских
  сокращений3 и Словарь иностранных военных сокращений4.
  Заключение
  Из года в год расширяются и крепнут международные связи
  Советского Союза, растет обмен печатными изданиями и техни-
  технической ниформацней с зарубежными странами.
  Для многих специалистов становится необходимым использо-
  использование в практической работе литературы на иностранном языке
  1 Англо-русский политехнический словарь. Под ред. А. Е. Чернухнна. Изд.
  2-е. М., "Советская энциклопедия", 1971.
  1 Англо-русский военно-технический словарь. М., Воениэдат, 1965.
  * Словарь английских н американских сокращений. Сост. В. О. Блувштейн.
  и др. М., Государственное изд-во иностранных н национальных словарей, 1958.
  * Словарь иностранных военных сокращений. Под ред. М. П. Егорова.
  М., Воениздат, 1961.
  22
  по своей специальности. Именно для них в первую очередь и пред-
  предназначается "Практический курс перевода научно-технической
  литературы".
  Изложенные в настоящей вводной статье сведения о теорети-
  теоретических и практических основах перевода не являются исчерпы-
  исчерпывающими и имеют целью лишь бегло ознакомить начинающего
  переводчика с некоторыми особенностями перевода научно-тех-
  научно-технической литературы с английского языка на русский.
  УРОК ПЕРВЫЙ
  Текст: The Modern Theory of Light.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод инфинитивных конструкций: инфинитив как часть сказуе-
  сказуемого (ј 8-14), ннфннитнв как часть сложного дополнения (ј 15, 16),
  инфинитивная конструкция с for (ј 18). Инфинитив в функции подле-
  подлежащего (ј 2), определения (ј 6), обстоятельства цели (ј 3), обстоя-
  обстоятельства последующего действия (ј 5), обстоятельства следствия (ј 4).
  Местоимение it в функции формального дополнения (упр. II).
  Перевод союзных слов that, what, how, where (упр. 12).
  Перевод предложений с союзом whether (упр. 13).
  Различные значения служебных слов for (упр. 14) и both (упр. 15).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Зависимость перевода глагола от слов, с ним связанных (ј 113).
  Перевод слов: gain, fail, suggest, assume, exceed, adequate, conven-
  conventional, common, ordinary, hardly, nearly, readily, necessarily, evidence,
  kind, sort.
  Перевод словосочетаний: In terms of, give rise, at least.
  Перевод прилагательных с суффиксом -able (упр. 26).
  Перевод слов с префиксами dis-, in- (im-, Ir-, il-,) un- (упр. 27).
  Перевод терминов типа "существительное + существительное", "при-
  "прилагательное + существительное" (упр. 28).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE MODERN THEORY OF LIGHT
  In the history of the theory of light we see that two very dif-
  different models have vied * from the outset * as to which is the true
  model to be u s e d. On the one hand2, light was pictured as a
  wave motion of some sort3, and on the other as a flight ** of fast-
  moving particles.
  During the 19th century the former model gained* universal5
  acceptance6 thanks to a remarkable7 series of developments on
  both the experimental and theoretical basis.
  * vie - конкурировать, соперничать
  ** flight -поток
  24
  The wave theory of light seemed to have defeated
  the particle theory when it explained the approximately rectilinear
  propagation. The theory was found by the physicists
  to be adequate enough to explain all the experimental re-
  results of the nineteenth century in terms of* the wave theory.
  However, early in the twentieth century a series of observa-
  observations on photo-electricity gave rise* to a really serious difficulty
  for the wave theory. It was found that light could cause atoms
  to em it electrons and that, when light released an electron from
  an atom, the energy possessed by the electron very greatly exce-
  exceeded 10 that which the atom could, according to electromagnetic-
  wave theory, have received. It was at this point that the wave
  theory failed" to suggest12 an explanation. It was this fact and
  others associated13 with it that showed the wave hypo-
  hypothesis to be incomplete.
  A return14, at leasti5 to some extent, to the particle theory of
  light appeared to be necessary. In 1905 Einstein sug-
  suggested that in order to adequately" describe these observations,
  it was necessary to assume17 that the energy of a light beam18 is
  not evenly spread over the whole beam, but is concentrated in the
  form of small particles proportional to the frequency of light.
  These localized concentrations of energy he called "photons" or
  "light quanta".
  For the observation to be described in detail it
  is necessary to assume that the photons corresponding19 to light
  of the wavelength all have the same energy, those of blue light
  having nearly20 twice21 the energy of the red. Photons are propa-
  propagated like particles. It is assumed that there are usually a very
  large number of them, the energy in any one photon being very
  small. Thus in most ordinary22 experiments, the energy of a light
  beam is evenly distributed M, just as M a gas exerts a very nearly
  uniform25 pressure on the surface of an ordinary vessel, because
  each molecule is very small and the number of molecules is very
  large. When the movements of an ultra-microscopic particle are
  observed the irregularities26 of the Brownian movements show the
  discontinuous27 "structure" of the gas. In a similar way28, the
  atom presents to the light' beam an area so small that it indi-
  indicates the presence29 of "molecules of light" or photons.
  Thus, on the one hand, stand all the phenomena of interference,
  diffraction and polarization which are so well described by the
  wave theory. On the other hand, modern experiment has greatly
  increased the number and range of the experiments which are
  readily30 described in terms of photons. The electromagnetic
  picture has no place for the photons, and the particle theory has
  no place for the wave. Yet, both are required to give a complete
  description of the phenomena.
  According to the present concept light has a dualS1 character
  such that it may be represented equally well by waves or by
  25
  particles. The wave and particle properties of light are found
  by modern scientists to be two different aspects
  of the same thing. These two aspects are to be regarded as
  complementary32 rather than antagonistic, each being correct
  when dealing with the phenomena in its own domain 33: In macro-
  macroscopic effects light can be treated as a continuous wave and in
  microscopic ones the photon aspect begins to become important.
  Though there seems to be no doubt34 as to the essential
  correctness of this theory we still find it difficult to
  understand how these two theories can both be true. Yet, we
  are forced to do so by the mass of good evidence35 which can be
  brought forward in support of each of them. The acceptance of
  this concept required a fundamental w change in our ideas.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию "инфинитив как часть
  сказуемого" (ј 8). Укажите возможные способы перевода коиструкции.
  Назовите глаголы - первые компоненты сказуемого, которые помогают
  опознать данную конструкцию.
  Образец:
  A body is said to be in motion...
  Тело, как говорят, находится в движении...
  Говорят, что тело находится в движении...
  1. Light is thought to be...
  2. The speed of these particles is found to be...
  3. The rocket is known to be used...
  4. These forces are believed to act...
  5. The changes in the orbit are considered to be...
  6. These charged particles are supposed to possess...
  7. The planet is expected to have...
  8. The direction of the current is assumed to be...
  9. The diameter of this star is reported to be...
  10. This cyclotron appears to develop...
  11. The solid fuel rocket seems to be...
  12. The speed of particles happens to change...
  13. These conditions are likely to be found...
  14. Uranium is unlikely to exist...
  2. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию "инфинитив как часть
  сказуемого". Обратите внимание на форму инфинитива (ј 11).
  Образец:
  The results are known to be used...
  Результаты, как известно, используются...
  26
  The results are known to have been used...
  Результаты, как известно, были использованы..,
  [. The rocket is found to develop speed...
  2. The rocket is found to have developed speed.,.
  3. The rocket was found to develop speed...
  4. The rocket has been found to develop speed..,
  5. The properties of the elements are known to vary...
  6. The properties of the elements are known to have varied..,
  7. This limitation appears to have been overcome,,.
  8. This limitation appeared to be overcome...
  3. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого инфинитив.
  Укажите, к какому компоненту сказуемого следует отнести при переводе
  отрицание (предложение 22). Укажите, где будет стоять модальный глагол
  в предложениях 23-26. Обратите также внимание на перевод группы су-
  существительного с предлогом, стоящей между первым компонентом сказуе-
  сказуемого и инфинитивом (предложения 18 н 19).
  1. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.
  2. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the
  electron.
  3. The speed of light in vacua is one of the fundamental physi-
  physical constants and has been found to be very close to 3.00ХЮ10
  centimetres per second.
  4. Sputnik II is reported to have weighed about 1120 pounds.
  5. The Sun of a certain galaxy is said to have a diameter more
  than 16 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth.
  6. The first Earth's satellites were expected to stay on their
  orbits for a month or two.
  7. Heat was thought to be a material substance.
  8. The atmosphere of Saturn is believed to be about 16,000
  miles deep.
  9. Billions of stars are assumed to exist in the universe.
  10. Some of the meteors are supposed to have formed when
  comets that passed near the Earth broke up.
  11. The surface temperature of Mars seems to range from
  30№ С down to -60№ C.
  12. The circle where earth and the sky seem to meet is the
  horizon.
  13. Our galaxy proved to be a spiral system.
  14. When a planet has been proved to have an atmosphere, we
  naturally wish to find out as much as possible about the composi-
  composition of the atmosphere.
  15. Stars appear to be made of the elements that have been
  found in our Sun.
  16. In contrast to the Moon and the Earth, Mars appears to
  have a relatively smooth surface.
  17. The neutron was shown to be a magnet by simple experi-
  experiments.
  27
  18. In physics the words nucleus and nuclei refer to the po-
  positively charged bodies which were shown by Rutherford to exist
  at the centre of the atoms of all substances.
  19. The ratio1 of charge to mass, e/m, for alpha particles was
  found by magnetic deflection measurements to be about half that
  for a proton.
  20. The electric rocket is likely to remain a low-thrust device.
  21. The rocket is unlikely to generate a velocity much greater
  than twice its exhaust velocity 2.
  22. This method does not appear to offer any advantages for it
  depends on the production of materials with higher strength to
  weight ratios,-
  23. Although the neutron may seem to be a simple particle,
  having no electric charge but a small magnetic field, in modern
  theories the neutron is thought of as a complicated structure in-
  indeed.
  24. In the millimetre wave region, the maser may eventually*
  prove to be the best coherent detector.
  25. Satellites in general move jn elliptical orbits and they may
  be considered to have accelerations directed both towards the
  centre of the earth and in a perpendicular direction.
  26. The rocket may be said to work on the reaction principle.
  27. It does not seem to be possible at present to discuss a close
  correlation between the sunspot number and magnetic activity.
  4. Определите функцию инфинитива, стоящего в начале предложения, и пере-
  переведите предложения (ј 2, 3).
  Помните, что существительное без предлога, следующее за ннфинити.
  вом, является дополнением к инфинитиву и его не следует принимать за
  подлежащее-
  Образец:
  То learn the principles of lift the scientists had to... (инфи-
  (инфинитив - обстоятельство цели)
  Для того чтобы изучить принципы действия подъемной си-
  силы, ученые должны были...
  То learn the principles of lift was... (инфинитив - подлежа-
  подлежащее)
  Изучить принципы действия подъемной силы было...
  1. То move from one astronomical body to another means to
  overcome gravitational forces.
  2. To accelerate the gas a high pressure is needed in the rocket
  chamber4.
  3. To land a high speed aircraft Is a delicate operation even
  when visibility is good.
  1 ratio - соотношение
  1 exhaust velocity - скорость истечения (газов из сопла)
  * eventually - в конечном счете
  4 chamber - камера
  28
  4. To produce a large thrust in a rocket requires high mass
  flow, high energy and high pressure.
  5. To do work an object must have energy.
  6. To coordinate the efforts of many groups of engineers consti-
  constitutes a very difficult task.
  5. Переведите группы слов (А.) и предложения (В.), обращая внимание на
  пассивный инфинитив в функции определения (ј в).
  Образец:
  The experimental data to be discussed...
  Экспериментальные данные, которые будут обсуждаться
  (которые должны быть обсуждены)...
  A. 1. The elements to be studied...
  2. The systems to be tested...
  3. The energy to be generated...
  4. The instruments to be used....
  5. The data to be obtained...
  B. 1. Propellant1 properties and pressure are the main two
  factors to be considered here.
  2. Mars will probably be one of the first worlds to be reached
  by men.
  3. There are many things to be taken into consideration when
  designing a spaceship.
  4. A most difficult problem to be overcome in the application
  of nuclear power to aircraft propulsion is the weight of the
  ship.
  5. Now we shall discuss the system of units to be employed
  later in our discussion.
  6. The chromosphere of the Sun may now be observed at all
  times by means of a spectrohelioscope and a spectrohelio-
  graph to be described later.
  6. Переведите предложения, содержащие сложное дополнение. Назовите гла-
  глаголы, после которых может следовать сложное дополнение (ј 15).
  Заметьте, что глаголы cause и make переводятся по-разному в зави-
  зависимости от наличия или отсутствия после них сложного дополнения.
  Образец:
  We consider the maximum field value to be...
  Мы считаем, что максимальная величина поля составляет...
  This force makes electrons move...
  Эта сила заставляет электроны двигаться...
  1. The ancients thought electricity to be invisible fluid.
  2. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat
  energy.
  3. The early discoveries in nuclear science showed the atomic
  nucleus to be a vast source of energy.
  1 propellant - топливо
  29
  4. Maxwell found the speed of propagation of electromagnetic
  waves to be equal to the ratio of electromagnetic to the electro*
  static units of charge.
  5. At some distance above the Earth, ultra-violet radiation from
  the Sun causes some of the molecules to dissociate from the mole-
  molecular state to the atomic state.
  6. What makes a satellite go around the Earth and stay in its
  orbit?
  7. The tendency of a body to continue to move in a straight
  line is very evident when for some reason it is necessary to make
  the body move in a circle.
  8. The air flowing over and under a wing causes the pressure
  to be less than atmospheric on the upper side of the wing.
  9. The more stages, the more difficult it is to make an ampli-
  amplifier run in a stable fashion.
  7. Переведите группы слов (А.) и предложения (В.), обращая внимание на
  перевод конструкции "for + существительное + инфинитив" (ј 18). Укажи-
  Укажите, какой союз может предшествовать этому обороту.
  Образец:
  For the Moon to circle the Earth...
  Для того чтобы Луна обернулась вокруг Земли...
  For the information to be received...
  Для того чтобы получить эту информацию... (Для получе-
  получения этой информации... или Чтобы можно было получить
  эту информацию...)
  A. 1. For an aircraft to be built, it is necessary...
  2. For the fission process to be investigated, the scientists...
  3. For thermonuclear reaction to take place, the temperature...
  4. For the effect of cosmic rays to be studied in detail, satel-
  satellites....
  B. I. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to
  the Earth.
  2. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth.
  3. The satellite of Neptune is too far away for its size to be
  known with any accuracy.
  4. For combustion to be rapid, the fuel and oxidant must be
  quickly mixed.
  5. For ions to be formed, a considerable amount of energy
  must be given to the parent atoms.
  6. In order for the airplane to climb, thrust must exceed drag.
  7. In order for the radar system to operate properly, the radar
  receiver must be tuned to the magnetron frequency.
  8. To start a chain reaction it is necessary for at least one
  neutron to hit* a Uranium-235 nucleus.
  1 hit - попадать, ударяться
  30
  9. Certain conditions are necessary for the existence of life
  to be possible on planets.
  10. To observe the artificial' satellite optically it is necessary
  for him to be illuminated by the Sun.
  11. In order for a proton or neutron to leave the nucleus much
  energy is required.
  12. Four years are required for light to travel from the nearest
  star to the Earth.
  8. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции обстоятельства
  последующего действия (ј 5).
  Помните, что инфииитнв в дайной функции ие имеет признаков, внешне
  отличающих его от инфинитива в функции обстоятельства цели. Инфинитив
  в этой функции переводится деепричастием или личной формой глагола
  и присоединяется к первому союзом "и".
  Образец:
  Elements combine chemically to form compounds.
  Элементы химически соединяются и образуют (образуя)
  соединения.
  1. Modern theory considers that at extremely high tempera-
  temperatures all molecules break up to form atoms or ions which are
  electrically charged atoms or portions of molecules.
  2. Rutherford proved that alpha particles are the nuclei of
  helium atoms and that after the alpha particles are slowed down,
  they capture two electrons to become normal helium atoms.
  3. According to some scientific theory the surface rocks2 of
  Mars have combined with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a
  layer of iron oxide.
  4. Element 94 was given the name of Plutonium to follow
  Uranium in the same order as the corresponding planets.
  5. If the velocity of a satellite exceeds escape velocity3 then
  the satellite will leave the Earth never to return.
  6. The world production of и3Ов is very high to rise perhaps.
  to still greater amount in the next few years.
  9. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции обстоятельства
  следствия (ј 4).
  1. Molecules are too small to be seen with the most powerful
  microscope.
  2. Only the most swifty moving molecules possessed sufficient
  energy to escape from the atmosphere.
  3. In a large galaxy the concentration of stars is often too
  dense for them to be examined individually.
  1 artificial -искусственный
  1 rocks - скальные породы
  * escape velocity - скорость отрыва
  81
  4. It is too early to properly weigh the significance of this
  method.
  5. It has long been established that portions of the Earth's
  upper atmosphere are ionized enough to cause refraction and
  reflection of radio waves.
  6. The negative poles in this case are far enough away so as
  not to influence the positive poles.
  7. A winged spacecraft has rather large areas to be heat-
  protected.
  8. These regions were too far away to be affected by the
  explosion.
  9. Mere * observations of the stars cannot tell us which are
  young and which are old, for all their changes are far too slow
  to detect.
  10. Переведите предложения, определив инфинитивные конструкции и функции
  инфинитивов.
  1. Advancement in electronic techniques appears to be endless.
  2. All forms of radiant energy have been found to travel
  through space with the same speed.
  3. Temperatures on the surface of Mars, which seems to be
  the most comfortable place for life to exist beyond our Earth with-
  within the solar system, are also of some interest.
  4. Most physicists believed in the latter half of the nineteenth
  century cathode rays to be charged particles.
  5. Satellites in Earth orbits of about 600 miles or greater can
  normally be expected to remain in orbit for thousands of years.
  6. The first satellite to be designed and developed in England
  was Ariel 3 which was successfully put into orbit on May 5, 1967.
  7. To say that an object is travelling at a speed of 20 ft/sec
  (feet per second) does not describe the motion completely.
  8. A day on Jupiter has been observed to be 9 Earth hours-
  and 55 minutes long, the shortest of any of the planets.
  9. When sound waves are directed on the diaphragm they
  cause it to move backwards and forwards.
  10. The choice of radioisotope to be used as the source is
  determined by the thickness of the product to be measured.
  11. The penetrating power of this new radiation was an
  obvious point to investigate.
  12. A current which always flows in one direction along a
  wire is said to be a direct current.
  13. Fourier's theory states that any waveform that repeats at
  regular time intervals can be shown mathematically to be equi-
  equivalent to the sum of a series of sine waves of different amplitudes
  and frequencies.
  1 mere - простой
  32
  14. The first attempt to measure the speed of propagation of
  light was undertaken by Galileo in a very primitive way.
  15. As we have seen earlier in this chapter, to cause thermo-
  thermonuclear reactions extremely high temperatures are required.
  16. From classical electrodynamics we know that when a
  charge is accelerated it radiates. (This is the process that causes
  radio and television antennae to radiate).
  17. In the so-called "gas counters" the radiation to be detected
  causes ionization in the gas, and the free charge is then collected
  and measured.
  18. A satellite launched into an orbit which approaches the
  Earth's surface closer than 200 km will not circulate for long.
  The air drag is sufficient to cause the orbit to spiral in quite
  quickly to the dense lower atmosphere.
  19. These rays were shown by J. J. Thomson and others to
  consist of a mixture of molecules and atoms of the residual' gas.
  20. For a sound to be heard by the human ear it should be
  between the frequencies .of approximately 20 cycles and 15,000
  cycles. '
  21. Newton stated that the force which makes objects fall
  towards the Earth is only a special case of a general attraction
  between any two masses.
  22. The birthplace of man Is believed t6-be somewhere in the
  eastern, hemisphere" but in just what regiorr or even on what
  continent it is still impossible to say.
  23. Interference by cosmic ray particles makes it necessary
  for neutrino detection to be carried out deep'underground where
  other particles cannot penetrate.
  24. In the course of his theoretical investigations Maxwell
  discovered the pressure of light. He derived this effect from the
  electromagnetic theory, but as a matter of fact it can be shown
  to follow from any wave theory.
  25. Even though the demand for coal and lignite2 continues
  to rise there does not appear to be any danger of running out
  of these fuels for several hundred years at least.
  26. The first rocket to be used as a vehicle for scientific
  research was the rocket-powered gyro-controlled missile.
  27. This property of matter to resist any change in its motion
  is called inertia.
  28. Calculations concerning the interior properties of the Sun
  show it to contain mostly hydrogen and helium.
  29. The unstable isotopes that are almost stable have been
  found to occur naturally and these were known as early as the
  turn of the century.
  1 residual - остаточный
  1 lignite - бурый уголь
  2 Зак. 849 33
  30. For the purpose of this book we shall assume nuclei to
  be made up of two types of constituents, neutrons and protons.
  31. There are certain principles to be followed in the design
  of propellers.
  32. The important thing to notice is that the resolving power*
  depends on the diameter of the object glass.
  33. In the electromagnetic theory of radiation the atom is
  supposed to be similar to the antenna of a radio transmitter,
  although much smaller and radiating a much higher frequency.
  34. To determine the magnitude of anything, it is necessary
  to make a measurement.
  35. For the sound to arise it is necessary to have a sound
  source and a medium to travel through.
  36. If plane waves fall perpendicularly on a surface they may
  be shown to exert a pressure on it of a magnitude equal to the
  density of energy in the waves. This result is exceedingly difficult
  to observe, as the pressure is very small in practical cases.
  37. In 1850 the French physicist Jean Foucault measured the
  speed of light in water. He found it to be substantially less than
  the velocity in air.
  38. The basic requirements for any orbital research laboratory
  are heavily dependent upon the experiments to be performed.
  39. There appear to be small but real fluctuations of a few
  per cent in the solar constant.
  40. The penetrating power of this new radiation was an
  obvious point to investigate.
  41. At first, man believed the Earth to be flat.
  42. Considerable progress has been made with the difficult
  task of processing the information quickly enough for it to be
  of use for weather forecasting.
  43. On the basis of new theoretical investigations it was
  demonstrated that it is hardly possible for the primary cosmic
  radiation to be of "near-solar" or metagalactic origin.
  44. The hydrogen atom was the object of the first theoretical
  attack, because as the lightest of all atoms it was assumed to
  have the simplest structure.
  45. In order for life to arise on a planet, the mass of the
  planet must lie between certain limits.
  46. There does not appear to be a promising2 approach to
  the solution of the problem.
  47. As mentioned earlier, there seems to be no doubt that the
  X-ray emission changes very much over the solar cycle.
  48. Using data of this kind it was found that the theory does
  not seem to give results which are in good agreement3 with
  observation.
  ї resolving power - разрешающая способность
  * promising - перспективный
  ' be in agreement - соответствовать
  34
  49. The discovery of radium was the first to start the new
  era of radioactive elements.
  50. Both instruments and human explorers are sure' to find
  many surprises in the solar system.
  tl. Переведите предложения, содержащие местоимение It в функции формаль-
  формального дополнения.
  Заметьте, что It в данной конструкции иа русский язык не переводится.
  Образец:
  The hydraulic press makes it possible to exert arj. enormous
  force...
  Гидравлический пресс дает возможность ("делает возмож-
  возможным") создавать огромную силу...
  1. A television telephone will make it possible to see a person
  at the other end of the line.
  2. As the angle of attack is increased the flow of air finds
  it increasingly difficult to maintain contact with the surface of
  the wing and it separates from the surface before reaching the
  trailing edge.
  3. The development of cells which can convert solar energy
  into electrical power with an efficiency of 10 per cent may make
  it possible to design instrumented satellites with unlimited
  operating lives.
  4. The similarity from the chemical point of view of Urani-
  um-235 and -238 makes it difficult to separate them by means
  normally used in chemical laboratories.
  5. Experiments on interference and diffraction of light make
  it necessary to assume that the different colours in the spectrum
  must be represented by waves which have different values of
  wavelengths.
  12. Переведите предложения, содержащие союзные слова that, what, how, where.
  Заметьте, что при переводе таких предложений перед союзным словом
  в некоторых случаях следует добавить местоимение "то" в соответствую-
  соответствующем падеже: "то, что"; "того, как" н т. д. Если союзному слову пред-
  предшествует предлог (например, In that или as to how), то падеж месгоиме-
  ' иня "то" определяется предлогом ("в том, что", "в отношении того, как").
  1. The internal combustion engine differs from the steam
  engine in that the fuel is burned directly in the cylinder.
  2. Bernoulli's theory, 1938, furnished an explanation of what
  was then known of the behaviour of gases.
  3. The type of material selected for wire insulation depends
  upon where the wire is going to be used.
  ' 4. We now turn to a description of some examples of how
  radioisotopes have come into active use.
  5. There exist many theories as to how gravitational force
  may be overcome.
  1 be sure to - обязательно
  2" 35
  13. Переведите предложения, содержащие союз whether. Обратите внимание
  на то, что перевод предложения следует начинать со сказуемого (или пер-
  первого его компонента), а затем поставить частицу ели".
  Образец:
  Whether the spaceship will be able to leave the Earth de-
  depends upon the speed of the ship.
  Сможет ли космический корабль оторваться от Земли, за-
  зависит от скорости корабЛя.
  1. It must be first of all determined whether the propellant
  is corrosive, stable, economical or costly.
  2. Since the discovery of the solar cycle, attempts have been
  made to see whether the intensity of the Sun's visible light varies
  throughout the cycle.
  3. Whether it will be economical to use missiles for trans-
  transportation of cargo and people depends upon the use of nuclear
  propulsion.
  4. We do not know whether Venus is completely or partially
  covered with water.
  5. It was interesting to find out whether the oxygen and
  nitrogen in the upper layers of the atmosphere are in the form
  of molecules or atoms.
  6. The classification of amplifiers may be based upon whether
  or not vacuum-tube elements are employed in the fundamental
  operation.
  7. The question whether or not a certain type of amplifier
  can meet special technical requirements will be of great im-
  importance.
  14. Переведите предложения, содержащие служебное слово for.
  Заметьте, что для перевода for важно выяснить, является ли оно
  союзом или предлогом. Помните, что если for стоит перед подлежащим,
  то это союз (cj - "так как"). Если for стоит перед обстоятельством - это
  предлог (ргр - "для", "в течение").
  1. For most of the scientific researches relatively small satel-
  satellites can be used. •
  2. For a long time the internal combustion engine was the
  only type of engine used for aircraft.
  3. The Sun provides us with light during the day; it also
  gives us light at night, for tne light of the Moon is only reflected
  sunlight.
  4. The kite flies, for it exposes its flat surface at an angle
  against the wind.
  5. No one can do without friction, for without it we could
  not even wajk.
  6. Cybernetics has given experts in space medicine methods
  for the exact analysis of all physiological processes taking place
  in the human body.
  86
  7. In interplanetary flights a reliable communications system
  with Earth will be an absolute necessity for successful work.
  15. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово both.
  Для перевода both необходимо определить, является ли оио местоиме-
  местоимением ("оба") или первым компонентом парного союза both... and ("как ...
  так и...>). Для этого необходимо выяснить, не следует ли за группой слов,
  начинающейся словом both, другая группа-с союзом and.
  1. Solids have both definite volume and definite shape.
  2. Both types of propellants are used in modern rocket
  engines: liquid propellants and solid propellants.
  3. The wide range of subjects covered in this book include
  investigations both practical and theoretical.
  4. Liquids and gases are both fluids.
  5. With the increase in thrust levels and the use of the high-
  energy propellants, both size and weight increase greatly,
  Лексические упражнения
  16. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что выбор перевода
  переходного глагола зависит от значения существительного- прямого до-
  дополнения (ј 113).
  Помните о последовательности действий при переводе: сначала следует
  перевести существительное-дополнение, а затем глагол-сказуемое.
  1. It was very difficult in the early days of atom-smashing
  to deliver a hit on the nucleus.
  2. Storage batteries do not deliver their maximum output at
  extremely low temperature.
  3. A simple radiotelescope consists of a directional antenna
  which collects incoming radio waves and delivers the collected
  energy to a receiver.
  4. Radioisotopes constitute a potential danger and we must
  handle them carefully.
  5. Using this device, the Geiger counter, is able to handle
  signals at a rapid rate.
  6. It is much more difficult to handle radiation received from
  reactors in indirect ways.
  17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность выделенных
  глаголов. После перевода предложений назовите еще раз значения глаголов.
  gain A, 4)
  1. An atom may gain one or more electrons.
  2. Using this type of engine one can gain much fn terms of
  effectiveness.
  3. A rocket with'a constant thrust cantinually gains In speed.
  4. This book is for anyone who wants to gain, with the least
  difficulty, a complete understanding of the fundamentals of radio
  and electronics.
  az
  fail A, 11)
  5. All the attempts to explain the processes of emission and
  absorption through the electromagnetic theory of light have
  failed.
  6. The classical laws of both mechanics and electricity fail
  to predict the behaviour of atoms.
  7. Helicopters were used to transport men and supplies to
  the forward line when ground transport failed.
  8. The tsarist government failed to appreciatei the work of
  Tsiolkovsky.
  9. Some scientists failed to realize the role of mathematics
  in science.
  10. The author did not fail to make reference to all the pre-
  previous works concerning the subject of his article.
  suggest A, 12)
  11. The step-rocket for space travel was suggested by Tsiol-
  Tsiolkovsky.
  12. The scientist suggested a new method of measuring cosmic
  ray intensities.
  13. Rutherford suggested that the positive charge of electricity
  was concentrated in the nucleus of the atom.
  14. Ampere suggested that the origin of all magnetism lay
  in small circulating currents associated with each atom.
  15. The book ^'Analytical Mechanics for Engineers," as its
  name suggests, presents those principles of mechanics that are
  essential for the study of engineering.
  assume A, 17)
  16. It is ordinary assumed that uncharged objects contain
  equal amounts of positive and negative electricity.
  17. The air in the "standard" atmosphere Is assumed to be
  perfectly dry.
  18. A liquid is цпаЫе to maintain a particular shape and it
  immediately assumes the shape of the container.
  19. Rockets may assume a great variety of forms and sizes.
  18. Переведите предложения, выбирая нужный перевод для выделенных сло-
  словосочетаний.
  in terms of: 1. в единицах, в величинах
  2. иа основании, с точки зрения
  1. Acceleration may be expressed* In terms of distance, time
  and velocity.
  2. The force of gravity is measured In terms of weight.
  3. Jet engines are usually expressed In terms of the thrust
  they produce.
  ' appreciate-оценивать
  * express - выражать
  83
  4. In order to express the magnitude of a force, some stan-
  standard force must be selected as a unit in terms of which other
  forces must be expressed.
  5. The basic concepts of thermodynamics are most easily
  understood in terms of simple experiments.
  give rise (to smth.) - вызывать, создавать, являться при-
  причиной
  6. Most of the primary cosmic rays entering our atmosphere
  cause nuclear collisions arid give rise to secondary particles.
  7. The fission of uranium atoms gives rise to a wide range
  of new isotopes.
  8. The use of rockets for solar research has given rise to the
  development of new types of solar instruments.
  19. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to exceed A,10) и его произ-
  производные. Проследите, как переводятся производные от этого глагола.
  1. A number of vehicles have been launched whose velocities
  are in excess of the escape velocity of 11 km/sec.
  2. In long-range ballistic missiles the temperatures of aero-
  aerodynamic heating may be in excess of several thousand degrees.
  3. The flight velocities required for astronautics far exceed
  those obtainable with a single rocket engine.
  4. The noise in the Vostok's cabin did not exceed the noise
  in the cockpit of a conventional jet plane.
  5. The excess reactivity of the reactors can be used for the
  production of a large number of different kinds of radioactive
  isotopes.
  6. The excessive heat during the operation of the device was
  one, of the problems to be solved.
  7. Uranium-235 has similar chemical properties with Ura-
  nium-238, but is in other ways exceedingly unlike.
  20. Переведите предложения, содержащие словосочетание at least A,15).
  1. Each of these planets has at least one satellite.
  2. Engineering now requires a mathematical base- at least
  an order of magnitude higher than that of a generation ago.
  3. At least one radioactive isotope is known to exist for all
  known elements.
  21. Переведите предложения, содержащие прилагательные adequate A,16) и
  Inadequate.
  1. Adequate fuel control is one of the principal factors of
  gas turbines.
  2. Some chemicals are not adequate as coolant for the hot
  thrust chamber walls.
  3. The number of ionospheric research stations is still inade-
  inadequate.
  39
  4. Classical mechanics is inadequate for a proper description
  of events occurring within the atom.
  22. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа то, что выделенные при.
  лагательные имеют близкие значения.
  1. The plane was provided with a conventional piston engine.
  2. The measurement of the pressure distribution over the sur-
  surface of a model is a common type of experiment in wind-tunnel
  work.
  3. Ordinary liquids are bad conductors compared to metals.
  23. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод наречий hardly,
  nearly A,20), readily A,30), necessarily @).
  Помните, что значения этих наречий нельзя вывести иа основе значений
  соответствующих прилагательных. Сравните значения прилагательных и
  наречий.
  1. Nearly all the models which were tested proved successful.
  2. Liquids are perfectly elastic, but they are so nearly incom-
  incompressible that this property is not of much practical use.
  3. The voltage will hardly remain the same during the ex-
  experiment.
  4. In 1918 aeroballistics as a science hardly existed.
  5. Cold neutrons are useful as they penetrate most solid
  materials readily.
  6. Radiation in the infrared region can be readily detected
  by heat it produces.
  7. For the application of the computer to the solution of
  engineering problems a working knowledge of differential equa-
  equations is necessarily assumed.
  8. Plasmas need not necessarily be associated with high tem-
  temperatures.
  24. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод существительного
  evidence A,35).
  1. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries chemists
  slowly had been accumulating evidence that all matter was com-
  composed of atoms.
  2. The photographic evidence clearly indicates that approxi-
  approximately 90 per cent of all visually observable meteors are of
  cometary origin.
  3. The 1956 close approach of Mars brought very little new
  evidence concerning the origin of geometrical patterns on its
  surface.
  25. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова kind и sort, близкие по своему
  значению.
  Заметьте, что эти слова иногда опускаются при переводе.
  1. Electromagnets are widely used in practice in many kinds
  of power equipment.
  2. The Earth itself is a sort of magnet.
  40
  3. There are several kinds of energy to be considered in our
  studies.
  4. A rocket may be considered a sort of gun which fires a
  continuous stream of burning gas.
  5. For liquid cooling some sort of radiator has to be provided.
  6. Radar is in itself a kind of navigational equipment, since
  objects can be located with it.
  Словообразовательные упражнения
  26. Переведите сочетания слов, обращая внимание на то, что прилагательные
  с суффиксом -able переводятся по следующей модели:
  observable stars
  I
  какие? •*- звезды
  которые можно наблюдать ,
  наблюдаемые (видимые) звезды
  -measurable distances attainable speeds
  explainable mistakes adjustable gaps
  reliable information unbelievable success
  obtainable results readily separable units
  movable installation easily breakable mechanism
  27. Переведите следующие слова, обращая внимание на то, что префиксы dis-,
  in- (im-, ir-, il-), tin- придают словам значение отрицания (например, cor-
  correct - правильный, incorrect - неправильный):
  continuous a discontinuous
  charge v discharge
  close v I disclose
  connect v disconnect
  advantage n disadvantage
  regular a irregular
  complete a incomplete
  correct a incorrect
  divisible a indivisible
  accurate a inaccurate
  movable a immovable
  logical a illogical
  important a unimportant
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  28. Закройте правую часть упражнения (перевод термина на русский язык)
  н переведите английские термины.
  В случае затруднения дайте сначала описательный перевод термина,
  а затем сравните этот перевод с русским термином, выражающим данное
  понятие в указанной области техники.
  41
  А. Термины, состоящие из двух существительных
  acceleration factor (космонавтика)
  чего? ->• коэффициент
  I
  ускорения
  коэффициент перегрузки
  Английский
  термин
  Область
  применения
  Русский термин
  picture tube
  antenna gain
  wind tunnel
  peak energy
  range finder
  fire adjustment
  water space
  load capacity
  Б. Термины, состоящие нз прилагательного
  artificial antenna
  телевидение
  радио
  аэродинамика
  ядерная физика
  артиллерия
  двигатели
  авиация
  кинескоп
  коэффициент усиления ан-
  антенны
  аэродинамическая труба
  максимальная энергия
  дальномер
  корректировка огня
  водяная рубашка
  грузоподъемность
  н существительного
  (радио)
  какая?
  антенна
  искусственная
  эквивалент антенны
  Английский
  термин
  Область
  применения
  Русский термин
  artificial hori-
  horizon
  remote control
  direct current
  acrobatic
  maneuvers
  parasitic an-
  antenna
  aerodynamic
  missile
  original equa-
  equation
  straight angle
  low-flying
  short-circuit
  rapid change
  low water
  42
  авиационные
  приборы
  авиация
  электротехника
  авиация
  радио
  ракетная техни-
  техника
  математика
  авиация
  электротехника
  физика
  океанография
  авиагоризонт
  дистанционное управление
  постоянный ток
  фигуры высшего пилотажа
  пассивная антенна
  крылатая ракета
  исходное уравнение
  угол кратный 180№
  бреющий полет
  короткое замыкание
  скачок
  отлив
  Упражнения в чтении
  29. Прочитайте следующие слова, соблюдая правила чтения буквосочетаний
  qu и que:
  [kw]
  quant, equal, equality, equivalent, quarter, quantity, quick,
  quite, require, requirement, sequence, subsequent, subsequently
  00
  technique, torque, monocoque, unique
  30. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  vie [vai] t hypothesis [hai'poBisis]
  universal [,ju:ni'v3:s9l] adequate ['aedikwit]
  series ['siariz] interference [;inta'fiar3ns]
  rectilinear [,rekti'linia] ' doubt [daut]
  suggest [ss'd3est] evidence 1'e.vidans}
  associate [a'sou/ieit]
  31. Прочитайте предложения, содержащие инфинитивные конструкции. Соблю-
  Соблюдайте правильные паузы.
  1. The theory | was found by the physicists to be adequate
  enough | to explain all the experimental results...
  2. For this observation to be described in detail | it is neces-
  necessary...
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. WHO WAS THE FIRST TO MEASURE THE SPEED OF LIGHT?
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  The first measurement of the speed of light was made by a
  Danish astronomer named Roemer in 1676.
  Roemer made observations on the moons that circle around the
  planet Jupiter. Very often they could be readily seen through a
  telescope but when they were on the far side of Jupiter they were
  hidden i and could not be seen. After he collected data on the ap-
  appearance and disappearance of one of the moons, Roemer made
  predictions of the time and date when the moon should appear af-
  after each eclipse2. He found that he was able to make correct pre-
  predictions for a few days in advance3 of a reappearance but not for
  a week or two in advance. Why was this? He assumed that this
  was because the relative positions of Earth and Jupiter are con-
  constantly changing. When Earth and Jupiter were in position 1, as
  shown in figure, there was a delay4 of about 22 minutes in the
  predicted appearance of Jupiter's moon. But when, about 6 months
  later, Earth and Jupiter were in position 2, Roemer's predictions
  were correct.
  43
  Roemer concluded that the delay of 22 minutes was due to 5 the
  time taken for light to travel the distance across the orbit of the
  Earth. The diameter of the Earth's orbit was known to be ap-
  approximately 190 million miles. When Roemer divided this distance
  EartTiB)
  Jupiter/;
  Earth A
  by the time B2 minutes or 22X60 seconds) he computed the speed
  of light to be about 150,000 miles per second.
  As you know, the approximate value accepted today is 186,000
  miles per second (or 3X1010 centimeters per second). Thus, altho-
  although Roemer's value was not quite correct, yet his calculations
  made in the 17-th century with a limited equipment, were a remark-
  remarkable achievement.
  1 hide - скрывать, прятать
  2 eclipse - затмение
  3 in advance - вперед, заранее
  4 delay - задержка
  5 be due to - обусловливаться
  2. GUIDANCE"
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  The first subject to be considered is that of guidance. The term
  "guidance" refers to the information required by a space vehicle
  in order to make it follow a given path or perform a particular
  task. "Guidance" is thus distinguished from "control" which is
  defined as the actual, mechanical procedure used to steer2 the
  vehicle along that path. Guidance and control together constitute
  navigation, in its broadest sense.
  Because the problems which are faced in the different phases
  of guidance are generally different, it is necessary to distinguish
  three such phases, namely: initial guidance3, midcourse guidance 4
  and terminal.
  44
  Initial guidance is applied during the powered phase of the
  space flight. Then the motor is cut oH and the rocket vehicle is
  generally detached 5 from the space vehicle. The latter then coastse
  along its orbit or trajectory in space, following a ballistic course
  with gravitational attraction for example of the Earth, the Moon
  or the Sun, as the only force acting on the spacecraft.
  The purpose of midcourse guidance is to make the needed cor-
  corrections at some point in the trajectory to compensate for the
  inevitable7 errors and so bring the vehicle closer to its target.
  Terminal guidance is used in the final stage of 4he mission8,
  which may be a return to Earth, the landing of instruments or a
  manned spacecraft on the Moon, etc.
  It should be noted that not all of these guidance phases are
  necessarily applicable to a particular mission. However, if we
  want two manned vehicles to meet in space, a combination of
  several kinds of guidance is necessary for the operation to be ade-
  adequately completed.
  1 guidance - наведение
  2 steer - управлять
  3 initial guidance - наведение на начальном участке траек-
  траектории
  4 midcourse guidance - наведение иасреднем участке траек-
  траектории
  5 detach - отделять
  8 coast - лететь в свободном полете
  7 inevitable - неизбежный
  8 mission - программа полета
  3. LIFE ON THE OTHER PLANETS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The problem of the origin of the Earth proved to be one of the
  most difficult problems of astronomy. Many theories have been
  put forward to explain the origin of the solar system. But the
  problem of life on other planets is still more difficult.
  It has been estimated that there are about 100 million universes
  in that part of space that can be observed through the one-hun-
  one-hundred-inch telescope.
  But the existence of other planetary systems, though it is a
  necessary condition for life to exist elsewhere in the universe,
  is not a sufficient condition. In any planetary system everything
  seems to be weighed against the possibility of the existence of life;
  special conditions are needed in order that life may be possible.
  If the planet is very near its Sun, it will be too hot for life to
  exist; if it is very far away, it will be too cold. If it is very much
  smaller than the Earth, it will have been unable to retain any
  atmosphere. If it is much larger, it will have retained too much
  45
  atmosphere; for when the gravitational attraction is so great that
  hydrogen cannot escape from the atmosphere the formation qf the
  poisonous gases, which we found in the atmosphere of Jupiter and
  Saturn - appears to be almost inevitable. There seems to be little
  chance that life can exist on any world if that world differs gre-
  greatly from the Earth in size and weight; it must be neither very
  much smaller than the Earth nor very much larger. .
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  . 1. Как можно определить в предложении конструкцию "инфи-
  "инфинитив как часть сказуемого"? Назовите глаголы - первые ком-
  компоненты конструкции. Укажите, какие из глаголов этой группы
  приобретают в данной конструкции другое значение. Какие сло-
  слова могут стоять между частями конструкции. Укажите возмож-
  возможные способы перевода конструкции (ј 8-14). >
  2. После каких глаголов может следовать конструкция "ин-
  "инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения"? Укажите, какое зна-
  значение приобретают глаголы cause и make, если за ними следует
  указанная инфинитивная конструкция. Укажите способы пере-
  перевода конструкции (ј 15, 16).
  3. Укажите способы перевода конструкции "for+существи-
  тельное + инфииитив". Какой союз может предшествовать дай-
  дайной конструкции (ј 18)?
  4. Как определить функцию инфинитива, стоящего на первом
  месте в предложении? Укажите способ перевода инфинитива в
  функции подлежащего и инфинитива в функция обстоятельства
  (ј2-5).
  5. Укажите место инфинитива в функции определения. Назо-
  Назовите способ его перевода (ј 6, 7).
  6. Какие слова могут стоять между частицей to и самим ии-
  финитивом (ј 19)?
  7. Укажите последовательность перевода слов в предложении,
  начинающемся с союза whether (упр. 13).
  8. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово for
  (упр. 14)?
  9. Как переводится местоимение'both, союз both... and
  (упр. 15)?
  10. Чем определяется выбор перевода многозначного глагола
  (ј113)?
  11. Какое значение придают словам префиксы dis-, un-, in-
  (ir-, il-,im-) (упр. 27)?
  12. Укажите модель перевода прилагательного с суффиксом
  -able (упр. 26).
  УРОК ВТОРОЙ
  Текст: The Fundamental Problems of Television.
  Грамматические осиовы перевода
  Перевод причастных конструкций: определительные причастные обо-
  обороты (ј 21, 24), обстоятельственные причастные -обороты с союзами
  (ј 22), обособленный причастный оборот, обособленный причастный обо-
  оборот с предлогом with (ј 23), конструкция "причастие + инфинитив" типа
  expected to reach (ј 25).
  Перевод служебных слов: following, assuming, given, depending
  (упр. 13).
  Различные значения служебного слова as (упр. 14).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Зависимость перевода глагола-сказуемого от лексического значения
  подлежащего (ј 114).
  Перевод наречий, относящихся к глаголу н прилагательному (ј 118,
  119).
  Перевод слов: resulting, related, assosiated, like, Involve, funda-
  fundamentals, essentials, variables, provide, succession, locate. '
  Перевод словосочетаний: by now, by then, словосочетаний "глагол
  to be + существительное с предлогом", словосочетаний с глаголом to take
  н словосочетаний со словами view и point.
  Перевод союзов: provided, provided that, providing.
  Перевод слов с префиксами sub-, super-, ultra- (упр. 33).
  Перевод терминов типа "причастие 1 +существительное", "прича-
  "причастие П+существительиое" (упр. 34).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF TELEVISION
  Unlike * other inventions such as the cinema or the sound
  radio, television was not presented to the public in an Infant2
  state. Having been kept in the laboratory for a long time
  it appeared as a nearly grown-up 3. By now4 television has already
  been in pract'cal use5 for some time. Yet, we have only begun to
  develop the resources of television likely tobecome not only
  a means of entertainment and education but one of the most po-
  powerful research instruments and aids to production efficiency and
  processing control *.
  • processing control - контроль за производственными процессами
  47
  The word "television" by common acceptance has come6 to
  mean the essentially Instantaneous7 transmission, either by wire
  or radio, of moving pictures or images.8
  Essentially three steps are involved9 in television, namely:
  1) the analysis of the light image into electrical signals; 2) the
  transmission of the electrical signals to the points 10 of reception;
  and 3) the synthesis of a visible11 reproduction of the original
  image from the electrical signal.
  The ordinary concept of a picture or image is that of a surface
  over which there is more or less continuous distribution of varying
  light and dark, the distribution changing smoothly12 with time to
  conform 13 with motion in the picture. Here the brightness " is a
  function of the three independent variables15, x, у and t, where x
  and у are the horizontal and vertical position of any point on the
  picture and t is the time. Obviously, such a distribution cannot be
  transmitted over a single electrical communication channelie
  where {he current or voltage transmitted is the function of time
  only.
  In order to overcome this fundamental difficulty it is necessary
  to take advantage17 of certain physiological limitations of sight18
  to reduce the amount of information being transmitted.
  These limitations are the finite19 resolving power * of the eye and
  the persistence of vision **. If a picture is subdivided into a large
  number of small elements, with each element being
  uniformly shaded20, the picture will still appear continu-
  continuous, provided21 the elements are so small that they are not resol-
  resolved by the eye. Thus a picture composed22 of a finite number of
  discrete23 elements is entirely satisfactory24 for viewing25.
  The illusion of continuous motion can be obtained as is done
  in the case of the cinema, if we form a series of static pictures in
  rapid succession28, with one picture differing slight-
  slightly from the preceding27 to correspond to the motion
  which has taken place in the scene28 (opera, play or sporting
  .event) during.the interval between pictures. From this it will be
  evident that the information known to be necessary to
  reconstruct a completely satisfactory visual representation of a
  moving picture, can be conveyed29 by transmission of the bright-
  brightness values of a finite number of picture elements at finite rate.
  Therefore, the conditions found to be necessary for the
  transmission of moving pictures over an electrical communication
  channel are satisfied.
  The picture to be transmitted is analysed30 ЪУ the process
  known as scanning ***.
  • resolving power - разрешающая способность
  *• persistence of vision - инерция зрительного восприятия
  **ї scanning - развертка
  48
  The scanning element at the transmitter end - the exploring31
  element - moves in a continuous or discontinuous line covering
  the entire surface of the picture. In general the size of the explor-
  exploring element is equal to a picture element or smaller than a picture
  element. It generates, either directly or indirectly, an electrical
  signal which corresponds to the brightness of the area of the image
  on which it is located и. As the exploring element moves along the
  scanning pattern * over the surface of the picture the electrical
  signal varies forming a characteristic complex wave known as the
  video signal.
  At the receiving end of the linkM there is another element -
  the reproducing element - which moves over the screen34 in a
  scanning pattern which is geometrically similar to that at the
  transmitter. To obtain a picture at the receiver the scanning beam
  at the receiver must keep accurately in step with that at the trans-
  transmitter: in other words, at any instant, both scanning beams must
  be moving over the same line of the image and must be at the sa-
  same point in that time. Therefore, a reproduction of the picture
  being transmitted is formed on the screen of the receiver.
  The scanning pattern at the transmitter, the exploring and
  reproducing elements and the communication channel connecting
  them are symbolically illustrated in the figure below.
  Communication
  channel
  \
  Exploring
  element
  \
  Reproducing
  element
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  I. Найдите в предложениях простые причастия I н II. Укажите, какую функ-
  функцию в предложении они выполняют (определения нлн обстоятельства), н те
  признаки, по которым вы это определили (ј 21, 22).
  Обратите внимание на перевод тех английских причастий, которые не
  могут быть переданы соответствующей формой русских причастий.
  1. Experiments made with radio waves have shown that the
  atmosphere conducting layer lies at heights above about 85 km.
  * scanning pattern - развертка
  49
  2. The subject of electricity divides principally into electrosta-
  electrostatics, dealing with electric charges at rest, and current electricity,
  treating of the flow of charge along wires.
  3. The principle described above forms the basis of the hydrau-
  hydraulic press in which pressure created within a liquid by a comparati-
  comparatively small force acting on a small piston * exerts a much stronger
  force on another piston of considerably larger diameter.
  4. Because all bodies have a constant downward acceleration
  produced by the pull of gravity, the equations of uniformly acce-
  accelerated motion can be applied to any falling bodies.
  5. The figure illustrates typical spectra of this type obtained
  using the equipment carried in the satellite Ariel.
  6. Such water is about 11 % denser than that formed from ordi-
  ordinary hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms and so is called "heavy
  water."
  7. One can carry out studies of solids withneutrons analogous
  to those done with X-rays.
  8. In the reactions discussed the energies required for the
  various studies of nuclei are in the I to 20 Mev range.
  9. Rutherford's discovery of nuclear atom, further developed by
  Bohr, furnished a detailed explanation of the spectrum of the
  hydrogen atom.
  10. The term cyclotrons covers cyclotrones of an entirely dif-
  different type from those already described.
  11. A force may be defined as the action of one body on
  another body which changes or tends to change the motion of the
  body acted on.
  12. A detailed discussion of the exact nature of all the funda-
  fundamental particles dealt with in physics is unnecessary in this book.
  13. In this chapter we shall give some examples of calculations
  of various types frequently met with in radar.
  14. Electrons play an important part in the operation of
  thermionic valves, including the magnetron and the klystron.
  15. This property of the eye, known as "persistence of vision",
  is utilized in the cinema and in television.
  16. The picture we see on the screen really consists of a single
  spot of light travelling at great speed.
  17. Two reflected rays are needed to locate any image formed
  by a mirror.
  18. Some of the video waveforms met with in radar are very
  different from sine waves, but it is still possible to deal with these
  waveforms in certain cases on the sine wave basis, by the use of
  Fourier's theory.
  19. We shall not describe the laws of motion in detail here but
  they enable us to calculate the subsequent movements of objects
  acted upon by any set of forces.
  1 piston - поршень
  50
  I
  2. Переведите группы слов (А.) и предложения (В.), содержащие сложные
  формы причастий. Определите их функцию в предложении. Укажите воз-
  возможные способы перевода.
  Образцы:
  1. The method being applied for...
  Метод, применяемый для... (Метод, который применяется
  для...).
  2. Being applied in chemistry this method....
  Будучи применен в химии, этот метод... (Когда этот ме-
  метод применяют в химии... или При применении этого
  метода в химии...).
  3. Having applied this method we...
  Применив этот метод, мы... (После того как мы примени-
  применили этот метод... Ч1ли После применения этого метода
  мы...).
  A. 1. The velocity of the particle being accelerated in the cyclotron
  corresponds....
  2. The type of reaction being investigated will be discussed...
  3. The wave theory being considered was proposed...
  4. Systems being developed for use with radioisotopes give...
  5. Being associated with the movement of the Earth the satellite
  orbit changes...
  6. Being installed in the satellite the instruments recorded...
  7. Having accepted this concept we...
  8. Having bombarded uranium with neutrons the scientists
  obtained....
  9. Having gained the positive charge the body fails to attract.,.
  10. Having been put into an orbit the satellite moved...
  B. 1. Vectors are essentially geometrical quantities, being defined
  by a magnitude and a direction.
  2. If the type of particle being detected can be identified *, then
  its energy can be calculated.
  3. Being bombarded with slow neutrons, uranium splits ap-
  ' proximately into halves producing radioisotopes.
  4. A little more complicated example is shown on the picture,
  which shows a box being pulled by a man.
  5. Having studied the electronic structure of electricity, we shall
  now discuss the quantum structure of light on the basis of the
  photoelectric effect.
  6. The light from • the object being photographed causes a
  permanent change in the chemical emulsion.
  7. Being heated magnetized steel loses its magnetism.
  8. Having defined the units for length, mass, and time, we can
  express2 through them the units for all other physical quantities.
  1 identify - определять
  ' express - выражать
  51
  9. The colour of the light being seen is determined by the fre-
  frequency of the light waves which affect * the human eye.
  10. All methods being considered at present use electromagnetic
  fields to hold the particles.
  11. Having studied nuclear, reactions we now turn to the ques-
  question of how these radiations interact as they go through matter.
  12. This book is concerned with the design of a specific kind of
  analog computer in which electrical voltages represent the vari-
  variables of the physical system being studied.
  13. Having listed at the conclusion of the chapter a number of
  major programmes we now discuss what progress has been made
  in the systematic study of neutral atmospheric structure.
  3. Переведите предложения, содержащие обстоятельственные причастные обо-
  обороты с союзами. Примените все возможные варианты перевода и выберите
  из них лучший.
  Если вы будете переводить оборот придаточным предложением, не
  забудьте ввести подлежащее (ј 22, п. 1, 2).
  1. It is well known that a soljd body emits light when heated to
  a high enough temperature.
  2. An Earth satellite, if launched into an orbit sufficiently dis-
  distant from the Earth's surface, can circulate for months or even
  years.
  3. Isaac Newton, while studying the gravitational effects of the
  Earth on objects near its surface, noticed that objects thrown
  horizontally followed curved paths as they fell to the ground.
  4. The forces holding the individual atoms together as a unit
  are much greater than those which' are acting when combining
  with other atoms. *
  5. Superconductivity is the name given to a phenomena, shown
  by some conductors of electricity, which lose all electrical resis-
  resistance when cooled below a certain temperature.
  6. These effects are much less marked if observed with Geiger
  instead of neutron counter.
  7. According to Newton's first law of motion an object remains
  at rest or in a straight-line motion unless acted upon by some
  external force.
  8. When releasing the nuclear energy in a gram of helium it is
  possible to produce 190,000 kilowatt-hours of electric energy.
  9. When comparing elements one notices the outstanding stabi-
  stability of some electronic structures.
  10. Thermionic emission is the name given to that branch of
  physics which deals with the emission of electrons or ions from
  metals or non-metals, when heated.
  11. Einstein, when proposing the theory of light quanta in
  1905, did not state that it represents an absolute truth.
  1 affect - оказывать вредное воздействие
  52
  12. One short pulse of light, emitted as a parallel beam, when
  focused by a lens, carries sufficiently concentrated energy.
  13. It is of great importance when working with any optical
  Instrument to know its resolving power.
  14. Later, when dealing with alternating electric currents which
  can be defined as a form of wave motion, we will be meeting the
  word "phase".
  15. The fact that long-lived radiolsotopes continually emit
  energy leads to the interesting possibility of developing an energy
  source that can operate for long periods when completely isolated.
  4. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание иа перевод конструкции "при-
  частие+иифинитив", употребленной в функции определения (ј 25). Назо-
  Назовите глаголы - первые компоненты конструкций, после которых может
  следовать инфинитив.
  Образец:
  , The ionization expected to exist...
  Ионизация, которая, как предполагают, существует...
  1. The rocket is the only power plant known to be independent
  of the atmosphere.
  2. The G-Iayer is an ionized layer thought to exist at a height
  of 300-400 miles in the Earth's atmosphere.
  3. The diameter of Saturn supposed to be 75,100 miles through
  the equatorial region is about 97г times the Earth's diameter.
  4. On June 30, 1908 a meteorite estimated1 to have weighed
  40,000 tons fell in Siberia.
  5. The pilot is given regular information on the weather likely
  to be met in flight.
  6. The atomic rocket is a power plant appearing to find great
  application in future.
  7. Electric charge of a body is made evident by the attractive
  or repulsive force found to exist between charged bodies.
  5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функцию н способ пере-
  перевода причастия со стоящим За ним инфинитивом (ј 25).
  Сравните:
  The ionization expected to exist...
  Ионизация, которая, как предполагают, существует...
  The ionization is expected to exist...
  Ионизация, как предполагают, существует....
  1. Radar is known to be used to locate aircraft.
  Radar known to be used to locate aircraft found its application
  during World War II.
  1 estimate - подсчитать, установить
  53
  2. One of the Siberian meteorites is estimated to have had a
  diameter of 30 feet. •
  3. One of meteorites estimated to have had a diameter of 30 feet
  fell in Siberia.
  6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на место обособленного при-
  причастного оборота в предложении и на способ его перевода (ј 23).
  Образец:
  The friction of the air producing much heat, the body.u
  Так как при трении о воздух выделяется большое количест-
  количество тепла, тело...
  ...the electrons moving round the nucleus.
  ...причем электроны движутся вокруг ядра .
  1. The Earth's orbit being an ellipse (not a circle), the distance
  between the Earth and the Sun constantly changes as the Earth
  revolves around the Sun.
  2. The 100-inch telescope can photograph about 100 million stel-
  stellar1 systems, each containing many thousands of million stars.
  3. The components of the velocity of a body moving in the air
  being known, the resultant velocity may be found.
  4. The Earth is not a perfect sphere, but a little flattened2 at
  the poles, the polar diameter being 26 miles less than equatorial.
  5. The distance between Jupiter and the Earth varies because
  of the different orbital periods of these two bodies, the difference
  between the maximum and minimum distances being the diameter
  of the Earth's orbit.
  6. The pressure being known at some point in the flow of air,
  the pressure at another point on the same streamline may be
  calculated by Bernoulli's law.
  7. Most elements have stable atoms, but some like radium or
  uranium undergo radioactive decay3 and change into other elem-
  elements, the change being accomplished by a release of energy.
  8. After the first nuclear disintegration experiments in 1919
  similar experiments took place during the next decade, natural
  radioactive materials being used as a source of energetic particles.
  9. The heat being proportional to the square of the current, the
  rise in temperature in a hot-wire instrument is also proportional
  to the square of current.
  10. A magnetic field surrounds a current-carrying wire, its
  strength decreasing as the distance from the wire surface increa-
  increases.
  11. It has been calculated that about 24 million visible meteors
  reach the Earth's atmosphere every 24 hours, their total weight
  amounting to about 5 tons per day.
  1 stellar - звездный
  * flatten - делать плоским, сплющивать
  J decay- распад
  54
  12. Stars differ tremendously in size, the largest ones being
  several times the size of the Sun and the smallest star being about
  the size of the Moon.
  13. The 101 elements that were discovered or predicted up to
  1956 have atomic numbers from 1 to 101, all gaps between these
  numbers having been filled by now.
  14. During the period 1925-1935 many nuclear transforma-
  transformations were produced using as bombarding particles protons, alpha
  particles, or gamma-rays, these usually being obtained from the
  particle-accelerating machines, primarily the cyclotron.
  7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на способ перевода обособ-
  обособленного причастного оборота с предлогом with (ј 23, п. 3).
  Образец: >
  With the airplanes flying higher and faster...
  Теперь, когда самолеты летают выше и быстрее...
  ...with atoms loosing electrons.
  ...причем атомы теряют электроны.
  1. The nucleus of an ordinary hydrogen atom consists of one
  proton, with one electron moving round it.
  2. With to-day's rockets having as many as 10,000 separate
  components, miniaturization of components is an important phase
  of development.
  3. A cylinder of a gasoline engine is like a gun, with the piston
  taking the place of a bullet1.
  4. The power of the solar radiation emission was very variable,
  with emission occuring2 sometimes for several days.
  5. When sufficient altitude is reached the vertical take-off air-
  airplane levels off and flies as an ordinary airplane with the wing
  providing supporting lift.
  6. With magnesium already being used greatly, the three mate-
  materials: titanium, zirconium and -magnesium have greatly reduced
  the weight of the aircraft.
  7. Over 100 different isotopes of more than 20 different elem-
  elements have been detected among fission products of uranium. All of
  these atoms are, however, in the middle of the periodic table, with
  atomic numbers ranging fronr34 to 58.
  8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа причастные обороты, кото-
  которым предшествует союз as (ј 24).
  1. As noted above, in order to lose its entire energy a 5-MeV
  particle must have about 105 collisions.
  2. As shown in Fig. 91, beta particles are stopped by less than
  1 inch of solid material,
  1 bullet - пуля
  * pccuf - происходить
  55
  3. As explained on page 681, in the following chapter we inclu-
  include the study of the ionosphere.
  4. The location of the detectors is as indicated in Fig. 50.
  5. The Sun is the best known and most carefully studied star,
  and its energy production as calculated from nuclear reactions can
  be compared with well-known astrophysical data.
  6. The principle of action equals reaction as offered by Newton
  is known to be widely used in electrical calculations.,
  7. The theoretical significance of the wave theory of matter as
  applied to electronics will be discussed later.
  8. As a result of detailed studies of the orbits of a number of
  satellites as determined from radio and optical observations, it is
  now known that the temperature above 200 km varies over the so-
  solar cycle.
  9. Discussing the properties of the upper atmosphere as derived
  from the use of ground-based equipment we have noted a number
  of important aspects which cannot be investigated without space
  vehicles.
  10. The reader may be familiar1 with vectors as met in physics.
  11. The electromagnetic theory (Maxwell, 1862) describes light
  as consisting of electromagnetic waves propagating through space,
  as sound waves propagate through air.
  12. The first evidence of the structure of electricity as consist-
  Ing of smallest charges, the electrons, was derived from the laws
  of electrolysis.
  13. In 1908 scientists (following the original suggestion of
  Balfour Stewart) attempted to develop a detailed theory of the
  quiet variations as arising from upper atmospheric current flow.
  9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что причастие в функ-
  функции левого определения в некоторых случаях лучше передать существи-
  существительным (ј 21, п. 3).
  1. With Increased knowledge of these fluctuations we may
  improve the accuracy of this test.
  2. The measured changes of neutron intensity with magnetiza-
  magnetization of the iron proved that the neutron is influenced strongly by
  the magnetic fields of the iron atoms.
  3. The reduction in propellant weight made possible by the use of
  nuclear rockets permits an increased payload.
  -4. The intensity recorded during the first few days after the
  solar protons had arrived showed the decreased intensity of galac-
  galactic cosmic radiation.
  1 be familiar - знать, иметь понятие (о чем-л.)
  56
  10. Переведите предложения с причастием 1 в функции обстоятельства.
  Учтите, что в указанных примерах английское причастие I в функции
  обстоятельства лучше переводить ие деепричастием, как обычно, а предло-
  предложением, типа "что указывает на ..." или "и указывает на ...". Этот способ
  перевода используется в тех случаях, когда действие, выражаемое при-
  причастием, по своему содержанию несет не меньшую смысловую нагрузку,
  чем действие, выраженное сказуемым главного предложения.
  1. Subsequent observations showed a high degree of variabi-
  variability, indicating that the X-ray emission changes considerably
  throughout the sunspot cycle.
  2. The greatest electric field that can be maintained in air un-
  under ordinary atmospheric conditions Is 3X10' volt per metre, cor-
  corresponding to a surface density of 26 microcoulomb per square
  metre.
  3. The nature of the solar particle radiations needs to be explo-
  explored out to distances of many Earth radii, calling for * the use of
  satellites in eccentric orbits.
  4. Ordinary hydrogen has a single proton in its nucleus but
  its heavy isotope has both a proton and a neutron, making its
  mass number 2 instead of 1.
  5. While working to isolate Polonium, the Curies disc6vered a
  second radioactive element, calling it "radium."
  6. Certain natural radioactive elements which differ greatly
  from one another in their radioactive properties were found to be
  chemically inseparable, suggesting that their external structures
  are identical though their nuclei differ.
  7. The penetration of neutrons through the iron was found to
  be markedly different, depending whether the iron was magnetized
  or not.
  8. A separate compressor must be inserted in the nuclear reac-
  reactor in order to circulate the coolant gas, resulting in additional
  mechanical complexity and further loss of thermal efficiency.
  11. Найдите в приведенных предложениях причастие II - правое определение
  н укажите признаки, по которым вы его определили.
  Не смешивайте причастие II в функции правого определения с формой
  прошедшего времени глагола-сказуемого. Помните, что если после такой
  формы стоит предлог, то это обычно причастие. Если же в предложении
  стоят рядом две глагольные формыг-каждая из которых может быть фор-
  формой причастия II нли глаголом-сказуемым, то первая будет являться при-
  причастием, а вторая -глаголом-сказуемым.
  1. The performance of this type of propulsion system obtained
  in the initial investigations showed some advantages as compared
  with electric rockets.
  2. Pioneer III, launched on December 6, 1958, entered an ellip-
  elliptic orbit with an apogee distance of 107,000 km.
  3. Detailed analysis of data obtained in these ways showed
  that It is this current which produces the very marked variations
  over the geomagnetic equator.
  1 call for - требовать
  67.
  4. The standard operating conditions employed included a
  50V potential difference between the anode and cathode in the ion
  chamber К
  5. The results obtained established beyond doubt that the high
  concentrations of particle radiation exist in these regions.
  6. The results obtained showed no evidence of a marked in-
  increase of intensity of solar radiation.
  12. Переведите со словарем предложения, обращая внимание на форму н син-
  синтаксическую функцию причастий н причастных оборотов (ј 20-25).
  1. In fact the Sun is a variable star, its variation following an
  11-year cycle.
  2. The laboratory study of plasmas had been started long
  before 1929, many important discoveries in the field of gas dis-
  discharge phenomena having been made in the 1800's.
  3. Whereas solar infra-red radiation can be observed from a
  high-flying balloon as explained earlier, most ultraviolet and all
  X-radiation is absorbed far above the balloon ceiling.
  4. Since the nuclear rocket is capable of producing greater
  thrust per pound of propellant, it can produce thrust equal to that
  of the chemical rocket while using less propellant.
  5. With the maximum cycle temperature being limited by the
  source, the designer must determine how close he wishes to bring
  the boiling temperature to that maximum condition.
  6. In atomic and nuclear processes energies are usually expres-
  expressed in terms of electron volts, 1 electron volt being the energy
  gained by I electron being acted on by a voltage of 1 volt.
  7. Observations made using artificial sodium glows are of great
  interest to the investigation of atmospheric structure.
  8. The ions thus formed will be accelerated in the direction
  towards cathode.
  9. Ohm supposed that wires presented a certain "resistance" to
  the passage of current, long or thin wires presenting more resis-
  resistance than short or thick ones. The smaller the resistance, the
  greater the current.
  10. When used in a space vehicle in which the orientation re-
  relative to the solar vector changes, the efficiency curve will change
  with aspect.
  11. Using the value of the solar constant, it is found that the
  Sun is sending out energy at the rate of 9 hp per square centi-
  centimetre of surface.
  12. Having an equatorial diameter of 74,000 mi, Saturn is sur-
  surrounded by great rings lying in the plane of its equator.
  13. A man pulled by the Earth with a force of 160 lb is said to
  weigh 160 lb.
  14. Interplanetary spacecraft using nuclear propulsion are
  1 chamber -камера
  58
  expected to be reduced in weight in comparison with nuclear
  rockets.
  15. The word plasma was first used to denote a gas in which
  an important fraction of the molecules are dissociated into ions
  and electrons, the gas as a whole remaining electrically neutral.
  16. Newton believed that the acceleration of the Moon in its
  orbit differed in no essential respect from the acceleration of parti-
  particles acted on by the Earth's gravities.
  17. The electromagnetic wave theory of radiation, based on the
  work of Maxwell and Hertz, was so successful that we must try
  to apply it to the spectrum just described.
  18. Radiation goes through space and when absorbed, it agitates
  the molecules of the absorbing material so that it is converted into
  heat energy.
  19. The reader is familiar with the great technical importance
  of electron emission, as applied in radio tubes.
  20. Molecules and atoms are in a continual state of motion,
  with an average velocity depending on the temperature. •
  21. Having seen how the electrons in the ionosphere are pro-
  produced by solar radiation, let us ask how the different layers affect
  the travel of radio waves in the different frequency ranges.
  22. This radiation, being little absorbed, penetrates to the
  D-region and there joins with the X-rays in providing ionization.
  23. The alkali atoms have the lowest energies of ionization,
  indicating that their electronic structures change to a rare-gas
  structure.
  24. The emissive type of photoelectric cell as used in telegraph
  and television systems is similar in appearance to the ordinary
  thermoionic valve.
  ' 25. A screen material of a different category from those so far
  discussed is white crystalline potassium chloride: this substance
  darkens when bombarded with electrons.
  26. Launched on Friday afternoon, Mars 3 like its predecessor
  Mars 2, weighs just under five tons and is said to be on the same
  trajectory around the Sun.
  27. As seen through the telescope, Mars presents a rather
  smooth surface.
  28. When dealing with wave mechanics another limitation of
  Newtonian mechanics will be discovered applying to low velo-
  velocities of the lightest particles, that is, low linear momenta.
  29. Having challenged the established notion of a fixed Earth,
  Copernicus put the Sun, instead of the Earth, at the centre of
  the solar system.
  30. A particular flight considered to be representative of early
  manned missions has been selected as the basis of this study.
  31. With 40,000 or more computers being used now, it is obvi-
  obvious that it is necessary to assess their strengths and weaknesses
  to help make decisions about their use.
  59
  32. These properties - and additional properties theoretically
  predicted - agree so completely with the properties of light, as
  known from experiments, that the conclusion was inevitable that
  light consists of electromagnetic waves.
  33. Fig. 73 shows the period of revolution of the American
  satellite Explorer I as a function of time, short-term irregularities
  having been averaged out.
  34. It is apparent from our previous discussion that range
  does not have the same meaning when applied to energetic elec-
  electrons as it did for a rays. The range is considered to be the
  distance an electron travels in a given direction and should not
  be confused with the quantity X.
  35. In the history of physics the Michelson experiment, the
  Lorentz transformation, and Einstein's theory led to the first
  demonstration that the familiar laws of physics as derived from
  everyday experience and simple laboratory experiments are
  limited.
  36. The demonstration experiment described gave the new
  evidence that the absorption spectrum contains only a selection
  from the emission lines.
  13. Переведите со словарем предложения.
  Обратите внимание на то. что слово, внешне напоминающее причастие,
  может быть служебным словом - союзом или предлогом.
  1. Following the initial studies an extended investigation was
  conducted to determine optimum ion-chamber geometrv.
  2. Assuming that the electron source, the supply voltage and
  the magnification are suitably fixed, the only important remain-
  remaining parameter is defocusing distance Lo.
  3. Volcanic eruptions may be classified in many ways, based
  on their activity, their relationship through time, or their violence.
  4. The most generally useful methods for tracking space
  vehicles depend on the reception of signals from a radio trans-
  transmitter within the vehicle. Given such a transmission either inter-
  ferometric or Doppler methods may be employed.
  5. The penetration of neutrons through the iron was found
  to be markedly different, depending whether the iron was magne-
  magnetized or not. - .
  14. Переведите предложения, содержащие служебное слово as (cj - "так как",
  "по мере того, как", "как", "когда"; adv - "как", "в качестве"),
  1. Physics is the most fundamental of the experimental scien-
  sciences as it is the most precise and mathematical.
  2. As altitude increases, the pressure and temperature changes.
  3. A plasma may be defined as a mass of ionized gas in which
  the concentrations of electrons and positive ions are in equili-
  equilibrium.
  60
  4. During this work it has been found that as the strength
  increases materials have a tendency to become more difficult to
  fabricate.
  5. The basic concepts of combustion principles are much the
  same as they were a few years ago.
  6. As shown in Fig. 81, beta particles are stopped by less than
  1 inch of solid material.
  7. Water may exist as liquid, steam or ice.
  8. As the air speed rises, the airflow about the wing changes.
  9. The purpose of this book is to make available to everyone
  the status of the utilization of solar energy as of 1969.
  10. As we are going to deal with waves quite often we shall
  have to study some of the technical terms used when considering
  them.
  15. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод кон-
  струкций:
  А. Инфинитив как часть сложного сказуемого (ј 8)
  1. Pluto's time of rotation is assumed to be 6V2 days.
  2. When the Moon is nearest to the Earth in its orbit, it is
  said to be at perigee,
  3. The highest portions of the aurora have been found to
  extend to a height of some 500 or 600 miles.
  4. Some of the meteor showers are believed to have formed
  when comets that passed near the Earth broke up or lost some
  of the material from their heads.
  5. As the comet approaches the Sun, gases seem to be ex-
  exploded out of its head to form gigantic tail that points away
  from the Sun and extends millions of miles into space.
  Б. For + существительное + инфинитив (ј 18)
  6. If oxygen is present on Mars, its amount is too minute for
  our instruments to detect.
  7. For the resistance of a conductor to be measured, it is ne-
  necessary to have some fixed standard, say, the ohm.
  • 8. For a body to be in equilibrium under the action of any
  number of forces, two conditions must be satisfied.
  Лексические упражнения
  16. Переведите предложения.
  Заметьте, что при переводе непереходного глагола (А.) и глагола в
  страдательном залоге (В.) нужно учитывать лексическое значение подле-
  подлежащего (а в некоторых случаях также существительного с предлогом,
  стоящего за глаголом-сказуемым) (ј 115).
  Сравните:
  A. The rocket travels,.. Ракета летит...
  6Г
  The propeller blades travel... Лопасти винта вращаются...
  The radiowaves travel... Радиоволны распространяют-
  распространяются...
  В. Fission products should be С продуктами распада следует
  handled with care... обращаться осторожно...
  Telemetry data should be Телеметрические данные дол-
  properly handled... жны быть соответствующим
  образом обработаны...
  1. In this particular type of rocket, the separate boost motors
  lie alongside * the rocket body between the wings.
  2. The distinction between an elementary system and one which
  is complex lies primarily in the difficulty of the task to be per-
  performed.
  3. New methods were developed as a result of this experi-
  experimental work. '
  4. Very high speeds were developed when the jet engines
  appeared.
  5. New power plants without propellers were developed in
  order to drive airplanes at sonic and supersonic speeds.
  6. In this chapter equations are developed for microscopic
  quantities.
  7. Transistor oscillations can be used for the same purposes
  as vacuum tubes, if only frequency and temperature limitations
  are met.
  8. Several general requirements should be met to match2
  transistor stages in an amplifier.
  17. Переведите предложения, которые содержат иаречяя, относящиеся к гла-
  глаголу (ј 118).
  Помните, что такие наречня отвечают на вопрос "как?", "каким обра-
  образом?". Если наречие предшествует глаголу, то рекомендуется временно
  опустить наречие, перевести глагол, а затем наречие (ј 118).
  1. It has been repeatedly pointed out that wave motion is
  associated with vibration of particles.
  2. Solid-propellant rockets have been gradually increasing
  their specific impulse.
  3. The navigation system will continuously determine posi-
  position of the satellite around the Earth.
  4. When gases are highly compressed they are characterized
  by extreme lightness.
  5. A gas is composed of individual particles which are con-
  constantly colliding with each other.
  6. Engineering mechanics is essentially a study of the effects
  of forces acting on bodies.
  1 alongside - вдоль
  2 match - подогнать
  62
  (8. Переведите предложений, которые содержат наречий, относящиеся К при-
  прилагательному.
  Помните, что такие наречия отвечают на вопрос "насколько?", "в какой
  степени? (хороший или плохой)". Рекомендуется сначала перевести прила-
  прилагательное, а затем наречие (ј 119).
  extremely difficult problem
  какая? *- проблема
  насколько? ї*- трудная
  чрезвычайно
  чрезвычайно трудная проблема
  1. Because there is no working fluid or energy source carried
  on the vehicle, the photon, rocket is highly economical in weight.
  2. To utilize solar radiation very large surface areas are
  needed and they will be prohibitively heavy.
  3. Space travel is going to play an increasingly important
  part in our lives.
  4. The general activity of navigation in space without ex-
  external assistance is still largely theoretical.
  5. At extremely high altitudes the different gases composing
  the atmosphere separate according to their densities.
  6. The air in the "standard" atmosphere was assumed to be
  perfectly dry.
  19. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода вы-
  выделенных причастий (при переводе они требуют добавления некоторых
  поясняющих слов).
  1. Operation of an ion rocket involves three principal pro-
  processes: generation of ions, their accelerating by electrostatic
  field, and electrical neutralisation of the resulting ion beam.
  2. A much less important though related problem is the study
  of interplanetary dust.
  3. The shape of the curve is similar to the curves of many
  associated phenomena.
  4. This figure illustrates diagrammatically the nature of the
  ground-based observations of the solar and related terrestrial
  disturbance phenomena.
  20. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово like B,1) и его производные.
  После перевода повторите еще раз значения выделенных слов.
  1. Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.
  2. Copper like all other metals is a good conductor.
  3. Oxygen, unlike nitrogen, is highly reactive.
  4. Spaceships present an entirely new concept of design and
  operation, unlike that in the common vehicle.
  5. In structure the proton and the neutron are much alike.
  63
  6. We can readily liken the processes taking place in the atom
  to a miniature solar system.
  7. The atmosphere can be likened to a large heat engine, with
  the Sun providing the power and the air acting as a working
  fluid.
  8. Ion rocket is likely to be used for space travel in future.
  9. Atomic power aircraft are likely to be large.
  10. Mars is unlikely to have an atmosphere suitable for an
  earthman to breathe i,
  21. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  by now B,4) и by then.
  1. By now a considerable data has been collected on the visible
  light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  2. By now some interesting results have been obtained from
  observations of the solar spectrum made at high altitudes.
  3. Guided missiles2 appeared during World War II. By then
  a pulsejet pilotless monoplane and a rocket-powered gyro-control-
  gyro-controlled missile came into use.
  4. Although Mendeleyev was not thinking in terms of electrons,
  for the electrons had not yet been discovered by then, his arrange-
  arrangement of the elements was according to the number of electrons,
  that is, one for hydrogen to 92 for uranium.
  22. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  "глагол to be + существительное с предлогом" B,5).
  1. High-speed electronic computers are in increasing use now.
  2. We must remember that solid-fuel rockets have been in use
  for many centuries. ' •
  3. Practical utilization of radioisotopes in large amounts is
  now under study at the Research Centre.
  4. Nuclear reactor aircraft will be in operation in the nearest
  future.
  5. A chapter is included on the common system of air naviga-
  navigation, which is now in operation.
  6. One pound of nuclear fuel whose volume3 is in excess of
  one cubic inch releases energy equivalent to 1,000 tons of fuel oil.
  7. The jet airplanes that are already in service have no endless
  vibration of propellers.
  8. New methods of magnetizing hard steel are under develop-
  development now.
  9. Radio techniques4 to determine ionization and atmospheric
  drag on meteors of masses less than 10-5 gram are under way
  in several countries.
  1 breathe - дышать
  * guided missiles -управляемые снаряды
  8 vplume - объем
  * techniques - методы "
  64
  10. The description of Venus was made by means of the most
  powerful telescopes which were then In existence.
  23. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод глагола Involve
  B,9) и причастия Involved в функции правого определения.
  1. Space flight involves many different problems varying
  greatly with different missions.
  2. Nuclear radiation involves the release of a considerable
  amount of energy.
  3. Teaching pilots to fly involves a great deal of training.
  4. Energy is involved in every motion, in every event.
  5. Liquid oxygen has been used in the industry for many years,
  and no great problems are involved.
  6. The technical problems involved in the construction of an
  ion rocket are considered in some detail below.
  7. Some of the forces involved in flight are lift, drag, thrust
  and gravity.
  8. It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss the general prin-
  principles involved in the operation of electronic devices.
  9. We have to consider all the factors involved in the con-
  construction of rocket engines.
  10. The mathematical difficulties involved in an exact solution
  of the motion of two or more electrons revolving round a nucleus
  are very great indeed.
  11. Rocket propulsion differs from other propulsion methods
  only in the relative masses and velocities involved.
  12. The process involved aims at production of heavy water.
  13. The reduction of radiation intensities to a safe level for
  the personnel involved is not particularly difficult.
  14. When selecting the propellents to be used for any parti-
  particular rocket there are obviously a great many considerations
  involved.
  24. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова point B,10) и view B,25) и
  словосочетания с ними. После перевода повторите еще pas значения выде-
  выделенных слов.
  point п
  1. Rotary motion of a body is such that every point of the
  body revolves in a circular path about some point, which serves
  as the axis1 of rotation.
  2. Thanks to radio aids airplanes oen fly to the point of desti-
  destination without a human pilot aboard.
  3. An important point to remember is that the missile itself
  is usually only a component of a complete weapon system.
  4. It is an interesting point that all devices and machines
  function usefully only when some sort of energy change takes
  place.
  r m
  1 axis -ось
  3 Зак. 849 65
  5. To illustrate the point previously made about the importance
  of density, Table IV shows the ranges of the gyro-controlled missile.
  6. From a physical standpoint, a gas is composed of individual
  particles, each in continual, irregular motion.
  7. It should be noted that up to this point the effects of side
  wind, have not been taken into consideration.
  8. The magnetic compass points to the exact magnetic north
  at only a few places on the earth.
  9. It is well to point out here, that the source of the scattered *
  energy is called "target." '
  view n
  10. The pilot must always have a good view from the cockpit.
  11. Aircraft piston engines may be classified from the point
  of view of the arrangement of their cylinders.
  12. The book provides an analysis of the action of semicon-
  semiconductors from the physics viewpoint.
  13. In view of the tremendous speed of light, its determination
  must require the measurements either of very long distances or
  of very short intervals.
  14. In view of the definite composition of compounds, we see
  an immediate distinction between compounds and mixtures.
  15. Immediately after Becquerel's discovery of uranium rays
  the Curies made a careful study of all the then known elements
  by the electrical methods, with a view of determining whether
  or not the property of radioactivity was possessed by other sub-
  substances.
  16. Air-to-surface missiles2 may be viewed as long range aerial
  bombs possessing high accuracy.
  25. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных суще-
  существительных, образованных от прилагательных.
  Сравните:
  fundamental a fundamentals n
  основной основы (основные положения)
  К The fundamentals of alternating current are presented in
  this chapter.
  2. Many variables are involved in the selection of suitable
  fuels for gas-turbine engines.
  3. In all steam engines and turbines there are three basic
  essentials: 1) the source of heat; 2) the working agent; 3) the
  sink *.
  ' scatter - рассеивать к
  * air-to-surface missile - ракета класса "воздух - земля" *
  * sink - отстойник
  26. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  с глаголом to take B,17). После перевода назовите основные словосоче-
  словосочетания с этим глаголом и повторите их перевод.
  1. We must take advantage of minimum maintenance and
  instant readiness of solid propellants.
  2. Full advantage must be taken of the large internal fuel
  capacity of this airplane.
  3. Holographic methods of information processing is a new
  field of technique and full advantage must be taken of it.
  4. Chain reaction takes place as a result of the fission of
  the nucleus of such elements as the U-235 isotope.
  5. We define an atom as the smallest particle of an element
  which-can take part in a chemical change.
  6. We must take into consideration the amount of force ap-
  applied.
  7. Another layer of the atmosphere that we must take Into
  account when planning space communication is the ionosphere.
  8. Take care not to increase the voltage more than 100 volts
  during the experiment.
  27. При переводе предложений обратите внимание на различные значения
  глагола to provide B,21) и существительного provision. Назовите основные
  значения этих слов.
  provide v
  1. The rocket engine provides the propulsive forces to accele-
  accelerate the vehicle.
  2. We shall discuss now the evidence provided by cosmic ob-
  observations.
  3. The rocket provides the only practical means needed to place
  an artificial ' satellite in an orbit about the Earth.
  4. Radioactive isotopes provide a new tool for industry and
  an instrument for scientific research.
  5. The International Geophysical Year provided the first occa-
  occasion for a prolonged programme of cosmic ray observations
  throughout the world. .. : . •
  provision n
  .6. The provision for power supply is a problem to be .solved.
  7. In manned space systems, provision is made for mainte-
  maintenance and repair of the power system equipment during a mission.
  8. When placing the heat source* in the vehicle, provision must
  be made for the heat shunting.
  28. Переведите предложения, в которых слова provided B,21), provided that
  и providing выполняют функцию союза и имеют значение "если только",
  "при условии (что)".
  I. The density of a body can be found, providing its mass and
  volume are known.
  1 artificial - искусственный
  - 67
  2. A satellite in orbit is acted upon by only one force, gravity,
  provided it is high enough to be free of air drag.
  3. With the rocket almost any chemicals can be used, provided
  that they react together and produce hot gases as end-products.
  4. Provided the satellite's kinetic energy is high enough to
  overpower1 gravity and drag, an object can orbit at any altitude
  around the Earth.
  29. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функцию слов provided
  B,21) и providing.
  Определите, по каким признакам вы установили функцию, выполняе-
  выполняемую этими словами. ї
  1. If a short half-life-radioisotope is utilized in the heat source,
  excess fuel must be provided at the beginning of the mission.
  2. Newton not only demonstrated the nature of white light
  but provided an explanation for the production of colored spectrum
  by a prism.
  3. Hooke's law of elasticity, named after his discoverer, Robert
  Hooke A635-1703), states that the deformation of a solid body
  is proportional to the force acting on it, provided the force does
  not exceed a certain limit.
  4. Experimental studies of plasma properties, although pro-
  providing quantitative data at specific operating points, have not by
  now provided the desired relationship between these properties
  and thruster2 operating parameters.
  5. The velocity with which a gas will flow from one container
  to another may be obtained in the same manner as for a liquid,
  providing the density remains constant.
  6. Liquid oxygen systems are not at all dangerous in service,
  provided all the necessary safety measures are taken.
  7. It is possible for an object to revolve in a circular orbit
  about an attractive centre, provided that the attractive force is of
  the right magnitude to give it the acceleration which corresponds
  to the curvature of the orbit.
  SO. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность существи-
  существительного succession B,26).
  1. If we send sunlight through a prism, we get the well-known
  spectrum, in which all colours from red to violet are contained
  In a continuous succession.
  2. In an ordinary a.c. circuit the current goes through all its
  phases in succession.
  3. Pulse3 radar uses a succession of short pulses of radio-
  frequency energy.
  1 overpower - преодолевать
  1 thruster - двигатель
  * pulse - импульс
  31. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность глагола
  locate B,32).
  1. All guided missiles need a system which will identify1 and
  locate the target.
  2. Radioisotopes are used as an inspection tool for locating
  damaged2 parts.
  3. The tanks may be located in the wings of the airplane.
  32. Переведите следующие лрнлагательиые. Не смешивайте их.
  simple, single, similar
  complex, complete, complicated
  particular, partial
  successful, successive
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  33. Переведите следующие слова, обращая внимание на то, что префикс sub-
  соответствует приставке "под", префикс super-ссверх", префикс ultra -
  ссверх", "ультра":
  subdivide, subdivision, subcommittee, subgroup, supernatural,
  supersonic, subsection, subtropical, subarctic, subsonic, super-
  superhuman, superheat, ultra-violet, ultramodern, ultra-short
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  34. Закройте правую часть упражнения и переведите приведенные термины.
  В случае затруднения дайте сначала описательный перевод термина, а
  затем сравните этот перевод с русским термином, выражающим данное
  понятие в указанной области техники.
  А. Термины, состоящие из причастия I и существительного
  actuating mechanism (автоматика)
  какой? ч- механизм
  I
  приводящий в действие
  исполнительный механизм
  Английский
  термин
  actuating pres-
  pressure
  actuating cylin-
  cylinder
  transTating sys-
  system
  Область
  применения
  автоматика
  двигатели
  автоматика
  Русский термин
  рабочее давление
  рабочий цилиндр
  система преобразования
  1 identify -опознавать
  dd - поврежденный
  69
  Продолжение
  Английский
  термин
  • Область
  применения
  Русский термин
  halving circuit
  reacting region
  detecting ele-
  element
  adding element
  alternating cur-
  current
  автоматика
  ядерная физика
  автоматика
  вычислительная
  техника *
  электротехника
  цепь деления пополам
  активная зона
  чувствительный элемент
  суммирующий элемент
  переменный ток
  Б. Термины, состоящие из причастия II и существительного
  balanced amplifier (радио)
  какой? ч- усилитель
  сбалансированный
  симметричный усилитель
  Английский
  термин
  distributed am-
  amplifier
  closed antenna
  broken circuit
  accelerated
  flight
  assisted take-off
  foreed cooling
  estimated per-
  performance
  Область
  применения
  телевидение
  радио
  электротехника
  авиация
  "
  двигатели
  автоматика
  Русский термин
  усилитель с распределенной
  нагрузкой
  рамочная антенна
  разомкнутая цепь
  полет с ускорителем
  взлет с ускорителем
  принудительное охлаждение
  расчетная характеристика
  Упражнения в чтении
  35. Прочитайте следующие слова с префиксами sub-, super- н ultra-, соблюдая
  правильное ударение:
  'subdi'vide,''subdi ^vision, 'subgroup, 'submarine, 'sub, section
  'sub'tropical, /sub'arctic
  /super'natural, 'super'sonic, / super'human, ./super'heat
  -'violet,
  modern,
  -'short'
  70
  36. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  processing [pra'sesig] image л ['imid3l
  imagine [i'maed3in) finite ['fainait]
  variables pi ['veariablz} view ['vju:J
  channel ['tfaenl] evident ['evidantj
  instantaneous [,inst3n'temJ3s)
  37. Прочитайте предложения из основного текста, содержащие инфинитивные
  конструкции и причастные обороты, соблюдая указанные паузы.
  1. We have only begun to develop the resources of television
  likely to become not only a means of entertainment...
  2. If a picture is subdivided into a large number of small
  elements, |with each element being uniformly shaded,1 the picture
  will still appear continuous...
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  I. ATMOSPHERE
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope1 surrounding the star,
  planet or satellite. Whether such a body can retain an atmosphere
  permanently depends chiefly on its mass, size and surface tempe-
  temperature. The molecules in a gas appear to be in constant motion,
  with their average2 speed increasing as the temperature increases.
  At any moment, a proportion s of these molecules will be moving
  away from the surface of the body, and those whose speed is
  greater than the escape velocity for the particular star or planet
  will leave it altogether* and drift into interstellar space. Thus a
  small light body will constantly lose some of its atmosphere
  unless its surface is so cold that virtually * no molecules can
  reach escape velocity.
  A more massive body may actually increase its atmosphere
  by the reverse process: while travelling through space, it sweeps
  up8 interstellar matter by its gravitational attraction, and this
  is added' to its atmosphere.
  In its younger days the Moon is likely to have had appreci-
  appreciable8 atmosphere but we have no justification9 to assume that
  this atmosphere was similar in composition to ours. The mere
  existence of an atmosphere does not mean that the planet may
  prove suitable for an earthman to breathe there.
  Out of the 31 satellites existing in our solar system the only
  one known to have an atmosphere is Saturn's Titan.
  1 envelope - оболочка
  1 average-- средний
  8 proportion - часть
  1 altogether - совершенно, совсем
  71
  s virtually - фактически -
  8 sweep up-собирать
  7 add - добавлять
  8 appreciable - значительный
  9 justification - подтверждение, факты
  2. EINSTEIN'S PHOTOELECTRIC LAW
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  То explain the characteristics of thermal radiation, that is,
  the radiation emitted by hot bodies. Planck A900) suggested that
  the emission and absorption of radiant energy by matter is in
  discrete quanta of energy h.
  Einstein A905) extended this hypothesis and postulated the
  quantum nature of radiation itself.
  It is further seen that the absence of a time lag1 in photo-
  photoelectric emission arises naturally, the absorption of quantum
  energy is instantaneous as is the resultant emission of an electron.
  This is to be contrasted with the hitherto^ accepted view that
  radiation consists of waves, the energy in the incidents beam
  being spread uniformly over the area of the surface on which
  it falls. An electron which is at the surface or near it requires
  some time (of the order of seconds) to absorb sufficient energy
  from the beam to be able to escape from the surface.
  The simplicity of Einstein's equation conceals4 the revolution-
  revolutionary nature of the concept underlying it. Light and all forms of
  radiation are emitted, and absorbed, in quanta of energy, the
  quanta being localized in space.
  This is in fact a corpuscular theory, a beam of light or other
  radiation consisting of a stream of corpuscules called photons.
  Every photon moves with the velocity of light, and has a definite
  energy hv.
  The study of the photoelectric effect was of major importance
  for the development of physical theory during the first two de-
  decades of the 20th century. The role known to have been played by
  the photoelectric effect during this period was largely due to5
  the manner in which it displayed* the quantum properties of
  radiation which are not describable by the electromagnetic wave
  theory.
  1 lag - отставание, запаздывание
  2 hitherto - до сих пор
  3 incident - падающий
  1 conceal - скрывать в себе
  s be due to - объясняться
  • display - проявлять, обнаруживать
  72
  3. PRINCIPLES OF FUSION
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  It is a property of nuclear structure that of the 104 known
  chemical elements the nuclei of the very lightest, and again of the
  very heaviest, are^less stable than those of medium atomic
  weights. Thus energy will be released from these heaviest and
  lightest nuclei in processes that are known to proceed toward
  more stable nuclei, the reaction moving in opposite directions for
  the heavy and the light nuclei. Because of these relations of
  stability the heaviest atoms emit energy when they split in fission
  and, thus, are greatly reduced in weight, that is, move toward
  medium atomic weights. On the other hand, the lightest elements
  emit energy when they are combined in fusion, hence, also, move
  toward medium atomic weights. Mass is found to disappear in both
  processes, and reappear as energy of motion or of radiation, the
  mass of the nuclei after the reaction in each case being less than
  the mass before the reaction.
  The fundamental difference between fusion and fission reac-
  reactions is that it is extremely difficult to make light elements react.
  The interacting nuclei all carry electric charges and, hence, repel
  each other. Whereas the neutron can enter a uranium nucleus and
  cause fission even when it is moving extremely slowly, and in
  fact reacts better the more slowly it moves, the hydrogen nuclei,
  H2 and H3 repel each other strongly and this repulsion must be
  overcome for the fusion reaction to take place. It is necessary to
  bring most of the nuclei in the interacting material close together
  to react and there is only one practical way to attain this condi-
  condition- to cause all atoms to move with high velocity. At the
  extremely high temperature that is necessary, some tens of mil-
  millions of degrees, the atoms move rapidly enough, simply because
  of the heat motion, so that they approach closely enough to each
  other for the nuclei to merge and the fusion reactions to take
  place. We speak of such reactions as thermonuclear reactions, that
  is, nuclear reactions caused by heat or thermal motions of the
  nuclei.
  When the reaction commences, when some of the atoms ap-
  approach each other closely enough for their nuclei to fuse, the energy,
  released from the nuclear reactions causes other atoms to be heat-
  heated still more; they move more rapidly, and the rate, of energy
  release then increases. This process known to be the one that oc-
  occurs in the H-bomb enables us to produce very high temperatures.
  4. THE CALCULUS '
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  With an absurd oversimplification, the "invention" of the calcu-
  calculus is sometimes ascribed to two men, Newton and Leibniz. In
  73
  reality, the calculus is the product of long evolution that was
  neither initiated nor terminated by Newton and Leibniz, but in
  which both played a decisive part.
  In the seventeenth century Europe, a group of scientists strove
  to continue the mathematical work of Galileo and Kepler. By cor-
  correspondence and travel these men maintained close contact. Two
  central problems held their attention. First, the problem of tan-
  tangents (that is, to determine the tangent lines to a given curve)
  known to be the fundamental problem of the differential calculus2.
  Second, the problem of quadrature (that is, to determine the area
  within a given curve), known to be the fundamental problem of
  the integral calculus.
  Newton's and Leibniz' great merit is to have clearly recognized
  the intimate connection between these two problems. In their
  hands the new unified methods became powerful instruments of
  science. Much of the success was due to the marvelous symbolic
  notation invented by Leibniz. Newton appeared to have been main-
  mainly inspired by Barrow, his teacher and predecessor at Cambridge.
  Leibniz was more of an outsider. A brilliant lawyer, diplomat
  and philosopher, one of the most active and versatile minds of his
  century, he learned the new mathematics in an incredibly short
  time from the physicist Huygens while visiting Paris on a diplo-
  diplomatic mission. Soon afterwards he published results that contained
  the nucleus of the modern calculus. Newton, whose discoveries
  had been made much earlier, was averse to publications.
  Moreover, although he had originally found many of the results
  in his masterpiece, the Principia, by the methods of the calculus,
  he preferred a presentation in the style of classical geometry, and
  almost no trace of the calculus appears explicitly in the Principia.
  Soon his admirers started a bitter feud over priority with the
  friends of Leibniz. They accused the latter of plagiarism, although
  in an atmosphere saturated with the elements of a new theory,
  nothing is more natural than simultaneous and independent disco-
  discovery. The resulting quarrel over priority in the invention of the
  calculus set an unfortunate example for the overemphasis on
  questions of precedence and claims to intellectual property that is
  apt to poison the atmosphere of natural scientific contacts.
  1 calculus-математический анализ
  2 differential calculus - дифференциальное исчисление
  6. COMPUTERS AND ASTROPHYSICS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Astrophysicists have for many years attempted to understand
  the nuclear reactions and other physical events occuring in the
  interiors of stars. Such studies, once entirely theoretical in nature,
  are currently assuming a much more practical aspect because of
  74
  the search for thermonuclear power generating systems. Obviously,
  the astrophysicist is not able to make a star in his laboratory and
  measure what takes place inside it.
  Until recently, all he could do was to make telescopic obser-
  observations of real stars that could produce the observed results. In
  recent years, however, astrophysicists have taken to using the com-
  computer to test possible models of stellar interiors. The computer's
  memory is divided into thousands of small areas, each "cell" repre-
  representing conditions in a small part of the interior of the star being
  modeled. The materials in each cell, the reactions taking place,
  and the flows of heat and radiant energy between the cells can be
  represented by the experimenter as expressions he provides to the
  computer's program.
  Having set up such a hypothetical model of a star he wishes to
  study, the experimenter can then "start the star running". The
  computer calculates the results of the reactions occuring in each
  cell during a short time interval, then calculates the resulting ef-
  effects during the next time interval in each neighbouring cell. The
  effect of each cell on every other is calculated. He can allow the
  computer to run for as long as he wishes, with the computer in
  each successive time interval simulating the action of the entire
  star by computing the interactions in each cell and in every other
  cell.
  The outer periphery of the star will soon show the effect of these
  reactions (it will emit a certain intensity and spectrum of radi-
  radiation; the star as a whole may expand, contract, heat up, cool
  down, or explode). The experimenter is then enabled to check the
  validity of his model against conditions observed in real stars.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Укажите основные способы перевода простых причастий в
  зависимости от их синтаксических функций (ј 21, 22).
  2. Какие функции в предложении могут выполнять сложные
  формы причастия?
  3. Укажите основные способы перевода обстоятельственных
  причастных оборотов с союзом. Какое слово при переводе на
  русский язык явится подлежащим придаточного предложения,
  если такой оборот будет переведен с помощью обстоятельствен-
  обстоятельственного придаточного предложения? От чего будет зависеть время
  и залог глагола-сказуемого придаточного предложения при ука-
  указанном способе перевода (ј 22) ?
  4. Укажите способ перевода обособленного причастного обо-
  оборота. Какие союзы используются при переводе обособленного
  причастного оборота, если этот оборот стоит: 1) в начале ан-
  английского предложения; 2) в конце английского предложения
  (ј23)?
  75
  5. Какие союзы чаще всего используются при переводе обо-
  обособленного причастного оборота с предлогом with, если этот
  оборот стоит в начале английского предложения (ј 23, п. 3)?
  6. Назовите глаголы, которые в форме причастия II могут
  быть первыми компонентами конструкции типа expected to reach
  (ј 25). Укажите способ перевода этой конструкции.
  7. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово as
  (упр. 14)?
  8. Какое значение придают словам префиксы sub-, super-,
  ultra- (упр. 33)?
  УРОК ТРЕТИЙ
  Текст: The Rocket Weapon.
  "Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод герундия и герундиальных оборотов (ј26-33). Различные
  значения служебных слов after и before (упр. Ю).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод глагола-сказуемого с использованием языковой догадкн
  (ј ИЗ).
  Перевод слов: succeed, expand, project, facility, lack, prevent.
  Перевод словосочетании to be aware of (smth.) и словосочетаний
  со словами all, long, due.
  Перевод конструкций типа "as high as".
  Перевод слов с префиксами antl- и counter- (упр. 24).
  Перевод терминов типа "наречне + причастие (или прилагатель-
  прилагательное) + существительное" (упр. 25).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE ROCKET WEAPON
  The rocket is an unusual device. It constitutes one of the
  deadliest weapons of modern warfare1, having realized its ope-
  operational possibilities in the closing years of the Second World
  War. Nevertheless2, we are aware3 that it is one of the oldest
  known machines of war.
  Here are some historical notes concerning the rocket weapon
  development.
  The method of propelling incendiaries * is assumed to have
  been discovered by the Chinese. They are supposed5 to have used
  "the arrow of flying fire", which, upon being ignitede, was
  able to fly by itself. By burning his enemies'protective,structures,
  the ancient' warrier succeeded8 in accomplishing much
  more effective destruction* than was possible with any other
  means at his disposal10.
  77
  Capable " of p г о d u с i n g great power and of attaining12
  the fastest man-made velocities, it is so simple in design and ope-
  operation that some models have no moving parts at all13.
  Although rockets have been expected by some to play an
  important role in the First World War they were used mostly for
  signalling. In the latter part of the 19th century with the
  improvement of other ordnance * types, rockets were generally
  abandonedu. Instead of employing the rocket the gun was
  used to utilize efficiently the energy of the expanding15 gases
  generated by burning black powder ** for propelling a
  missileie.
  The Jater development of military rockets passed through a
  number of phases, as knowledge of explosives and combustibles
  improved. As early as17 1930 the military engineers were said
  already to be experimenting with highly explosive rockets in an
  effort to find some means of propelling explosives without
  u s i n g a cannon 18.
  The Second World War brought rockets back into the military
  picture for reasons that are well worth mentioning.
  The gun was no longer19 an adequate defense against the tank
  or the bombing airplane. Attack upon armoured20 vehicles re-
  required some sort of missile possessing enormous striking power and
  fairly flat trajectory, and above all, a missile that can be shot from
  a gun or launcher light and quick in movement.
  For a time rockets were among the war's most secret weapons.
  The Soviet Army 'began using anti-tank and antipersonnel rock-
  rockets in 1941 near Moscow. It was so unexpected for the Germans
  that they were unable to make out21 what sort of missiles were
  coming against them. The earliest and most famous rocket weapon
  used by the Soviet Army was the rocket thrower22 called the
  "Katyusha". It produced terrific concentration of firepower on an
  advancing enemy ground troops23. In spite of24 its accuracy
  being Inferior25 to artillery fire the weapon proved
  highly efficient due to26 the releasing of a great number
  of projectiles27 at each discharge which made up for lack28 of ac-
  accuracy.
  In 1944 the Germans began using their rocket bomb V-2 as
  operational weapons. The first test of these rockets in permany
  was not successful, however. After having risen only three
  feet off the ground, the rocket V-2 exploded, destroying the laun-
  launching facilities29.
  The V-2 was mainly employed in the bombardment of London.
  Being some 46 feet in length it carried almost a ton30 of explosi-
  explosives; travelling at supersonic speed, it could not be heard a p-
  proachingits target. The Allies *** are reported to have follow-
  ї ordnance - артиллерия
  *ї black powder - черный порох
  •"ї Allies -союзники
  78
  ed the course of every V-2 by radar, from launching to land-
  i n g, but were unable to prevent31 them from falling in the
  London area.
  In considering rockets, however, it is not necessary to as-
  assume that they will be used only for destruction.
  We know that the development of rocket propulsion has been
  linked with the use of the rocket primarily as a military weapon.
  But the launching of Sputnik I established the rocket in
  the peaceful exploration of the planets of our solar system. It ap-
  appears32 that there are many peace-time tasks that rockets may do
  well and efficiently.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, применив возможные способы перевода герундия*
  (ј 33). Укажите, по каким признакам, в каждом отдельном случае, можно
  установить, что выделенная глагольная форма является герундием.
  Помните, что глагольная форма с окончанием -ing является герундием
  (а не причастием I), если перед ней стоит предлог, притяжательное место-
  нменне или существительное в притяжательном падеже, а также если дан-
  данная глагольная форма выполняет функцию подлежащего или дополнения.
  1. We can increase the current by reducing the resistance of
  the circuit.
  2. Gases and liquids return to their original form as soon as
  the applied force has stopped acting.
  3. The problem of accurately measuring the height of the air-
  aircraft above the surface of the Earth is a difficult one.
  4. Translating from one language to another has been accom-
  accomplished by automatic computer.
  5. There are various ways of charging a body with electricity.
  6. Leaving the earth means moving upwards against gravity,
  and this requires work.
  7. The Moon keeps moving without slowing down considerably.
  8. Before considering the process of converting the image into
  an electrical signal, it Is necessary to consider the elements that
  make up a picture.
  9. Landing on a celestial body that has no atmosphere can only
  be done by means of retrorockets.
  10. This aircraft has proved to be exceedingly useful for pilots*
  training.
  11. Lunik II made history by actually hitting the Moon on
  September 14, 1959.
  12. A car is capable of accelerating from rest to a speed of
  60 mi/hr in 10 sec.
  79
  2. Переведите предложения, содержащие герундий.
  Заметьте, что перед существительным, следующим за герундием, отсут-
  отсутствует артикль н по внешним признакам нельзя отличить герундий от при-
  причастия 1. Проблему решает смысл предложения (ј 28).
  1. For converting electrical energy into mechanical energy we
  use a special machine called a motor.
  2. The idea of using hydrogen and oxygen as fuels for interpla-
  interplanetary rockets originated early in the 19th century.
  3. From earliest times systems for weighing objects and for
  measuring them have been in use.
  4. The Periodic Law pointed out the possibility of discovering
  new elements.
  5. By the end of the eighteenth century the method of making
  rockets had greatly developed.
  6. Combining small nuclei to form bigger ones is called atomic
  fusion.
  7. The problem discussed in this paper is that of determining
  system requirements for taking men to Mars and returning them
  to Earth.
  3. Переведите группы слов, в которых функцию определения выполняет герун-
  герундий или причастие I. Обратите внимание на различные способы перевода
  герундия и причастия в данной функции (ј31).
  Сравните:
  operating engine - работающий двигатель (причастие I)
  operating principle - принцип действия (герундий)
  landing plane burning fuel
  landing gear burning time
  landing speed burning powder
  landing field
  boiling water
  boiling temperature
  4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия в функ-
  функции определения.
  1. Flying training requires some special types of planes.
  2. The cylinders of an engine which become very hot must have
  some kind of cooling system.
  3. The landing speed is-determined mainly by requirements
  of safety.
  4. According to the size of the tank the liquid-fuel rocket can
  have variable burning time.
  5. The nearly vertical descent of the parachute increases aiming
  accuracy.
  6. The landing problem like all the other problems connected
  with rockets contains many difficulties,
  80
  б. Переведите группы слов (А.) и предложения (В.). обращая внимание на
  перевод предлога перед герундием (in "при"; on "no", "после"; upon "no",
  "после"; Ьу"путем", "при помощи"; without "без").
  А.
  1. in accelerating the aircraft...
  2. in solving the problem...
  3. upon returning to the Earth...
  4. upon calculating the speed...
  5. on pressing the lever...
  6. on connecting the wires...
  7. by igniting the mixture...
  8. by applying this meihod...
  9. without increasing the speed...
  10. without using oxygen...
  B.
  1. In rotating the magnet, we also rotate its magnetic field.
  2. Rocket-thrust can provide valuable assistance in accelerating
  an aircraft.
  3. Upon absorbing a quantum of energy from some outside
  source, an electron jumps to a higher level.
  4. Upon reaching the injectors, the fuel is mixed with the
  oxidizer.
  5. On connecting a galvanometer to the circuit we shall see
  that there is an electric current flowing.
  6. A steam engine is driven by introducing steam into cylin-
  cylinders.
  7. We begin our study of algebra by developing the idea of a
  vector space.
  8. A glider is designed to fly without using the power plant.
  6. Переведите предложения. Определите, является ли слово, стоящее в начале
  предложения, причастием I или герундием, и в зависимости от этого пере-
  переведите предложения.
  Помните, что глагольная форма с окончанием -ing, выполняющая
  функцию подлежащего, - герундий, а форма, выполняющая функцию об-
  обстоятельства,-причастие I (ј29).
  Сравните:
  Heating the gas increases the speed of the molecules.
  Нагревание газа ведет к увеличению скорости молекул.
  Losing electrons atoms become ions.
  Теряя электроны, атомы становятся ионами.
  1. Launching a satellite is done by firing it from a multistage
  rocket.
  2. Overheating an engine is prevented by providing some
  cooling system.
  81
  3. Knowing the landing speed and the load it is possible to
  calculate the wing area that will be necessary.
  4. Landing on a planet (and getting home again) is a problem
  which has not yet been solved.
  5. Measuring any quantity means comparing it with an accept-
  accepted unit for that quantity and finding out how many times larger
  or smaller it is than that standard unit.
  6. Directing artillery fire was the main task of the first military
  aircraft.
  . 7. Moving through the magnetic field the coil' of wire will cut
  the lines of force.
  7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия от гла-
  глаголов make, do, have и be.
  1. Boron is used in making solid propellants for rockets.
  2. According to the laws of physics a rocket will strike the
  earth after a free fall at about the same velocity as that which is
  attained in making its ascent.
  3. Since power is the rate of doing work, the amount of work
  done in a given time is the rate of doing work multiplied by the
  time.
  4. Neutrons were found to be particularly effective in making
  radioisotopes and were so used for almost every element.
  5. Batteries offer the dual advantage of having no moving
  parts and of converting chemical to electrical energy without need
  to reject much heat.
  6. Gamma rays differ from visible light only in having a much
  higher frequency and a much shorter range.
  7. The new device resembles conventional two-element electron
  tubes in having a cathode from which electrons are "boiled" and
  another electrode to which these electrons flow.
  8. The total weight of the cylinders has had to be kept as low
  as possible; this is done more easily by having a large number of
  comparatively small cylinders than by using a smaller number
  of large cylinders.
  9. The credit * of being the father of aviation goes to N. Y Zhu-
  kovsky.
  10. In addition to being a staging base for equipment, the space
  station will also be a transfer point for personnel.
  11. A great deal of attention has been concentrated on the use
  of photon-counter methods for X-ray observations. These have the
  great advantage of being adaptable for use in satellites.
  12. Besides being small in size, equipment of the transistor is
  light weight.
  1 coil - катушка
  1 credit - за. честь
  8. Переведите предложения.
  Запомните, что герундиальный оборот обычно переводится С ПОМОЩЬЮ
  придаточного предложения, которое вводится словами сто, что..." в соот-
  соответствующем падеже или существительным с предлогом.
  Образец:
  The main disadvantage Основной недостаток первых ра-
  of early rockets resulted кет заключался в том, что эти раке-
  from the rockets being ты не обладали необходимой точ-
  inaccurate. ностью попадания (были неточ-
  неточными).
  1. When a fast neutron strikes a nucleus the probability of its
  being captured' by that nucleus is very small.
  2. The less stable a chemical compound, the greater is the
  chance of its being transformed into another or several other
  compounds.
  3. Launching a vehicle at greater than Earth escape velocity
  results in the vehicle's taking up an independent orbit around the
  Sun.
  4. When an airplane flies at subsonic speed, the air ahead is
  warned2 of the airplane's coming by a pressure change transmit-
  transmitted ahead of the airplane at the speed of sound.
  5. The velocity of a moving object can change by its speeding
  up, slowing down, or changing its direction of motion.
  6. The picture of atom's losing electrons was revolutionary at
  the time of Thomson's discovery A897) because it involved the
  new idea that the electron is an essential part of a neutral atom,
  a part which in electric discharges may be torn off.
  9. Переведите предложения. Примените все возможные способы перевода
  герундия и выберите для каждого случая наиболее подходящий.
  1. In selecting the propellant combinations, chamber pressures
  and temperatures must be considered.
  2. The Mendeleyev's table was used as a guide in determining
  many chemical and physical properties of elements even before
  their existence was known by direct observation.
  3. Despite the long period of preparation the Germans did not
  succeed in solving the problem of directional control of rockets in
  the course of World War II.
  4. During World War I the Germans used large powder rockets
  by sending them across enemy defences.
  5. One of the most effective aid to planning is simulating.
  6. There are in existence today a wide variety of instruments
  capable of detecting and measuring the various types of radiation.
  - 7. The ancient Greeks were trying to explain the movements
  1 capture - захватывать
  2 warn - 3d. оповещать
  83
  of the planets by assuming the earth to be the centre of the uni-
  universe.
  8. It is worth noting that whenever balloons will do the job it
  fs uneconomical to use rocket-propelled vehicles instead.
  9. This aircraft has proved to be exceedingly useful for train-
  training.
  10. The idea of carrying heavy armour on fighting airplanes
  appeared in the second half of World War I.
  11. The early powder mixtures of the Chinese were good for
  driving rockets (as they burned rather slowly) but useless for
  bombs.
  12. Computing a reactor shield1 is a very complicated process
  if maximum accuracy is required.
  13. Mozhaisky is famous for having constructed the first proto-
  prototype of a monoplane.
  14. Connecting two conductors of the same material and of the
  same length and size in parallel has the same effect as a single
  conductor twice as large as either of the two.
  15. In ramjets combustion is continuous after having been star-
  started.
  16. Before being exhausted from the ion rocket, the positive ion
  beam must be neutralized.
  17. The problem of rockets coming down in places where they
  should not is particularly serious in the case of a meteorological
  rocket.
  18. Luna 16 remained on the Moon for 26 hr 25 min and in ad-
  addition to obtaining rock samples2 made measurements of tempera-
  temperature.
  19. We shall discuss first Bohr's theory because in contains some
  of the basic concepts of wave-mechanics and avoids3 the comp-
  complicated mathematics. It therefore avoids the necessity of the reader
  accepting results he cannot derive.
  20. Understanding the mechanics of the Sun has more than
  academic interest.
  21. Obtaining trajectory data is not usually a problem when
  the launching' takes place at an established rocket launching site.
  22. Before examining in detail the circuits of each part of the
  television receiver, it will be helpful to have in mind the overall
  picture of its operation.
  23. The Sun was especially quiet shortly after launching the
  satellite, being indeed quite free of sunspots.
  24. After being launched towards the Moon from parking orbit
  on 12 September, the automatic station Luna 16 was put into lunar
  orbit at a height of approximately 110 km on 17 September,
  1 shield - зашита
  1 rock sample - образец скальных пород
  1 avoid - избегать, обходиться без чего-л.
  84
  25. Information about the distribution of nuclear charge has
  been obtained by carefully studying the optical spectra.
  26. Units of area and volume can be obtained by squaring and
  cubing, respectively, any unit of length.
  27. For light passing from water into air, the critical angle in
  the water is 49№. In going from glass into air, it is 4Г.
  28. Although designed for military purposes this rocket, launch-
  launched vertically, was capable of carrying a payload to an altitude of
  100 km.
  29. Ultraviolet light is far more effective in producing chemical
  reactions than visible light.
  30. There are considerable advantages for many purposes in
  launching rockets from balloons. As an example, a rocket capable
  of reaching an altitude of only 15 km when launched from the
  ground will reach 100 km when launched from a balloon at a
  height of 80,000 ft.
  10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на служебные слова after
  и before.
  Заметьте, что если после слов before или after стоит подлежащее, то
  онн являются союзами: after "после того, как"; before "до того, как",
  "перед тем, как". Если слова alter или before относятся к существитель-
  существительному, не выступающему в роли подлежащего, то они являются предлогами:
  after "после", before "до", "перед".
  1. Before the discovery of the structure of atomic nuclei, it was
  thought that there existed two general types of forces explaining
  all natural phenomena: electrical and gravitational forces.
  2. Before the Second World War rockets were largely expe-
  experimental.
  3. Before attack planes came into use observation planes, figh-
  fighters and light bombers were employed for ground attack with some
  success.
  4. The word "helium" comes from the Greek word "sun"
  because that element was discovered in the sun before it was dis-
  discovered on the earth.
  5. After it became clear that some mistake had been made in
  the calculation, the experiment was stopped.
  6. After a period of discharge the battery can be restored to its
  original condition by supplying energy to it from an outside
  source.
  7. After the Sputnik had been launched people all over the world
  paid tribute to the advance of Soviet science.
  8. For days or weeks after the reactor has been turned off, the
  radiation intensity is so great inside that repairs there are never
  attempted.
  85
  II. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод кон-
  конструкций:
  А. Причастие + инфинитив (типа expected to reach) (ј 25)
  1. The diagram shows the ionization expected to exist at vari-
  various depths in the atmosphere.
  2. Through the telescope Jupiter shows a series of belts' found
  to be located parallel to its equator.
  Б. For + существительное + инфинитив (ј 18)
  3. The biological effects of cosmic rays in space are unlikely
  to be serious. Artificial satellites stay in their orbits long enough
  for this problem to be studied in detail.
  4. For a battery to be charged it is only necessary to maintain,
  "an electric current in it in a direction opposite to that in which the
  current flows when the cell is in use.
  Лексические упражнения
  12. Переведите предложения.
  Помните, что значение глагола-сказуемого в предложении легко рас-
  раскрывается без словаря, если опираться на значение существительного - пря-
  прямого дополнения (ј 113).
  1. Cybernetics has brought about a revolution in the design
  of machines.
  2. We shall confine our attention to those major objects in the
  solar system that are readily accessible, namely Mars, Venus, the
  Moon and the Earth.
  3. From the above-mentioned data we can draw the following
  conclusion.
  4. The application of thermodynamics in chemistry and engi-
  engineering have yielded many valuable results.
  5. The student will acquire all the necessary information from
  this book.
  13. Переведите со словарем следующие предложения.
  Помните, что если вам неизвестны значения глагола и существитель-
  лого - прямого дополнения, то в первую очередь следует искать в словаре
  значение существительного (ј 113).
  1. Charged particles passing through matter experience collisi-
  collisions as a result of which they are scattered and lose kinetic energy.
  2. The use of manned satellites imposes restrictions on the
  construction of the capsule used.
  3. It is possible to facilitate the escape of an electron from a
  conductor by increasing its speed.
  4. A digital computer executes a sequence of operations called
  instructions.
  1 belt - пояс
  86
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетания
  to be aware of (smth.) C,3).
  1. People working at the atomic power station must be always
  aware of the dangers involved in dealing with the reactor.
  2. Scientists are not awa^e of the way how life originated on
  the Earth.
  15. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to succeed C,8). После пере-
  перевода назовите два значения этого глагола.
  1. Jet airplanes and rockets succeeded the piston-engined
  airplanes.
  2. Since Mercury and Venus move in orbits lying between the
  Earth and the Sun, they are visible only in the hours succeeding
  sunset and preceeding sunrise.
  3. Einstein succeeded in calculating that the inertial mass of
  ray of light equals the energy of the ray, divided by the square
  of the velocity of light.
  4. In spite of many attempts with the very best spectrographic
  equipment no one has succeeded in detecting water vapour on
  Venus.
  5. Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist, was the first to succeed
  in producing electrical waves experimentally.
  16. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слово-
  словосочетаний со словом all C,13). После перевода предложении повторите зна-
  значения выделенных словосочетаний.
  1. The process of creating an electron flow by friction is not
  used in practice at all.
  2. Alpha rays have positive charges, beta rays are negatively
  charged, while gamma rays have no charge at all.
  3. Our aim in writing this book has been, above all, to present
  an account of modern practice in infra-red technique.
  4. After all, the rays of the Sun (as a source of power) can be
  put to work without much costly * machinery.
  5. After all, most people think more readily in terms of words
  than in terms of equations.
  6. By 1900 the rockets began to take back seat as war weapons
  arid armies all over the world had abandoned them.
  7. First of all, you have to remember the laws governing the
  motion of bodies in free space.
  17. Переведите предложения.
  Помните, что сочетания as high as, as low as перед цифрами перево-
  переводятся словом "до" (вплоть до), сочетания as early as, as recently as -
  "еще".
  1. Some people can hear sounds as high as 20,000 cycles.
  2. In the chemical rocket the temperature of gases may be as
  high as 3,500№ Centigrade.
  1 costly - дорогостоящий
  87
  3. The voltage dropped to as low as 25 volts.
  4. The possibility of releasing large amounts of energy was
  demonstrated as early as 1919 by Rutherford.
  5. The planet Pluto was discovered as recently as 1930.
  6. It was as recently as December 1937 that the first flight of
  radio-controlled airplane using automatic landing techniques was
  accomplished.
  18. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова long C,19)
  н словосочетаний с ним.
  1. Our present knowledge of the structure of the atom has been
  gained from long, difficult experiments conducted by scientists in
  several countries.
  2. Venus appears in the sky early in the evening but does not
  stay long.
  3. Through the use of Sputniks we obtained long-needed infor-
  information of cosmic rays intensity.
  4. At heights above 25 to 28 miles the atmospheric ozone no
  longer protects against ultra-violet radiation from the Sun.
  5. This equation indicates to us the altitudes above which aero-
  aerodynamic heating is no longer a problem.
  6. As long as there is a difference of potential between two
  points in a circuit, there will be a flow of electricity.
  7. The heavier-than-air machine maintains flight as long as the
  power plant functions properly.
  8. So long as the gunpowder goes on burning and producing
  gas, the rocket will go on moving.
  9. It is believed that parachutes were invented long before bal-
  balloons.
  10. Long before the internal structure of atoms was studied,
  chemists had learned much about the elements.
  19. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на возможные способы пе-
  перевода глагола to expand C,15).
  1. The gases expand when passing through the blades of the
  turbine.
  2. Heat causes the molecules of air to speed up and makes the
  air expand.
  3. The cold air is heated in passing through the compressor and
  it expands into the combustion chamber *.
  4. The kinetic theory offers a picture of what takes place when
  a gas expands through a small opening into a region2 of lower
  pressure.
  1 combustion chamber - камера сгорания
  1 region - область
  20. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова due C,26).
  Укажите, от чего зависит выбор его значения.
  1. A due explanation of the phenomenon of radioactivity was
  first given by the Curie.
  2. Due consideration must be given to missile performance
  requirements.
  3. The forces due to air acting on a body depend on the size of
  the body, the air density, and the square of the relative velocity.
  4. In liquids viscosity is due to the internal friction of molecu-
  molecules.
  5. The energy which a body possesses due to Its motion is cal-
  called kinetic energy.
  6. The neutron, because of its lack of charge, can proceed into
  the nucleus; but the proton due to its positive charge is repelled.
  7. As the ionisation is mainly due to the action of the sunlight,
  it is evident that the layers are ionised more during day time than
  at night.
  21. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность выделен-
  выделенных существительных.
  project C, 27)
  1. The time has come to fulfil projects that seemed fantastic
  before - manned space flights to the Moon, to Mars, Venus and
  the other planets of the solar system.
  2. Aircraft reactor projects are under development.
  3. Over fifty nations were co-operating in the I. G. Y (Inter-
  (International Geophysical Year) project.
  4. In each space project a large number of specialized fields of
  engineering and science are involved.
  facility C, 29)
  5. The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor is determined
  both by the number of mobile charge carriers and the facility with
  which these carriers move under applied field.
  6. A pilot flying under condition of unknown wind direction or
  force should use every radio aid and navigational facilities to
  determine accurately his position.
  7. Gravity measurements with portable gravimeters are made
  between the various bases of the antarctic as transport facilities
  permit.
  22. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова lack C,28)
  в зависимости от того, какой частью речи оно является.
  1. The moon lacks atmosphere and water.
  2. The lack of autopilot on first guided missiles prevented their
  successful operation.
  3. The guidance system of this missile lacks accuracy.
  4. Considering their lack of optical instruments, the work of
  ancient astronomers was surprisingly accurate.
  89
  23. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to prevent C,31). Обратите
  внимание на управление глагола:
  to prevent ... from occurlng не позволить произойти
  1. Measures have to be taken to prevent radioactive gases from
  spreading through the air.
  2. We have already mentioned the problem of cooling engines,
  which Is necessary to prevent the various parts from becoming
  too hot.
  3. In fact, a fast reactor is a form of atom bomb, prevented
  from exploding.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  24. Переведите слова и группы слов. Обратите внимание на то, что префикс
  antl- соответствует приставкам спрогиво-", санти-", а префикс counter -
  спротиво-", "контр-".
  anti-aircraft weapon, antisubmarine attack, antitank gun,
  antipersonnel weapon, counterattack, counteroffensive, counterac-
  counteraction
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  25. Переведите термины. В случае затруднения дайте сначала описательный
  перевод, который поможет установить, какой термин в русском языке вы-
  выражает это понятие в указанной области техники.
  А. Термины, состоящие из трех компонентов: наречие+причастие (или при-
  прилагательное) + существительное
  directly fed antenna (телевидение)
  I
  какая? -"-антенна
  I
  как?-*- питаемая
  непосредственно
  антенна с непосредственным питанием
  Английский термин
  continuously adjustable capacitor
  electronically controlled filter
  remotely controlled plant
  periodically operated switch
  horizontally polarized antenna
  aerodynamically supported missile
  continuously measuring control system
  highly directional antenna
  equally likely possibility
  internally cooled reactor
  Область применения
  электротехника
  радиоэлектротехника
  > '
  >
  >
  ракетная техника
  автоматика
  радио
  автоматика
  ядерная физика
  90
  Б. Термины, состоящие из трех компонентов: существительное + прилагатель-
  прилагательное + существительное
  acid-resistant material (химия)
  \
  какой? ї*- материал
  I
  чему?-*- сопротивляющийся
  I
  кислоте
  кислотоупорный материал
  Английский термин
  corrosion-resistant metdl
  fire-resistant material
  explosion-resistant design
  voltage-sensitive device
  light-sensitive cell
  photo-sensitive cathode
  phase-sensitive device
  gamma-sensitive detector
  temperature-dependent resistor
  colour-selective characteristic
  Область применения
  металлургия
  >
  ядерная физика
  автоматика
  радиоэлектроника
  >
  электротехника
  ядерная физика
  электротехника
  телевидение
  Упражнения в чтении
  26. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на произношение звуков:
  [в] through, thorough, throughout, thousand, worth, thermal,
  thrower
  [9] other, though, although, within, without, nevertheless
  27. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на чтение буквосочета-
  буквосочетания еа:
  [i:] reach, reason, release, reveal, mean, deal, weak, breathe
  [e] dead, instead, already, head, steady, dealt, wealth
  Исключения: break [breik] ломать
  great [greit] великий
  28. Прочитайте следующие слова, соблюдая правила чтения буквосочетания cl
  перед безударной гласной:
  [/] special, especial, especially, specialize, efficient, efficiently,
  efficiency, inefficient, ancient, commercial
  29. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  incendiaries [m'sendjanz] armoured ['aimsd]
  arrow ['aerou] . accuracy ['aekjuresi]
  ?ncient ('einjsnt] . personnel [,ps:sa'flel]
  91
  signalling ['signslin] inferior [in'fisne]
  missile ['misail] projectile ['pn>d3iktail]
  effort I'efst] allies ['aelaiz]
  adequate ['aedikwit]
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. MEASURING STAR DISTANCES
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Measuring star distances was first effected * as early as in
  1835. The principle of the method is simple enough; it is essen-
  essentially the same as that employed in measuring distances on the
  Earth's surface. The object which is under study and whose
  distance is required is observed from two ends of a base-line of
  known length, the observations giving the angle between the two
  ends of the base-line. It appears that the difficulty of measuring
  star distances arises from the fact that the longest base-line
  available* for the purpose is very short compared with the distan-
  distances of the stars involved. By making the observations when the
  Earth is at the two ends of its orbit, a base-line of about
  186,000,000 miles is obtained. No longer base-line is possible.
  It is convenient to express3 star distances in terms of the
  time that light takes to travel. Light travels with a speed of
  186,000 miles a second, so that in the course of a year it will
  travel a distance nearly six million million miles. Thus, instead
  of saying that the nearest star is nearly 25 million million miles
  away from us, we may say that it is about four light-years away.
  This way of expressing the distance is very interesting be-
  because it reminds4 us, that we see the star not where it is at the
  moment, but where it was at least four years ago.
  There is a limit to the distances that can be determined by
  direct measurement. For distances greater than about 500 light-
  years, the results become rather uncertain. The methods to be
  used are quite different. Such a method has been suggested, and
  the evidence that has been obtained within the last two decades
  about the structure of the universe has been gained, in a very
  large measure, by the application of this method. It is based on
  the special properties of a particular class of stars. These stars
  do not shine5 with a steady constant light, there are fluctuations
  in their brightness. These fluctuations have been found to be
  associated with regular pulsations of the whole star. The time
  required for a single pulsation to be completed, though it is con-
  constant for any one star, ranges for different stars from several
  hours to about 30 days. There is a definite relationship between
  the period of pulsation and the candle-power6 of the star, so that
  if the period is known, the candle-power can be found out.
  92
  There is no difficulty in finding the time taken by a pulsating
  star in going through one complete cycle of light variation. It is
  doubtless that the longer the period of pulsation, the greater is
  the candle-power of the star. Thus, for example, if one pulsation
  is completed in two days, the candle-power is 260 times that of
  the Sun; if it is completed in ten days, the corresponding candle-
  power is 1,700 times that of the Sun.
  It will be noticed that the candle-power In each of these
  examples is far greater than that of the Sun. The pulsating stars
  are all very bright. Their brightness makes it possible to see
  them far away across the space. It is this fact that makes them
  so useful in the exploration of space to great distances.
  Having discussed the general principles that underlie the de-
  determination of great distances, we can summarize the information
  that has been derived about the universe in which we find our-
  ourselves.
  1 effect ~ осуществлять
  2 available - доступный, имеющийся в наличии
  3 express - выражать
  1 remind - напоминать
  5 shine - светить
  6 candle-power - яркость свечения
  2. BODES LAW
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  In 1772 Johann Elert Bode discovered a very convenient way
  of obtaining the approximate distances of the planets from the
  Sun without going through all the mathematics required by either
  Kepler's or Newton's laws. This relationship is known as Bode's
  law, but there seems to be no reason for its existence. It cannot
  be explained by any known theory. It may have no physical
  meaning; nevertheless it is a remarkable way of remembering
  planetary distances.
  If we start with the figures 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and so on *, doubling2
  each time after the zero figure, then adding* 4 to each one, and
  finally dividing by 10, we obtain the distances from the planets
  to the Sun in astronomical units.
  The following table gives a comparison between the distances
  determined by Bode's law and their actual value.
  1 and so on - и так далее
  2 double-удваивать
  8 add- добавлять, прибавлять
  93
  MEAN * DISTANCE FROM THE SUN
  Planet
  Mercury
  Venus
  Earth
  Mars
  Asteroids
  Jupiter
  Saturn
  Uranus
  Neptune
  Bode's law (a. n. )**
  0.4
  0.7
  1.0
  1.6
  2.8
  5.2 ї
  10.0
  19.6
  38.8
  Actual distance (a. u.)
  0.39 \
  0.72 1 Inner
  1.00 I planets
  1.52 >
  2.8 (Ceres)
  5.20 \
  9.54 1 Outer
  19.19 I planets
  30.07 1
  * mean - средний.
  ** a. u. (astronomical unit) -астрономическая единица.
  3. CHEMISTRY AND THE ATOMIC THEORY
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Chemistry has long assumed that material substances are
  composed of atoms; and the actual investigation of the proper-
  properties of material substances shows them to be divided into two
  classes: compound substances, which can be reduced to simpler
  ones by appropriate methods; and the simple substances them-
  themselves - the chemical elements - which resist any attempt at
  such reduction.
  The study of the quantitative laws, in accordance with which
  the simple substances combine to form compounds, led chemists
  during the last century to adopt the following hypothesis:
  "A simple substance is supposed to be formed of small par-
  particles, all identical with each other, called the atoms of this
  element; compounds, on the other hand, are supposed to be
  formed of molecules resulting from the combination of a number
  of atoms constituting the simple substances". According to this
  hypothesis, therefore, a composite' substance is broken up by
  reducing it to the elements of which it is composed which means
  that its molecules are disintegrated and the atoms which they
  contain set free. All material substances are regarded to be
  constructed from 104 different kinds of atoms.
  The atomic theory not only succeeded in introducing order
  into chemistry: it also extended into the domain of physics. For
  if material substances are composed of molecules and atoms,
  then their physical, properties must be capable of explanation
  in terms of their atomic structure. The properties of the various
  gases, for example, must be explicable on the assumption that
  a given gas consists of an immense number of molecules or
  atoms in rapid motion; the pressure of a gas on the wall of the
  containing vessel will then be due to the impacts of the mole-
  molecules against the wall, while the temperature of the gas will
  be the measure of the average of the motion of the molecules,
  which increases as the temperature rises.
  During the second half of the nineteenth century, this view
  of the structure of gases was developed under the name of the
  Kinetic Theory of Gases, and it enables us to understand the
  origin of the laws governing the behaviour of gases as disco-
  discovered experimentally. For if the atomic theory is correct, then
  the properties of solids and liquids must be capable of inter-
  interpretation on the assumption that, in the solid and the liquid
  states, the molecules or atoms are much closer to each other
  than in the gaseous state. Thus there is an interplay of consN
  derable forces between atoms and molecules in these states,
  and these should account for such characteristic properties of
  'solids and liquids as incompressibility and cohesion. The atomic
  theory of matter, again, has been confirmed by direct experi-
  experiments by means of which it has been possible to measure the
  weights of different kinds of atoms and to find their number
  per cubic centimetre.
  4. CYBERNETICS APPLIED TO SPACE
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Cybernetics is the study of control and communication me-
  mechanisms in machines and animals. It covers all automatic
  control devices, selectors, relays, computers and robots, and also
  the corresponding physiological mechanisms such as those of
  automatic balance and reflex action. The application of cyber-
  cybernetics to electronic computers is known to be leading to a better
  understanding of the working of the brain, and conversely a
  deeper knowledge of the "human mechanism" is expected to
  lead to the development of machines of almost human capability.
  It is known that Russian scientists have been making a close
  study of the implications of this work in astronautics and the
  results may be applied to the problems of spacecraft control
  and the remote analysis of the planets.
  Cybernetics has brought about a revolution in the design of
  machines. By revealing the profound analogy between the work
  of the computer and the work of the control system of the living
  organism, cybernetics has brought a new approach to investiga-
  investigations in biology and medicine.
  Cybernetics has been of great assistance in the pre-flight
  training of cosmonauts. Besides making it possible to design
  various automatic simulators, the science has given experts in
  space medicine methods for the exact analysis of all the physio-
  physiological processes taking place in the human body under diverse
  conditions. The results of this analysis have made it possible
  95
  to draw up a list of requirements which must be met by the
  spaceship, and it has also been possible to select the people
  best fitted to travel into space.
  It is quite obvious that much greater accuracy is required in
  controlling the course of a rocket for a flight to other planets
  than that required for launching an artificial Earth satellite.
  What is more important, the very character of control of the
  spaceship during interplanetary flight must differ in principle
  from the techniques used for controlling orbital flights. The
  distances between the Earth and even the nearest planets are
  measured in millions, not hundreds, of miles. Under these con-
  conditions the fact that signals transmitted from Earth to the inter-
  interplanetary ships and back will be subject to considerable delay
  will be of particular importance. The speed with which such
  signals travel cannot exceed the velocity of light, which exceeds
  186,000 miles/sec. Although that is 'a very high velocity, under*
  the conditions of interplanetary flight, it is insufficient to permit
  control of the spaceship from Earth.
  This extremely difficult problem can be solved through the
  application of cybernetics.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. По каким признакам можно опознать герундий в пред-
  предложении (in using the engine; their launching produces noise;
  pilot's training requires much time; Heating the gas increases...;
  The force stopped acting...) (ј28)?
  2. С помощью каких частей речи герундий, как правило,
  переводится на русский язык (ј 33)?
  3. Какие формы имеет герундий и как они отличаются по
  значению (by using the method, after having used the method,
  before being used) (ј27)?
  4. Как отличить герундий в функции левого определения
  от причастия I в этой функции (landing speed, landing plane)
  (ј31)?
  5. Как можно определить, является ли слово, оканчиваю-
  оканчивающееся на -ing и стоящее в начале предложения без предлога,
  герундием или причастием I? Как нужно переводить эту гла-
  глагольную форму в том н другом случае (ј 29-30)?
  6. Как переводятся предлоги in, on, upon, by, without пе-
  перед герундием (ј 32)?
  7. В каких случаях герундий обязательно переводится с
  помощью придаточного предложения (The disadvantage
  resulted from the vehicle's being inaccurate) (упр. 8)?
  8. Какие значения имеют служебные слова after и before
  (упр. 10)?
  9. Каким приставкам соответствуют префиксы anti- и
  counter- (упр. 24)?
  УРОК ЧЕТВЕРТЫЙ
  Текст: Some Ramjet Propulsion Aspects.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Группа существительного (ј 82-90). Приложение (ј 91, 92).
  Различные значения служебного слова since (упр. 8).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Зависимость перевода прилагательного от лексического значения
  существительного, к которому оно относится (ј 112). Зависимость пере-
  перевода существительного от лексического значения правого определения
  (ј 1П).
  Наречия с усилительным значением (ј 120).
  Перевод слов: Inherent, tend, specify, enter, promise, appreciate,
  propel, leave, suffer, lead, available, item, impact, technique, scale, current,
  present.
  Перевод словосочетаний со словом so.
  Перевод терминов типа "существительное + предлог + существитель-
  существительное" (упр. 22), "существительное + прилагательное (free или tight)"
  (Упр. 23).
  ТЕКСТ
  SOME RAMJET PROPULSION ASPECTS
  An air-breathing engine produces thrust by taking
  in air from the atmosphere and discharging it at a higher speed
  than the speed at which it was introduced l.
  The simplest air-breathing engine is -the
  ramjet - a unit having no moving parts at all and consisting
  simply of aii* inlet * designed to convert the kinetic energy of
  the air to static pressure, a combustion chamber3 and final4
  expansion nozzle*. In principle the engine under conside-
  consideration is similar to turbojet but the absence5 of moving
  parts permits* operation at much higher temperatures. The
  major advantages of the ramjet are its extremely7 low weight,
  relative simplicity and low coste, but it requires operating air
  * Iinal expansion nozzle - выходное расширяющееся сопло
  ' 4 Зак. 849 97
  speeds of the order of 1,500 to 2,000 m. p.h. before its specific9
  consumption becomes competitive10 with that of the turbojet.
  The major limitation of the engine in question is that
  when it is at rest, there is no ram effect * and hence no thrust.
  To obtain the necessary pressure ratiou, the ramjet needs
  external12 assistance to reach the designed operating speed and
  become self-sustaining **. The ramjet produces thrust only
  when some other propulsion system has brought it up to the
  necessary speed.
  For these reasons it was used mainly in guided missiles and
  the necessary acceleration thrust was provided by solid
  booster13 rockets which could be jettisoned" in flight
  without undue difficulty. Because of its inherent15 simplicity the
  ramjet found application as a rotor tip "-drive unit***
  for small helicopters, in spite of its high fuel consump-
  consumption at subsonic air speeds.
  The ramjet is supposed to reach its greatest overall" effi-
  efficiency somewhere in the range of Mach 4 to Mach 10 (hyper-
  velocity). Unfortunately18, there are two factors which tend19
  to set an upper20 limit to the speed at which the ramjet will be
  at its best. Both limitations are due to high temperature.
  The first factor is that entry2" air is heated by compression.
  At a flight speed of 3/4 mile/sec, the rani temperature **** is
  580№ С and the internal surfaces of the engine become heated
  to a temperature only a little lower than this. At 1 mile/sec,
  the ram temperature is 1,020№ C, and it is evident that further
  increases in speed will result in increases in ram temperature.
  But the temperature of the gases leavingй the combustion
  chamber must be appreciably23 higher than the ram temperature
  to produce thrust, while the fuel flows available24 are too
  small to be used for effective cooling. Since material strength
  properties are seriously reduced at high temperature, it follows25
  that an increase in temperature demands improved materials for
  the combustion chamber and other parts or direct cooling of these
  items M for the engine reliability not to suffer эт".
  The second factor is that high ram temperatures
  of hypersonic flight limit the combustion temperature
  rise and therefore limit available ramjet thrust. Due
  to dissociation of combustion products a significant28 increase
  in gas temperature can no longer be achieved, at least with
  chemical fuels currentlyM in use.
  The advances in rocket technology led30 many people to
  belittle the future of supersonic air-breathing engi-
  • ram effect - скоростной иапор
  її self-sustaining - автономный в полете
  *** rotor tip-drive unit - реактивный двигатель на конце лопасти несущего
  винта (вертолета)
  "•"• ram temperature - температура торможения
  98
  ties. However, with several "Earth- satellites having been put
  into orbit, there has been a revival31 of interest in the potential
  of ramjet engines.
  If hypervelocity flight within the atmosphere is desired, the
  rocket engine may find serious competition from the air-
  breathing hypervelocity ramjet. It appears that for
  flight within the Earth's atmosphere a ramjet-powered
  vehicle will have a tremendous advantage In weight, range
  or payload over a rocket-powered vehicle. For
  instance, the ramjet as compared with a rocket engine will need
  a smaller supply of vehicle transported propellant32
  to produce a given thrust for a given period of time. This saving33
  of propellant is of great importance.
  So34 there appears a promising35 future for hypervelocity
  ramjets. Some scientists suppose that ramjets are likely to have
  a considerable impact36 on air transport in coming years. Though
  much research and development work is still needed, particularly
  in such areas as hypersonic inlets, materials and cooling tech-
  techniques37, and real-gas kinetics, Mach 7 to 10 engines are
  expected38 to appear in the near future.
  Aerodynamic testing facilities now in use or under
  development will be adequate for most of the hypersonic
  inlet work. However, high temperature subsonic and supersonic
  facilities will be needed to investigate subsonic and supersonic
  mixing39 and combustion under realistic conditions and high
  temperature hypersonic propulsion test facili-
  facilities will be needed for full-scale40 testing of engines.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите группы слов, содержащие прилагательные, употребленные в ка-
  качестве правого определения (ј 89).
  Обратите внимание на то, что прилагательные, не имеющие поясни-
  пояснительных слов, при переводе можно поставить перед существительным.
  Образец:
  The energy available from fission...
  Энергия, получаемая в результате расщепления...
  Энергия, которая получается в результате расщепления...
  The energy available was used...
  Полученная энергия была использована...
  Энергия, которая была получена, использовалась...
  1. The model available is...
  The model available for the test is...
  2. The amount of radiation present influences...
  The amount of radiation present in the atmosphere pre-
  presents...
  "• 09
  3. Any changes necessary must be made...
  4. The highest speed possible is obtained...
  5. The simplest form of engine imaginable is a rocket...
  6. The molecules free to vibrate are...
  7. Layers close to the earth are influenced by...
  8. Components common to most turbines are made...
  2.. Переведите группы слов, содержащие в качестве правого определения сло-
  словосочетания существительного с предлогом (ј 90).
  Обратите внимание на то, что значение этих сочетаний не всегда легко
  вывести из значения существительного и предлога, поэтому их необходимо
  запомнить. Примените способы перевода, приведенные в образце.
  Образец:
  The model under construction.
  Модель, которая разрабатывается.
  Разрабатываемая модель.
  1. The method in use preceeded...
  2. The type of missile under consideration gained...
  3. The program under development was suggested...
  4. The aircraft now in service were constructed...
  5. The types of power plant in existence satisfy...
  6. Any speed indicator now in operation possesses...
  3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов, выполняю-
  выполняющих функцию правого определения (ј 89, 90).
  1. The scales in common use to-day are the Fahrenheit, Kelvin
  and Centigrade.
  2. Very little has been published about guided weapons in
  production or under development.
  3. The voltage of a generator in operation tends to change
  when the load changes.
  4. The object of mathematics is to discover the equations
  which express the mathematical laws of the phenomena under
  consideration.
  5. The model in question is a checked mathematical descrip-
  description of a complex system.
  6. Beta radiation was originally assumed to be the emissions
  of "beta" rays, but later investigation showed that the particles
  in question were electrons.
  7. We are aware that the same general mathematical treat-
  treatment is applicable, whether the material in question consists of
  a single pure radioisotope or of a complex mixture of such iso-
  isotopes.
  8. The material for the report has been derived from recent
  sources available.
  9. Most laboratories have small machines of various kinds
  available for demonstration purposes.
  10. The atomic number tells the number of protons present.
  100
  11. There are several components common to most turbine
  engines.
  12. The air in the atmosphere close to the earth is compressed
  by the weight of the air.
  13. Neptune and Pluto, visible only with the telescope, were
  discovered in 1846 and 1930 respectively.
  14. It is clear that to observe radiation in the wavelength
  range extending from 2900 A to 1 A or less, it is necessary to
  send equipment up to altitudes unattainable by balloons.
  15. The wavelength resolution achievable by pulse height
  analysis is illustrated in fig. 70.
  4. Переведите группы существительных. Начинайте перевод с основного слова,
  которое стоит последним в группе. Затем поставьте соответствующие
  вопросы к каждому последующему слову, двигаясь справа налево.
  Помните, что при переводе слов придется по смыслу решать, является
  лн переводимое слово определением к стоящему от него справа слову или
  оно относится к основному слову группы (ј 84-86).
  1. a satellite-carrying rocket
  2. pressure-measuring devices
  3. rocket-assisted take-off
  4. laboratory-obtained velocities
  5. acceleration-dependent force
  6. piston-engined aircraft
  7. first man-made earth satellite
  8. present-day high-powered engines
  9. neutron-produced nuclear reaction
  10. high-speed passenger-carrying airplane
  11. newest deep sea current measuring device .
  12. rocket-propelled anti-aircraft missile
  13. pressurized liquid-propellant rocket power plant
  14. first liquid-propellant rocket engine
  5. Переведите предложения, содержащие группы существительных.
  Помните, что основное слово стоит последним в ряду слов, между
  которыми нет ни артиклей, ни предлогов. За основным словом может стоять
  предлог, причастие, прилагательное или союзное слово, имеющее значение
  "который" (ј 83).
  1. On April. 12, 1961, in the U.S.S.R., the world's first satellite
  spaceship "Vostok", with a man on board, was put into orbit
  round the Earth.
  2. Isotope power sources have some limitations.
  3. The normal wavelength range covered in astronomy is
  3,000 to 9,000 A.
  4. Different automatic pilot systems provide a wide variety,
  of control.
  5. K. E. Tsiolkovsky, in 1903, made the first specific liquid-
  propellant rocket engine proposal published in "The Scientific
  Observer".. .
  101
  6. Low-energy radio waves are reflected and absorbed by the
  electrons and ionsxtf the ionosphere.
  7. Propellant flow rates must be extremely large for high-
  thrust engines.
  8. The large long-range space probes carry large amount of
  equipment.
  9. The performance of a rocket is determined largely by the
  rocket-propellant combination and the total amount of usable
  propellents.
  10. The gas-filled free balloons are used for scientific pur-
  purposes.
  11. There are several types of pressure-sensitive measuring
  devices which are in use to-day.
  12. The pressure-fed systems do not require pumps and tur-
  turbines.
  13. A lightweight, highly efficient insulating material designed
  to protect a space vehicle's liquid hydrogen fuel against evapora-
  evaporation has been developed recently.
  14. The pressurized liquid-propellant power plant has been
  used for rocket-assisted take-off power plants for aircraft.
  15. Guided missile and high-supersonic-speed piloted aircraft
  are typical ramjet applications. ч
  16. The production of light-weight, high-strength cases is a
  major development problem in the solid-rocket field.
  в. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что существительное"
  приложение при переводе должно стоять в том же падеже, что н существи-
  существительное, к которому оно относится (ј 91).
  Образец:
  The article deals with the Instrument for measuring tempe-
  temperature - the thermometer.
  В статье рассматривается прибор для измерения темпе-
  температуры - термометр.
  1. In the preceding chapter we introduced the electric gene-
  generator, the machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical
  energy.
  2. A good deal of our knowledge of the Earth's nearest neigh-
  neighbour, the Moon, has been gained through the observations of
  astronomers.
  3. The modern concept of the atom Is based on quantum
  mechanics, a mathematical theory which helps to predict the
  behaviour of electrons in atomic systems as a function of t and
  in the presence of radiant energy.
  4. The idea of an automatic computer, a machine able to
  perform a great number of operations of both arithmetic and logic
  is more than 120 years old.
  5. The performance of propellants is characterized by the
  102
  specific impulse, a measure of the number of pounds of thrust
  produced per pound of propellant consumed per second.
  6. Almost the whole "mass" of the atom is contained in the
  nucleus which is composed of protons - the carriers of the po-
  positive charge - and neutral "neutrons".
  7. Переведите предложения.
  Заметьте, что существительные со значением "факт, вопрос, проблема,
  свойство:", сопровождаемые пояснительными словами, могут играть роль
  приложения, относящегося ко всей предшествующей части предложения.
  Образец:
  The main disadvantage of gas turbine is high fuel consump-
  consumption, a problem that can be solved...
  Основным недостатком газовой турбины является большой
  расход топлива - проблема, которую можно решить...
  (Эту проблему можно разрешить...)
  1. It was shown in 1938 that uranium, after absorption of a
  slow neutron, can split approximately into halves - a process
  that soon became known as fission.
  2. It is interesting to remark that 746 watts is equal to 1
  horsepower, a comparison that serves to give some idea of the
  power represented by 1 watt.
  3. It turned out that a gas upon expanding undergoes a
  reduction in pressure, a fact which is helpful in studying the
  mixture of several gases.
  4. In recent years particles of atomic nuclei have been split
  into two, a process called fission, and, also, some nuclei have
  been merged1 with others, a process called fusion.
  5. The current sensitivity of a voltmeter is often expressed
  in ohms per volt, a value obtained by dividing the resistance of
  the voltmeter by its capacity.
  6. The direction of a beam of light can be altered by reflection
  or refraction, a process upon which are based the design and
  operation of most optical instruments.
  7. As we have already noted, the heavy charged particle can
  also interact with the nucleus (Rutherford scattering), a process
  of great importance in the development of the theory of the
  nucleus.
  8. Переведите предложения.
  Помните, что слово since может быть союзом и предлогом и з зави-
  зависимости от этого переводится по-разному: since (cj) - "так как", "с тех
  пор, как>; since (prp) - "с> (со времени).
  1. Since the distance of the electrons from the nucleus is about
  a hundred thousands times as large as the diameter of the
  nucleus, most of the atom consists of empty space,
  * merge - соединяться, сливаться
  103
  2. Since the end of World War II there has been a rapid deve-
  development of jet engines.
  3. Since the first rocket appeared many changes has taken
  place in this field of science.
  4. Since the jet engine is a powerful source of energy, it is
  widely used for machines flying at supersonic speed.
  5. A few elementary substances, such as gold, silver, copper,
  have been knowB since old times.
  6. Sixty years have passed since the day when radio was
  discovered.
  7. Since the lift and the drag are very much dependent on
  the angle of attack of the wing, it is necessary to give a defini-
  definition of this angle.
  8. For producing currents of many amperes, electric gene-
  generators of various sizes have become available since Volta's time.
  9. Since the fission fragments only move a minute distance
  from their point of origin, nearly all the heat is produced close
  to the point where fission occurs.
  9. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод кон-
  конструкций:
  А. Инфинитив как часть сказуемого (ј 8)
  1. The inside temperature of the Sun is estimated to be about
  30,000,000№ С
  2. The most abundant elements in the universe are thought
  to be the lighter ones such as hydrogen, helium, carbon and others.
  3. In 1904, semiconductors were shown to be good detectors
  of radio waves.
  4. Since the majority of readers are not likely to have a de-
  detailed knowledge of nuclear problems this paper will discuss the
  problems.
  5. The object of this paper is to discuss the effects that meteo-
  roids may be expected to have on space vehicles.
  6. Large planets may be expected to have much more extensive
  atmospheres than that of the earth.
  Б. Обособленный причастный оборот с with (ј 23, п. 3)
  7. Ordinarily, meteors glow1 at heights of 120 to 80 kilometres
  above sea level, with large particles penetrating to lower layers
  of the atmosphere.
  8. With each thermal fission of U-235 releasing an average
  of 2.5 fresh neutrons, it should be possible to establish a chain
  reaction, leading to the rapid consumption of all the fissile mate-
  material, with the evolution of great amounts of energy.
  9. With the colour of the fluorescent light being entirely de-
  dependent on the nature of the powder coating2, it is evident that
  • glow - зд. сгорать
  1 coating - покрытие
  104
  coloured light can be produced in a variety of shades by using
  a suitable powder or mixture of powders.
  В. Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге
  1. The acceleration of a falling object is affectedf by air
  resistance.
  2. The disco.very of the double nature of electrons was follow-
  followed by a change in the quantum theory.
  3. Solar corpuscular radiation, being electrically charged, is
  influenced by the Earth's magnetic field.
  4. The introduction of a new -theory is always followed by
  a period of extended testing.
  5. The magnitude of this effect is also affected by the strength
  of any electric field that happens to be present.
  6. The problems of circuits will be dealt with from the point
  of view of radar engineering rather than radio communication.
  7. The subject of neutralization has been approached with great
  care.
  8. These questions were answered in a series of investigations,
  both experimental and theoretical.
  9. The quantum theory was given a new form called wave me-
  mechanics.
  10. Visible bodies are not the only objects attracted to the
  Earth or other heavenly bodies: individual molecules of gases are
  similarly affected.
  11. On September 28, 1961, a solar flare occured which was fol-
  followed about 46 hours later by a magnetic storm and a decrease in
  galactic cosmic-ray intensity as observed by a neutron monitor on
  the ground.
  12. As already stated, the scanning process described above
  can deal with only one small picture element at a time, and in
  order to create the illusion of a real, continuous and whole image,
  another feature of the human eye. retention of vision2, is relied
  upon.
  13. Because the techniques employed in the production of pulses
  are closely bound up with the current and voltage variations in
  circuits containing capacitors, this matter has been dealt with
  extensively in the earlier part of the chapter.
  14. Infra-red radiation forms a parkof that series of radiation
  which is given the general name of "electromagnetic radiation".
  " affect - воздействовать
  " retention of vision - задерживающая способность глаза
  105
  Лексические упражнения
  10. Переведите сочетания существительного с прилагательным.
  Помните, что выбор перевода прилагательного зависит от лексиче-
  лексического значения существительного, к которому оно относится. В случае
  затруднения рекомендуется временно обойти прилагательное, перевести
  сначала существительное, а затем - прилагательное (ј 112).
  solid particles careful man
  solid argument careful observation
  solid book careful work
  strong man fine weather
  strong forces fine wire
  strong paper fine edge
  strong magnetic field fine sand
  I!. Переведите группы слов, состоящие из существительного и его правого
  определения.
  Помните, что выбор перевода существительного зависит от его правого
  определения (ј 111).
  Образец:
  the advance of science - прогресс науки
  the advance of troops - продвижение войск
  1. The development of science...
  The development of new methods...
  The development of new devices...
  2. The performance of a plane...
  The performance of a task...
  3. The stroke of a piston...
  The stroke of a clock...
  4. The treatment of a problem...
  The treatment of a metal...
  The treatment of deseases...
  12. Переведите группы слов, в которых наречия much, far и well стоят перед
  другим наречием, предлогом или прилагательным в сравнительной степени.
  Заметьте, что в таком положении эти наречия имеют усилительное
  значение и переводятся словами "гораздо", "намного.
  Образец:
  The weight of the instrument is well under 10 gr.
  Прибор весит намного меньше 10 граммов.
  1. The altitudes were well above 200 miles...
  2. The speeds are well over 500 mph...
  3. This device was invented well after the invention of the ra-
  radio...
  4. The cockpit must be well forward...
  106
  5. Much longer flights were made...
  6. Much more complicated problems must be solved...
  7. Uranium disintegrates much more rapidly...
  8. These particles move much more quickly...
  9. Far greater advantages were achieved...
  10. Far more difficult tasks were faced...
  11. Far heavier loads could be lifted...
  12. This was far beyond the ability of a single scientist...
  13. Energy far beyond the capacity of present propulsion devi-
  devices was...
  13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод прилагательного
  inherent D,15) и наречия inherently.
  Заметьте, что иногда при переводе сочетания inherent+существитель-
  inherent+существительное следует изменить порядок слов или ввести пояснительные слова.
  Образец:
  A high Inherent reliability...
  Высокая надежность, присущая (ему, ей)...
  1. The thermoelectric systems have no moving parts, hence a
  very high inherent reliability.
  2. The planets have no inherent luminosity; they shine * by
  reflecting the light of the sun.
  3. The inherent simplicity, size and reliability of centrifugal
  pumps make them ideally suited • for compact space turbo-
  machinery applications.
  4. These considerations show that the heaviest nuclei should
  be inherently stable.
  5. As the Universe is so vast, it seems inherently improbable
  that one small Earth can be the only home of life.
  6. Of the many classes of future space missions under study,
  a few are Inherently well suited to the operational advantages of
  reactor power systems.
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что глагол to tend D,19)
  во многих случаях переводится словами симеть тенденции", "обычно.
  1. The protons in the nucleus tend to repel one another.
  2. The method of question and answer tends to focus attention
  on particular points.
  3. As has already been seen, temperature tends to decrease
  with altitude when flying in the troposphere.
  15. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова одного словообразовательного
  ряда.
  specify v, specific a, specification n D, 9)
  1. At an early stage in a design project for a given reactor, it
  is necessary to specify the type of fuel to be used.
  1 shine - светить
  107
  2. Specific thrust is the thrust obtained per unit mass of propel-
  lant per second.
  3. Experimental developments may be expected to result in
  significantly different technical developments, each serving a
  specific purpose.
  4. Receiver sensitivity measurements are made to determine
  whether or not the receiver is performing according to the required
  sensitivity specifications.
  enter v, entry n, re-entry n, re-enter и D, 21)
  5. When a neutron enters a nucleus, the new or compound nu-
  nucleus gains an energy called the binding energy of the neutron.
  6. According to Einstein's mass-energy hypothesis, the weight
  of the material entering into reaction is not exactly equal to the
  weight of the products formed.
  7. We shall assume that the escape from the circular orbits
  and the entry into it are achieved by simple impulsive thrusts.
  8. The re-entry trajectory of "Vostok" was chosenl so that
  deceleration load on entering the dense layers of the atmos-
  atmosphere was no greater than the loads permissible for men.
  9. The air after being drawn through the tunnel flows around
  the outside of the tunnel to re-enter the inlet of the tunnel.
  promise v, promise n, promising a D, 35)
  10. Nuclear propulsion systems of high thrust-to-weight ratio
  promise significant increases in performance over current chemi-
  chemical systems.
  11. In the field of scientific investigations miniaturization of-
  offers great promise.
  12. The solar energy as a source of energy for propulsion of
  space vehicles is a most promising source.
  appreciate v, appreciation n, appreciable a, appreciably adv
  D, 23)
  13. The first person to fully appreciate the potentiality of the
  rocket was К. Е. Tsiolkovsky.
  14. It is difficult for us to appreciate just what Galileo's disco-
  discoveries meant in those dark days of Middle Ages.
  15. In order to gain appreciation for the sort of accuracies
  •needed in space travel guidance problems, consider the following
  examples.
  16. Alpha particles were found to penetrate deeply within an
  atom without undergoing any appreciable deflection.
  17. Magnesium alloys2 are appreciably lighter than aluminum.
  1 choose - выбирать
  1 alloy - сплав
  108
  propel v, propulsion n, propellant n, propulsive a D, 32)
  18. There is no other power unit besides rockets that can propel
  a missile so rapidly at great heights.
  19. The rocket motor is a form of reaction propulsion in which
  all propellants which form the propulsive jet are carried along1
  with the vehicle being propelled.
  20. In 1903 К. Е. Tsiolkovsky described a streamlined rocket-
  driven vehicle for space travel which used liquid oxygen and
  hydrogen as propellants.
  16. Переведите предложения, содержащие многозначные глаголы. После пере-
  перевода предложений повторите еще раз их значения-
  leave D, 22)
  1. The space pilot can perform all the necessary operations con-
  connected with observation, communication with the Earth and flight
  control without leaving his seat.
  2. Imagine a rocket leaving the surface of the Earth with such
  a velocity.
  3. At the free surface of a liquid, there is a continual interchange
  of molecules leaving the liquid and molecules entering the liquid.
  4. The electrons are sufficient in number to neutralize the
  charge on the nucleus, leaving the atom uncharged as a whole.
  5. Exhaust velocity is the velocity with which a combustion gas
  leaves the throat of a rocket motor.
  suffer D,27)
  6. The propeller suffers the loss of efficiency as speeds rise
  above about 450 mph.
  7. The planet Jupiter has several satellites whose orbits are so
  nearly in the plane of the planets' orbit that they pass through the
  shadow of the planet and suffer eclipse г at every revolution.
  8. These rockets are able to reach altitudes of more than 50 mi-
  miles, but they suffer from the fact that their time of flight is limited.
  lead D,30)
  9. Our Research Centre leads the entire work on measuring
  cosmic ray intensity.
  10. The processes involved with the change in the structure
  of a nucleus frequently lead to the direct conversion Of mass to
  energy or energy to mass.
  11. Simple considerations lead us to expect that the heaviest
  nuclei should be inherently stable.
  * carry along - нести
  1 eclipse - затмение
  109
  17. Переведите предложений, содержащие прилагательное available D,24)
  "имеющийся", "доступный", "полученный", сочетание to be available
  "иметься", "получаться" и существительное availability "наличие", "доступ-
  "доступность".
  Запомните, что слово available не переводится в некоторых случаях
  совсем (предложения 4 и 5).
  1. The total work depends on the amount of available energy.
  2. Observations available to the first sateilites included the
  Earth's magnetic field, cosmic radiation, solar radiation and
  ionization.
  3. The energy available from fission of U-235 is about 107 times
  that of chemical reaction of an equal mass of any combustible
  mixture.
  4. There are many other precise measuring instruments avail-
  available that are not listed here.
  5. There are several available books dealing with the current
  use of rockets for high-altitude research.
  6. The greater the pressure drop, as the gas leaves the rocket,
  the more energy is available to move the rocket forward.
  7. From some sources only a limited amount of energy is
  available.
  8. With the availability of microwave sources having directly
  determined frequencies, the determination of the velocity of electro-
  electromagnetic waves will become a standard laboratory experiment.
  9. Rocket engines either burn fuel that contains the oxygen
  needed for its combustion or they carry their own supply of oxygen,
  so they do not depend on the availability of oxygen from the at-
  atmosphere.
  10. The availability of nuclear energy is a scientific advance
  of recent years.
  18. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность выделен-
  выделенных существительных, н укажите значения каждого из них.
  item D,26)
  1. Every item of equipment carried aboard the missile possesses
  weight and occupies space which has to be considered in design-
  designing the missile.
  2. Several main items which make up a complete power unit
  are illustrated in Fig. 51.
  3. Another item to analyse from a space station is meteoritic
  dust * distribution.
  impact D,36)
  4. X-rays radiate from the place of impact wherever that may
  be.
  5. Brownian movement is the motion of very small particles
  under the impact of gas or liquid molecules,
  1 meteoritic dust - метеоритная пыль
  110
  6. Astronautics is found to have an important impact on educa-
  education.
  7. During the boost stage, when the powerful rocket motors
  were working and major Gagarin felt the full-impact of the high
  loads, vibration and noise, he continuously reported all the neces-
  necessary information.
  technique D,37)
  8. Although the ascent technique used by this vehicle is essen-
  essentially the same as in other vehicles, there are significant differ-
  differences in the method of utilizing the booster.
  9. Meteorites found on the surface of the Earth have been
  analysed by chemical, physical, metallurgical and nuclear techni-
  techniques.
  10. The varied types of missiles and space projects demand the
  use of different techniques.
  scale D,40)
  11. Two scales in common use to-day are the Fahrenheit and
  Centigrade.
  12. During the I. G. Y. (International Geophysical Year) scien-
  scientists from sixty nations studied the surface of the Earth, on a scale
  never before possible.
  19. Переведите предложения, содержащие близкие по значению прилага-
  прилагательные.
  current D,29), present
  1. After an introductory summary1 of current ideas on atomic
  structure, X-rays and radioactivity are discussed from an experi-
  experimental standpoint.
  2. The atomic character of matter belongs to the most certain
  facts of our present knowledge.
  20. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова so D,34)
  н словосочетаний с ним.
  1. The first man who left the ground and really ascended into
  the air did so by the lift of hot air enclosed in a paper bag.
  2. In order to circle the Earth, and so remain in a permanent
  orbit, a rocket must attain a speed of 18,000 mph.
  3. At the time of the First Internationa.1 Polar Year A882-
  1883) the existence of the ionosphere was not definitely establish-
  established, so there were no ionospheric measurements in the program.
  4. During the first stage of the take-off it is usual to keep the
  tail of the airplane up so as to reduce the drag.
  5. A curved surface may be placed in a stream of air so that
  the air meets the surface tangentiaily but is gradually deflected
  so that the air leaves the surface in a direction different from its
  original position.
  1 summary - краткое изложение
  111
  6. So far we have assumed that nuclei are spherically sym-
  symmetrical.
  7. The plane will continue its flight so long as the fuel lasts.
  8. Avogadro advanced an idea that gaseous elements were
  organized into molecules, so that a molecule of hydrogen con-
  consisted of a union of two hydrogen atoms, a molecule of oxygen -
  of a union of two oxygen atoms, and so on.
  9. Our Milky Way system has 100 billion or so stars.
  21. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов
  outset, lack, failure, view, succession, evidence, domain, assumption.
  1. We have to realize from the very outset that the rocket is not
  a new invention.
  2. The neutrons because of their lack of charge, readily pene-
  penetrate other nuclei.
  3. A pound of excessive weight for a satellite may lead to a
  complete failure.
  4. One television camera transmitted a full-face view of tjie
  cosmonaut and the othef a side-view of him.
  5. One scene followed the other in rapid succession.
  6. Having collected all the experimental evidence, the scientists
  concluded that the velocity of light was 2.99773Ђ.0000lXl010
  centimetres per second.
  7. We know that the entry into any new domain results in new
  discoveries which often cannot be predicted.
  8. Plank found that he could derive a mathematical formula by
  making an assumption that a body cannot radiate energy conti-
  continuously.
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  22. Переведите термины, состоящие из существительного и определения, выра-
  выраженного двумя существительными, соединенными предлогами.
  А. Термины с предлогом to
  surface-to-air missile
  ракета класса "земля - воздух"
  Английский термин
  air-to-ground television system
  underwater-to-air missile
  antenna-to-grid circuit
  signal-to-noise ratio
  air-to-air action
  surface-to-surface missile
  fuel-to-moderator ratio
  pulse-to-pulse correlation
  point-to-point communication
  pick-to-pick current
  Область применения
  телевидение
  ракетная техника
  радио
  "
  авиация
  ракетная техника
  ядерная физика
  телевидение
  радио
  телевидение
  иг
  Б. Термины с предлогом of
  rate-of-climb indicator
  индикатор скорости набора высоты
  Английский термин
  Область применения
  velocity-of-propagation error
  rate-of-turn gyroscope
  line-of-sight distance
  figure-of-noise
  радио
  авиация
  радио
  В. Термины с предлогом by
  layer-by-layer winding
  обмотка "слой за слоем" (обмотка равными слоями)
  Английский термин
  step-by-step method
  step-by-step switch
  point-by-point computation
  Область применения
  математика
  радиоэлектроника
  вычислительная тех-
  техника
  23. Переведите термины, вторым компонентом которых являются прилагатель-
  прилагательные free и tight.
  Заметьте, что free в этом случае имеет значение "без" (свободный от),
  a tight - "непроницаемый" (плотный).
  accident-free
  от чего?-*- свободный
  от аварии
  безаварийный
  Английский термин
  error-free operation
  gravity-free flight
  drift-free amplifier
  friction-free movement
  air-free space
  noise-free operation
  watertight capsule
  airtight cabin
  vapour-tight chamber
  i
  Область применения
  автоматика
  космонавтика
  радиоэлектроника
  детали машин
  приборы
  радиоэлектроника
  космонавтика
  авиация
  двигатели
  .пз
  * Упражнения в чтении
  24. Прочитайте следующие существительные с суффиксами -tlon и -Ity и при-
  прилагательные с суффиксами -1с и -ive (-atlve), соблюдая правильное уда*
  рение:
  limi'tation, application, dissoci'ation, consumption, com'bust-
  ion, com'pression, 'mission, compe'tition, pro'pulsion, distri'bution
  ca'pacity, e'quality, in'tensity, sim'plicity, re/lia'bility, capa'bi-
  lity, a, vaila'bility, ;hyperve'locity
  peri'odic, i'onic, ki'netic, 'scien'tific, spe'eific.
  effective, protective, ex'plosive, sue'eessive, ex'tensive, com'pe-
  titive, 'relative, in'dicative
  25. Прочитайте следующие группы существительного, содержащие определение,
  выраженное сложным прилагательным, соблюдая при этом правильное
  ударение:
  'air-'breathing 'engine
  'rocket-pro'pelled missile
  'high-'speed 'passenger-'carrying 'airplane
  'rotor 'tip-'drive 'unit
  'rocket-'powered 'vehicle
  'vehicle-trans'ported pro'pellant
  2в. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  breathe [bri:6] appreciably [g'pri:Jabli]
  introduce [,intra'dju:s] significant [sig'nifikant]
  jettison ['d3etisn] revival [n'vaival]
  inherent [in'hiarant] promising ['pramisin]
  overall ['ouvara:!] impact ['impaekt]
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. NOISE'. THE THEORETICAL LIMIT TO MEASUREMENT
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Imagine that the attempt is made to detect and measure an
  extremely small electric current by means of a sensitive moving-
  coil galvanometer. By taking various precautions2 the galvano-
  galvanometer in question may be made so sensitive that an appreciable
  movement of the coil3 is seen when a current of the order of
  10-*2 A flows in it. Such an instrument can detect such current,
  but it is found impossible to measure the current accurately be-
  because the zero4 of the instrument continually varies. This variation
  may be shown to be inherent in the galvanometer itself and not
  to be due to any accidental5 movement of the supports. These
  variations of the zero are due to the thermal movements of the
  ions and electrons constituting the wire of the coil.
  114
  No advantage Is gained by making a more sensitive Instru-
  Instrument. Greater sensitivity Increases the effects due to the thermal
  movements of the electrons in the same ratio as the effect due to
  the current to be measured. The theoretical limit to the measure-
  measurement of current by this type of galvanometer has been reached.
  Since the movement of the coil due to the thermal movements of
  the electrons is an unwanted effect masking the effect of the sig-
  signal to be measured, it is called "noise." The most fundamental
  form of noise, common to all forms of detecting and measuring
  apparatus is what is called "thermal noise," and an example of
  this has just been considered in the case of the sensitive galvano-
  galvanometer.
  1 noise - шум
  1 precautions - меры предосторожности
  8 coil - катушка
  4 zero - нуль
  8 accidental - случайный
  2. FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF A GUIDED WEAPON SYSTEM
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The guided missile itself is only one part of the guided weapon
  system. In all cases the system will comprise the following three
  parts:
  (I) Equipment for locating and tracking the target. This equip-
  equipment may be a radar one in the case of surface-to-air guided wea-
  weapons or may be visual in the case of a short-range antitank mis-
  missile.
  (II) Guidance equipment, the purpose of which is to detect
  where the missile is relative to the target and produce the neces-
  necessary instructions for steering the missile towards the target.
  (III) The missile itself, which is provided with the necessary
  steering equipment so that by making use of the guidance signals
  it can 6teer itself towards the target.
  The distinctive part of any guided weapon system is the method
  of guidance that is used. The four methods together with their sub-
  subdivisions are:
  I. Beam Riding'.
  Here the tracking equipment in use maintains a beam of ra-
  radiation on the target, and a guidance equipment is carried in the
  missile which is capable of detecting the error between the missile
  and the centre of the beam. The missile uses this information to
  steer it towards the beam centre so that finally the missile is rid-
  riding along the axis of the beam, which is itself remaining on the
  target. The missile follows a curved course, as shown in Fig. 1.
  115
  Impact T4
  Successive target
  positions
  T, T,
  Beam shown
  when on
  position T,
  Radar
  successive position* of the missile
  Fig. 1. Beam riding.
  II. Command Guidance.
  The tracking equipment follows the target as before. A second
  equipment continuously tracks the missile. A third equipment, a
  computer, works out at each instant the correct steering signals
  for the missile in order to head it towards the target successfully.
  A command link then sends the correct commands to the missile
  to enable the control surfaces to be correctly operated. See Fig. 2.
  Target
  impact т path
  J /
  Command
  transmitter
  \ Missile /
  \ -tracker /
  Д-i/ r-*-\ Target
  I Г 1 1 tracker
  Computer
  Fig. 2. Command guidance.
  III. Homing Guidance2.
  In this case target-tracking equipment is carried in the missile
  itself. For example, a miniature radar equipment carried in the
  missile continuously tracks the target, and, from this information
  a computer in the missile calculates the necessary signals so as to
  steer the missile to interception (Fig. 3).
  116
  Impact
  Homing head
  TracKing and
  illuminating radar
  Fig. 3. Semi-active homing.
  There are three subdivisions:
  a. ACTIVE HOMING. In this case the missile itself radiates
  energy in order to light up the target in order to track it.
  b. SEMI-ACTIVE HOMING. In this case a tracking equip-
  equipment on the ground illuminates the target continuously.
  с PASSIVE HOMING. In this case the missile relies on
  energy radiated by the target itself, such as heat coming
  from the engines of an aircraft or a ship, or the target's own
  radio signals.
  IV. Inertia Navigation 3.
  The system is similar to the navigation of a ship by dead-
  reckoning4. In the latter case the navigator, knowing the latitude
  and longitude of his starting-point and that of his destination,
  computes the course that he must steer and the distance. Then, by
  using information about his actual course obtained from the ship's
  compass and information about the distance gone, the navigator
  can mark off on his chart his calculated position without using
  any information from outside the ship. From this calculated posi-
  position he can compute his new course to his destination. In a similar
  manner, a missile can be provided with an inertial navigation
  system which carried out a dead-reckoning calculation continu-
  continuously in all three dimensions.
  1 beam riding - наведение по лучу
  2 homing guidance - самонаведение
  3 inertia navigation - инерциальное наведение
  4 dead-reckoning - счисление пути
  117
  3. SPACE POWER SYSTEMS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Many problems still remain to be solved before Interplanetary
  space exploration becomes a reality. One problem is the develop-
  development of efficient, low-weight electric power units to drive sub-sys-
  sub-systems of space vehicles.
  There are many types of indirect and direct conversion units
  for generation of electric power.
  Developments in fuel cells, solar cells and other space power
  sources are known as outstanding examples of astronautical prog-
  progress. However, there are indications that real progress has only
  just begun. Recently it was noted that vastly greater amounts of
  electrical energy will be needed in manned space vehicles and this
  calls for design improvements which are now entirely out of reach.
  Future high-power solar cell systems probably will use
  concentrating devices to increase illumination on the solar-cell
  surface and decrease overall system weight and cost.
  A major breakthrough is required in achieving high-system ef-
  efficiency before fuel-cell systems will be competitive with other
  thermal or direct conversion mechanisms.
  Space power systems are that particular branch of astronautics
  which relies on a number of different scientific and technological
  disciplines, each contributing to the other in an essential way.
  For instance, it has become increasingly clear that vastly im-
  improved high-temperature materials are essential before any
  breakthroughs can be achieved while improved design efficiences
  require weight reduction. Both problems fall in the domain of the
  solid-state physicist and the materials engineer. A related problem
  is that of heat rejection in space and how to take away unusable
  heat at low temperature in an air-free and gravity-free environ-
  environment.
  Many people now take part in researth in these fields. Physi-
  Physicists, physical-chemists, solid-state technicians and engineering-
  physicists are likely to be attracted to these new activities in what
  is certainly one of the fas test-growing fields in the entire space
  business.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Как найти основное слово группы существительного
  (combustion chamber pressures in liquid rocket engines vary...;
  passenger-carrying airplane having...; the combustion chamber
  that...; the propulsion unit imaginable...) (ј 83)?
  2. В какой последовательности следует переводить группу
  существительного с левыми определениями (ј 84)?
  3. На какие вопросы могут отвечать при переводе слова,
  стоящие слева от основного слова (the gas-filled free balloon;
  passenger-carrying aircraft, fast-operating device)?
  118
  4. Какое место по отношению к основному слову может зани-
  занимать прилагательное, выполняющее функцию определения (the
  radar tracking system available; available information)?
  5. Укажите возможные способы перевода прилагательного,
  выполняющего функцию правого определения (ј 89).
  6. Укажите способ перевода существительного с предлогом,
  выполняющего функцию правого определения (in use; under
  consideration; In question) (ј 90).
  7. В чем особенность перевода приложения на русский язык
  (ј 91)?
  8. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово since
  (упр. 8)?
  УРОК ПЯТЫЙ
  Текст: The Colour Spectrum.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Сослагательное наклонение (ј 34-39). Бессоюзное условное предло-
  предложение (ј 40). Различные случаи употребления глаголов should и would
  (ј41,42).
  These- как заменитель существительного (упр. 9).
  Различные значения служебных слов because н because of (упр. 10).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод существительного с использованием языковой догадки
  (ј 111 >-
  Перевод слов: yield, identify, occur, estimate, reveal, background, inner,
  outer, upper, outermost, uppermost, Innermost, draw, throughout.
  Перевод словосочетаний: to be familiar, in (with) respect to, со
  словами matter и but и типа is characteristic of (упр. 13).
  Перевод слов с префиксами over-, under- (упр. 25).
  Перевод терминов типа "self + причастие (I или II)" и терминов,
  первым компонентом которых является слово direct (упр. 26, 27).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE COLOUR SPECTRUM
  Light brings us the news of the Universe. Coming to us from
  the Sun and the stars * it tells us of their existence, their position,
  their movements, their constitutions and other matters2 of inte-
  interest.
  The first step in the acquirement3 of this knowledge is made
  when we use a prism to analyse the light. In every case we observe
  a continuous spectrum of colours running from red to violet in the
  order4 of the colours of the rainbow.
  By a closer observation of the spectrum, however, we find that
  the spectrum is crossed by an Immense5 number8 of fine7 dark
  lines, amounting to many thousands. To each of these lines there
  corresponds a definite wavelength and a definite intensity8. The
  explanation of the phenomenon can be based on absorption of ra-
  radiation. When in the laboratory, a substance is vapourtzed" and
  made luminous 10, the light it emits appears as a collection of iso-
  120
  lated lines and is characteristic of the substance. No two substan-
  substances yield " the same line spectrum and consequently the chemical
  nature of substances can be determined spectroscopically. Thus
  glowing12 atomic hydrogen is characterized by a bright line in the
  red and since it is exhibited 13 by nothing but14 hydrogen, it serves
  to disclose the presence of atomic hydrogen wherever it occurs 15.
  When a beam of light which, if analised, would form
  a continuous spectrum, passes through a less brightly glowing
  vapour, which, acting alone, would give a line spectrum, the
  spectrum formed consists of a continuous background ie on which
  dark lines appear exactly in the positions of the bright lines which
  the interposed" vapour would give by itself. The glowing
  vapour absorbs, from the light passing through it, precisely those
  colours which it can itself emit.
  When we investigate the dark lines in the spectrum of the Sun,
  we find that these correspond line by line to the spectra emitted in
  the laboratory by various elements, iron 18, calcium, hydrogen etc.,
  brought to the conditions of luminous gases.
  From this it follows that the light from the Sun must have
  gone through clouds19 of these atoms somewhere and in respect
  to20 such substances as iron or calcium, or most other elements,
  this must have happened on the Sun because there is no
  other part of the path of the light where substances can be brought
  to the state of a luminous gas.
  The radiation emitted by the Sun would have given a
  complete spectrum were it not that on its way to us it has pas-
  passed through an atmosphere,surrounding21 the Sun and containing
  the various elements in the form of gases. These gases themselves
  must be luminous and be emitting light of the very frequencies
  which we suppose them to have been absorbing and therefore
  causing black lines to appear in the spectrum.
  The hot interior of the Sun would have givena complete
  spectrum but the cooler outer22 layers absorb the radiations of
  various wavelengths, thus producing the dark lines. These prove
  conclusively23 that the elements that are found on the Earth are
  found also in the Sun and stars.
  We can use the relative intensities of the lines due to different
  elements to obtain some fairly24 reliable conclusions about the
  abundance25 of each element. If, for instance, we were to
  doubleM the amount of one element in ihe Sun, leaving the
  amounts of the other elements unaltered, we should find that
  the intensities of the lines of the particular element would be
  relatively strengthened. It is by means of such conside-
  considerations that we can determine the relative abundance of this or of
  that element in the Sun or in a remote star.
  We can, moreover27, not only identify28 the chemical elements
  in the atmosphere of the Sun and the stars but draw29 conclusions
  concerning the temperature in their atmospheres. Astronomical
  121
  spectra represent conditions which range in temperature from a
  few degrees above absolute zero to 100,000№ or even more in the
  atmospheres of the hottest stars. For the Sun the central tempera-
  temperature is estimated " to be of the order of 20,000,000№ C.
  Of all the results of stellar spectroscopy, however, the most
  interesting is the uniformity of distribution of the chemical ele-
  elements throughoutSl the Universe. It must havebeena revela-
  revelation й to the earlier astronomers when they discovered in the Sun
  the same familiar M substances - hydrogen, iron, calcium and the
  rest34 - which they knew on the Earth. Their belief in the unifor-
  uniformity of the chemical elements must havebeen st rengthe-
  n e d when several mysterious spectral lines turned outM to be
  produced by the newly discovered gas, helium. The principle of
  uniformity of chemical elements means that the atomic building
  blocks of the Universe are the same throughout space.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите сложные предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое стоит в
  форме сослагательного наклонения.
  Заметьте, что сослагательное наклонение употребляется: в прида-
  придаточных предложениях после предложений типа it Is necessary (образец А.);
  в придаточных предложениях, если в главном предложении имеется глагол
  или отглагольное существительное со значением "требовать, предлагать,
  желать" (образец В.); в предложениях с союзом It и as if (образец С).
  При переводе форму сослагательного наклонения передайте формой глагола
  прошедшего времени с частицей "бы". Обратите внимание на то, что
  частица сбы" может присоединяться к союзу.
  Образцы:
  A. It is essential that he should inform us...
  Необходимо, чтобь* он информировал нас...
  B. It Is required that an aircraft engine function properly...
  Требуется, чтобы двигатель самолета работал безот-
  безотказно...
  С. If there were no frictional losses, a machine would be
  100% efficient.
  Если бы не было потерь на трение, коэффициент полез-
  полезного действия машины был бы равен 100%'.
  А. 1. It is necessary that the aircraft engine should combine
  efficiency and lightness.
  2. It is highly desirable that physicists should solve the pro-
  problem of control of dangerous radiations before we can
  widely use atomic energy.
  3. It is essential in the application of the turbojet engine to
  the propulsion of missiles that the thrust per unit of frontal
  area be as large as possible.
  4'. It is important that the propellant remain liquid at the
  lowest temperature.
  122
  5. It is necessary that an aircraft engine function properly
  at a wide range of speeds, atmospheric conditions and
  altitudes.
  6. To maintain an aircraft hydraulic system in good order it
  is essential that a means of operation on the ground be
  provided.
  7. It is highly desirable that a person operating an aircraft
  have a good knowledge of the functions of engine controls
  and instruments.
  B. 1. It is required that all research instruments be light and
  compact.
  2. Much of to-day's scientific research requires the solving
  of difficult mathematical problems, some of which would
  require years to solve by the usual methods.
  3. We wish Tsiolkovsky's ideas were put into practice.
  4. The demand is that all measurements should be made very
  accurately.
  5. The fundamental principle of generator action requires that
  lines of force be cut by wires.
  6. He suggested that the experiment with liquid fuel rockets
  should be continued.
  C. 1. If there were no friction we could not even walk.
  2. The Earth behaves as if it were a large magnet.
  3. Our understanding of the nature of airflow would be much
  easier if the flow could be seen.
  4. If there were no frictional losses in a machine, we could
  get as much work out of it as we put into it.
  5. It would be much easier to compute satellite orbits if the
  Earth were perfectly spherical and had no atmosphere.
  6. If one burnt 1 lb. of fuel and all the heat produced were
  used in heating water, it would be possible to increase the
  temperature of about 8V2 tons of water by 1№ Fahrenheit.
  7. If the Earth's axis were perpendicular to the plane of its
  orbit, all parts of the world would have about 12 hours of
  daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day of the year.
  8. If one could gather all the parts of an exploding atom, their
  total weight would be slightly less than the weight of the
  original atom.
  9. In many cases air may be treated as if it were an ideal fluid.
  2. Переведите предложения.
  Заметьте, что форма сослагательного наклонения, образованная с гла-
  глаголом would, может употребляться без дополнительного лексического ука-
  указания иа предположение. При переводе, исходя из смысла предложения,
  употребите один из указанных в образце способов перевода данной формы
  сослагательного наклонения.
  Образец:
  The rocket would leave the Earth...
  Ракета оторвалась бы от Земли...
  Ракета, вероятно, оторвется от Земли...
  123
  1. Without the force of gravitation there would be no pressure
  in liquids.
  2. The Sun radiates as much energy every second as would be
  released by the explosion of several billion atomic bombs.
  3. A body leaving the Earth in the direction of the Moon would
  experience the gravitational field of both planets.
  4. By reduction in jet velocity it would appear to be possible
  to increase the propulsive efficiency for a given rocket.
  5. Uranium is a very rich power-producer: the atomic power
  plant uses 30 grammes of uranium in 24 hours where a thermal
  power plant of the same capacity of 5,000 kwh would require as
  much as 100 tons of coal.
  6. The problem of maintaining a store of liquid hydrogen in
  an orbiting satellite would appear to be relatively simple.
  7. The transfer of liquid hydrogen from the earth's surface to
  orbit would be rather more difficult.
  3. Переведите предложения. Укажите в английском предложении сказуемое,
  выраженное глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (ј 37).
  1. It is not essential that the stages in a step rocket be of
  increasing size.
  2. If the bar magnet were broken in two, it would still retain
  its magnetism.
  3. It should be understood that these diagrams have been
  calculated for a particular case. Other cases would give different
  results.
  4. We all realize that if it were not for the friction between
  our shoes and the floor, we could not walk.
  5. The scientific objectives may require that a space vehicle
  should maintain a fixed aspect1 with respect to the Earth, the
  Sun, the fixed stars or even to a particular star.
  6. If the Earth neither rotated nor revolved, one side would
  always have day and the other side would always have night.
  7. In some calculations the air is treated as if it had no
  viscosity.
  8. If the conductor had been moved slowly, the galvanometer
  deflection would have been smaller.
  9. We have seen that electrons in crystals have wave proper-
  properties as if they were in free space.
  10. It is desirable that such power sources (nuclear batteries)
  should be ideally suited for a number of present-day applications
  that require power in remote places.
  1 aspect - положение
  124
  11. The whole weight of a body acts as though it were con-
  concentrated at a single point, this point being called the centre of
  gravity.
  12. The accuracy of launch velocity required for an orbit round
  the Moon is higher than might at first be supposed.
  13. It is theoretically possible that a part of the nuclear energy
  might be liberated by transforming either the lightest or the
  heaviest of the elements into others of medium * weight.
  14. Without the Sun there would be no light, no heat, no energy
  of any kind.
  15. Neutrons do not occur in nature and if they did, we could
  not accelerate them since they carry no electric charge.
  16. It is necessary that the plates of a condenser be well
  insulated from one another.
  17. According to the law of gravitation, the force of gravity
  between the Earth and the Moon would be twice as great as it is,
  if the Moon were twice as massive as it is.
  18. Without sunlight there would be no photosynthesis.
  19. In the early twenties the suggestion that pictures could
  be transmitted even by wire, would have seemed fantastic to many
  people.
  20. Life could not exist on the Earth but for the heat and light
  which it receives from the Sun.
  21. Since the information from the probe 2 which passed Venus
  had to be sent back no less than 36,000,000 miles to the Earth
  the achievement would have been regarded as impossible if it
  had not in fact occured.
  22. Ideally, the consumption of fuel would be minimized if the
  solar orbit of the vehicle were a transfer ellipse tangential to the
  Earth's orbit and that of the planet, the Earth and planet being
  on opposite sides of the Sun.
  23. The solar constant is the quantity of energy, measured in
  calories, which would fall in one minute on an area of one square
  centimetre at the Earth's surface placed perpendicularly to the
  radiation, if the Earth had no atmosphere and was at its mean3
  distance from the Sun.
  24. The amount of gravitational energy which would have been
  released by the contraction4 of the Sun, for example, from an
  indefinitely great size to its present dimensions is readily calcul-
  calculable, and is found to amount to as much as would supply the
  present rate of radiation from the surface for 46,000,000 years.
  1 medium - средний
  'probe -ракета
  *• mean - средний
  4 contraction - сжатие
  125
  4. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое стоит в форме сослагатель-
  сослагательного наклонения, образованной с модальными глаголами may, might, could.
  Запомните, что в этом случае модальные глаголы часто сохраняют
  свое значение н переводятся словами "мог бы".
  Образец:
  In order that the rocket may leave the Earth...
  Для того чтобы ракета могла оторваться от Земли...
  1. A space platform might be useful as a navigational aid.
  2. In order that we may be able to find out how efficient the
  engine is, we must measure the amount of energy that we put
  into it and compare this with the energy that it produces.
  3. Studies of the atmosphere show that temperature does not
  decrease as might have been expected.
  4. In order that the rocket may ascend upward against the
  attraction of gravity, the force of propulsion must exceed the
  weight of the rocket.
  5. The space station might be a way-station on the road to the
  other planets, and a rocket reaching it could fuel up again and
  continue its flight.
  6. No useful satellites could have been launched without the
  development of the modern science and technology of electronics
  to provide the necessary guidance, control, and communications.
  5. Переведите предложения.
  Заметьте, что глаголы must н may перед перфектным инфинитивом
  выражают предположение и переводятся словами "вероятно", "по-види-
  "по-видимому", "должно быть". Перфектная форма инфинитива означает, что
  действие относится к прошедшему времени.
  Образец:
  The temperature in the container must have been very high.
  Температура в контейнере, вероятно, была очень высокой.
  1. Originally the Earth's temperature must have been extreme-
  extremely high.
  2. The planetoids may have been formed by the disintegration
  of a planet.
  3. Mercury must have lost most of its atmosphere while it was
  still hot.
  4. Though, at the present time, Mercury could hold an atmo-
  atmosphere composed of the heavier gases, the atmosphere must have
  'escaped entirely if Mercury had remained very hot for any length
  of time after its formation.
  5. In the early stages of the Moon's history the rate of escape
  of atmosphere must have been very rapid.
  126
  в. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого глагол should.
  Заметьте, что should может иметь модальное значение и переводиться
  словами "следует", "должен" (образец 1), или служить для образования
  сослагательного наклонения (образец 2).
  Образцы:
  1. The reaction should take place...
  Реакция должна произойти...
  2. If the body should move, friction would develop.
  Если бы тело двигалось, возникло бы трение.
  1. If the temperature of the liquid should be raised, a large
  supply of more swiftly moving molecules is provided.
  2. Obviously a flying machine should be stable.
  3. It is necessary that fuel lines should be protected against
  heat.
  4. The thermonuclear reaction should not be confused with
  the nuclear reaction such as takes place in the atom bomb.
  5. It should be noted that a multiple-step rocket always has
  a greater take-off mass than a single-step rocket.
  6. A molecule of water is the smallest possible particle of
  water. If we should divide the molecule we no longer have water.
  7. It is required that an airplane engine should be well ba-
  balanced dynamically and be as free from vibration as possible at
  all operating speeds.
  8. It is desired that an engine used in an airplane should have
  the least possible fuel and oil consumption.
  9. According to theoretical calculations, for a particle to pro-
  produce a million electrons after travelling through the atmosphere,
  it should possess initially an energy between 1015 and 1010 ev.
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого глагол would.
  Заметьте, что would может служить для образования сослагательного
  наклонения (образец 1) или относительного будущего времени (образец 2).
  В последнем случае would в сочетании с инфинитивом переводится буду-
  будущим временем.
  Образцы:
  1. It would be interesting to note that...
  Было бы интересно заметить, что...
  2. It was calculated that the body would move...
  Было подсчитано, что тело будет двигаться...
  1. Heat would be absorbed until the temperature of the absorb-
  absorbing body attains that of the heat.
  2. Probably the early users of telephones never dreamed that
  there would be wireless telephone.
  3. It would be useful to remember that the greater the vacuum,
  the more efficient the rocket becomes.
  127
  4. If the Earth stayed in one place in its orbit, day and night
  would not change in length.
  5. If a "short-circuit" occurs at any place in a circuit, a very
  large current is caused to flow, and this would heat up the con-
  connecting wires.
  6. The earliest experiments in flight with heavier-than-air
  machines were all based upon the idea that success would be at-
  attained by imitating the motions of birds.
  7. If our Sun were far enough from us, it would look like a star.
  On the other hand, if any of the stars were close enough to us,
  they would look like suns.
  8. Contact with the vehicle was lost after one month, by which
  time it had been established that the orbit would not pass suffici-
  sufficiently close to Venus for capture to take place.
  9. The laws of mechanics predicted that a lead * ball would
  fall to the Earth at the same rate as an iron ball.
  10. A brief list of some of the obvious diagnostic techniques
  would include measurements of electric currents and voltages
  induced in the plasma, the use of high-speed photographic equip-
  equipment, optical spectroscopy, etc.
  8. Переведите сложные предложения, в состав которых входит бессоюзное
  условное предложение.
  Бессоюзное условное предложение можно определить по порядку слов.
  На первом месте в таких предложениях стоит вспомогательный глагол
  should, were или had. Перевод предложений следует начинать словами
  "если бы".
  Образец:
  Should the engine fail, the airplane would have to make a
  forced landing.
  Если бы двигатель вышел из строя, самолет должен был
  бы совершить вынужденную посадку.
  1. Should the falling body stop all friction would disappear.
  2. Were friction removed walking would be impossible.
  3. Had the first satellite been placed into a much higher orbit,
  it would have been of far less use, as the point of greatest interest
  is the manner in which its movement is affected by drag.
  4. The gondola of Explorer JI stratospheric balloon was made
  of magnesium metal and it weighed 450 1b; had it been made of
  steel, the weight would have been a ton.
  5. Should an electrically neutral atom attain an additional
  electron, the negative charges would predominate, resulting in a
  negative ion.
  6. Were test data available the calculation of the parameters
  for designing a rocket motor would be made from these data.
  1 lead - свинец
  128 ' .
  0. Переведите парные предложения.
  Заметьте, что местонменне these (заменитель существительного), если
  оно стоит перед сказуемым, можно переводн1Ь местоимением "они".
  Исходя нэ смысла первого предложения, укажите, какое слово (или слова)
  оно заменяет.
  1. On airplanes electromotive force is supplied by generators
  and alternators. These convert mechanical energy into electrical
  energy.
  2. Navigation at sea and also by air still relies on the compass,
  which in turn depends on the form of the Earth's magnetic field
  and its various changes. These are known from the continuous
  records made at magnetic observatories.
  3. Becquerel used photographic plates and an electroscope for
  measuring the intensity of the radioactive emissions. These are
  still used to-day though in somewhat different form.
  4. Some of the wastes1 from nuclear reactors include valuable
  radioisotopes. These are radioactive forms of elements which were
  made "hot" in reactors.
  10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что слово because-"
  союз "так как", "потому что", а слово because of - предлог "из-за",
  "благодаря".
  1. Because our sense of temperature is not very reliable
  temperature measurements of our body must be made with ac-
  accurate thermometers.
  2. The energy which an object has because of its motion is cal-
  called kinetic energy.
  3. The great astronomer Johannes Kepler made several most
  important discoveries concerning the orbits of planets which apply
  to the satellites of to-day, because any smaller body revolving
  around a larger one is a satellite.
  4. Because of the relative complexity of plasma accelerator
  configurations, experiments are needed to determine the design of
  suitable plasma drive devices.
  5. The problem of power generation from fusion reactors is
  very difficult because of the difficulty of containing plasma.
  6. Because the neutron is neutral the positive charge on the
  nucleus does not affect it.
  7. Because of the Earth's rotation, the centrifugal force de-
  developed increases the depth of the troposphere at the equator to
  between 9 and 11 miles.
  И. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод ге-
  герундия и причастия I.
  1. A mass spectrometer mounted on rockets must be exceed-
  exceedingly reliable, simple in operation, and must operate automa-
  automatically for a long time without requiring any additional main-
  maintenance and adjustments.
  * wastes - отходы
  5 Зак. 849 129
  2. By mounting an ion mass analyzer on a satellite travelling
  through the ionosphere and by telemetering its readings to the
  Earth, we can obtain information on the ion mass spectrum.
  3. Since 1962 a new launcher designed specifically for laun-
  launching delicate aerodynamic models has been used at the labora-
  laboratory.
  4. In determining the total vehicle requirements, it is necessary
  to establish the nature and the effect of the various components,
  parameters, and material making up the total.
  5. Using these methods they succeeded in increasing sensitivity
  of the instrument.
  6. Though the analogue computer is less suitable for solving
  algebraic problems, it is highly efficient in solving differential
  equations.
  7. The launching rockets have a limited amount of energy which
  they can deliver to the satellite at the time it is launched.
  8. The problem of launching missiles from the ground may be
  divided into two general categories: effects of the launching phase
  on the missile and the effects of the missile on the launcher and
  the surrounding areas.
  9. Increasing the proportion of fuel reduces the critical size of
  the reactor.
  Лексические упражнения
  12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что значение выделен*
  иого существительного легко раскрывается без словаря, если опираться на
  значение существительного - правого определения и общий смысл пред-
  предложения (ј 111).
  1. Superiority in space flights belongs to the Soviet Union.
  2. The choice of the propellant depends upon the type of the
  rocket.
  3. The main feature of the neutron is lack of charge.
  4. Our nearest neighbour in space is the Moon.
  5. The validity of Newton's gravitational hypothesis was proved
  by the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846.
  6. Mass is the measure of quantity of matter in a body.
  7. The capture of a slow neutron leads До the formation of
  compound nuclei.
  13. Переведите предложения, содержащие словосочетания "to be + прилага-
  прилагательное + предлог". Укажите возможные варианты перевода этих слово-
  словосочетаний. Обратите внимание на то, что в некоторых случаях управление
  данных словосочетаний не совпадает с управлением их русских соответ-
  соответствий.
  Заметьте, что слово "characteristic" в данном словосочетании является
  прилагательным, а не существительным и, следовательно, это словосоче-
  словосочетание нельзя переводить "является характеристикой", а следует переводить
  "является характерным", "характерно для" или "характеризует".
  1. It is characteristic of the kinetic theory of heat that all its
  statements are of this statistical kind.
  130
  2. The transformation occurs rapidly, as is characteristic for a
  radioactive decay with a large energy release.
  3. These are errors which are characteristic of precise measur-
  measuring system.
  4. Such energy is typical of a cyclotrone.
  5. The author's figures are not indicative of the role played by
  the receiving aerial as a link in the whole chain.
  6. The equation 24 takes the following form, which is typical
  of many electrical integrating circuits.
  14. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово matter E,2) и словосочетания
  с иим.
  1. Early experimentors worked without satisfactory theory to
  explain the structure of matter.
  2. Cathode rays can penetrate matter very easily.
  3. The subject matter of statics is to study bodies at rest.
  4. The purpose of this chapter is to exemplify the subject matter
  of this book.
  5. To repeat the experiment was a matter of several hours.
  6. The penetrating nature of the X-rays was a matter of great
  interest for early workers in this field.
  7. Building a transistor receiver is a relatively easy matter.
  8. As a matter of fact, the variation in wavelengths is the
  principal distinction between the different types of electromagnetic
  radiations.
  9. No matter how accurate the measuring device may be, repea-
  repeated readings will not be the same.
  10. Solids maintain their sizes and shapes no matter where they
  are placed.
  11. No matter what improvements are made, it will not be pos-
  possible for the vehicle to considerably exceed the speed of its own
  exhaust *.
  15. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа различные варианты пе-
  перевода выделенных глаголов.
  yield E,11)
  1. It is evident that thermonuclear fusion reactions can yield
  propellant temperatures and performance far beyond that avail-
  available at present by any other means.
  2. To be efficient, a propellant should have a large heat of
  combustion to yield high temperatures.
  3. Research on nuclear rockets may yield information useful to
  the construction of such a device.
  4. The discovery of X-rays has yielded certain branches of
  medicine, radiology, radiotherapy and crystallography.
  1 exhaust - истечение (газов из сопла)
  Identify E,28)
  5. Some special device was used to identify the position of the
  emitted beam.
  6. We saw earlier how the energy contained in an assembly1 of
  molecules can be identified with the kinetic and potential energies
  of rotation, vibration and molecular interaction.
  16. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово but E,D) и словосочетания
  с иим. Обратите внимание на многозначность этого слова.
  1. At that time aerodynamics was a new but very important
  science.
  2. Since heat is not a substance but a form of energy, we can-
  cannot measure it directly in pounds or litres, but must measure it by
  the effect it can produce.
  3. We study every day in the week but Sunday.
  4. Several years ago the centigrade scale was in common use
  in all but English-speaking countries.
  5. Our Sun is but a star of our Milky Way, which is but one of
  many galaxies.
  6. The tailless missile generally involves but one set of control
  surfaces.
  7. Heat energy is nothing but the energy of motion of the
  molecules of which matter is composed.
  8. Life is nothing but an endless series of chemical reactions.
  9. But for the development of the helicopter into a practical
  aircraft, there is no doubt that the autogiro would still be much
  used.
  10. The accuracy and reliability of his method were so obvious
  that we could not but accept it.
  17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность выделенных
  глаголов. После перевода повторите значения этих глаголов.
  occur E,15)
  1. Acceleration occurs when thrust is greater than drag.
  2. Vibration of aircraft due to landing tends to occur mainly at
  the lower frequencies.
  3. The heaviest of all the naturally occurring atoms is uranium.
  It occurs in three isotopic forms.
  estimate E,30)
  4. It is the purpose of this chapter to estimate the danger ari-
  arising from uranium radiation.
  5. Measurements of the changes of the Sputnik's orbit allowed
  the scientists to estimate the air density at a height of 200 kilo-
  kilometers.
  6. The inside temperature of the Sun is estimated to be about
  30,000,000№ С
  1 assembly - зд. группа
  ш
  reveal E,32)
  7. Maxwell's equation reveals that all the waves of the spec-
  spectrum have the same velocity in vacuum.
  8. Radar is most successful in revealing isolated objects.
  9. The length of the new turbojet is about 150 ft. Precise
  dimensions have not yet been revealed.
  18. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа многозначность существи-
  существительного background E,16).
  1. The best time for the observation of Sputniks is when the
  Sun is below the horizon and illuminates the Sputnik against a
  dark background.
  2. The book describes the background of current work on
  rockets and guided missiles.
  3. The last four chapters of the book give the student back-
  background and related information which will broaden his under-
  understanding of the gas-turbine engine field.
  4. One needs a background in astronomy and astrophysics in
  ^order to fully understand this text.
  5. Every mechanic must have a background of special technical
  knowledge in order to operate and inspect his apparatus.
  19. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод словосочетаний
  in respect to и with respect to E,20).
  1. Titanium metal is midway between steel and aluminum alloy
  in respect to mechanical strength and temperature resistance.
  2. With respect to range surface-to-surface missiles may be of
  two types.
  3. With respect to solar particles it is of course possible to say
  that they penetrate an interplanetary gaseous plasma made up by
  the particles constituting the slower components of solar corpus-
  corpuscular radiation.
  4. Gamma rays and X-rays are both forms of electromagnetic
  radiation and differ only with respect to origin.
  5. In unpowered flight in space the principal control problem
  is that of controlling the orientation of the vehicle with respect to
  a specified reference system.
  20. Переведите предложения, содержащие прилагательные типа outer, outermost
  1. An inner wing is that part of a long airplane wing that lies
  inside the outer wing.
  2. The upper part of the earth's atmosphere is called the
  ionosphere.
  3. In a good conductor like copper, some of the outermost
  orbital electrons are only slightly bound to the atomic nucleus.
  i. The uppermost part of the atmosphere, called the ionosphere,
  is located above the stratosphere.
  5. The innermost planet of the solar system is Mercury.
  133
  21. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to draw E,29). Укажите, от
  чего зависит перевод этого глагола.
  1. Like the piston engine, gas turbine draws in atmospheric air
  which is compressed and then heated.
  2. At saturation l, electrons are being drawn to the anode as
  fast as the filament can produce them.
  3. In Fig. 81 the lines showing the direction of the pressure
  are drawn at right angles to the surface of the airfoil.
  4. History's first flight in outer space has made it possible to
  draw the immensely important scientific conclusion that manned
  flights in space are possible.
  5. Above the critical temperature there is no reason to draw
  any distinction between liquid and vapour.
  22. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод слова throughout
  E,31).
  1. Interplanetary gas, consisting mainly of ionized hydrogen,
  helium, and electrons, is distributed throughout the solar system.
  2. During acceleration space pilot Yuri Gagarin kept in cons-
  constant radio-telephone contact with the ground flight control station
  and felt well throughout this stage of flight. Throughout the period
  of weightlessness he also felt well.
  3. We have tried throughout to emphasize certain basic
  concepts and their role in understanding the natural world.
  4. When cooling is very slow and the temperature is uniform
  throughout the body of metal, crystals form more or less simul-
  simultaneously throughout the mass.
  . 5. Throughout this book the word "velocity" will always indi-
  indicate a vector.
  23. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетания
  to be familiar (with smth.) E,33).
  1. Every observer is familiar with the production of heat from
  other forms of energy.
  2. Examples illustrating the production of electric charge are
  familiar to everyone.
  3. We are all- familiar with ice, water and steam, which are
  known as the three states of water.
  4. The information in the guidebook was prepared essentially
  by those companies in the nuclear power industries most familiar
  with the section presented.
  24. Повторение.
  А, Переведите следующие прилагательные и подберите к каждому из них
  близкие по значению слова:
  immense, evident, current, ordinary, external
  obvious, outer, enormous, modern, conventional, great, recent
  1 saturation - насыщение.
  134
  Б. Переведите, обращая внимание на выделенные словосочетания: in terms
  (of smth.), no longer, long before, at all, in view (of smth.), with a view
  (to smth.), to be aware (of smth.), to give rise (to smth.).
  1. The power of mechanical devices can be given in terms of
  speed. *
  2. The basic concepts of thermodynamics are most easily under-
  understood in terms of simple experiments.
  3. The re-entry of a space-vehicle is no longer a problem.
  4. Experts predict that oil reserves will be used up long before
  coal.
  5. The life on other planets, if it exists at all, is not like ours.
  6. In view of its great simplicity the solid-propellant rocket is
  particularly well suited to developing very high thrusts during
  short periods of time.
  7. Much research has been done on submarine sounds with a
  view to controlling noise.
  8. Niels Bohr was aware that an atom possesses certain "sta-
  "stationary states" in which it emits no radiation.
  9. The disintegration of the radioactive elements gives rise to
  three types of radiations.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  25. Переведите следующие глаголы, обращая внимание на то, что префикс
  over- имеет значение "сверх", "чрезмерно", a under- "недостаточно":
  estimate
  charge
  value
  overestimate
  overcharge
  overvalue
  underestimate
  undercharge
  undervalue
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  26. Переведите термины, состоящие из слова self и причастия A или II).
  self-aiming antiaircraft missile
  самонаводящаяся зенитная ракета
  self-propelled antiaircraft artillery самоходная зенитная
  артиллерия
  Английский термин
  Область применения
  self-directing missile
  self-focusing device
  self-balancing phase transformer
  self-maintaining reactor
  self-destroying booster
  self-propelled launcher
  self-cooled device
  self-supported mechanism
  авиация
  телевидение
  электротехника
  ядерная физика
  ракетная техника
  то же
  ядерная физика
  автоматика
  135
  27. Переведите термины, первым компонентом которых является слово direct
  ("прямой", "непосредственный"),
  direct-writing recorder
  самописец с прямой записью
  Английский термин
  direct-reading meter
  direct-drive engine
  direct-motor drive
  direct-acting load
  direct-coupled amplifier
  Область применения
  автоматика
  двигатели
  электротехника
  машиностроение
  радиоэлектроника
  Упражнения в чтении
  28. Прочитайте следующие глаголы, обращая внимание иа произношение суф-
  суффиксов -ate, -Ize, -fy. Соблюдайте правильное ударение.
  [eit] [aiz] [ai]
  'separate 'ionize 'specify,
  incorporate 'emphasize e'xemplify
  investigate 'vapourize 'simplify
  as'sociate 'specialize i'dentify
  appreciate fa'miliarize 'amplify
  'estimate 'pressurize in'tensify
  fa'cilitate 'purify
  29. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на произношение суф-
  суффикса -ate.
  у глаголов у прилагательных
  [eit] [it]
  separate a separate room
  moderate a moderate speed
  associate an associate unit
  30. Прочитайте следующие слова с префиксами over- и under-, соблюдая пра-
  правильное ударение:
  'over'value 'undervalue
  'overcharge 'undercharge
  'overestimate 'underestimate
  31. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  colour ['Ыэ] exhibit [ig'zibit]
  immense [t'mens] interior [m'tiaris]
  yield ['jl:Id] double ['dAbl]
  consequently ['konsikwsnth] throughout [6ru:'aut]
  136
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. APPLICATION OF ELECTRIC-PROPULSION SYSTEM
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  An electrically powered spacecraft will probably be used for
  a round trip to some distant planet. A comparison between an
  electric and a conventional system for a proposed trip to Mars
  will show definite advantages of an electric system. For an eight-
  man crew to go on a 500-day trip to Mars, the weight of the
  electric and conventional system would be 450,000 and 8,000,000
  pounds respectively1. Both systems would have to be assembled2
  in an Earth orbit. It would, however, take only two boosters to
  lift the material for the electric system while forty boosters would
  be needed for the conventional one. Electric power propulsion and
  all other needs would be generated by a nuclear-fission turbo-
  electric system.
  There is, however, one problem that has not yet been discus-
  discussed- the radiator equipment. Vapour exhausted3 from the tur-
  turbine must be cooled and condensed before it returns to heat ex-
  exchanger and the cycle is repeated. The cooling is accomplished
  with a radiator. This creates a weight problem, since a great deal
  of surface area is required for efficient heat exchange. Besides, to
  make the electric system practical, a large number of engines
  would be required because present designs are for engines gene-
  generating only a small amount of thrust.
  Much research has been conducted on electric propulsion
  systems as they can produce such low thrusts and can run for
  long periods. This means a high degree of reliability will have to
  be attained for such systems. Even with the large amount of
  research already accomplished, the electric system is still in a
  stage of development. Lighter and more powerful units must be
  developed if we want such systems to fulfil the promise they of-
  offer for interplanetary travel.
  1 respectively - соответственно
  2 assemble - собирать
  s exhaust - выбрасывать, выпускать
  2. ION PROPULSION
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  In the various devices for ion propulsion now under develop-
  development each molecule of the propellant (usually assumed to be an
  alkali metal, notably cesium) is caused to have an electric charge;
  that is, the propellant is ionized. This might be accomplished by
  passing the propellant over heated metal grids. It is then possible
  to accelerate the charged molecules, or ions, to very high veloci-
  137
  ties through a nozzle by means of an electric field. (Electrons are
  accelerated in a television tube in this fashion). The performance
  of such an ion engine is very good, with values of specific
  impulse reaching as high as 20,000 seconds. However, the amount
  of electric power required is very large, so weight of "the power-
  generating equipment becomes a major obstacle to an efficient
  vehicle. It is supposed that some type of nuclear fission (or fusion,
  farther in the future) could be used to supply the energy for the
  electric power plant, although this step would still not eliminate
  the need for heavy electric generators, unless direct conversion of
  fission to electrical energy in large quantities becomes practical.
  For example, an ion rocket offering 20,000 seconds of specific
  impulse, using cesium for the propellant would require about
  2,100 kilowatts of electric power to produce 1 pound of thrust, as-
  assuming good efficiency. Optimistic estimates of electric power sup-
  supply weight indicate that the power unit in question would weigh
  about 8,500 pounds. The weight of the ion accelerator itself is
  small in comparison. Therefore, an ion rocket can accelerate itself
  only very slowly (about 1/10,000 of 1 g in this example).
  The primary consideration in obtaining useful thrust from ion
  or plasma rockets is the construction of lightweight electric power
  supplies. A gross reduction in electrical generation equipment, as
  compared with the most advanced modern equipment, is required
  to make the electric rocket really interesting for flight in the solar
  . system.
  3. OUR GALAXY
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Our Galaxy proved to be a spiral system.
  The question whether the spiral nebulae were island universes
  outside our own Universe continued to be debated for quite a long
  time. It has been only within recent years that the question has
  been finally settled. The key to the whole question was to find the
  distances of these nebulae, because if their distances were known
  we would at once know whether they were inside or outside our
  stellar system; we would also know their size and would be able
  to decide whether they were at all comparable in size with our
  own system. The problem was solved when it was found that
  within some of these nebulae there were stars which showed all
  the characteristics of the pulsating stars. The nebulae in which
  these stars were found were those of largest apparent size and
  therefore presumably the nearest to us. Their periods of pulsation
  were determined and their distances were inferred. They were
  found to be of the order of a million light-years. This was
  conclusive evidence that the spiral nebulae were outside our stel-
  stellar Universe and that they were, in fact, island universes.
  дав
  The size of these other universes proves to be of the same
  general order as that of our own Universe. It is found also that
  they are, like our Universe, in slow rotation; they may be thought
  of as gigantic celestial Catherine wheels spinning round, with their
  vast spiral arms. They seem also to contain about the same
  amount of matter as our own system.
  The general similarity between our Galaxy and the external
  universes suggested, by analogy, that our Galaxy is probably a
  spiral system.
  If the Sun had been at some considerable distance from the
  central plane of the system, marked out by the Milky Way, the
  spiral arms could readily have been observed. But situated, as it
  is, practically in the central plane, it is not favourably placed for
  the spiral arms to be detected. The obscuring dust clouds In the
  plane of the Milky Way dim the distant stars and make it impos-
  impossible to trace out the spiral arms, if they exist, with any certainty
  by optical or photographic observations. The development of radio-
  astronomy has removed this difficulty, for the dust clouds do not
  obscure radiations in the radio wavelength. Clouds of hydrogen
  gas emit radiations with a wavelength of 21 cms, and it has
  proved possible by radio methods to determine the direction and
  distance of these clouds, which are found to trace out well-defined
  spiral arms analogous to those observed in the spiral galaxies.
  Our Galaxy has in this way proved to be, as was suspected, a
  spiral system.
  4. THE SPEED OF COMPUTERS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Speed of operation is the one basic achievement on which all
  the great developments of the last two decades in automatic
  computing have rested. We can now multiply two long numbers,
  of as many as twelve digits each, in the time taken by a rifle
  bullet to travel about a tenth of an inch. This speed in itself may
  not be very exciting, but whenever you get such an immense
  change in a capability you must look for the possibility of some
  qualitative effects. Take travel for instance. Over a century and a
  half we have progressed from horseback to railways, cars and
  aeroplanes, a speed increase of perhaps fifty times. This, as you
  know, has had a certain qualitative effect on people's lives. But
  in computing we are dealing with a factor, not of fifty, but of a
  million.
  Let us look at two other fields where similar increases have
  occured: printing and communication. An early printing press was
  capable of printing about 10,000 words per hour. Its modern
  equivalent is capable of printing something of the order of 1010
  words per hour, and is therefore about a million times faster than
  its predecessor.
  139
  An early electrical telegraph operator could transmit per-
  perhaps 200 words per hour. The satellite communication channel
  could handle over 1010 words per hour if it were used for tele-
  telegraphy. This therefore represents a speed increase of the order of
  100 million. As we all know, printing and telecommunication have
  both had a tremendous effect on our society.
  A desk calculator of the kind that was in common use in the
  1930's could perform two or three hundred arithmetical operations
  per hour. An electronic computer is capable of doing several
  hundred million operations per hour and is therefore a million
  times faster than the earlier machines. In a few years we have
  achieved a millionfold increase in the speed of computing.
  If given such a technical advance, what would we expect to
  see happen?
  First, we would expects to see the immediate application of
  the new machines to jobs that are already formalized and for
  which computing procedures are known. Such applications are
  mostly found in scientific computing and in engineering design
  calculations.
  Secondly, we would expect people to work out explicit rules
  for doing calculations where the rules were formerly ambiguous,
  such as in business data processing.
  Thirdly, one would expect people to look for jobs where
  computation might provide a good alternative to present methods
  of inspired guess work, such as in business planning.
  Fourthly, one would expect computers to be used as essential
  parts of systems designed to do things that simply could not have
  been done without computers.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Как образуются простые формы сослагательного накло-
  наклонения глаголов (ј 35)?
  2. Назовите простые формы сослагательного наклонения
  глагола to be.
  3. Как образуются сложные формы сослагательного наклоне-
  наклонения (ј 35)?
  4. По каким признакам можно определить, что глагол-ска-
  глагол-сказуемое в следующих предложениях имеет форму сослагательно-
  сослагательного наклонения:
  If there were no frictional forces the machine would be...
  The demand is that the method be used...
  It is desirable that the device should combine...
  5. Укажите способы перевода сослагательного наклонения
  (ј 38).
  6. Назовите возможные способы перевода формы сослага-
  сослагательного наклонения, образованной с помощью глагола would
  (ј38, п. 3).
  140
  7. Какие значения может иметь глагол should (ј 41)?
  & Какие значения может иметь глагол would (ј 42)?
  9. Укажите способ перевода бессоюзного условного предло-
  предложения (ј 40):
  Should the wing create more lift than the weight of an airplane
  climbing would occur.
  10. Укажите значения служебных слов because и because of
  (упр. Ю).
  11. Какие значения имеют префиксы over- и under- (упр. 25)?
  УРОК ШЕСТОЙ
  Текст: Radar.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод несвободных словосочетаний с глаголом (ј 44-55). Обо-
  Обороты типа it follows (ј 54).
  Различные значения местоимения it (упр. 10).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: fit, medium, straight.
  Перевод словосочетаний to be referred to и as follows.
  Перевод слов с префиксом ге- (упр. 16).
  Перевод терминов, первым компонентом которых являются слова
  long (упр. 17) и high (упр. 18).
  ТЕКСТ
  RADAR ч
  Everyone i s now familiar with the theory and many uses
  of radio. The use of radio as an aid to navigation had been well
  established before World War II. As early as 1939 most com-
  commercial and larger service aircraft were fitted l not only with com-
  communications equipment but with direction-finding loops * so that
  they were in a position2 to take bearings** on ground
  transmitters. Radio direction finding was, in fact, the basis of
  such navigational aids. Yet, one should keep in minds that
  the wavelengths available for radio direction finding before the
  war lay in the m.f. (medium4 frequency) and h.f. (high.frequency)
  bands 5 and the inherent unreliability of these bands for direction-
  finding purposes, particularly at night, was largely
  responsible6 for the statement that radio could only be re-
  regarded as an aid to navigation.
  It was the application of pulse technique *** to navigational
  ї direction-finding loop - антенна радиопеленгатора
  *• bearing - пеленг
  **ї pulse technique - импульсная техника
  142
  problems that gave rise to radar, the term being refer-
  referred7 to as a code word for "Radio Detection and Ranging".
  High-frequency radio waves are reflected from any surface
  or sharply8 defined region" at which there ts a decided10 change
  from the degree of conductivity or the dielectric constant of the
  air through which the radio wave is travelling. The fact that short
  wave radiation is reflected from everything, whose electric proper-
  properties differ materially u from those of air is made u s e1г о f in
  radar.
  In radar an electromagnetic signal is sent out, reflected or
  re-radiated from the object to be detected, and received at the
  place where the signal originated.
  Radar waves are not sent continuously by the transmitter, but
  зге emitted13 in briefu pulses followed by idle15 periods. The
  reflected pulses are picked up ie by the receiver during instants in
  which the transmitter is idle.
  Radar operates with frequencies of hundreds of millions of
  cycles per second, with wavelengths of only a few inches17 or
  centimeters. Such waves are similar to light waves in that they
  are bound18 to travel in straight19 lines or in lines of sight
  from the transmitter. The effective distance of detection and
  observation is limited by the fact that such waves cannot pass
  beyond the curvature of the earth which forms the horizon 20 and
  still be reflected back to a receiver which is near the transmitter.
  The emitted pulses travel through space at a speed of about
  186,340 miles per second. It follows that measurement of the
  length of time required for a pulse to go from transmitter to
  reflecting object and back to the receiver makes it possible to
  determine the distance travelled by the pulse. Half21 of the totaln
  distance travelled is the distance from the radar apparatus to the
  reflecting object. It takes23 a pulse a little more than one ten-
  thousandth of a second to travel to an object ten miles away and
  return to the receiver, a duration л which makes it possible to get
  a continuous indication of the object on the screen of a cathode-
  ray tube *.
  Radar was brought into use25 during World War II to
  accurately get the range of an enemy ship or plane and to auto-
  automatically direct gunfire toward the target. Now radar i s largely
  made use of in peaceful applications. Without going into
  particulars28 the purpose of radar may be defined as fol-
  follows27: to detect the presence of distant28 objects, to indicate their
  distance from the apparatus, also their position to the right or to
  the left; and, if moving, their speed in relation to the position of
  the radar apparatus.
  • cathode-ray tube - электроннолучевая трубкч
  из
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено несвободными
  словосочетаниями типа "глагол to be-f существительное с предлогом":
  to be in excess "превышать"; to be in progress "происходить, иметь
  место"; to be in a position "быть в состоянии"; to be under way "осуще-
  "осуществляться, происходить, иметь место"; to be of interest "представлять
  интерес"
  to be in excess (of smth.)
  1. The consumption of fuel in a rocket engine is far in excess
  of other types of engines.
  2. Gases exert on the walls of containers pressures which are
  far in excess of those that one would expect from the weight of the
  gas.
  3. The control mechanism is usually designed so that corrective
  action is taken only if the deviation * is in excess of the permis-
  permissible range of error2.
  to be in progress
  4. Systematic observations and recording of meteorological
  characteristics have been in progress in numerous countries and
  on ships at sea for many years.
  5. Research work and experimental investigations are con-
  constantly in progress to find materials with magnetic properties bet-
  better than those in use.
  to be in a position
  6. We are now in a position to compare the cost of electricity
  generated in a nuclear plant with the cost of electricity generated
  in a conventional thermal station.
  7. In some cases it is by the spectroscope that we are in a
  position to make statements as to the substances present in the
  stars.
  8. So we are now in a position to determine the minimum cur-
  current or emf detectable by means of a galvanometer.
  to be under way
  9. The study of space on a large scale with scientific instru-
  instruments mounted on satellites is under way.
  10. The reactor programme which includes all important types
  of reactors available is now under way.
  11. There is also under way a search for new techniques of ap-
  application of transistors.
  1 deviation - отклонение.
  1 error - ошибка
  144
  to be of interest (value, importance, significance)
  12. The orbit of Lunik III is of unusual interest.
  13. The "storms" of corpuscular radiation range widely in
  intensity and it is of considerable importance to any space flight
  program to consider how dangerous they are.
  14. As compared to an ordinary nuclear power plant, electrical-
  power-generating nuclear plant is likely to be of even greater
  significance in astronautics.
  2. Переведите предложения, в состав которых входят несвободные словосо-
  словосочетания типа сглагол to come (to go)-f существительное с предлогом":
  to come into use сначинать применяться"; to come into action, to come
  Into play "вступать в действие"; to come into being "возникать"; to go
  Into play "вступать в действие"; to go into service "начинать применяться";
  to go into particulars "вдаваться в подробности"
  to come into use, to come into action, to come into play, to
  come into being
  1. A nuclear reactor will be practical at some future time when
  very large long-life space vehicles come into use.
  2. When flying in the upper atmosphere new forces come into
  action.
  3. The temperature on a planet that possesses an appreciable
  atmosphere cannot be easily calculated, because complex meteo-
  meteorological effect come into play.
  4. We cannot say with certainty how the solar system had
  come into being.
  5. In order to investigate how these new particles come into
  being, one must first study a very remarkable phenomena, the
  transformation of a photon of high energy into a pair of oppositely
  charged electrons.
  to go into play, to go into service, to go into particulars
  6. When speaking of momentum (the mathematical product of
  the velocity and the mass of an object), Newton's third law of
  motion goes into play.
  7. A new radar recently went into service.
  8. Here we shall not go into particulars as to modern trends
  in radio navigation technique.
  3. Переведите предложения, содержащие несвободные словосочетания типа
  "глагол to bring (to put, to set)-{-существительное с предлогом":
  to bring into action "начинать действовать"; to bring into use "начи-
  "начинать применяться"; to put into use "вступать в действие"; to put Into opera-
  operation "вводить в строй"; to put into practice "начинать применяться"; to set
  into motion "приводить в движение"
  to bring into action, to bring into use
  1. When the rocket approaches the Moon new gravitational
  force 's brought into action, that of the Moon.
  2. Originally, rddio was brought into use to communicate with
  ships at sea..
  145
  to put into use, to put into operation, to put into practice
  3. The first nuclear power station was put into operation in
  1955.
  4. A new solar heliograph has recently been put into use in the
  Soviet Union.
  5. The development of automatic computers is so rapid that
  often new designs have become obsolete * before they have even
  been put into practice.
  to set into motion
  6. Bodies and particles are set into motion when a force acts
  upon them.
  7. Our first knowledge of motion and its causes come from our
  attempts to set bodies in motion.
  4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  с глаголом to take:
  to take account (of smth.) "учитывать"; to take advantage (of smth.)
  "использовать"; to take care (of smth.) "заботиться, принимать меры"; to
  take part (in smth.) "принимать участие"; to take place "иметь место";
  to take into account "принимать во внимание"; to take into consideration
  "принимать во внимание" /
  1. Vector addition takes account not only of the amount but
  of the direction of the quantities involved.
  2. The first scientific atom picture which really took account
  of a wide range of phenomena was developed by Niels Bohr about
  1913.
  3. When planning communication in space we must take into
  account the ionosphere.
  4. Many models were proposed for atoms, but the first scientific
  atom picture which really took account of a wide range of
  phenomena was developed about 1913.
  5. Astronomers have begun to take advantage of several recent
  improvements in photographic materials.
  6. There are two 1,500 v.a. inverters in this system: one
  inverter powers the radar, while the second takes care of other
  fixed-frequency equipment.
  7. We have to take care not to use this measuring device when
  the voltage is too high.
  8. Nearly all gas engines are driven by explosions which take
  place within the cylinder of the engine.
  9. The process of fusion takes place inside the sun under
  enormous pressures and with temperatures of the order of twenty
  million degrees.
  10. We define an atom as the smallest particle of an element
  which can take part in a chemical change.
  11. We should take into account that X-rays and radioactivity
  are discussed from an experimental standpoint.
  1 obsolete - устаревший
  12. We must always take into consideration the amount of
  force applied.
  13. Thermodynamic properties of fluids must be taken into
  consideration when the fluid involved is readily compressible.
  5. Переведите предложения, в состав которых входят несвободные словосоче-
  словосочетания типа сглагол + существительное".
  Заметьте, что значение словосочетания можно выяснить, исходя нз
  значения существительного (ј 52).
  to make use, to make reference, to make provisions
  1. The steam engine makes use of the kinetic energy of steam.
  2. The author always makes reference to the additional litera-
  literature on every subject of interest to the reader.
  3. The designers of airplanes often make provisions for placing
  some cargo in wings.
  4. For orientation of the ship in the case of manual control,
  the spaceman makes use of an optical orientation that permits
  determining the position of the ship relative to the Earth.
  to give consideration, to give mention, to give account
  5. In the selection of a suitable power unit, we must give
  consideration also to simplicity and convenience.
  6. In the report the author gave mention of the experiments
  which are being made in the upper atmosphere.
  7. Electromagnetic theory can give a satisfactory account of
  the transmission of light in transparent media.
  8. The three preceding chapters give an account of the geo-
  geometrical theory of optical imaging.
  to pay attention
  9. The scientists pay the closest attention to all previous
  experiments and their results before starting their own experi-
  experiments.
  to place emphasis
  10. In studying motion at constant speed around a circular
  curve, the author places emphasis upon the fact that even though
  the body moves at constant speed its velocity changes continual-
  i
  6. Переведите предложения, в состав которых входит вариант словосочетания
  сглагол + существительное", имеющий пассивную форму и, следовательно,
  измененный порядок следования компонентов.
  Сравните словосочетание и его вариант:
  to make use - use is made
  Образцы:
  1. Use is made of the fact that...
  Используется тот факт, что...
  147
  2. Full advantage was taken of the properties of liquid
  metals...
  Полностью использовались те свойства жидких метал-
  металлов...
  use is made
  1. We know that the neutron is electrically neutral and use
  can be made of that property.
  2. Several systems of units can be used to express electrical
  quantities; in this book use is made of the meter-kilogram-second
  system.
  reference is made v
  3. Reference was made in the previous paragraph to different
  types of flow.
  4. Reference has already been made to a metallic thermometer
  based on the expansion of solids.
  5. For a full consideration of the behaviour of gases at rest
  reference should be made to any textbook discussing this subject.
  provision is made
  6. Provision should be made to identify the position of the
  emitted beam.
  7. Satellites of the Moon can be established if provision is
  made to reduce their velocity in the vicinity * of the Moon.
  8. The operation of any gas turbine engine requires that
  provision be made for three principal functions: 1) the compres-
  compression of the air, 2) the expansion of the air by burning fuel and
  3) the extraction of power from the jet stream of the engine.
  mention is made
  9. In this article mention is made of disturbances2 in radio
  communication due to variations in the ionization of the D-layer.
  10. Mention has to be made of radar antennas which are
  installed in modern military aircraft.
  account is taken
  11. Account must be taken of the forces which come into action
  when flying at supersonic speed.
  12. As Bernoulli's equation can be properly applied to "ideal"
  fluids, in considering "real" fluids account must be taken of the
  force required to overcome viscosity.
  advantage is taken
  13. Advantage must be taken of special properties of ger-
  germanium.
  1 vicinity - близость, соседство
  * disturbance - помеха
  148
  14. The heat-transfer characteristics of liquid metals are so
  much better than those of gas that full advantage must be taken
  of this.
  care is taken, care is exercised
  15. Throughout the book care was taken to use the simplest
  mathematical methods that will yield the desired results.
  16. As radioisotopes can kill living cells, great care must be
  taken in their use.
  17. A great deal of care must be exercised when dealing with
  liquid propellants.
  emphasis is placed
  18. Much emphasis has been placed on Brownian movement,
  i. e. the motion of very sma.ll particles under the impact of gas or
  liquid molecules.
  19. Throughout the book much emphasis has been placed on
  fundamental units of physics.
  20. Much emphasis is placed upon electrical demonstrations
  to be performed by the instructor before student groups.
  consideration is given
  21. Detailed consideration is given to fluid compressibility in
  chapter 4.
  22. Problems of navigation are much more complex in space.
  Careful consideration must be given to the velocity of the rocket
  and to the velocity of the Earth and any planet it is trying to ap-
  approach.
  account is given
  23. Most of the details of guided missiles are secret, so that no
  full account of the various weapons can be given.
  7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетания
  to keep in mind и to bear in mind ("помнить", "держать в уме").
  1. One must keep in mind that there is no such thing as a
  frictionless machine.
  2. We have to bear in mind that space exploration is still in
  its infancy, and that man has by no means achieved a complete
  knowledge of all these aspects.
  3. In our consideration of reaction devices we must keep in
  mind that solid-fuel rockets have been in use for many centuries.
  4. It must be borne in mind that objects cannot fluoresce unless
  they are specially treated by ultra-violet.
  149
  В. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  типа "глагол + прилагательное":
  to be familiar "знать, быть знакомым"; to be aware "знать"; to be
  responsible "являться причиной", "обусловливать", "вызывать"; to hold true
  "быть справедливым, соответствовать действительности"; to feel certain
  "быть уверенным"
  to be familiar
  1. Everyone is now familiar with the principles on which radai
  works.
  2. There are two properties of the atomic nucleus that should
  be familiar to us: one is its electric charge, the other its mass.
  3. One more gas is familiar to us all, the coal-gas, which is
  supplied to houses.
  to be aware, to become aware
  4. Roentgen became aware of the existence of X-rays when he
  noticed that a fluorescent substance became luminous even
  through a thick layer of some material.
  5. Astronomers have long been aware that the atmosphere is
  opaque * to the radiation of wavelengths shorter than about
  2,900 angstroms.
  6. Many people are aware that over-exposure to ultra-violet of
  certain kinds may be extremely dangerous, but they are not aware
  that the term "ultra-violet" covers a wide range of radiations
  whose physiological effects are dependent on wavelength.
  to be responsible
  7. Clouds are responsible for the brightness of Venus.
  8. The solar radiation is responsible for some interesting
  phenomena occurring in the ionosphere.
  9. Gamma rays and neutrons do not possess a charge, hence
  they cannot be responsible for direct production of ionization.
  10. It has been found that organic molecules may be res-
  responsible for the dark areas on Mars.
  11. Those sources of current in which chemical action is
  directly responsible for the flow of electricity have been called
  primary batteries.
  12. Vibration due to turbine blades is responsible for the
  characteristic noise of gas turbines.
  to hold true
  13. The above-mentioned facts hold true for the regions of the
  body which are away from the leading and trailing edges.
  14. Some of the scientific conceptions of ancient scientists hold
  true even now.
  1 opaque -непропускающнй, непроницаемый
  150
  to feel certain (sure)
  15. The experimentors felt certain that the achieved results
  would prove their assumptions.
  16. К. Е. Tsiolkovsky felt sure that space flight was a scientific
  possibility.
  9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных сло-
  словосочетании:
  it happens that "случается, что", "оказывается, что>; it requires _. (to
  do smth.) "требуется ... (чтобы сделать что-л.)>; it seems that "кажется,
  что", "по-видимому"; it appears that "создается впечатление, что", "оказы-
  "оказывается, что"; it turns out that "оказывается, что"; It follows that "из этого
  следует, что"; It follows (from smth.) that "из ... следует, что"; it
  takes ... (to do smth.) "требуется ... (для того, чтобы сделать что-то)"; It
  takes (smth.) ...(to do smth.) "(чему-то) требуется ... (для того, чтобы сделать
  что-л.)" (ј 54)
  1. It often happens that when the weight of some item of
  equipment is changed, the direct influence of this change on the
  aircraft performance will be accompanied by other associated
  changes,
  2. It required several hours to start an engine in Arctic condi-
  conditions.
  3. It seems possible that the results of the first experiments
  will be unsatisfactory.
  4. It appears that up to 103 tons of solid matter fall on Earth
  daily as meteorites from the solar system.
  5. It turns out that microwave region is as useful as the optical
  region for a number of applications.
  6. It turns out that the problem of carrying away dangerous
  by-products is not yet solved.
  7. Since electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed,
  it follows that the rate of increase of the total charge inside any
  volume must be equal to the flow of charge into this volume.
  8. Since the effects of inductance are evident only when the
  current is changing, it follows that inductance cannot be measured
  in a steady-current circuit.
  9. It follows from Bernoulli's theorem that where the velocity
  is higher, the pressure is lower.
  10. It takes our Earth 365 days to revolve around the Sun.
  11. It will take from 2 to 4 days to reach the Moon, depending
  on the exact velocity attained.
  12. The time it takes a planet to travel around the Sun is cal-
  called a year.
  13. It took nature millions of years to make coal and oil.
  14. It is possible to determine with considerable precision the
  lime it takes a body to fall various distances.
  151
  10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения место-
  местоимения It.
  1. It is possible from the results of Cavendish's experiment to
  determine the mass of the Earth.
  2. It is known that the wave nature of light, because of dif-
  diffraction, sets a limit on the resolving power of the optical
  microscope.
  3. It was the Russians who provided the first artificial planet,
  Lunik I, which was launched on January 22, 1959, and passed the
  Moon at a distance of a few thousand miles only.
  4. The light of the Sun is generally regarded as yellow, it is,
  however, much whiter than the light from ordinary artificial1 sour-
  sources of light.
  5. The solution of Maxwell's equations shows that it is pos-
  possible for varying electric and magnetic fields to propagate in
  space as an electromagnetic wave.
  6. It should be pointed out that the ability of the electron
  microscope to form an image does not depend on the wave pro-
  properties of the electrons. It is only when considerations of re-
  resolving power arise that the electron wavelengths come into the
  picture.
  7. On the return to Earth the capsule of Luna 16 landed in the
  planned area. It was completely in order with no detectable
  damage.
  8. It was Maxwell who made the great discovery that the equa-
  equations governing the behaviour of electric waves are equally ap-
  applicable to light.
  9. The study of ferrites is a very extensive subject; here it is
  sufficient to state that ferrites are substances possessing special
  magnetic properties which can be varied by the application of an
  external magnetic field.
  10. It is found that the Sun does not rotate like a solid body;
  at the equator a complete rotation takes place in 24V* days, but in
  heliographic latKude2 30№, it takes 26V* days.
  11. It is of great interest to determine whether other stars, in
  common with the Sun, possess a corona and chromosphere.
  12. Up to the present it has not been possible to detect mo-
  molecular hydrogen in the universe.
  13. The precise nature of the tremendous force inside the nu-
  nucleus is not known, but it involves the particles- called mesons. It
  is to learn about the mesons and the forces that they create that
  large machines such as cyclotrons, cosmotrons and betatrons are
  built.
  14. It is natural to consider first whether it is possible to
  improve the accuracy of observational tests of the general theory
  of relativity by using artificial satellites,
  1 artificial - искусственный
  2 latitude - широта.
  152.
  15. In circuit theory it is convenient to assume that currents
  and voltages vary sinusoidally.
  16. It is of interest to note that these methods are expected'
  to influence a significant part of the electrical industry.
  17. It requires a period a little short of two days for Mars to
  complete one revolution on its orbit.
  18. It seems from recent research in biophysics and biochem-
  biochemistry that all terrestrial life is based on the properties of the mo-
  molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and desoxyribonucleic acid
  (DNA).
  19. It is hard to believe that such technical problems will not
  be solved shortly.
  20. It is possible to investigate Martian biology by automatic
  methods so that exobiological studies do not need to await manned
  landings.
  II. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод раз-
  различных форм глагола-сказуемого:
  А. Временные формы глагола-сказуемого
  1. In recent years a variety of semiconductor devices have been
  developed for use as components in electronic circuits.
  2. Whenever we see that an object suddenly begins to move,
  we assume at once that something has acted, or is acting, upon
  to produce the change.
  3. Work is being done by new methods, and we can now have
  full confidence that the speed of light in a vacuum is not far
  from 2.9979 XlO10 cm/sec.
  4. The most famous of these almost stable atoms is radium,
  which was successfully isolated by the Curies in France and since
  then has been widely used for medical treatment.
  5. A treatment of the composition of the atmosphere would not
  be complete if attention were not given to the phenomena of
  atmospheric electricity connected thereto.
  6. In the previous chapters some of the so-called fundamental
  particles of physics have been discussed and some of their proper-
  properties have been enumerated *.
  7. Within the last few years spaceships loaded with delicate
  instruments have been leaving the Earth to study the Moon and
  the planets close-by.
  8. Solar plasma is frequently called "solar wind" and
  consists of charged particles that are continually streaming
  outward from the Sun.
  9. Before space vehicles became available a considerable body
  of information about upper air had already been built up.
  1 enumerate - перечислять
  153
  10. So far we have been discussing atmospheric effects which
  are controlled by the electromagnetic radiation from the quiet
  Sun.
  11. Several scientific experiments are being carried aboard the
  Sun study satellite. The instruments will scan the solar disc every
  two seconds when the spacecraft is in sunlight.
  12. A special instrument, the "field electron microscope", has
  been built for the exploration of metal surfaces. These investi-
  investigations have led to images of single molecules.
  13. This chapter has provided the preliminary knowledge of
  the nuclei that will be needed for the discussion of spectroscopy
  and the periodic table of elements.
  14. As in all branches of the subject, improved equipment is
  being designed to provide much more detailed and definite
  information about the variation of X-ray intensity at different
  wavelengths over the solar disc.
  15. When the Earth was being formed, any hydrogen or helium
  atoms near it were made to move so fast by solar radiation that
  they escaped from the Earth's gravitation just as if they were
  rockets exceeding the modern Earth's escape velocity.
  16. Methods of putting the principles of radar into practice
  will be dealt with later.
  Б. Формы сослагательного наклонения (ј 34-40)
  1. A lunar mission requires that at least 95 per cent of escape
  velocity be achieved to reach the vicinity of the Moon.
  2. For interplanetary trips, it is necessary that the vehicle
  exceed escape velocity.
  3. Were it not for the atmosphere, the very lowest energy
  particles would penetrate to the earth's surface at the geo-
  geomagnetic poles.
  4. Could our eyes view centimeter radio waves, we would see
  a much larger Sun.
  5. If Antares were our Sun, it would extend too far beyond the
  orbit of Mars.
  6. Because of the high temperature on the sunny side,
  Mercury's atmosphere, if it had any, must have escaped long ago.
  7. Newton concluded that if the horizontal velocity of a can-
  cannon ball were great enough, the curvature of the falling ball
  would be the same as the curvature of the Earth and the cannon
  ball would go all the way round the Earth.
  8. The tanks used for holding liquid hydrogen in a nuclear
  rocket would need to be double-walled with a vacuum maintained
  between the walls.
  9. The vacuum might also be produced by filling the space
  with some gas which would condense at the temperature of liquid
  hydrogen.
  154
  iO. Outside the Earth's atmosphere, the insulation problem is
  negligible and it would seem to be a simple matter to arrange for
  the liquid hydrogen temperature to be maintained at, say, -258№ С
  by a small refrigerating system.
  Лексические упражнения
  12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность глагола
  to fit F,1). Назовите слова, на значение которых вы опирались при выборе
  перевода глагола.
  1. Beta particles, being repelled by other electrons, are better
  fitted for penetrating matter than alpha particles.
  2. Altimeters used in aircraft are fitted with a subscale in
  millibars.
  13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что выделенные слова
  представляют собой различные части речи. Определите, какой частью речи
  они являются н как переводятся.
  medium F,4)
  1. Radio waves travel through the medium of air.
  2. Cherenkov counters make use of photo-multiplier tubes *
  and media which are sensitive to the passage of charged parti-
  particles.
  3. Medium and long-distance radio communications are con-
  conducted on high frequencies.
  straight F,19)
  4. In the absence of the force of gravity a body will continue
  to move in a straight line.
  5. The vertical motion of a projectile is the same as that of a
  body which is thrown straight up.
  14. Переведите предложения. Выберите нужный перевод выделенных слово-
  словосочетаний. /
  to be referred to (as smth.) F,7)
  1. Heat has been referred to earlier as a form of energy.
  2. The age of the electronic computer is often referred to as the
  Second Industrial Revolution.
  3. In communication engineering, interference with a received
  signal is referred to as noise.
  4. The various kinds of missiles are referred to as surface-to-
  air, air-to-air, air-to-surface and surface-to-surface missiles.
  5. Kinetic energy has already been referred to as the energy
  possessed by a moving body due to its speed.
  as follows F,27)
  6. The pumping action of a centrifugal pump may be under-
  understood as follows.
  photo-multiplier tube - фотоумножитель
  155
  7. The theoretical values obtained by various investigators are
  as follows.
  15. Повторение.
  А. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод глаголов:
  to correspond, to fail, to associate, to provide, to facilitate, to appreciate,
  to reveal, to occur, to exhibit, to yield
  1. The air pressure of 87 mm corresponds to an altitude of
  about 50,000 feet.
  2. The engine fuel system usually includes an emergency
  system * to supply fuel to the engine when the main system fails.
  3. The real problems of the turbine are, of course, associated
  with the high gas temperature.
  4. The infra-red spectrum of molecules have provided an
  excellent field for study and verification2 of the theoretical
  predictions of quantum mechanics.
  5. It is possible to facilitate the escape of an electron from a
  conductor by increasing its speed.
  6. It is not difficult to appreciate the problems facing the
  rocket engineer who must design engines involving gas tempe-
  temperatures of 5000 degrees.
  7. The man who at last revealed the secret of Saturn's rings
  was Huyghens in 1655.
  8. There is abundant evidence of the energy change which oc-
  occurs when systems undergo structural rearrangement.
  9. An excess of electrons causes the atom to exhibit the pro-
  properties of a body charged positively.
  10. Each fission process of such a kind yields two radioisotopes
  and about one excess neutron.
  Б. Подберите английские глаголы, соответствующие по значению следующим
  русским глаголам: v
  приобретать, получать; полагать, считать; исследовать, изу-
  изучать; позволять, разрешать; случаться, происходить; открывать,
  обнаруживать
  explore, obtain, happen, discover, take place, disclose, acquire,
  achieve, assume, study, attain, suppose, believe, occur, reveal,
  investigate, permit, show, receive, consider, allow
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  16. Переведите следующие слова, обращая внимание на то, что префикс те
  означает повторность действия (например, write "писать", rewrite - "снов"
  написать"):
  re-form, renew, re-radiate, readjust, reuse, re-entry
  1 emergency system - аварийная система.
  2 verification - подтверждение
  156
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  17. Переведите термины, первым компонентом которых является прилагатель-
  прилагательное long ("длинный", "длительный")
  long-endurance flight (авиация)
  полет на продолжительность
  Английский термин
  long-range gun
  long-run test
  long-distance cable
  long-time memory
  long-wave transmitter
  long-life device
  long-distance record
  long-distance telephone
  long-duration test
  long-term records
  Область применения
  артиллерия
  машиностроение
  связь
  вычислительная тех-
  техника
  радио
  "
  авиация
  связь
  авиация
  18. Переведите термины, первым компонентом которых является прилагатель-
  прилагательное high ("высокий", "большой").
  • high-power station (электричество)
  силовая станция большой мощности
  Английский термин
  high-speed storage
  high-speed indicator
  high-speed switch
  high-power gun
  high-power modulation
  high-ratio transformer
  high-wing monoplane •
  high-pass filter
  Область применения
  счетно-решающие
  устройства
  электротехника
  "
  артиллерия
  радио
  электротехника
  авиация
  радио
  Упражнения в чтении
  19. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на чтение буквы "е"
  перед буквой "г" в открытом ударном слоге:
  inherent, period, materially, experience, inferior, superior
  20. Прочитайте слова с префиксом ге-, соблюдая правильное ударение:
  're-'form, re'new, 're-'radiate, 'rea'djust, 're'arm, re-'entry,
  'recons'truct, 'reorganize
  157
  21. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  beaiing ['beanrj] horizon [ha'raizn]
  straight [streit] half [ha:f]
  particulars [pa'tikjulaz]
  22. Прочитайте предложения, соблюдая правильное ударение и расстановку
  пауз.
  1. ... the 'term being re'ferred 'to 1 as a 'code 'word...
  2. 'Now 'radar is 'largely 'made 'use 'of \ in 'peaceful applica-
  applications.
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. THE MOTION OF A RIGID1 BODY
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  After the problem of motion of a particle the simplest problem
  of dynamics is that of motion of a rigid body. This last problem
  reduces to the following two problems: A) the motion of the
  centre of mass G of the body, and B) the motion of the body with
  respect to its centre of mass considered as a fixed2 point. Conse-
  Consequently, every problem of the motion of a rigid body, for instance,
  the motion of a planet or an artillery projectile, contains the
  problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point as one of its
  component problems. We are also faced with the same problem in
  the theory of gyroscopic phenomena known to underlie the
  construction of gyroscopic instruments, for example, the aircraft
  gyroscopic flight instruments. Therefore, the problem of motion of
  a rigid body about a fixed point is not only of theoretical interest
  but also of great practical value. This problem and the problem
  of three bodies are the most famous of all unsolved classical
  dynamical problems.
  Although the problem of motion of a heavy rigid body about a
  fixed point is completely or partially solved in certain special
  cases such as those of Euler, Lagrange, Kovalevskaya, Hess and
  others, very little is known about the motion of a heavy rigid
  body when mass distribution or the initial conditions of motion
  are arbitrary 3. The same holds true in the three-body problem.
  After the cases considered by Euler A758) and Lagrange
  A788), there was no progress for 100 years toward the solution of
  the problem of motion of a heavy rigid body about a fixed point.
  Obviously, a new approach to the problem was needed.
  The success of Kovalevskaya A888) lies in her new and more
  general reformulation of the problem in terms of the theory of
  analytical functions. Considering the time / - the independent
  variable - as a complex variable, Kovalevskaya proposed to find
  all cases of motion for which the parameters defining the motion
  can be expressed as meromorphic4 functions of t containing five
  arbitrary constants. As a consequence of her proposition, she
  came to the conclusion that, besides the cases of Euler and
  158
  Lagrange, there is only one new case possible which at present is
  known as the case of Kovalevskaya.
  1 rigid - жесткий
  2 fixed - неподвижный
  3 arbitrary - произвольный
  4 meromorphic - мероморфный
  2. SONAR AND THE FOURTH DIMENSION
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The ocean depths - sometimes referred to as the fourth
  dimension at sea - are becoming witness to nuclear-powered
  streamlined-hull submersibles and to the missile-firing subma-
  submarines. We are all familiar with the fact that seven-tenths of the
  surface of the Earth is covered by water, which adds further to
  Hydrophone
  ngtit of target
  Hydrophone
  on target
  Hydrohone
  left of target
  Theoperation and system block diagrams of typical passive sonar equipment.
  An elemental system shows (left) A - the console and В - the rotating
  hydrophone.Sketches to the right illustrate use of a bearing deviation meter.
  the importance of this high speed strategic weapon. For effective
  anti-submarine warfare, means have to be found for penetrating
  the submarine's "cloak of invisibility". The mysterious ocean
  depths serve as ideal hiding places that cannot be penetrated to
  any extent by visible light, radar, or similar forms of radiation.
  The primary form of energy to be used in submarine detection is
  acoustic compressional waves of the sonic or ultra-sonic range.
  This is sonar - and sonar thus.represents the most effective system
  for determining the range, bearing, and depth of completely sub-
  submerged objects in the sea.
  What is Sonar?
  Sonar, a word coined from "Sound Navigation and Ranging
  has come to be generally applied to the various types of underwa-
  underwater sound devices for the detection of submerged objects and for
  oceanographic measurements. These equipments have different
  159
  degrees of complexity and scope but their basic operational
  principles may be classified in two fundamental types:
  passive or listening sonar;
  active or echo-ranging sonar.
  Passive Sonar
  Use is made of passive sonar to search for underwater noise-
  producing objects. Passive sonar can give target bearing at great
  range while remaining silent in itself. In a passive sonar system,
  the underwater sound is detected by acoustically sensitive
  hydrophones. When the compressional sound pressures reach it,
  the hydrophones generate small voltages which are amplified and
  are used to indicate the presence of the underwater sound source
  to the operator.
  Active Sonar
  Active or echo-ranging sonar is similar in operation to a radar
  system. Pulses of sound energy are transmitted into the water,
  and upon striking a submerged object, part of the sound energy
  is reflected back to the sonar unit. The echo indicates the presence
  of the submerged object, and the time interval between the
  transmission and reception is a measure of the range. Echo-
  ranging sonars have the advantage over conventional listening
  sonars of providing range information as well as bearing data,
  but have the disadvantage of much shorter ranges. This results
  from the reduction of the sound pressure in going to the target
  and returning from it, and the incomplete reflection of sound from
  the target. A further disadvantage of active sonars is the fact that
  they are responsible for high intensity acoustic energy in the
  water and are thus quite susceptible to detection by other sonars.
  1 ranging - определение расстояния
  3. OUR COSMONAUTS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  "Space pilot" is a new occupation which has come into being
  for the first time in history.
  The selection of people fit physically for space flight and the
  scientifically conceived special preparation and training of them
  were all novel problems. In solving them, the scientists proceeded
  from the peculiarities of space flight, from the results of the many
  previous biological experiments, from the knowledge of the condi-
  conditions of a man's stay and work in the cabin of a spaceship and
  from the response an astronaut was likely to show during flight.
  Naturally, a would-be1 astronaut could only be an absolutely
  healthy man possessing a high level of intellectual development
  and technical knowledge, a man with strong will, able to take
  160
  instantaneously well-motivated decisions in a strained situation,
  to realize them immediately, and to evaluate the situation quickly
  and unerringly.
  The selection procedure included a thorough examination of
  would-be astronauts in a clinic. Besides, use was made of special
  techniques which made it possible to determine fully enough the
  functional potentialities of the human organism and its adapt-
  adaptability to the adverse environmental factors.
  Special emphasis was placed on the psychological investi-
  investigations. The preparation course included theoretical subjects
  dealing with the tasks to be accomplished in flight and training
  in the skills necessary for the space pilot to operate the cabin
  equipment and scientific instruments. Naturally, the physical
  fitness of an astronaut was of primary importance in the pre-
  flight training.
  Physical training was purposeful. Use was made of techniques
  and facilities employed in regular physical-training exercises so
  as to perfect the physical qualities essential to a man in space
  flight.
  A good deal of attention was devoted to special exercises.
  Their principal aim was to let the astronaut get accustomed to
  the conditions likely to arise in space flight.
  Thus, the training of an astronaut for space flight was a
  difficult scientific problem. However, in spite of all its complexity
  and unusual difficulty, it was solved successfully.
  The first space flight in man's history, which Soviet cos-
  cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin effected in the satellite space-ship
  "Vostok" has made it possible to draw the scientifically vastly
  important conclusion that manned space flights are feasible.
  1 would-be - зд. будущий
  4. THE DOPPLER EFFECT
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The Doppler effect is the apparent change of wavelength of
  light (or any other form of wave motion) when the source and
  the observer are in motion relative to qne another.
  The following analogy will illustrate the principle. Suppose
  that a ship is at anchor in a sea-way. If the waves are regular,
  a certain number of them are bound to pass under the ship during
  a given interval of time. If the ship were moving directly into the
  waves, it would encounter more than that number during the same
  interval, and if moving with the waves it would encounter fewer.
  The frequency of the waves as observed from the ship would vary
  according to the ship's motion, and the same would be true of
  their wavelengths.
  The principle holds true in the case of light from a star: if the
  relative motion between the star and the Earth is such that the
  star may be said to be approaching the Earth (or, in other words,
  б Зак 849 161
  the Earth may be said to be approaching the star) an observer on
  the Earth encounters more light waves per second, i. e., the
  frequency of the light waves will seem to have increased and the
  lines of the spectrum will have shifted towards the violet end. For
  a receding star there will be a similar shift towards the red side
  of the spectrum. Emphasis is placed on the fact that this displace-
  displacement of the spectral lines can be accurately measured, and the
  relative velocity of approach or recession can be calculated
  from it.
  In certain cases the Doppler effect may also be used to detect
  rotation of a star. If the rotation is sufficiently rapid, the relative
  velocity of the edge or "limb" of the star which is turning towards
  the Earth will differ from that of the limb which is turning away
  from the Earth. The spectral lines in the light from these two
  limbs will, therefore, be displaced in opposite directions along the
  spectrum, while the light from the central part of the star's disc
  will remain unaffected. This will bring about a broadening of the
  spectral lines.
  Exactly the same method is made use of in radio astronomy
  to find out relative velocities from changes in the frequency of
  radio emissions whose true frequency is already known from other
  considerations.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Какие словосочетания называются несвободными (ј 43)?
  (Ср. to take pert и to take a book).
  2. Какое слово в глагольном словосочетании (to pay atten-
  attention, to draw a conclusion) является основным в смысловом
  отношении? В какой последовательности следует переводить
  слова для раскрытия значения глагольного словосочетания
  (ј52)?
  3. Как образуется пассивная форма следующих словосочета-
  словосочетаний (ј 52).
  to make reference, to make mention, to take account, to take
  advantage, to place emphasis, to give consideration, to give ac-
  account.
  4. Какие пассивные формы имеют словосочетания to make
  use и to take care (ј 52)?
  5. Как переводятся на русский язык следующие словосоче-
  словосочетания (ј 45-53):
  to be in a position, to be under way, to come into play, to come
  into being, to go into particulars, to take into account, to take into
  consideration, to bear in mind, to be familiar, to be aware, to be
  responsible, to hold true, to fell certain, to be bound (to do smth),
  to be referred to as (smth).
  6. Как переводятся на русский язык следующие обороты
  (ј54):
  it seems, it happens, it appears, it requires, it takes, it follows,
  it turns out that.
  7. Какое значение придает словам префикс re- (упр. 16)?
  УРОК СЕДЬМОЙ
  Текст: Computers.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод предложений с инверсией (ј 93-97).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: feed, extend, neither, nor, add, subject, once, art.
  Перевод словосочетаний: along with, by virtue of.
  Перевод оборотов: this is the case и as far as (smth.) is concerned.
  Перевод слов с префиксами рге-, post- (упр. 2i).
  Перевод терминов типа "сложное прилагательное г суффиксом -ed +
  + существительное" (упр. 22) и терминов, вторым компонентом кото-
  которых является слово proof (упр. 23).
  ТЕКСТ
  COMPUTERS
  (Fundamentals)
  An automatic computer is not a "black box" into which one
  could feed1 raw2 information, and which after a slight3 pause,
  would not fail to release finished reports, statements, schedules4,
  analyses, statistics, and answers.
  Computers are devices which process5 input6 data to provide
  output data, but input information, which the computer is to process
  certainly is far from "raw", because in the typical case, the input
  information is itself the result of an extensive7 collection and pro-
  processing operation. To get even one report from a computer re-
  requires the prior8 application of a great deal of intensive skilled9
  human labour10.
  Given below are some fundamentals concerning
  computer operations.
  Computers perform with great speed and accuracy many
  operations that up to11 now have traditionally been done only
  by human labour. Already they are showing themselves capable
  6* 163
  of playing games, translating languages and even "learning'
  from experience12. Not only can computers be taught
  to prove theorems of geometry and logic, read handwritten let-
  letters and other manmade patterns, but they can write sonatas and
  poems.
  This fact has led some writers to liken computers to "brains".
  But, perfect as modern computers are, they cannot
  be called "brains", however, because most of the real brain-work
  goes into drawing up the orders so that the machine can carry
  them out. Automatic computers are not able to devise13 a way of
  solving a new problem even when given the data. Nor14 can
  computers do any data processing without being instructed.
  It is the human being that has to think out a way of solving the
  problem, and then instruct the computer how to solve the problem
  when given the data. The computer will do exactly what it has
  been asked to do.
  The human operation of instructing the computer is called
  programming, and the resulting set of instruction is called a
  program or a routine. This programming activity is actually a
  combination of two other activities: the breaking down of a
  complete operation into a sequence15 of simple operations (such
  as adding16, multiplying, comparing, writing, etc.) along with17
  the modifying18 and writing up of the sequence of simple opera-
  operations into a set of instructions that can cause the computer to do
  complex operations provided the input data are given.
  Computers can "remember" and "recall 9 and virtually20
  unlimited is the capacity of automatic computers to
  remember (that is, to store21 information). Associated with
  the capacity of remembering is the capacity of
  recalling - the larger the amount of information computers
  remember (store), the slower is the recall.
  In operation all computers accept input symbols and produce
  output symbols. Because of this it is often helpful to think of a
  computer as a device for converting input information into output
  information. It must be remembered, however, that not until-2
  a program is prepared does a computer perform
  any conversion or transforming (that is, a data processing). To
  be more precise23, not only is it necessary to specify in
  detailed form the instructions comprising24 a program, but the
  detailed instructions must be arranged in a logical sequence
  which involves listing the logical steps required by the input-to-
  output conversion. The instructions have to be made absolutely
  complete in every detail and yet expressed25 in terms the machine
  can "understand".
  Computers are subject26 to failures, i. e. they do not com-
  completely avoid27 making errors. This lack of perfection is not
  exactly a disadvantage, however, because the proportion of error
  in the work of a computer is usually very much smaller than
  164
  would be tlie case28 if the same amount and type of work were
  done in the same amount of time by any othei means.
  Now, in considering the capabilities of the computer it is neces-
  necessary to emphasize that once29 prepared, a program can be reused
  any number of time. As far as the limitations are concerned30, we
  may say that although the computer cannot completely avoid er-
  errors, it is much more error-free 31 than are the available alterna-
  alternatives й.
  The electronic computer had more effect on the modern world
  than any other technological development the world has ever
  known, and its potential appears to be unlimited. Computers are
  used in science, education and space exploration. In fact, space
  exploration, as we know it today, would be literally impossible
  without the aid of the computer.
  There is no doubt that computers will be used more and more
  in science and industry. Electronics is the basis of these machines.
  The third generation of computers now in use is built on tiny
  microelectronic circuits, called solid logic technology. Some of
  these computers are smaller than a file drawer *. They are more
  than 1,000 times faster than the first models. As the art33 of
  electronics - the basis of these machines-develops, so34 will
  the changes be felt35 throughout the whole field of com-
  computing.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  I. Переведите предложения, содержащие инверсию.
  Помните, что на первом месте в предложении с инверсией может стоять
  неизменяемая часть сказуемого, выраженная причастием I, причастием И,
  существительным с предлогом или прилагательным. Перевод таких предло-
  предложений следует начинать со слов, стоящих после вынесенной на первое
  место части сказуемого, а затем перейти к переводу самого сказуемого
  (ј94).
  Образцы:
  1. Revolving around the nucleus are electrons...
  Вокруг ядра вращаются электроны...
  2. Included in this table are the data...
  В эту таблицу включены данные...
  3. Under development in Dubna is the particle accelerator...
  В Дубне разрабатывается ускоритель частиц...
  4. Important for the investigation of upper atmosphere is
  the knowledge...
  Для исследования верхних слоев атмосферы важно
  знать...
  * file drawer - ящик картотеки
  165
  1. Discussed in this chapter are some of the general characte-
  characteristics inherent to semiconductors.
  2. Included in this section is a description of a topical air-
  airborne liquid oxygen system"
  3. Shown on the photo is the equipment available at many
  airports to start piston-engined aircraft.
  4. Described in this book are all the rocket ьрасе-probing craft
  including the sputniks.
  5. Associated with each electron is a wave which is propagated
  in the direction of the motion of the electron.
  6. Now under construction at the aircraft plant near N. is the
  research airplane which will reach a height greater than all the
  preceding aircraft of this type.
  7. Acting on a body are few forces which cannot be neglected.
  8. Of primary importance to science will be the knowledge
  obtained by sputniks of radiations which bombard the outer layers
  of the atmosphere before they are filtered by absorbing layers in
  the lower atmosphere.
  9. Of primary interest to the nuclear physicists are the so-called
  mesons, which can be produced and studied in the laboratory and
  which are believed to be closely related to the forces between
  nuclei.
  10. Similar in structure to the solar system is the atom.
  11. Fundamental to the preliminary design of any reactor is
  a knowledge of the conditions required for nuclear criticality.
  2. Переведите предложения с инверсией, в которых на первом месте стоя1
  обстоятельственные слова с выделительным или ограничительным значе-
  значением.
  Помните, что в этих предложениях первая (изменяемая) часть сказуе-
  сказуемого стоит перед подлежащим, а вторая-после подлежащего. Если ска-
  сказуемое состоит только из одного слова, то перед подлежащим стоит вспо-
  вспомогательный глагол do (did), который не переводится (образец 2). Пере-
  Перевод в обоих случаях следует начинать с обстоятельственных слов, затем
  перевести подлежащее, а за ним сказуемое (ј 95).
  Образцы:
  1. Only in recent times was the theory developed that...
  Только недавно была разработана теория, которая...
  2. Only in rare instances does the operating time of the
  rocket engine exceed...
  Только в очень редких случаях время работы ракетного
  двигателя превышает.,,
  1. Only in this century have we found how to control, create
  and destroy the nucleus of the atom.
  2. Not only does the number of protons present in the nucleus
  determine the element the atom forms, but it determines the
  chemical characteristics of that element.
  166
  3. Never before has the imagination of mankind been cap-
  captivated ' so much by the concept of space.
  4. Not until 1907, when gasoline engines were available, did
  the first helicopter fly.
  5. Not only did the Greeks know that the Earth was spherical,
  but they measured its size with an appreciable accuracy.
  6. Science is a continuing process and at no stage can one say
  that one's knowledge is complete and final.
  7. Not only do electrons increase the mass as they get to
  higher energies, but at very high eneigies they actually radiate
  away their energy as electromagnetic waves, some short enough
  to appear as visible light.
  8. Although the existence of infrared radiation was realized
  well over a century ago, only in the last two decades have ap-
  applications been widespread.
  9. Not only do metals conduct heat, but so do all other sub-
  substances.
  3. Переведите предложения, содержащие инверсию, которая начинается сло-
  словами neither или пог, имеющими значение "также не".
  Образец:
  The length of the axial rotation period of the planet remains
  unknown, nor is the axial inclination known.
  Продолжительность периода вращения этой планеты во-
  вокруг оси неизвестна, а также не известен наклон ее оси.
  1. The Milky Way is not uniform in brightness, nor is the
  distribution of the stars in the Milky Way uniform.
  2. In the tropical regions of the world, the weather is subject
  to the influences of other temperature zones. There exists no well-
  defined air mass density, neither are there well-defined pressure
  patterns.
  3. Great cold may not by itself make life (on other planets)
  impossible, nor by itself may great pressure.
  4. The Moon having no atmosphere, there can be no wind, nor,
  of course, can there be any noise, for sound is carried by the air.
  5. The result of measuring the intensity of ionizing radiation
  in the E-layer was quite unexpected, nor had it been foreseen by
  the solar physicists.
  6. The need for reliable, rapid and efficient means of com-
  communication has never been greater than it is to-day - nor is this
  need likely to decrease in the future.
  1 captivate - захватывать
  167
  4. Переведите предложения, содержащие инверсию, которая начинается ело
  вом so ("также").
  Заметьте, что в этих предложениях сказуемое представлено не noi
  ностью, а лишь вспомогательным или модатьным глаголом При переводе
  однако, рекомендуется полностью повторить сказуемое первого предю-
  жения.
  Образец:
  The glass rod if rubbed with silk attracts small objects, so
  does the sealing wax.
  Стеклянная палочка, если ее потереть о шелк, притягива-
  притягивает небольшие предметы; также притягивает небольшие
  предметы и сургуч.
  J. Copper readily allows electric current to flow through it and
  so does silver.
  2. As the art of electronics itself develops, so will the changes
  be felt throughout the whole field of computing.
  3. Sputnik II provided one of the simplest and, at the same
  time, most sensitive methods of recording the intensity of micro-
  meteors, so did Sputnik III.
  S. Переведите предложения, содержащие инверсию.
  Заметьте, что на первом месте в предложении стоит прилагательное,
  за которым следует союз as или though (имеющий значение "хотя",
  ј 97). Перевод рекомендуется начинать с союза, затем перевести подле-
  подлежащее, находящееся за союзом, а уже потом сказуемое.
  Образец:
  Important as this problem is in itself...
  Хотя эта проблема и является важной...
  1. Little though the probability of a collision of rockets and
  large meteors may be, the possibility still exists.
  2. Useful as electron tubes are, they are not essential to the
  successful operation of electronic devices.
  3. Uncertain though information about meteoritic input to the
  earth's atmosphere may be, the satellite data indicated an estimate
  of 800,000 to 1 million tons per day.
  4. Difficult as it is to observe the surface markings of Mercury,
  it is far more difficult to obtain any certain evidence of an atmo-
  atmosphere.
  5. Simple as it seemed at its discovery, the neutron is now
  known to be a very complex object.
  6. Lightweight though titanium is, it in certain respects exceeds
  in strength some of the best grades of steel.
  в. Переведите предложения, используя приведенные ниже слова и словосоче-
  словосочетания. Употребите инверсию.
  1. На рисунке показан циклотрон.
  2. Вокруг ядра располагаются электроны.
  3. С тягой двигателя тесно связан вес самолета.
  168
  4. К каждой летной школе прикреплены инструкторы.
  5. В этой главе описываются основные виды снарядов.
  the cyclotron, on the photo, is shown
  the nucteus, the electrons, are surrounding
  with thrust, the weight of the airplane, is associated
  to every pilot school, instructors, are attached
  in this chapter, the main types of missiles, are described
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие инверсию.
  Заметьте, что если во втором предложении, содержащем инверсию,
  на первом месте стоит причастие, то часто для связи его с предыдущим
  предложением приходится вводить слова "при этом", "здесь же", "сюда
  же" и др.
  1. The book attempts to give a fairly detailed description of the
  first astronautical experiments made from artificial satellites.
  Given also are some of the theoretical investigations that have
  gone along with these experiments.
  2. Rutherford and Niels Bohr came to the conclusion that the
  atom consisted of a central core, the nucleus, having a positive
  electric charge. Revolving around it in various orbits are a number
  of negative electrons.
  3. Prior to flight, all operational equipment that can be ope-
  operated on the ground is "run" and its functioning is checked'.
  Included are engines, flight controls, radios, navigational
  instruments, etc.
  4. The basic properties inherent to the materials used for
  electromagnets and permanent magnets are considered in this
  chapter. Included are the calculations of magnetic circuits and
  some facts about the earth's magnetism.
  5. As the velocity of an electron increases so does its kinetic
  energy.
  6. Neither the protons nor the neutrons or electrons involved
  in the process of fission disappear. Nor do they become smaller.
  7. Little as it is this thermal radiation can be detected from
  the Sun's surface at very short radio wavelengths.
  8. Only within comparatively recent times has it been widely
  accepted that the Earth, rather than the sky, rotates.
  9. Although the biosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen,
  carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, other elements are essential con-
  constituents of living matter. Notable among them are phosphorus
  and sulfur.
  10. A few materials, notably the transition elements Co, Ni, Fe,
  exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour. Not only are they attracted very
  strongly by a magnetic field but they often have a strong
  magnetic moment even in the absence of an external magnetic
  field.
  check - контролировать
  169
  11. The detailed mathematical investigation of the orbits of a
  charged particle entering the field of a magnetic dipole from a
  great distance showed that in no case could such particles be
  trapped *.
  12. No longer can we, with absolute truth, say of light that it
  travels in straight lines. No longer can we say, convincingly2 that
  parallel lines never meet; nor that the straight line joining two
  points is the shortest distance between them.
  8. Переведите предложения.
  Помните, что служебное слово not until может быть союзом или пред-
  предлогом: cj -"только, когда"; ргр - "только в", "только после". Заметьте,
  что после служебного слова not until может употребляться инверсия.
  • 1. The phenomena of electricity was discovered quite early, but
  not until the end of the last century was it known that electricity
  is nothing but a flow of charged particles, which the scientist
  named electrons.
  2. Not until the seventeenth century did man begin to un-
  understand pressure.
  3. Not until mechanics of fluids, mechanics of solids and ap-
  applied mathematics were sufficiently advanced was it possible to
  solve the main problems of flight mechanics.
  4. The quantity of solar radiation received at outer layers of
  the earth's atmosphere on a unit of surface in a unit of time is
  called the solar constant. Its value has been estimated to be
  1.94 cal/cm2/min. Not until this radiation is absorbed ь heat
  liberated.
  5. Tycho Brahe collected a vast number of individual ob-
  observations about the motion of the planets and Kepler brought
  order into these by deducing from them his three laws, but not
  until Newton had proposed his law of universal gravitation, could
  a consistent3 scheme be built up.
  6. Not until 1896 was it found that compounds of uranium
  emitted rays that affected4 a photographic plate covered with
  black paper.
  7. The first extraterrestrial radio waves were discovered ac-
  accidentally in the 1930. However, not until 15 >ears after the first
  observation did the science of radio astronomy begin to make
  noticeable progress.
  9. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод со-
  сослагательного наклонения (ј 34-40).
  1. It has always been the hope of chemists and physicists that
  the atomic weight of all elements would prove to be whole
  numbers.
  1 trap - захватывать
  2 convincingly - с уверенностью
  * consistent - зд. логичный, стройный
  4 affect - оказывать влияние
  170
  2. The continual increase of weight of the spacecraft might ap-
  appear to be necessary to communicate over increasingly large
  distances.
  3. It would appear to be certain that most important applica-
  application of this device will not be on earth but ou-tside our planet.
  4. Although in principle a nuclear chain reaction might appear
  to be simple, for many years no nuclear reactions were known that
  had the needed self-propagating property.
  5. Gas-cooled reactors would seem to be the most suitable for
  this purpose.
  Лексические упражнения
  10. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to feed G,1). Укажите, от
  чего зависит выбор перевода глагола.
  1. Originally the radio equipment and navigation lights were
  usually fed with electric current from small generators driven by
  the engine.
  2. The unit burned liquid oxygen and a mixture of alcohol and
  water which were fed into the combustion chamber by special
  pumps.
  3. In the case of the bevatron (a proton synchrotron) a special
  accelerator feeds protons into the machine at about 10 MeV.
  11. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова одного словообразовательного
  ряда. Обратите особое внимание на многозначность существительного extent
  G,7). Укажите, иа значение каких слов вы опирались при выборе перевода
  9того существительного.
  extent n, extend v, extended a, extensive a, extensively adv
  1. Infra-red radiation emitted by hot bodies extends from
  about 0.1 mm down to 7,000 A.
  2. During the past year some success has been achieved in
  extending the range of spectrographic measurements into the soft
  X-ray region.
  3. The evidence from observations of meteors appears to indi-
  indicate that our atmosphere extends upward at least 500 miles.
  4. Through experiments it has been determined that the
  maximum temperature at which a man can maintain efficiency for
  extended periods is 80№ F.
  5. Unfortunately, the period of visibility of a comet is gene-
  generally too short to allow any extensive measurements.
  6. These instruments are extensively used for alternating cur-
  current measurements.
  7. The extent of calculations involved in making Kepler's
  discoveries are quite surprising.
  8. Hershel's (an astronomer of the 18th century) attempt to
  determine the extent of the Milky Way had largely failed.
  9. The resistance varies to some extent with temperature.
  ' 171
  10. Since all fluids possess viscosity at least to some extent, the
  analysis of most flow systems requires consideration of the
  various forces involved.
  12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов neither и nor
  G,14).
  neither... nor ни... ни
  neither а никакой, ни один (из)
  neither cj также не
  nor cj также не
  1. During the last thirty or forty years the attention of
  physicists has been turning increasingly toward such phenomena
  which could neither be discovered nor analysed without special
  experimental technique. '
  2. The upper atmosphere emits light of two kinds, but neither
  is visible by day against the background of the bright sky.
  3. Liquid oxygen systems are not particularly difficult to
  service, nor are they usually dangerous, provided all the necessary
  safety measures are taken.
  13. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол (о add и его производные.
  Обратите внимание на многозначность этого глагола G,16).
  1. То improve fuels light metals such as lithium, boron and
  beryllium are added. •
  2. If heat is added as the air passes through the tunnel, the air
  will expand to occupy the increased volume without suffering a
  loss of velocity.
  3. To add large numbers is one of the performances of a
  computer.
  4. Over 400 illustrations add to the value of this book.
  5. The I. G. Y. (International Geophysical Year) cosmic ray
  program has added greatly to our knowledge of earth-sun rela-
  relationship.
  6. Through many experiments we received additional evidence
  on the influence of magnetic conditions in interplanetary space
  on the intensity of cosmic radiation.
  7. In addition to providing efficient thrust in level flight, the
  propeller must be able to convert total engine power to thrust for
  take-off.
  8. It is important to avoid high external radiation. In addition,
  it is impoftant to prevent dangerous radioactive material from
  entering the human body.
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных несво-
  несвободных словосочетаний.
  along with G,17)
  I. The equipment comprises a sensitive radio receiver along
  with a highly directional antenna system.
  172
  2. Along with a long list of possible attractive characteristics
  of reactors, there are, unfortunately, certain dangerous points.
  by vfrtue of G,20)
  3. Heat is the energy that a body possesses by virtue of the
  fact that its molecules are in motion.
  4. The internal combustion engine is unlike a steam engine
  which works by virtue of the introduction of steam which has been
  raised externally in a boiler '.
  IS. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что слово subject G,26)
  может представлять собой различные части речи.
  subject n тема, вопрос, предмет
  subject-matter сущность, содержание
  to be subject to (smth.) подвергаться (чему-л.)
  to subject to подвергать воздействию (че-
  (чего-л.) "
  1. In writing this book the width of the subject has prevented
  the details from being presented.
  2. The book was concerned with the subject-matter qf natural
  science and its applications.
  3. An instrument which reads correctly at one frequency may
  be subject to considerable errors at other frequencies.
  4. Physical phenomena occurring on the earth are subject to
  complex influences, partly of solar origin.
  5. Certain static fluids are subjected to accelerations.
  6. We can now liquefy all known gases by subjecting them to
  high pressures and cooling them by expansion.
  16. Переведите предложения, содержащие, обороты this Is the case, such is the
  case "это имеет место"; as Is the case "как ато имеет место" и this is not
  the case "это не так" G,28).
  1. When the magnetic field Is produced by more than one
  charge, as Is usually the case, the resultant force must be obtained
  by a vector summation of the forces due to individual charges.
  2. Every material body is made either of an element or of a
  combination of two or more elements. Almost always, the latter Is
  the case.
  3. The realization of space flight is closely connected with the
  development of suitable power plants and propulsion systems.
  Such has been the case for the development of aircraft and mis-
  missiles, and to a certain extent, such is the case for space flight.
  4. The word "atom" means "indivisible" and at the time this
  term was invented atom was believed to be the smallest unit.
  Though this is now known not to be the case.
  5. Since Venus is the nearest of the planets it should logically
  be an easy object to study. Unfortunately, this is not the case.
  1 boiler - котел
  173
  17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность слова once
  и сочетаний с ним G,29).
  once adv
  once more
  once cj
  at once
  однажды, один
  еще раз
  если, когда
  сразу
  раз.
  когда-то
  1. The Earth revolves in its orbit once a year and also rohtes
  uniformly on its axis' once a day.
  2. Earth and Moon travel together, making a complete trip
  around the Sun once a year.
  3. Heat was once considered as being a fluid.
  4. The rare2 earth elements are a group of 15 elements
  whose position in the periodic table was once considered
  exceptional.
  5. Once a space vehicle is in its orbit, the crew will no longer
  experience the Earth's gravitational pull and will be weightless.
  6. It is surprising how simple many problems of physics
  become once the meaning of each concept involved is completely
  understood. ,
  7. At ordinary atmospheric pressure helium, once liquefied, '
  remains liquid to the lowest temperature that can be reached.
  8. Before taking off the pilot checked? his controls once more.
  9. The thrust magnitude and direction are at once known in
  terms of the motor performance.
  10. It should not be thought that Newton's theory of gra-
  gravitation was at once universally accepted.
  18. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод оборота as far as
  (so far as) smth. is concerned G,30) "что касается", "поскольку речь идет о".
  1. Although gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, they
  behave (certainly, as far as ionization is concerned) as though
  they were minute particles of energy, called photons.
  2. A direct current flows continuously through a circuit in one
  direction only, although it may not be steady so far as magnitude
  is concerned.
  3. So far as fluid mechanics is concerned, the main difference
  between liquid and gaseous states is in their relative compres-
  compressibility.
  4. The force of gravity enteis into the design of airplanes
  because part of the thrust is used to maintain" lift and this force
  is thus lost in so far as the forward motion is concerned.
  1 axis - ось
  2 rare- редкий
  ' check - проверять
  174
  19. Переведите предложения, содержащие существительное art G,33) и его
  производные.
  1. Applications of solid propellant rockets to long-range mis-
  missiles, guided missiles and boosting have grown with the con-
  continuing improvements in the art of rocketry.
  2. Radar has been defined as "the art" of detecting by means
  of radio echoes the presence of objects, determining their direction
  and range, recognizing their character and employing the data
  thus obtained.
  3. This paper will attempt to review the state-of-the-art in the
  field of orientation and stabilization of satellites.
  4. The launching of the first artificial Earth satellite was of
  great value for space research and exploration.
  5. Artificially radioactive materials, made available through
  the use of nuclear reactors, have proved extremely valuable.
  20 Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выде-
  выделенных словосочетаний с глаголом:
  to set into motion, to come into play, to come into operation, considera-
  consideration is given, reference is made, care is taken, mention is made, emphasis
  is placed, account is taken, it takes smb. to do smth.
  1. When electrons in a conductor are set into motion by the
  action of an alternating emf, (heir acceleration leads to the emis-
  emission of radio waves.
  2. When two surfaces are in contact and one moves over the
  ofher, a force opposing the motion comes into play.
  3. Solar and cosmic noise may become the main source of
  signal interference when ultrasensitive receivers come into opera-
  operation.
  4. The speed of sound is the time it takes for sound to travel
  from its source to its receiver.
  5. Careful consideration must be given to the frictional losses
  of the mechanism.
  6. The present paper deals mainly with B.B.C. Television,
  although reference has been made where necessary to other major
  developments in this field both at home and abroad.
  7. Care has alwa>s to be taken to avoid contact of liquid
  oxygen with any combustible material.
  8. Emphasis is placed on the physical understanding of rocket
  behaviour as well as on the mathematical formulation of the
  theory.
  9. Mention has already been made of the ionosphere which is
  a storehouse of free energy.
  10. In considering real fluids account must be taken of the
  shearing force ' required to overcome viscosity.
  1 shearing force - срезывающее усилие
  175
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  21. Переведите следующие слова, учитывая, что префикс рге- означает пред-
  предшествование, a post- последующее событие:
  pre-war, pre-arrange, prehistoric, pre-human, preheat, post-
  postwar, post-graduate
  Упражнения на перевод терминов
  22. Переведите термины, состоящие ич сложного прилагательного с окончанием
  -ed и существительного. ДаСпе сначала описательный перевод, а затем
  установите, какой термин в русском языке выражает это понятие в ука-
  указанной области техники.
  four-engined airplane
  I
  снабженный чем?-<г-самолет
  у
  четырьмя двигателями
  четырехмоторный самолет
  Английский термин
  tour-bladed airscrew
  long-nosed airplane
  double-walled chamber
  thin-walled tanks
  air-cored 4 transformer
  air-spaced transformer
  Область применения
  двигатели
  авиация
  двигатели
  авиация
  электротехника
  23. Переведите термины, вторым компонентом которых является прилагатель-
  прилагательное proof (пишется слитно или через дефис со стоящим впереди существи-
  существительным).
  В таких сочетаниях proof имеет значение "защищенный (от)", "не-
  "непроницаемый (для)".
  acidproof material
  у
  какой?-*- материал
  для чего? •*- непроницаемый
  у
  для кислоты
  кислотоупорный материал
  1 core - сердечник
  176
  Английский термин
  shockproof device
  airproof cabin
  explosionproof reactor
  waterproof case
  foolproof adjustment
  Область применения
  авиация
  "
  ядерная физика
  машиностроение
  телевидение
  Упражнения в чтении
  24. Прочитайте следующие слова, соблюдая правила чтения буквосочетаний
  аи и aw:
  [о:] launch, pause, cause, automatic, because, exhaust, draw,
  raw, law
  25. Прочитайте следующие слова с префиксами рге- и post-, соблюдая правиль-
  правильное ударение:
  'pre-'war, 'pre-a'rrange, 'pre'heat, 'prehistoric, 'post-'war, 'post-
  'graduate
  26. Прочитайте следующие слова, соблюдая правильное произношение оконча-
  окончания -es:
  [iz] [s] или [г]
  boxes charges machines failures
  cases
  devices
  changes
  analyses
  processes
  languages
  tapes
  games
  engines
  schedules
  alternatives
  estimates
  27. Прочитайте следующие слова из осиовного текста:
  schedule l'Jedjul] programming ['prougraeimrj]
  processing ['prousesirj] routine [ru:'tin]
  labour ['leiba] virtually ['vaitjudli] '
  )rior ['praial alternative [D:!'ta:nativl
  18. Прочитайте следующие предложения, содержащие инверсию. Соблюдайте
  указанные паузы.
  1. Shown on the photo | is part of a data-processing machine...
  2. Perfect as modern computers are, | they cannot be called
  brains...
  3. Not until a program is prepared | does a computer perform
  any conversion ...
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  I. CRYOGENIC" PROPELLANTS
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  At ordinary temperatures hydrogen and oxygen, and some
  other potential propellants, for example fluorine, are gases and
  not until they are in a gaseous state do they undergo chemical
  reaction in the rocket engine. But in the gaseous form they have
  177
  such low densities that it would require extremely large tanks to
  store them in the rocket vehicle. The storage of propellants in the
  gaseous form is thus completely impractical. It is for this reason
  that the substances mentioned above are stored as liquids at vcrv
  low temperatures; they are consequently referred to as "cryogenic
  propellants" (from "Kryos" - "ice cold" in Greek).
  In the liquid form, the densities are much greater than in the
  gaseous state, and consequently the propellant tanks can be much
  smaller and less massive. This advantage 1ч offset2, however, bv
  the low temperature required, so that liquid hydrogen, liquid
  fluorine, and liquid oxygen cannot be stored in the rocket tanks
  for long periods of time, nor can they be used without special
  precautions 3.
  Such nonstorable, cryogenic propellants must be loaded into
  the tanks shortly before the rocket is launched.
  The cryogenic liquids are made by simultaneously4 compres-
  compressing and cooling the gases to the required low temperature. They
  are then stored and transported, with moderate5 loss, in special
  vacuum-jacketed tanks. These containers are designed on the same
  principle as the familiar vacuum-bottles' used to store hot or cold
  liquids in the home.
  Here you can see the temperatures at which a number o[
  cryogenic liquids, of possible use as propellants, liquefy7 at
  ordinary atmospheric pressure. These temperatures represent the
  conventional boiling points8 of the various liquids. By increasing
  the pressure in the container the boiling points can be raised to
  a certain extent, so that the liquid form can exist at somewhat
  higher temperatures. It can be seen, however, that the tempera-
  temperatures required to produce and store cryogenic propellants are
  extremely low by normal standards.
  Boiling points of cryogenic propellants
  Substance
  Hydrogen
  Oxygen
  Fluorine
  Density
  (grams/си cm)
  0^07
  1.1 "
  1.5
  Boiling points
  №C
  -253
  - 183
  - 188
  F
  -423
  -298
  -307
  In order to avoid the problems associated with crvogenic
  propellants and to make rockets ready for launching at all times,
  storable liquid propellants have been developed.
  1 cryogenic - криогенный, с глубоким охлаждением
  2 offset - сводить на нет
  3 precautions - меры предосторожности
  4 simultaneously - одновременно
  178
  5 moderate - умеренный, небольшой
  в vacuum-bottle - термос
  ' liquefy - превращаться в жидкость
  в boiling point - точка кипения
  2. NEUTRON PHYSICS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Although chemists, physicists and mathematicians had been
  learning about the atomic structure of matter for generations,
  a s-liort thirty years ago the neutron had no place in their thinking,
  for it was unknown. But so important is this particle in to-day's
  physics that a whole field of research - neutron physics - is
  based on its properties. And this new branch of science, young as
  it is, touches on so many important practical applications, that it
  actually is much more than a single field of endeavour.
  How can it be that within thirty years this bit of matter has
  proved to be so versatile? Another and very similar particle, the
  proton, although known much longer, has produced nothing
  comparable to the feat of neutron. There is no field of research
  called "proton physics" in spite of the fact that the fundamental
  properties of the proton have been familiar for a long time. In
  structure the proton and the neutron are much alike. They differ
  primarily in that the proton bears a positive electrical charge,
  while the neutron is electrically neutral. Yet this apparently rather
  trivial difference - the lack of an electrical charge - is the
  underlying source of the astonishing diversity of neutron physics.
  After World War II the neutron's functions in fields beneficial
  to man advanced rapidly - so rapidly, in fact, that within a fev-
  fevers the peacetime uses of atomic energy became a matter of
  international organization. In 1955 the first worldwide Atoms for
  Peace Conference was held in Geneva, and the great wealth of
  technical material presented at this conference on nuclear power
  was definite proof of the stature of the neutron in the field of
  practical accomplishments.
  Yet important as these practical matters are - the production
  of electrical power, motive power for ships, and radioisotopes for
  medical and industrial uses - it is the function of the neutron in
  pure research that we shall consider first.
  In basic research we are dealing with the laws that are
  fundamental to all matter, whether in the small world of the atom
  or in the astronomical scale of galaxies. The neutron, being a
  basic building block of all matter, is of particular importance in
  the discovery and understanding of these fundamental laws. Still
  more fruitful, however, are its interactions with other particles
  and w'th bulk matter; they reveal in many sensitive ways the most
  basic relationships among the ultimate particles underlying the
  structure of all things.
  179
  3. WHAT IS HOLOGRAPHY
  (Для перевода со сювар"-м)
  Holography and photography are two ways of recording on
  film, information about a scene we view with our eyes. Yet, how"
  different is the basic mechanism by which they accomplish their
  purpose, and how different are the images which result. As the
  words "holo" (complete) and "gram" (message) connote, the
  hologram captures the entire message of the scene in all its visual
  properties, including the realism of three dimensions.
  As early as 1839 a French scientist Daguerre succedcd in
  recording the image formed on the ground glass screen of a much
  older invention, the "camera obscura", a device to assist artisb in
  drawing more lifelike pictures of the scene before them.
  Not until 1947 did the British scientist, Dennis Gabor, conceive
  of holography, a new and ingenious method for photographically
  recording a three-dimensional image of a scene.
  Although Gabor conceived his idea rather recently, he was still
  too early, for the special kind of light needed to demonstrate the
  full capabilities of holography, a single-frequency form called
  "coherent" light, was not available in abundance in 1947. It
  became available only after the laser> a new light source first
  demonstrated in 1960, was developed.
  The first optical scientist in the S. U. who turned his attention
  to Gabor's holography and began independent experiments for the
  development of more sophisticated holographic systems was Yu. N.
  Denisyuk. By his experiments with Lipmann emulsions in 1962, he
  established a completely new orientation in the field of holo-
  holography, completely different from Gabor's and related schemes.
  The advantages of holographic methods of information proces-
  processing lie in the fact that In holography the initial information is
  processed in its entirety and almost simultaneously throughout the
  entire field. Such operations as scanning or spreading the image
  into lines, which are necessary in electron systems are completely
  eliminated in the coherent optical system. Holography, which
  enables one to obtain a complete optical wave lecord, presents the
  experimentor with new and unusual possibilities, which force one
  to review many of the methods of physical optics and techniques
  of physical experiment. The most interesting possibility consists in
  the following: the observer may correct the optical properties of
  the object used in the experiment after the experiment is comple-
  completely finished. Thus, for instance, a three-dimensional scene ma)
  be brought into sharp focus over an arbitrary depth. It is also pos-
  possible to translate the observation point, to perform optical filtra-
  filtration of the spatial structure of the object and, in particular, to
  remove the aberrations of the optical image-forming system.
  However, the most astounding property of holography is that it
  allows one to perform interference between two light beams which
  180
  are not superimposed either in time or in space. Using the comple-
  complete recordings of light with retention not only of amplitude but also
  of phase, it is possible now, using holography, to perform a wide
  variety of mathematical operations on complex functions.
  The technological applications of holography - the utilization
  of the real image for purposes of testing, processing and manufac-
  manufacture- are just beginning to be developed. Nevertheless, they pos-
  possess a great future.
  Holography applications:
  Three-Dimensional Photo-
  Photography
  Image photography
  Programmetry
  Contour photography
  Pulsed-lascr photography of
  moving objects
  Underwater photography
  Sound vision
  Radio vision
  Microwave antenna modeling
  Image Recognition
  Reading of prints and manu-
  manuscripts
  Three-dimensional object
  recognition
  Aerial photograph analysis
  Associative (correlative)
  search
  Volume Holograms
  Wave photography
  Memory systems of high
  capacity with an associa-
  associative choice
  Interferometry
  Measurement of complex-
  surface vibrations
  Measurement of unfinished
  complex-surface deforma-
  deformations
  Three-dimensional phase
  objects.
  Aerohydrodynamics
  Interferomelric measurements
  Nondestructive testing
  Technology
  Surface application of com-
  complicated microimages
  Microfinishing
  Imaging through distorting
  media
  Observation of the walls of
  incorrect shape
  Image-coding
  Observations in a turbulent
  atmosphere
  Microscopy
  Three-dimensional observa-
  observation of living micro-objects
  X-ray microscopy
  Electron microscopy
  Cinematography
  Three-dimensional projection
  systems
  Television
  Transmission of holograms
  over distances
  Optics
  Compensatjon of lens aber-
  aberrations
  Lensless optics
  Combined lens-holographic
  aberrationless systems
  181
  4. TRANSISTORS -VERSUS VACUUM TUBES
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Rapidly advancing technology, especially that related to mis-
  missiles, satellites and electronic computers has made critical the
  need for smaller electronic components. Tubes have been miniaturi-
  miniaturized, printed circuits have replaced wiring on a chassis and crystal
  triodes and tetrodes referred to as transistors are performing
  many jobs formerly done by vacuum or gas tubes.
  Before 1948 the transistor was unknown and electronics with
  a few exceptions was based chiefly on the vacuum tube which in
  various ways supplied us with the indispensable stream of elec-
  electrons for our instrumentation.
  The transistor development in many ways repeated-and often
  excelled - the history of the vacuum tube. It did away1 with the
  heated filaments and cathodes and, consequently, with the uneco-
  uneconomic heating currents. Instead of the vacuum tube's "hot"
  electrons, the transistor works with free "cold" electrons.
  Where transistors are used in place of thousands of tubes in
  giant electronic computers, the reduction of heat generated is
  extremely important, not only for more efficient, and dependable
  circuit operation but also for considerable reduction of cooling
  capacity required in some installations.
  Nor does the transistor require the high voltages needed by the
  vacuum tube for its best functioning. Less than 15 volts is requ-
  required in the average transistor radio set, in contrast to the 115
  to 300 volts of the vacuum tube receiver.
  Great as the transistor's progress has been to date, its evo-
  evolution has but began. In the beginning, great difficulties in manu-
  manufacture were encountered. Over 80% of all assembled transistors
  were rejected. This trouble has now been mostly overcome.
  Vacuum tubes wear and brake. Transistors are most rugged
  and so far no one has determined how long they will last. A pro-
  probable life may be 50 years.
  New uses for transistors are found daily. Research in prac-
  practically every endeavour and art requires advanced and specialized
  types. Take, for instance, space electronics. One cannot well ima-
  imagine a modern rocket or a satellite without a variety of transistors
  because they are shock-proof, rugged,, have minimum weight and
  minimum dimension.
  - * do away (with smth.) -покончить (с чём-л.), отказаться
  (от чего-л.)
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Чем может быть выражена смысловая часть сказуемого
  (в случае инверсии), стоящая на первом месге в предложении
  182
  (Shown on the photo are... Revolving around the nucleus are... Of
  great importance to navigation are...)? Укажите последрватель-
  ность перевода слов в предложении с инверсией такого типа
  (ј 94).
  2. Как располагаются части сказуемого по отношению к под-
  подлежащему в тех случаях, когда на первом месте стоят обстоя-
  обстоятельственные слова типа never before, only и т. п.? (Only in this
  century have we found...). Укажите последовательность перевода
  слов в предложении с инверсией такого типа (ј 95).
  3. Как переводятся союзы nor, neither и so, если за ними
  следует предложение, содержащее инверсию (ј 96)?
  4. Укажите способ перевода уступительного предложения
  (содержащего инверсию), в котором союзы though или as стоят
  после прилагательного (Familiar as the process may be...)
  (ј 97).
  5. От чего зависит перевод служебного слова not until
  (Упр. 8)?
  6. Укажите значения слова once (упр. 17).
  7. Какое значение имеют префиксы рге- и post- (упр. 21)?
  УРОК ВОСЬМОЙ
  Текст: Semiconductors.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод несвободных сювосочетаний с существительным и дру-
  другими частями речи (ј 56-66). Перевод выделительной конструкции типа
  It was not until... that (when) (ј 99). Выделение сказуемого с помощью
  глагола to do (ј 9?).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Зависимость перевода глагола-сказуемого от лексического значения
  подлежащего (упр. 13).
  Перевод слов: account for, pure, trace, average.
  Перевод слов с префиксами semi-, trans-, поп- (упр. 17).
  Перевод терминов типа "существительное4-причастие I (ичи герун-
  герундий) + существительное", "существительное + причастие 11 + существ i-
  телыюе" (упр. 18).
  ТЕКСТ
  SEMICONDUCTORS
  The group of substances known as semiconductors1 has, in
  recent years, played such a major part in the advance of our
  knowledge of the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of
  solids, that it has an importance as a class of materials com-
  comparable with that of metals. In addition, because of their
  unique2 properties, semiconductors are widely used in modern
  electronic techniques, for example, in rectifiers3, transistors, ther-
  thermopiles* and non-linear* resistors.
  Agreat deal of experimental work had been carried out on
  semiconductors before any satisfactory theory had been put
  forward5 to account for* their properties. This is no longer
  surprising7 when we realize that it requires the quantum theory
  in the form of wave mechanics to account for even the most
  elementary properties of semiconductors. Semiconductors are by
  * thermopile - термоэлектрический элемент
  184
  no means8 simple and have some rather unique properties. It
  was not until after this theory had been applied to the motion
  of electrons in crystalline solids that a satisfactory theory of
  semiconductors emerged9. It was not until this theory was
  available that a satisfactory definition of a semiconductor could
  be given.
  A brief and elementary account is given here of the mechanism
  for conducting various kinds of matter. The fundamental ideas
  underlying this process will be discussed only at some
  length10.
  It is known that in electrolytes and in gases conduction occurs
  owing to11 the motion of ions, that in metal conduction takes
  place on account of the motion of electrons, and as for
  insulators there is no conduction at all, but only a slight displace-
  displacement12 of the charges within 13 the atoms themselves. There is btill
  another kind of matter in which conduction does take place
  by virtue of electrons just as in metals, but, as distinct
  from14 the behaviour of metals, a substance of this kind exhibits
  an increase of resistance as the temperature falls. Such a substance
  is called a semiconductor and at the absolute zero15 of tempera-
  temperature it would be an insulator.
  On the whole", the variation of resistance with tem-
  temperature is explained as follows: in a metal only a very few elec-
  electrons are free to move upon the application of a potential diffe-
  difference, and as the temperature of the metal is lowered, the thermal
  vibration of its atoms is reduced, with the consequence that the
  atoms interfere17 less with the motion of the electrons, and as a
  result the resistance is lowered. These electrons free to move in a
  metal are in semiconductors bound loosely18 to the atoms. At
  absolute zero a semiconductor has no current carriers; as the
  temperature is raised, more and more of the loosely bound elec-
  electrons are released by thermal energy and conduction is improved,
  that is, the resistance is lowered as the temperature rises.
  The current carriers in semiconductors may be supplied by an
  impurity19. For example, an arsenic impurity in silicon supplies
  one loosely bound excess electron for each atom of arsenic dis-
  dissolved20, and, hence, conduction is due to a transfer21 of excess
  electrons; such a semiconductor is said to be of n-type, because the
  carriers are negative. A trace22-of boron in silicon, on the cont-
  contrary23, removes24 one electron for each atom of boron dissolved
  and the "hole 5 left in the electronic structure of a silicon atom
  provides a type of conduction called hole or defect28 conduction.
  This type of conduction occurs due to the transfer from atom to
  atom of electrons into available holes. A semiconductor in which
  the conduction is due to holes is said to be of p-type, because the
  carriers act like positive charges.
  For the time being27 two semiconductors, germanium
  and silicon, are of special interest as they form the basis of the
  185
  transistor - an electronic amplifier28-in which the amplified
  current is emitted and tiansported within the semiconducting
  solid. As long as transistors are constructed of solid material, the)
  can be produced in smaller size as compared with29 tubes-10
  of corresponding electrical performance, are more rugged and
  reliable, and are freer from microphonics *.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  со словом as:
  as to, as for "что касается (чего-л )", "в отношении (чего л.) >, as far
  as, so far as "насколько", "поскольку"; as long as, so long as "поскочьк^ ,
  "пока"; as follows "следующим образом", "следующие"; as yet "еше ; as
  soon as "как только"; as well as "как... так n";as well "также"; as If, as
  though "как если бы" (ј 60). Запомните эти словосочетания.
  as to, as for
  1. Substances when classified as to their magnetic behaviour
  form three groups.
  2. This"text will treat electronic devices as to their properties.
  3. As for the resistance of connecting wires, we may consider
  it later.
  4. As for the size of the device, it was given in the first chapter.
  as far as, so far as
  5. As far as we know the rocket is the only means of pro-
  propulsion for space ships.
  6. So far as we know this planet has no atmosphere.
  as long as, so long as
  7. Alpha particles continue to exist only as long as they move
  fast enough to avoid collecting electrons.
  8. Boyle's law states that the product of the pressure by the
  volume of a given mass of gas is constant as long as the tempe-
  temperature does not change.
  9. The ramjet provides a very satisfactory engine as long as
  the missile remains at an altitude where there is sufficient ox>gen.
  10. So long as there is relative motion between a conductor
  and a magnetic, field, a voltage will be generated in the con-
  conductor.
  11. So long as a nucleus remains whole, the surface tension
  forces are obviously holding the forces of electrical repulsion
  under control. "
  as follows
  12. Characteristics required from a rocket engine are as fol-
  follows: a tremendous liberation of energy, higti operating pressures
  and temperatures and unusual propellant flow rates.
  * microphonics- шумы, помехи
  186
  13. The preceding discussion may be summed up as follows:
  the same atoms that occur on the Earth are to be found in the
  remotest parts of the Universe.
  as yet
  14. As yet we have not spoken of the speeds at which the
  spaceships will travel In the interplanetary orbits.
  as soon as
  15. As soon as the iron is removed from the magnetic field, It
  loses its magnetism.
  16. The space vehicle and the cosmonaut become weightless, as
  soon as the lift and drag vanish *.
  as well as
  17. Angular velocity and angular acceleration have direction
  as well as magnitude.
  as well
  18. Neutrons not only cause fission; they produce other effects
  as well.
  as if, as though
  19. It was found that many substances, when placed in the
  path of cathode, would fluorescence as if they were being exposed
  to invisible, ultra-violet light.
  20. Gamma rays behave as though they were minute particles
  of energy, called photons.
  2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  со словом so:
  so as to "так чтобы", "с тем чтобы"; so that "гак что", "так чтобы";
  so far "до сих пор"; or so "или около этого"; and so on, and so forth
  "и так далее" (ј 61). Запомните эти словосочетания.
  so as to
  1. The fuel used in the internal combustion engine is gasoline,
  which is mixed with air in a carburator so as to form an explosive
  mixture.
  2. Our definition of vertical flight will be elastic so as to
  include aircraft that can operate from small ground areas even if
  they do not rise or descend quite vertically.
  so that
  3. The object of physics is to determine exact relations between
  physical phenomena so that the sequence of events can be clearly
  understood and definitely predicted.
  4. Every particle of a body possesses weight, so that the pull
  of the earth on the body is made up of a large number of forces
  directed toward the centre of the earth.
  so far
  5. All of the propellants so far discussed have one characte-
  characteristic in common - a low boiling point.
  1 vanish - исчезать
  187
  6. So far we have dealt with power needed to operate the radio
  transmitter.
  7. Liquid hydrogen is the best propellant for the nuclear rocket
  found so far.
  or so
  8. There are about a hundred elements. These hundred or so
  elements combine in various ways to produce the innumerable dif-
  different substances.
  9. For the last one hundred years or so the world's consump-
  consumption of fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas has greatly
  increased.
  and so on, and so forth
  10. The technical unit of force is the "dyne". However, force
  may also be measured in more common units, such as pounds,
  kilograms and so on.
  11. In the atmospheres of the major planets there is no trace
  of hydrocarbons such as acetylene, ethane, ethylene and so forth.
  12. On the Earth, outside forces that slow down moving objects
  include friction with the surface, friction with air, collision ' with
  other objects, and so forth.
  3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод несвободных сло-
  словосочетаний - with respect to (smth.), with (in) reference to (sin h.), as
  regards (smth.),' with (in) regard to (smth.), выполняющих функцию
  предлога. Все они имеют одинаковое значение "в отношении" (ј 62).
  with respect to (smth.)
  1. Secondary electrons vary widely with respect to energy.
  2. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to
  time.
  3. The Earth's constant revolution causes slight changes every
  day in the position of each hemisphere with respect to the sun.
  with (in) reference to (smth.)
  4. Relative wind is the motion of the aii with reference to an
  object.
  with regard to (smth.), in regard to (smth.)
  5. We are to-day so familiar with certain ideas in regard to the
  Earth, the Sun and other members of our solar system that we
  forget that these conceptions are really not so very old.
  6. In regard to the size of an electrical conductor, the resi-
  resistance is found to be directly proportional to the length of the
  conductor and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.
  7. The close similarity of Venus and the Earth with regard to
  size and mass means that the surface gravities must be much the
  same.
  1 collision - столкновение
  188
  8. Having made a decision with regard to interplanetary trajec-
  trajectory to be followed, it will be necessary to consider the mode of
  entry into this trajectory.
  as regards (smth.)
  9. As a result of previous investigations, we may say that
  isotopes have different atomic weights but are identical as regards
  all their other chemical properties.
  10. As regards the dark regions of Mars, they are found to
  undergo seasonal variations.
  11. Barometer was at the time of its introduction considerable
  btep forward as regards the ultimate1 sensitivity achievable.
  4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа io, что приведенные не-
  несвободные сочетания выступают в функции предлогов и имеют значение
  "благодаря", "в силу", "ввиду", "из-за":
  because of (smth.), due to (smth.), in(by) virtue of (smth.), In view of
  (smth.), on account of (smth.), owing to (smth.), thanks to (smth.)
  because of (smth.)
  1. Because of the very low density, it is difficult to measure
  directly the temperature of the upper atmosphere.
  2. Because of the high consumption of the rocket motor, the
  propellant is always a high percentage of the all-up weight of the
  vehicle.
  due to (smth.)
  3. The actual distance of the Earth from the Sun varies nearly
  3 million miles due to the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit.
  in (by) virtue of (smth.)
  4. That property in virtue of which a body offers resistance to
  a change in its motion is called inertia.
  5. Normally, radio-waves of the short wave-band, lying between
  10 and 20 meters, are reflected by the high-lying F-layer, in
  virtue of its concentration of free electrons.
  in view of (smth.)
  6. In view of the existence of isotopes it is necessary that atoms
  have two numbers with the chemical symbols to show exactly
  which atom variety is meant.
  on account of (smth.)
  7. The flow of a gas is a more complex problem than the flow
  of liquids on account of the great compressibility of the former.
  8. The Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure on account of its
  weight in the same way as liquids do.
  owing to (smth.)
  9. Owing to its great mass, Jupiter has a very marked effect
  Upon the motions of other members of the solar system including
  Љe asteroids and comets.
  ultimate - конечный, окончательный
  189
  10. Owing to the eccentricity of the orbit the average distance
  of Mars from the Earth is reduced from 141 million miles to
  129 million miles when Mars is closest to the Sun.
  thanks to (smth.)
  11. We arc familiar with the principles of the equilibrkim of
  levers ' thanks to the ancient Greeks.
  5. Переведше предложения, обращая внимание на то, что предлоги apart
  from (smth.) и aside from (smth.) имеют значение "помимо", "кроме
  (чего-л.)".
  apart from (smth.)
  1. Apart from the ninety-two elements in nature a few have
  been created by scientific processes.
  2. Apart from determining the structure of the atom, Ruther-
  Rutherford's experiments led to a number of other important discoveries
  3. During the process of fission of uranium, apart from the
  large fragments, a number of neutrons is also released.
  aside from (smth.)
  4. The choice of exit nozzle shapes, aside from thermal con-
  considerations, is primarily determined by internal and external
  factors.
  5. Aside from supplying power, the development of atomic
  energy has brought many other important benefits2.
  6. Переведите предложения, содержащие несвободные словосочетания, близ-
  близкие по смыслу и выполняющие роль предлогов:
  along with (smth.), combined with (smth.), in conjunction with (smth.),
  together with (smth.). Все они переводятся слонами "наряду с (чем-л.)",
  "вместе с (чем-л.)" (ј 62)
  along with (smth.)
  1. The Earth circles around the Sun along with eight other
  sizable planets.
  2. Along with its performance advantages, there are several
  disadvantages that must be stated in connection with airbreathing
  engines.
  3. Particle accelerators may be used for the generation of
  powerful X-rays, which, along with the radio-isotopes, have many
  applications in therapy and diagnostic work.
  combined with (smth.)
  4. The interest in nobelium is due to its nuclear properties
  combined with its corrosion resisting characteristics.
  5. A need exists for airborne electronic equipment of minimum
  size.and weight combined with utmost reliability.
  in conjunction with (smth.)
  6. The air speed indicator is used in conjunction with the sensi-
  sensitive altimeter.
  1 lever - рычаг
  1 benefit- преим>щество, выгода
  190
  7. The radiation received on the Earth from the planets can be
  measured with the aid of a Idrge telescope in conjunction with a
  sensitive detector of radiation.
  8. The sensitivity of a phototube in conjunction with a voltage
  amplifier is so great that it may be used to study the light from
  stars.
  together with (smth.)
  9. The space ship Vostok weighed, together with the cosmo-
  cosmonaut, 4,725 kg.
  10. Physics is concerned broadly with matter and energy,
  together with such related quantities as force and motion.
  11. High velocity rocket missiles usually require a large ratio
  of total impulse to total weight together with a small frontal area.
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие несвободные словосочетания, высту-
  выступающие в функции предлогов:
  at th" expense of (smth.) "за счет (чего-л.)"; as distinct from (smth.)
  "в отличие от (чего-л.)"; irrespective of (smth.) "независимо от (чего-л.)>;
  in spite of (smth.) "несмотря на (что-л.)>; previous (prior) to (smth.) "до",
  "перед (чём-л.)"; as compared with (smth.) "no сравнению с (чем-л.)";
  in contrast to (smth.), contrary to (smth.) "в противоположность (чему-л.)";
  according to (smth.), in accordance with (smth.) "согласно (чему-л.)",
  "в соответствии с (чем-л.)" (ј 62).
  at the expense of (smth.)
  1. The simplicity of the rocket power unit is obtained at the
  expense oT economy of fuel consumption.
  2. Work is done by heat engines at the expense of the kinetic
  energy of molecules which have been heated.
  3. If no energy is supplied to the gas during expansion, ^tlie
  work will necessarily be done at the expense of the internal
  energy of the gas, and as a result its temperature will fall.
  4. Lightness of the airplane structure at the expense of strength
  is dangerous.
  as distinct from (smth.)
  5. A rocket motor is a heat engine, that is, a machine to con-
  convert tieat into mechanical movement, as distinct from the electric
  motor, the water tunbine, etc.
  6. In previous chapters mention has been made of the motion
  of rotation as distinct from the motion of translation.
  irrespective of (smth.)
  7. Isotopes of an element are atoms whose nucleus has the
  same net charge, irrespective of the number of neutrons.
  8. The statement that all objects, irrespective of mass, fall with
  the same acceleration is a result that follows readily from
  Newton's universal law of gravitation.
  in spite of (smth.)
  9. In spite of its small mass a meteor may carry considerable
  kinetic energy.
  191
  previous (prior) to (smth.)
  10. Previous to the discovery of the neutron, all atom nuclei
  were assumed to consist of protons and electrons.
  11. Rockets were largely experimental in nature prior to the
  past war.
  as compared with (to) (smth.)
  12. There are many stars which give out energy at the rate of
  10,000 ergs per gram as compared with the Sun's 2 ergs per
  gram.
  13. Mars reflects 59 per cent of the light falling on it, as
  compared with only 7 per cent for the Moon.
  in contrast to (smth.), contrary to (smth.)
  14. The operation of the rocket motor is independent of the
  speed of flight, in contrast to the other jet systems in which the
  speed is limited by internal aerodynamic considerations.
  15. Contrary to common belief jet engine is not a modern
  development.
  - according to (smth.), in accordance with (smth.)
  16. When astronomers classify the stars according to their ap-
  apparent brightness, they use the word magnitude.
  17. The elements are arranged in a table in accordance with
  their atomic number.
  8. Переведите предложения, содержащие несвободные словосочетания с су-
  существительными part, time, date (ј 57-59):
  for the most part "главным образом*, "по большей части"; in part
  "частично"; on the part of (smb ) "со стороны (кого-л.)"; at times "иногда";
  for the time being "в данное время"; It time "вовремя"; up to date "совре-
  "современный"; out of date "устаревший"; to date "до настоящего времени"
  for the most part
  1. The smallest dust particles, called micrometeorites, are
  concentrated for the most part in the plane of the Earth's orbit.
  2. In the following pages we shall for the most part discuss the
  fundamentals of space medicine, with some added remarks about
  astrobiology.
  3. So far we have been discussing, for the most part, motion in
  a straight line.
  in part
  4. Electrically charged bodies lose their charges, in part at
  least, as soon as they come into contact with conductors.
  5. The performance of a ramjet engine depends, in part, upon
  its flight speed.
  6. After leaving the combustion chamber the gases consist in
  part of heated air and, in part, of the burnt products of combus-
  combustion.
  on the part of
  7. Supersonic flight demands great skill on the part of the
  pilot.
  192
  8. Naturally occurring types of energy are those available
  without any action on the part of man.
  at times
  9. It is true that Venus at times comes closer to the Earth than
  Mars.
  10. When the orbit of Venus lies outside the orbit of the Earth,
  the planet is, at times, visible throughout the night.
  in time
  11. The results of the experiments were received in time.
  12. All the maintenance and repair work of engine parts should
  be made in time.
  for the time being
  13. For the time being it is convenient1 to disregard the resis-
  resistance in the wires.
  14. For the time being we shall not consider the problems as-
  associated with the calculation of trajectories of rockets.
  up to date
  15. The whole treatment of the subject in this book is up to
  date.
  16. The plant was provided with all the necessary up to date
  machinery.
  out of date
  17. As the device was rather out of date it was decided not to
  install it on the new experimental model.
  to date
  18. To date little is known of the surface conditions of Venus.
  19. All reactors to date have been designed to use either
  uranium 235, uranium 238 or plutonium 239 as a fuel.
  9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод несвободных сло-
  словосочетаний:
  1л common "общий"; at length "подробно; by now "к настоящему
  моменту"; by then "к тому времени"; on the average "в среднем"; now
  that "теперь, когда"; on the whole "в целом"; except for "за исключением";
  по longer "больше не"; a great deal, a good deal "много"; in turn "в свою
  очередь"; once more "опять", "еще раз"; at once "сразу"; one another, each
  other "друг друга".
  in common
  1. Liquids and gases have one property in common: they are
  both able to flow.
  2. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus have so many characteristics in
  common that they may well be treated together.
  at length
  3. The electromagnet spectrum will be discussed at greater
  length in chapter 29.
  by now
  4. By now many types of powerful atom smashers have been
  built and are in operation.
  1 convenient - удобный
  Зак. 849 ' 1.93
  by then
  5. By then the results of the Curies' work became known
  among those interested in their experiments.
  on the average
  6. It was calculated that an actual collision between two stars
  can occur on the average only once in 600,000 billion years.
  now that
  7. Now that the first manned space flight has been made, the
  dream of space travel is becoming a reality.
  8. Now that the Soviet Automatic Interplanetary stations have
  reached Venus we are able to get a wealth of information of this
  interesting planet.
  on the whole
  9. On the whole the atom is electrically neutral.
  except for
  10. Except for the Sun and the Moon, Venus is the brightest
  object in the sky.
  11. Except for Mercury, Venus, and probably Pluto, each of the
  planets has at least one satellite.
  no longer
  12. The investigations described no longer permit any doubt
  as to the atomistic nature of electricity.
  a great deal, a good deal
  13. A great deal of preparatory work has to be done before
  starting the real experiment.
  14. Analogue computers are being used a great deal in work on
  guided missiles and also in solving aeronautical design problems.
  15. We have said a good deal about automatic analogue
  computers and automatic digital computers.
  in turn
  16. The mechanical energy is used to drive a machine and the
  machine In turn does work.
  once more
  17. Due to the copper shortage during World War II, silver
  was used in the electric wiring of several war plants in the
  U.S.A.; after the war, when copper became available once more,
  the silver was replaced by copper.
  at once
  18. Atomic number gives at once the number of protons in the
  nucleus and the number of electrons outside the nucleus.
  one another, each othei
  19. From Einstein's relativity theory we can conclude that
  mass and energy are not conserved separately but can be trans-
  transformed into each other.
  20. In the ideal gas, it is supposed that the molecules exert no
  force upon one another.
  194
  10. Переведите предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое выделяется с по-
  помощью глагола do.
  Заметьте, что при переводе такой конструкции перед глаголом добав-
  добавляются усилительные слова "действительно, "на самом деле", и др. Исклю-
  Исключением являются случаи, когда в предложении есть другие слова со значе-
  значением, близким значению указанных модальных слов (например: certainly,
  Indeed, actually н др.) (ј98).
  Образец:
  The method does give us the possibility...
  Этот метод действительно дает нам возможность...
  1. The nuclei do contain most of the mass of the atom.
  2. Turboprop (turbine-propeller) engines do use the gas
  turbine to operate the propeller.
  3. The simple voltaic cell certainly does act as a generator of
  electric current, but as this current rapidly falls in value the cell
  is of no use for practical purpose.
  4. In recent years it has been shown that chemical combina-
  combination as well as external pressure does influence although slightly
  the activity of radioactive nuclei and, moreover, that
  radioactivity has important effects on chemical structure.
  5. When in the 90s scientists studied some of the events that
  take place when an electric current passes through a vacuum, they
  came to the conclusion that particles smaller than an atom do
  indeed exist.
  11. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию "It was not until",
  that (when)", которая служит для выделения слов, заключенных между
  компонентами конструкции.
  Заметьте, что из всех компонентов конструкции переводятся лишь
  слова not until, причем возможны следующие варианты перевода этих слов:
  "только", "только в", "только после", "только тогда, когда" (ј 99, п. 2).
  Образец:
  It was not until the seventeenth century that man began to
  understand pressure.
  Только в XVII веке человек начал осознавать, что такое
  давление.
  1. It was not until 1930 that the third type of particles that
  make up atoms was discovered.
  2. It was not until around 1610 when Galileo first observed
  Saturn through his telescope.
  3. It was not until 1600 that it was discovered that glass and
  certain other materials could be electrified.
  4. It was not until the last quarter of the seventeenth century
  that some of the fundamental operating principles of the rocket
  were explained.
  7* 195
  5. It was not until 1936 that physicists felt that they had ar-
  arrived at a satisfactory theory of what was contained within the
  nucleus.
  6. It was not until about the end of the war that it was realized
  that turbine efficiencies were lower than had been expected, and
  were mainly responsible for the poor engine specific fuel consump-
  consumption of that time.
  7. It was not until the internal combustion engine had been
  fairly well developed that propulsion of lighter-than-air aircraft
  became feasible.
  12. Повторение. Найдите в предложениях глаголы-сказуемые, выделительные
  конструкции и инверсию. Переведите эти предложения.
  А. Глагол-сказуемое
  1. The modern television cathode-ray tube uses either magnetic
  or electrostatic focusing.
  2. This offers wide scope for astronomical observations, parti-
  particularly of the planets, but also of infra-red emission from the
  stars.
  3. These results led the German physicist, Hess, to propose
  that the source of this radiation was beyond our atmosphere, that
  the radiation was penetrating and that it fell upon the atmosphere,
  uniformly from all directions.
  4. This demonstrates that blue light has a shorter wavelength
  than red light.
  5. The source of electrons in an electron microscope is a heated
  filament.
  6. Liquid-crystal substances are currently being used to create
  a new family of devices for the display1 of symbols such as num-
  numbers and letters.
  7. The original thyratrons were filled with mercury vapour but
  other gases have since been used for particular applications.
  8. The rainbow2 is a complicated mixture of colors and its ap-
  appearance depends on the size of the drops producing a rainbow.
  9. The principal force between nucleons are of two types. One
  Is the purely electrostatic repulsive Coulomb force between the
  protons.
  10. The vacuum of space is nearly a perfect insulator against
  heat transfer by conduction or convection.
  11. The size of the Sun is readily found from its measured
  angular diameter, when its distance has been determined.
  1 display - воспроизведение
  1 rainbow - радуга
  196
  12. The Sun is continually sending out energy in the form of
  radiation.
  13. In 1897 J. J. Thomson proved that the cathode rays con-
  consisted of particles which carried negative charge and are an es-
  essential constituent of all atoms; these particles were called elec-
  electrons.
  Б. Выделительная конструкция (ј 99)
  1. It was N. I. Kibalchich A854-1881), the revolutionist and
  member of the Narodnaya Volya, who first developed a project
  for a manned rocket aircraft in Russia.
  2. It was Faraday who first suggested that electrolytic action
  might be used for measuring currents.
  3. Curiously1, it was not an astronomer but the great German
  philosopher Immanuel Kant who first advanced the nebular
  hypothesis.
  4. It is because of their inertia that balls of all kinds continue
  their motion when thrown or struck.
  5. It was not until 1609 that the German astronomer Johannes
  Kepler described planetary paths correctly for the first time.
  6. It is the electrons which are responsible for the radio ap-
  appearance of the Sun, and it is the corona rather than the photo-
  photosphere which can be explored by radio waves.
  7. It was Newton who first showed that white light can be split
  into many colours, all of which are present in the white light.
  В. Инверсия (ј 93-97)
  1. Shown in Fig. 92 is a 500-line television picture of what may
  be expected to be seen on the surface of the moon with a 10 db.
  signal-to-noise ratio.
  2. Built into the spacesuit of the astronaut. were simple and
  convenient sensors2 which converted the physiological parameters
  into electric signals.
  3. Brought together in this work are the essential principles
  underlying configuration design of guided missiles.
  4. Associated with the bombardment of atoms in the upper
  atmosphere by particles from the Sun is an aurora.
  5. Incomplete though the information about the constitution of
  the atmosphere of the planets obtained by this method may be it
  is still of great value.
  Лексические упражнения
  13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что подлежащее в этих
  предложениях значительно удалено от сказуемого, вследствие чего усколь-
  ускользает смысловая связь между этими членами предложения.
  Сначала рекомендуется перевести часть предложения, расположенную
  до сказуемого, а затем вернуться к подлежащему.
  1 curiously - интересно, что ...
  : sensor - датчик
  197
  1. The presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere of the earth
  of particular importance for the existence of animal life, is attribu-
  attributed to the widespread vegetation over the surface of the earth.
  2. The use of fusion, which is the third method of using nuclear
  energy for propulsion in the space vehicles of the future could
  become attractive.
  3. Strong evidence that atoms did, in fact, possess an ob-
  observable internal structure was provided from spectroscopic obser-
  observations of the light.
  4. The energy of a collection of protons and neutrons forming
  a stable nucleus is lower than the energy of the constituent pro-
  protons and neutrons, when separated from each other.
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность глагола
  to account for ((.объяснять; 2. учитывать; 3. компенсировать) (8,6).
  1. Einstein's theory of light was put forward to account for the
  photoelectric effect.
  2. There exists so far no mathematical theory that would ac-
  account satisfactorily for the actually observed types of fluid motion.
  3. The number of free electrons increases with increase in
  temperature, thus accounting for the high negative temperature
  coefficient of resistance in semiconductors.
  4. In considering real fluids the force required to overcome
  viscosity must be accounted for.
  5. Care must be taken to account for the possibility of airflow
  interference between the missile and airplane.
  6. In this case fusion processes yield enough energy to account
  for the losses to the surroundings.
  15. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова одного словообразовательного
  ряда.
  pure a, purify v, purification n, purity n, impurity n
  1. The surface tension ! of all pure liquids and most mixtures
  decreases with temperature.
  2. Special devices were used to purify metals.
  3. After purification the water was fed through the pipe.
  4. Deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen is obtained in high
  purity by the electrolysis of water.
  5. In quantitative analysis, radiation is used to detect very
  small amounts of impurities in various materials.
  trace n, tracer n, trace v, traceable a
  6. The removal of all traces of oil must be done before starting
  the magneto.
  1 surface tension - поверхностное натяжение
  198
  7. If we bring a trace of gas into a glass tube from which the
  air has been evacuated and let an electric discharge pass through,
  the gas will begin to glow.
  8. Radioactive tracer techniques introduce a most powerful
  analytical tool.
  9. The similarity and lack of similarity among solids, liquids
  and gases may be traced to the structure of their molecules.
  10. Viscosity, is traceable to the molecular structure of a fluid.
  average a, on the average, average и
  11. The positron appears to have an average life of only a few
  billionth of a second A0~9 sec).
  12. The material of Jupiter is much lighter on the average than
  the Earth's material.
  13. The temperature averages 60 or 65 below zero at that
  altitude.
  16. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выде-
  выделенных словосочетаний:
  this Is the case, this Is not the case, so far as (smth.) Is concerned, to
  be referred to as (smth.), no matter how, in terms of (smth)
  1. The absence of an atmosphere causes the Moon's tempera-
  temperature to vary much more than is the case on the Earth.
  2. If our Earth were exactly ellipsoidal, the orbit of an artificial
  satellite would be comparatively easy to calculate. We know,
  however, that this is not the case.
  3. The fundamental difference between fusion and fission reac-
  reactions, as far as practical attainment of power is concerned is that
  it is extremely difficult to make the light elements react.
  4. Several experimentors began their aeronautical activities
  with helicopters, and some success was achieved, so far as obtain-
  obtaining lift was concerned.
  5. To emphasize the fact that some stars do not change thejr
  relative positions with respect to one another, they are referred to
  as "fixed" stars.
  6. A certain quantity of work is equivalent to a certain quantity
  of heat, no matter how that work is turned into heat.
  7. One of the first failures of classical physics resulted from
  attempts to describe the thermal radiation of hot bodies in terms
  of classical statistical mechanics.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  17. Переведите следующие слова, учитывая, что префикс semi- соответствует
  значению приставки сполу-э, trans- стране-" н поп- - "не":
  semiconductor, semicircle, semimonocoque, semiautomatic,
  transatlantic, transoceanic, transcontinental, non-conductor, non-
  essential, non-standard, nondurable
  199
  Упражнение на перевод терминов
  18. Переведите термины. Дайте сначала описательный перевод, а затем устано-
  установите, какой термин в русском языке выражает это понятие в указанной
  области техники.
  А. Термины, состоящие из трех компонентов: существительное+причастие
  (или герундий) + существительное
  pulse-forming coil (связь)
  I
  какая? ї*- катушка
  что? <- образующая
  импульс
  импульсная катушка
  Английский термин
  error indicating circuit
  direction-finding receiver
  data-translating system
  error-measuring system
  plutonium-producing reactor
  beam-forming cathode
  isotope-handling equipment
  voltage-regulating system
  information-carrying capacity
  frequency-dividing circuit
  spectrum-measuring detector
  electron-emitting source
  receiver feeding battery
  information destroying process
  Область применения
  автоматика
  радио
  вычислительная тех-
  техника
  автоматика
  ядерная физика
  телевидение
  ядерная физика
  электротехника
  телевидение
  радио
  ядерная физика
  ядерная физика
  радио
  автоматика
  Б. Термины, состоящие из трех компонентов: существительное + причастие II +
  существительное
  relay-operated device (автоматика)
  какое?<- устройство
  чел?*- приводимое в действие
  реле
  прибор непрямого действия
  200
  Английский термин
  radio-controlled bomb
  surface-launched missile
  surface-cooled reactor
  neutron-produced fission fc
  liquid-cooled engine
  time-modulated beam
  ground-based computer
  ;ngine-driven pump
  fission-produced particle
  ramjet-propelled missile
  cathode-loaded amplifier
  pressure-operated switch
  Battery-fed receiver
  rocket-powered booster
  meson-produced star
  Область применения
  автоматика
  ракетная техника
  ядерная физика
  то же
  двигатели
  телевидение
  авиация
  двигатели
  ядерная физика
  ракетная техника
  радио
  автоматика
  радио
  ракетная техника
  ядерная физика
  Упражнения в чтении
  19. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на чтение буквы I перед
  окончанием -es:
  Глаголы в 3-м лице един-
  единственного числа настоя-
  настоящего времени
  [ail
  modifies
  simplifies
  identifies
  rectifies
  amplifies
  specifies
  Существительные во мно-
  множественном числе
  [i]
  cities
  velocities
  properties
  impurities
  capabilities
  capacities
  20. Прочитайте следующие слова с префиксами semi-, trans-, поп-, соблюдая
  правильное ударение:
  'semicon'ductor, 'semicircle, 'semi-'monocoque, 'semi-auto'ma-
  tic, 'transatlantic, 'transyoce'anic, 'transcontinental, 'non-con-
  /ductor, 'non-es'sential, 'non-'linear, 'non-'standard, 'non'durable
  21. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  comparable ['кэгпрэгэЫ]
  non-linear Г'пэп'Ьшэ]
  crystalline t'kristalain]
  eme-ge [i'ma:d3)
  electrolyte [1'lektroulait]
  insulator ['insjuleita]
  within [wi'6in]
  interfere pnta'fia]
  loose [lu:s]
  transfer n ['trans h:]
  transfer v [trsens'fa:]
  silicon ['silikan]
  germanium [d3a:'memi3m]
  microphonics Lmaikra'foniks]
  201
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. INTERPLANETARY TRAVEL BY SOLAR SAIL'
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Although the existence of radiation pressure has been known
  for many years, its application to spaceship propulsion has been
  mentioned only infrequently. A solar sail derives its propulsive
  force from the pressure due to the Sun's light falling on a sail,
  which may be a thin sheet2 of aluminium foil3 or a thin plastic
  sheet silvered or aluminized on the sunny side to reflect the light.
  Some obvious advantages of the solar sail are as follows: mass
  ratio of unity (mass of ship remaining constant), availability of
  Forces acting on spaceship.
  sail force throughout ship's entire journey, no need of fuel or pro-
  pellant, no propulsive power plant aboard ship and its associated
  waste-heat disposal problem. Although the available force is
  small as compared to that of chemical rockets, it can be applied
  for as long as it is needed. A trip to Mars and Venus can perhaps
  be made in less time by solar sail than by chemical rocket.-A solar
  sail is equivalent to a rocket of mass ratio unity with an infinite
  propellant reserve. As far as propulsion is concerned, the ship can
  always return to Earth or make in-flight navigational corrections.
  In addition to this, since the ship moves at a nonuniform speed
  under a noncentral force system, the ship's contents are not
  absolutely weightless, although the weight of any object would be
  much less than that at Earth's surface. The solar sail is of negli-
  negligible4 cost, and is perhaps more powerful and less difficult than
  many often-cited 5 competing schemes. We might add that a sailing
  project can be realized fairly soon without extensive research and
  development.
  1 sail - парус
  2 sheet - лист
  202
  " foil - фольга
  * negligible - чрезвычайно малый
  * cite - цитировать
  2. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE IN METALLURGY
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Examination of an object with a microscope may reveal
  information about its composition or the manner in which it was
  made. However, for greater certainty confirming evidence from
  other types of Investigation usually is desirable.
  For practical purposes optical microscope is limited to magni-
  magnifications of perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 diameters. So, a microscope of
  a different type was developed. It became known as an "electron
  microscope", because its operation depends on streams of electrons
  instead of light rays. As distinct from ordinary optical microscope,
  it provides magnifications many times higher than can be obtained
  with the best optical instruments but it has disadvantages too. It
  is expensive and usually requires considerable skill and patience
  on the part of the operator.
  The electron microscope is essentially a transmission instru-
  instrument but pictures can be obtained by reflection if the electrons
  strike the specimen at an angle instead of from a perpendicular
  direction. However, because of this angle, the image is distorted
  considerably except for a narrow central strip. Use of the micro-
  microscope in this way is likely to be limited to special problems.
  Because the beam of electrons cannot pass through a piece of
  metal thicker than 1/100,000 centimeter, nearly all early work with
  the electron microscope in this field was done by a "replica"
  method. Some materials, such as the plastic, can be used to obtain
  a thin layer of substance - a replica - that produces faithfully
  the irregularities in the surface of a specimen and is relatively
  transparent to electrons. The replica can be. used instead of the
  original specimen in the electron microscope.
  3. BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATION OF A NUCLEAR ROCKET
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The production of thrust in chemical rockets consists of raising
  the propellant to a high temperature and pressure in the combus-
  combustion chamber, and then expanding it through a nozzle to obtain
  the maximum obtainable velocity. The same expansion process is
  used in nuclear rockets, but the method of heating the propellant
  gases is different. The high gas temperature obtained in chemical
  rockets results from the combustion of a fuel and oxidizer. These
  propellants are chosen with the objective of creating as high a
  203
  temperature as possible while maintaining a low molecular weight
  in order to maximize the exhaust velocity. In the nuclear rocket
  as distinct from chemical rocket, combustion of the propellant
  gases is not required to produce the high temperatures and pres-
  pressures. Heat is generated by nuclear fission in a reactor and
  transferred to the propellant, thus eliminating the need to have
  both oxidizer and fuel.
  To attain the objective of maximum specific impulses, it is
  desirable to select nuclear-rocket propellents with a small molecu-
  molecular weight. Hydrogen, the element with the smallest molecular
  weight, is theoretically the ideal propellant, from the standpoint
  of obtaining large exhaust velocities and therefore high specific
  impulses. While hydrogen does react with many materials at ele-
  elevated temperatures, other low-molecular-weight elements present
  storage or use problems that exceed those associated with hydro-
  hydrogen.
  The heat required to raise the propellant temperature is pro-
  produced by fission. Fissionable elements such as uranium, thorium
  or plutonium are used as fuel. An atomic nucleus of a fissionable
  element is split when struck by a neutron. However, fission -can be
  avoided by reflecting the neutron or allowing the nucleus to cap-
  capture the neutron. The probability of both these actions occuring
  depends on the velocity of the neutron in relation to the type of
  nucleus and its velocity.
  The velocity of the neutron is important to the process because
  it is a form of energy and fission is more apt to occur at certain
  energies than others. In general, the higher velocity a neutron pos-
  possesses, the less likely fission will take place. Whenever fission
  does occur, neutrons are not the only particles which create heat.
  When a nucleus is split, it is split into fragments that possess
  large quantities of energy in varying velocities. Neutrons are also
  emitted with high velocities E0,000,000 feet per second), along
  with other nuclear particles (alpha and beta particles, gamma-
  rays and neutrinos). Energies of all these fission products are
  reduced by interaction with other nuclei. This interaction in turn
  generates heat.
  Elements having the properties of being good reflectors and
  poor absorbers of neutrons are used to reflect and thus reduce the
  energy of neutrons. Materials (such as carbon) used for this
  purpose are called moderators. Although their main objective is
  to slow neutrons to the point where they are likely to cause fis-
  fission, the heat generated by moderators is only a small part of
  the total heat generated.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. В какой функции выступают и как переводятся на русский
  язык следующие несвободнее словосочетания (ј 62):
  204
  at the expense of (smth.), because of (smth.), apart from
  (smth.), on account of (smth.), with respect to (smth.), irrespec-
  irrespective of (smth.), aside from (smth.), in (by) virtue of (smth.),
  previous to (smth.), with reference to (smth.), along with
  (smth.), in view of (smth.), in contrast to (smth.), as distinct
  from (smth.), prior to (smth.), combined with (smth.), owing to
  (smth.), with (in) regard to (smth.), contrary to (smth.), in spite
  of (smth.), except for (smth.), in conjunction with (smth.), ac-
  according to (smth.), together with (smth.), thanks to (smth.), in
  accordance with (smth.).
  2. Как переводятся следующие несвободные словосочетания,
  группирующиеся вокруг слов so и as (ј 60, 61):
  so as, so that, so far, or so, and so on, and so forth, as to
  (smth.), as for (smth.), as follows, as yet, as soon as, as well as,
  as well, as if, as though, as (so) far as, as (so) long as.
  3. Как переводятся следующие несвободные словосочетания,
  группирующиеся вокруг слов date, time, part (ј 57-59):
  up to date, out of date, at times, for the time being, in time,
  for the most part, in part, on the part of (smb.).
  4. Как переводятся следующие несвободные словосочетания
  Чј65):
  in common, at length, by now, by then, on the whole, on the
  average, no longer, a great (good) deal, in turn, once more, at
  once, one another, each other.
  5. Какую роль выполняет вспомогательный глагол to do в
  утвердительном предложении при наличии смыслового глагола
  (The atmosphere does offer protection...) (ј 98)?
  6. Укажите способ перевода конструкций типа "it was not
  until 1958 that..." (упр. 11).
  7. Какое значение имеют префиксы semi-, trans-, non-
  (упр. 17)?
  УРОК ДЕВЯТЫЙ
  Текст: Nuclear Power for Aircraft.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Слова и словосочетания, служащие для связи частей высказывания
  (ј68-74).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: sure, assembly, former, latter.
  Перевод союза while.
  Перевод предлога with.
  Перевод многозначных служебных слов: also, again, otherwise, rather,
  yet, still, then (упр. 5-8).
  Перевод слов с различными суффиксами и префиксами (упр. 17).
  Перевод наречий с суффиксом wise (упр. 18).
  Перевод терминов типа "существительное + причастие II", соединен-
  соединенных дефисом (упр. 19).
  ТЕКСТ
  NUCLEAR POWER FOR AIRCRAFT
  The chief attraction of the nuclear-powered aircraft appears
  to be the prospect1 of virtually unlimited range.
  To begin with2, the extremely high heat values of nuclear
  fuel are tens of thousands of times greater than chemical fuel,
  and the consumption is very small which would ensure3 long
  range; and flight round the 25,000-mile circumference * of the
  earth without refuelling would be an easy task.
  Again4, the advantage offered by nuclear power of long
  endurance5 would enable an aircraft to be kept flying for very
  long periods. In consequence*, such an aircraft carrying
  early warning7 radar** would be invaluable in an air defence
  system.
  • circumference - окружность
  ** early warning radar - радиолокационная станция дальнего обнаружения
  206
  It seems likely, however, that the weight of shielding8 required
  would result in a very large aircraft in which high percentage9
  power plant would pose difficult design problems, published10
  estimates for all-up " weight varying from 250,000 to 500,000 lb.
  There will be concentration of weight in the fuselage unless it is
  found possible to locate the payload 12 in the wings, which will not
  be otherwise13 required (for large volumes14 of chemical fuel).
  Then15, for shielding purposes the tendency will be to place the
  aircrew as far forward as possible, with the payload and undercar-
  undercarriage, etc. between them and the power plant. The reactor shield
  assembly ie of the power plant will weigh up to 100,000 lb. with a
  density of about 150 lb./cu. ft, or some six times that of a turbojet
  engine. This will give rise to special structural problems.
  It seems likely that the first nuclear power plants would be
  based largely on existing gas turbine practice, replacing17 the
  combustion chamber by a heat exchanger designed to transfer heat
  to the engine air from a secondary fluid which would draw its
  heat from the atomic pile18.
  Furthermore, the nuclear power plant problem is not only
  one of flight. It is known that when a reactor is shut down 19 and
  the fission process stops, considerable heat continues to be gene-
  generated by the decay20 of fission products. This phenomenon is cal-
  called "afterheat," * and although it steadily decreases, the amount
  of heat during the first week is great enough to require forced
  cooling for the core21 not to melt and destroy the reactor. The dif-
  difficulty can doubtless be overcome, yet an accident22 involving the
  stopping of the engine will present a situation where the afterheat
  will undoubtedly damage the core, with the consequent generation
  of harmfulM by-products **.
  Still, some advantages in aircraft design accompany24 the
  use of atomic fuel. First of all, the concentration of loads
  eases25 the problem of structural design. Then, greatly reduced
  is the fire risk, since the amount of chemical fuel carried, when
  nuclear power is used, is only adequate to give satisfactory condi-
  conditions for take-off and landing. Ontheotherhand, a nuclear-
  powered aircraft has to land with the same weight as it takes off,
  and there are many unknown factors, such as the effect of radia-
  radiation on the materials used in its construction. As regards the
  former, suggestions have been made to use jet-lift engines (oil-
  fuelled) to provide vertical take-off and landing; concerning the
  latter little is yet known about changes in aircraft materials in
  such circumstances M.
  In short27, while28 nuclear reactors offer the possibility of
  specific impulses approximately twice as great as those of the heat
  chemical systems, they have several potential disadvantages that
  * afterheat - радиоактивный распад
  %* by-products - продукты распада
  207
  must be considered and minimized where possible. These are reac-
  reactor weight, problems involved in neutronic start-up and control
  and the intense radiation field during power operation. F*u r t h e r,
  the inherent reliability of such systems is an unknown quality,
  although assumptions regarding reliability must be made in
  choosing29 one reactor design over another.
  To sum up30, it seems certain that a nuclear-powered
  aircraft can be constructed and flown, but whether it will prove
  too cumbersome *, too dangerous, and too expensive31 to operate
  are questions which have yet to be answered.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных средств
  связи типа in (by) contrast ("н наоборот", снапротив", ј 71).
  in (by) contrast
  1. Pluto is so far away from the Sun that the Sun looks no
  larger in its sky than a star does to us. On Mercury, by contrast,
  the Sun would nearly fill the sky.
  2. The principles of dynamics had been summed up by Newton
  as early as 1687. In contrast, the other primary branches of phy-
  physics - heat, light, electricity, etc. - did not begin to assume their
  modern forms until the nineteenth century.
  on the contrary
  3. The natural tendency of heat to flow from a higher to a lower
  temperature makes it possible foe a heat engine to transform heat
  into work. On the contrary, a mechanical refrigerating machine
  must transfer heat from a colder to a hotter body.
  conversely
  4. Steady flow exists if the velocity at a point remains constant
  with respect to time. Conversely, unsteady flow exists if the velo-
  velocity changes either in magnitude or in direction with respect to
  time.
  5. If an air mass is moved from a position near the ground to
  a higher position, the reduced surrounding pressure results in an
  expansion, which in turn causes a cooling of the air. Conversely,
  if an air mass is brought to a lower elevation of greater pressure,
  it is compressed and the temperature increases.
  alternatively
  6. The cathode of a two-electrode valvei sometimes consists of
  a filament2 which is directly heated by an electric current. Alter-
  Alternatively, it may be a metal cylinder which is indirectly heated by
  radiation or conduction.
  * cumbersome - громоздкий
  1 valve - радиолампа
  1 filament - нить накала
  208
  7. The absorption of a deutron by a nucleus may be followed
  by the emission of a neutron in which case the nucleus makes an
  overall gain of an additional proton. Alternatively, a proton may
  be emitted, in which case the nucleus gains one neutron.
  2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных средств
  связи типа hence ("следовательно", "поэтому", ј 72).
  hence
  1. Physics deals primarily with phenomena that can be ac-
  accurately described in terms of matter and energy. Hence, the basic
  concepts in all physical phenomena are concepts of matter and
  energy.
  2. The boiling point on the Centigrade scale is 100№ and on the
  Fahrenheit is 212№. Hence, 1№ on the Fahrenheit scale equals fiVe
  ninths of Г on the Centigrade.
  accordingly
  3. Gases like oxygen and hydrogen will remain liquid only at
  very low temperatures (-150№ to -250№ C). Accordingly, we trans-
  transport oxygen and hydrogen compressed in cylinders to 120 times
  the pressure of the air.
  4. Although the technical development of computing machines
  is going on at a rapid rate, the general principles underlying their
  operation will probably remain unchanged for a long time. Accor-
  Accordingly, this book puts main emphasis on principles and methods
  rather than on engineering details.
  3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных средств
  связи типа likewise ("точно так же", "аналогичным образом", ј 70).
  likewise
  1. A semiconductor in which n-type impurities predominate is
  also called n-type. Likewise, one in which p-type impurities are in
  the majority is referred to as p-type.
  2. The total drag determines the top speed. Adding weight will
  decrease the climb and increase the landing speed; it will
  also decrease the .maximum speed. Likewise, increase in the drag
  will reduce the top speed.
  similarly
  3. In order to get a large thrust, a large burning surface must
  be used to obtain a large mass flow. Similarly, to obtain a long
  duration of thrust only a small portion of the propeliant charge
  must burn at a time.
  4. When glass and silk are rubbed * together, some negative
  electricity is transferred from the glass to the silk, leaving the
  glass with a net positive charge and the silk with an equal nega-
  negative charge. Similarly, hard rubber receives negative electricity
  from the wool with which it is in contact, leaving the wool posi-
  positive.
  1 rub - тереть
  209
  4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод выделенных средств
  связи типа to sum up ("итак", ссуммируя, можно сказать, что", ј 72).
  1. То sum up, the present chapter places emphasis on those
  properties of crystalline solids which can be understood on the
  basis of present atomic theory.
  2. To achieve a high jet velocity it is necessary to generate as
  much heat as possible for conversion into kinetic energy. As the
  gas is accelerated it loses most of its heat and exhausts at a
  lower temperature. To accelerate the gas, a high pressure is need-
  needed in the rocket chamber. In summary, then, to produce a large
  thrust, we need high mass flow, high energy and high pressure.
  3. Electromotive force is present in the battery whether it is in
  circuit or disconnected. When the voltage of a battery in an open
  circuit is measured the figure obtained is e.m.f. If, however, it is
  measured when connected in circuit the figure obtained may be
  regarded as potential difference. To summarize, electromotive
  force is the total available voltage of a battery, whereas1 potential
  difference is the active difference of voltage in an electrical circuit.
  б. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова also и again, имеющие не-
  несколько значений. Обратите особое внимание на перевод этих слов в
  функции средств связи (ј 74).
  also: 1. также
  2. кроме того; более того
  again: 1. снова
  2. кроме того; более того; с другой стороны
  also
  1. So far, electrons have been treated as particles, but it can
  be shown that electrons have a wave nature also.
  2. The warm air heats air above it. Also, the warm air will
  rise, and in going to a region where the pressure is less it will
  expand.
  3. In this chapter we have created symbols that are associated
  with vectors. Also, various vector operations have been given that
  enable us to represent certain actions in nature mathematically.
  4. While strontium batteries have a very long lifetime, they
  yield a rather low number of watt-hours per pound. Also, nothing
  can be done to alter the rate at which the isotope releases energy.
  5. The curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon even thousands
  of years ago was regarded as proof that the Earth was a sphere.
  Also, the fact that different constellations2 were seen in northern
  and southern parts of the world was taken to indicate that the
  Earth was curved.
  1 whereas - тогда как
  1 constellation - созвездие
  210
  again
  6. If at a given instant the velocity remains constant with
  respect to distance along a streamline, the flow is said to be uni-
  uniform. Again, it must be remembered that, if there is a change
  either in magnitude or direction along the streamline, then the
  flow is non-uniform.
  7. Solid sugar, when added to water, dissolves and forms a
  homogeneous * solution. Liquid alcohol and water also mix in all
  proportions to form solutions. It is generally possible, by suitable
  means, to separate again the constituents of solutions, one method
  being by distillation.
  8. The fact that electrical energy can be converted into me-
  mechanical energy can be readily observed in the electric motor.
  Again, electrical energy can be converted into heat energy by
  means of the commonly used electric heaters, for example.
  6. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова otherwise и rather, имеющие
  несколько значений. Объясните, от чего зависит правильный перевод этих
  слов в каждом случае (ј 74).
  otherwise: /. иначе, в противном случае; 2. в другом отноше-
  отношении, другим образом; 3. (имеет значение, противоположное зна-
  значению стоящего перед ним слова)
  rather: /. скорее; 2. довольно, весьма
  rather than: а не; вместо того, чтобы
  otherwise
  1. From early times man has been continually creating and
  improving devices to assist him in completing tasks that would
  otherwise be difficult or impossible.
  2. Space vehicles can carry the scientist's instruments as well
  as the scientist himself to regions otherwise not accessible 2 to col-
  collect information otherwise unattainable.
  3. A force is a push or pull which tends to start, stop or other-
  otherwise change the motion of a body on which it acts.
  4. 'External forces, whether lifting or otherwise, that act upon
  a body are termed "loads".
  5. Unless otherwise stated, all vectors in this chapter are as-
  assumed to be three-dimensional.
  6. For this to happen, the neutron itself must have a magnetic
  field surrounding it, hence be a magnet itself. Otherwise no inter-
  interaction would have been observed.
  rather
  7. A rocket starts its trip rather slowly, but after its propellant
  supply is consumed its acceleration increases.
  ' homogeneous - однородный
  1 accessible - доступный
  211
  8. In mechanical systems energy will be stated in joules rather
  than in ergs.
  9. The nuclear rocket does not use any combustion process.
  Rather, the hot exhaust gas is developed by passing a working
  fluid through a fission reactor.
  10. The material fn the airframe of a vehicle is considered
  "dead weight," since it does not contribute directly to the produc-
  production of thrust. Rather, the dead weight imposes1 a limitation on the
  maximum velocity.
  11. It is not likely that the energy of fission will be used instead
  of the existing energy sources, but rather to supplement2 them.
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова yet и still, имеющие несколько
  значений. Обратите внимание на близкие значения этих слов (ј 74).
  yet, still: 1. однако; тем не менее
  2. (все) еще; до сих пор
  " as yet: все еще; до сих пор; пока
  yet
  1. The nucleus of an atom contains most of the atom's mass.
  Yet, it occupies little of the atomic volume.
  2. Mendeleyev was able to leave gaps in his table for elements
  yet to be discovered.
  3. Becquerel found that yet another type of penetrating ray was
  produced in a naturally occurring substance - uranium, as well
  as the X-rays from the cathode-ray tube.
  4. As yet we have not considered the speeds of spaceships.
  still
  5. Rockets may differ from each other. Still, the principles of
  rocketry are the same.
  6. Everyone is familiar with general appearance of the Moon
  and its "phases." Kot everyone realizes, however, that the Moon
  still presents the same face towards the Earth throughout all these
  phases.
  7. The simpler phenomena of magnetism are known to every
  scientific student, but a complete understanding of the mechanism
  of magnetic action is still the subject of advanced research.
  8. The planets vary in size, Pluto and the four nearest to the
  Sun being small compared with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
  Neptune, although still much bigger than the asteroids.
  9. Solenoids produce stronger magnetic fields than straight
  wires. When a magnetic substance is placed within a solenoid,
  still stronger fields are created.
  8. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово then, имеющее значения
  сзатем", "следовательно", "тогда", "в этом случае" (ј 74).
  1 impose - налагать
  1 supplement -дополнять
  212
  1. The planets are divided into two main groups. The inner
  group is made up of four comparatively small bodies, Mercury,
  Venus, the Earth and Mars; then comes a wide gap, containing
  the minor planet zone, after which we reach the four giants, Jupi-
  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
  2. The chemical properties of isotopes are practically identical
  since these depend on-the number of electrons surrounding each
  nucleus. Isotopes of an element then are atoms whose nucleus has
  the same net charge, but contains different numbers of neutrons.
  3. If the air in a discharge tube is gradually pumped out and
  a high voltage applied to the tube, then, as the pressure reaches
  a few centimeters of Mercury, long reddish streamers * pass down
  the tube.
  4. It is not enough to say that the length of a thing is 8 or 96;
  we must give the units - feet, or inches, or centimeters. In short,
  then, to measure a quantity2 is to compare it with some other
  quantity of the same kind.
  9. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания, служащие для связи от-
  отдельных частей высказывания (ј 68-74):
  to begin with, in addition, otherwise, hence, in short, alter-
  alternatively, yet, first, so, as a result, to sum up, rather, again, never-
  nevertheless, conversely, likewise, also, then, in contrast, accordingly,
  in summary, briefly, still, moreover, second, further, similarly,
  however, besides, now, therefore, thus, first of all, finally, next, in
  consequence, lastly, furthermore, to summarize.
  10. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные
  значения глагола to be + инфинитив и на инверсию.
  А. Различные значения глагола to be.
  1. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the flow and
  density of solar plasma and the energy of its particles.
  2. At the transmitting end of the television system the scene
  which is to be reproduced can be focused by means of lens system
  onto a plate in the television camera.
  3. If a plasma is to be heated by magnetic compression, the
  compression rate must be high enough so that fe,w particles are
  lost during the process.
  4. The role of theoretical science is to find the hidden inter-
  interrelations between the empirical laws and interpret3 them in the
  light of certain hypothetical assumption concerning the internal
  structure of matter not subject to direct observations.
  5. Emission in the short X-ray region is to be expected from
  stars which exhibit activity like that of the sun.
  1 streamer - язычок (пламени)
  1 quantity - зд. величина
  ' interpret - объяснять
  213
  6. The radiometers were to obtain information about the
  planet's temperature and atmosphere.
  7. The function of the modulator in a radar transmitter is to
  switch on the Rf * generator at the correct moment.
  Б. Инверсия (ј 93-97)
  The light from the Sun passes through the atmosphere before
  it reaches us and some of the light is absorbed in the atmosphere.
  The consequence is that some of the absorption lines that are
  present in the observed spectrum of the Sun do not originate in
  the Sun but in the atmosphere of our Earth. Of particular impor-
  importance to us is the absorption produced by the ozone in the
  atmosphere. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is extremely
  small; it is estimated to be equivalent to a layer about one-tenth of
  an inch thick at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It
  occurs almost exclusively above the highest clouds, the greatest
  density being at a height of between twenty and thirty miles.
  Small though the amount of ozone is, the absorption produced by
  it in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum is so strong that all
  of the light of wavelength shorter than 0,000012 inch is completely
  absorbed; none of the light in this region of the spectrum is conse-
  consequently accessible to observation. Unfortunate though this is for
  the investigations of the astronomer, it is a fortunate circumstance
  for life, for human being could not exist if there were not a small
  amount of ozone in the atmosphere.
  Лексические упражнения
  11. Переведите предложения, содержащие прилагательное sure (9,3) и сочета-
  сочетания с ним:
  sure "достоверный"; surely "обязательно""; to be sure "быть уверен-
  уверенным" (в качестве сказуемого), "несомненно" (в качестве модального сло-
  слова); to be sure (to do smth.) "обязательно" (сделать что-л.); to make sure
  "удостовериться"; to ensure "обеспечить"
  1. That no atoms were smashed by man before 1939 is a sure
  fact.
  2. The spaceship Vostok was fitted with everything necessary
  to ensure the spaceman's safety during the flight and his safe
  landing.
  3. Scientists are not yet quite sure as to why some isotopes
  give off alpha particles, while others give off beta particles.
  4. Space rockets are sure to assist in advancing our knowledge
  of high-energy radiations from outer space.
  5. Out of the vast number of stars in our Universe there surely
  must be some systems with earthlike planets.
  6. Make sure that all traces of oil are removed from the
  magneto.
  1 Rf (radio frequency) -высокая частота
  214
  7. To be sure, a number of techniques are available to protect
  the payload of a ballistic missile from the extreme heating produ-
  produced during re-entry.
  12. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово assembly (9,16), имеющее не-
  несколько значений. Объясните, от чего зависит выбор перевода в каждом
  случае.
  1. The task of the plant was to make an assembly of all the
  component parts of the device.
  2. All electronic assemblies and sub-assemblies of radar in-
  installed on the aircraft are cooled during the flight.
  3. The solar system is a remarkable assembly of bodies re-
  revolving about the sun.
  4. The liquid propellents are injected into the chamber by
  injector assemblies.
  13. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова-заменители the former и the
  latter. Укажите, какие существительные заменяются ими.
  1. Although liquids and gases are both fluids, the density of the
  former is only slightly influenced by changes in pressure and
  temperature.
  2. All experiments show that for heavy nuclei the nuclei density
  is constant up to a certain distance from the centre and that it
  decreases to zero in a further distance which is small compared
  with the former.
  3. When an electron current flows along a conductor the latter
  becomes heated.
  4. Of the preceding two sections the latter will not be required
  for those familiar with the applications of radar in aviation.
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа то, что союз while имеет
  два значения: "в то время, как" и "хотя" (9,28).
  1. Scientists discovered the existence of the binding force while
  they were investigating the phenomenon of radioactivity.
  2. The transistor is a current-controlled unit, while the vacuum
  tube is voltage-controlled.
  3. While isotope power sources are more efficient than the
  electrochemical systems, they still have some limitations.
  4. While the rocket is a very simple device in theory, It can
  become exceedingly complex in practice.
  15. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность предлога
  with:
  1. "с" (вместе с кем-л., с чём-л.); 2. "в зависимости от (чего-л.)";
  3. "в случае (применения чего-л.)", "прн (применении чего-л.)"; 4. выра-
  выражает отношения, передаваемые творительным падежом, отвечающим на
  вопрос "чем?". Помните, что предлог with может также входить в состав
  обособленного причастного оборота (ј 23, п. 3).
  1. The non-metallic elements can combine together, and with
  the metals, with greater freedom.
  215
  2. Metals usually have a small positive coefficient; this is
  because the density of electrons does not change with temperature.
  3. Multirange ammeters and voltmeters are provided with
  several shunts and multipliers.
  4. With the metric system everything is measured in terms of
  three standard units: the meter, the kilogram and the second.
  5. According to Kepler, for any two planets, with the periods
  of revolution being known with accuracy, the ratio of their mean
  distances may be obtained.
  6. With the tremendous neutron intensities resulting from the
  chain reactions, isotopes in quantities unknown in the early days
  of neutron research now can be produced.
  16. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод мно-
  многозначных существительных impact, background, Item.
  1. Only microscopic particles exhibit the Brownian movement,
  because larger particles are subject to so many molecular col-
  collisions from all sides that the impact from one side neutralizes
  those from the other and no motion of particle results.
  2. The full Impact of the work of the past decade on minia-
  miniaturization is just beginning to be felt in industry.
  3. The upper atmosphere emits light of two kinds, but neither
  is visible by day against the background of the bright sky.
  4. The difference in viewpoint between physics and chemistry
  can hardly be appreciated without a background in both sciences.
  5. The lift of an airplane is dependent upon two main items:
  the angle of attack and the mass of the air passing over the wing.
  6. The several main items which are used to make up a comp-
  complete armature1 assembly are illustrated in Fig. 61.
  Словообразовательные упражнения
  17. Переведите следующие слова, исходя из значения основы и учитывая зна-
  значения префиксов и суффиксов:
  refuelling, rearmament, unavoidable, irremovable, inadequate,
  counter-clockwise, overestimate, undervalue, transoceanic, semi-
  semifluid, subdivisible, ultra-short, non-fissionable
  18. Переведите наречия с суффиксом -wise, пользуясь следующей моделью:
  chordwise
  4
  (как)
  I
  (чего?) *- в направлении
  хорды
  по хорде
  lengthwise, spanwise, clockwise, sidewise
  1 armature - якорь
  216.
  Упражнение на перевод терминов
  19. Переведите сложные термины, в состав которых входит существительное
  и причастие II, соединенные дефисом (radio-controlled).
  Английский термин
  Область применения
  pressure-fed liquid propellant rocket engine
  cathode-coupled multi-vibrator circuit
  field-controlled transistor unit
  frequency-modulated transmitter set
  pulsed amplitude-modulated carrier
  ракетная техника
  радио
  радиоэлектроника
  •"
  радио
  Упражнения в чтении
  20. Прочитайте следующие слова, соблюдая правильное ударение:
  unlimited, re'fuelling, in'valuable, ,concent'ration, reliability,
  ex'pensive, 'overestimate, 'undervalue, 'non-'fissionable, 'super-
  'natural
  21. Прочитайте слова с суффиксом -wise, соблюдая правильное ударение:
  'otherwise, 'clockwise, 'spanwise, 'sidewise, 'likewise
  22. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  circumference [sa'kAmfarans] damage ['daemid3]
  consequence ['ibnsikwans] circumstance ['sa:kamstans]
  percentage fpa'sentid3] cumbersome ('kAmbasamj
  assembly [э sembli] dangerous ['demd3rasj
  23. Прочитайте предложения, соблюдая указанные паузы:
  1. То begin with, | the extremely high heat values...
  2. To sum up, | it seems certain that...
  3. Again, | the advantage offered by nuclear power...
  4. Then, | for shielding purposes...
  5. In consequence, | such an aircraft...
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. SUBJECT MATTER OF FLUID MECHANICS
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Fluid mechanics is a combination of an analytical and
  empirical science. On the one hand, there are certain problems
  such as aspects of laminar flow" and irrotational flow2 which
  can be analysed and expressed very accurately, simply from a
  mathematical approach. On the other hand, most engineering
  217
  problems involve so many variables that it is possible only to ap-
  approximate a solution by mathematical analysis alone.
  Consequently, adjustments to mathematical developments must
  be made on an empirical basis - which results in the often-made
  accusation3 that fluid mechanics is a science of coefficients.
  In order to overcome this criticism as much as possible, we
  have attempted to explain first the characteristics of fluid proper-
  lies, based upon the fundamentals of molecular structure, and then
  to develop the basic theory involved in a particular concept of
  fluid mechanics.
  Furthermore, we have attempted to explain and illustrate, on
  the one hand, the conditions under which the basic theory is
  directly applicable to an engineering problem and, on the other
  hand, the conditions under which the mathematical theory must be
  modified empirically (on the basis of experimental data) in order
  for it to be applicable to an engineering problem.
  In short, ideal theory is indispensable4 for basic understand-
  understanding, and for practical use of such understanding; the large number
  of variables involved frequently requires experimental data to
  establish a complete relationship - which includes certain coef-
  coefficients and the range of application of both the theoretical and
  empirical aspects.
  1 laminar flow - ламинарный поток
  2 irrotational flow - безвихревой поток
  3 accusation - обвинение
  4 indispensable - необходимый
  2. FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The essential feature of many automatic control systems is
  feedback. Feedback Is that property of the system which permits
  the output quantity to be compared with the input command so
  that upon the existence of a difference an actuating signal arises
  which acts to bring the two into correspondence. This principle of
  feedback is really not new to us; it surrounds every phase of
  everyday living. It underlies the coordinated motions made by
  human body in walking and driving an automobile. It plays an
  equally Important role in the countless applications of control
  system engineering in the fields of control of aircraft, special-
  purpose computers for many types of military equipment and in
  many other fields.
  The distinction between an elementary system and one which
  is complex lies primarily in the difficulty of the task to be perfor-
  performed. The more difficult the task, the more complex the system. In
  fact with many present day systems this complexity has reached
  such proportions that system design has virtually become a
  218
  science. The functional behaviour ef each system is treated here
  in terms of a block diagram and its associated terminology. Fol-
  Following this, attention is focused on the steady-state analysts of
  the performance of a voltage and a speed control system. Such a
  study accomplishes two objectives. First, it gives substance to
  some of the general ideas discussed up to this point, thereby
  making the operation of the system more vivid. Then, useful
  results applicable to any feedback control system are developed.
  Idealized
  system
  Ideal vqlue "desired output
  error
  j Reference
  I Input ~
  Comma nd
  Reference Ajti*?t'P9 l^ajupnAated
  Input "~-> .signal /variable
  ї7 A ,/,
  rference / / Control / Cqntrolle.i
  input UO* elejnent* "- aijstem
  lemerrt r* I g, g,
  Controlled
  variable
  Primary
  feedback
  Feedback
  element
  h
  Indirectly
  opn.tro.iled
  system z
  Block diagram of a feedback control system.
  Every feedback control system consists of components which
  perform specific functions. As has been mentioned above, a con-
  convenient method of representing this functional characteristic of
  the system is the block diagram. Basically that is a means of
  representing the operations performed in the system and the man-
  manner in which signal information flows throughout the system.
  The block diagram is concerned not with the physical cha-
  characteristics of any specific system but only with the functional
  relationship among various parts in the system. In general, the
  output quantity of any linear component of the system is related
  to the input by a gain factor and combinations of derivatives or
  integrals with respect to time. Accordingly, it is -possible for two
  entirely different and unrelated physical systems to be represented
  by the same block diagram, provided that the respective compo-
  components are described by the same differential equations.
  3. REACTORS FOR NUCLEAR-POWERED GAS TURBINES
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  High-temperature gas-cooled reactors would appear to be parti-
  particularly well suited to nuclear-powered, closed-cycle gas turbines,
  particularly if the working gas in the turbine circuit may be passed
  219
  through and heated directly In the reactor core. This gives the
  most compact system possible. A possible disadvantage to such
  an arrangement is that accidental escape of fission products from
  the reactor core into the gas stream may contaminate the machi-
  machinery, and further problems are introduced if the gas used is of a
  type which can acquire induced radioactivity in passing through
  the reactor. This may demand light shielding around the turbo-
  machinery, a safety containment vessel enclosing the entire
  reactor and turbo-machinery, and will introduce some problems in
  machinery maintenance if the machinery becomes mildly radio-
  radioactive. Such problems may not be particularly troublesome,
  however, except in the event of a major mishap in the reactor core.
  These latter problems might be minimized if the reactor gas
  coolant circuit and the gas turbine circuit are separated from each
  other, the heat in the hot reactor coolant gas being transferred to
  the working gas in the turbine by means of an intermediate gas
  heat exchanger. However, with such an arrangement the interme-
  intermediary high-temperature heat exchanger would be bulky, heavy and
  expensive and the potential advantage of compactness might be
  lost. Moreover, the insertion of a heat exchanger between the
  reactor gas coolant and the turbine gas inevitably necessitates
  that the maximum turbine gas temperature is depressed to a
  value 50-100№ С lower than the maximum gas coolant tempera-
  temperature at outlet from the reactor, possibly leading to some sacrifice
  in the gas turbine thermal efficiency. Furthermore, a separate and
  independently driven compressor must be inserted in the reactor
  gas coolant circuit in order to circulate the coolant gas, resul-
  resulting in additional overall mechanical complexity and further loss
  of net overall thermal efficiency.
  It would seem probable, therefore, that a dual circuit arran-
  arrangement of reactor and gas turbine of the above form might show
  little or no advantage over the more conventional reactor-steam
  turbine systems. Alternatively, such dual circuit arrangements
  might only prove attractive if high-temperature liquid-cooled
  reactor systems should prove ultimately to be practicable.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. На каком месте в предложении стоят обычно слова и сло-
  словосочетания, служащие для связи частей высказывания (ј 73)?
  2. Как переводятся следующие слова и словосочетания, вы-
  выполняющие функцию средств связи:
  to begin with, likewise, on the contrary, similarly, hence, to
  sum up, conversely, accordingly, alternatively.
  3. От чего зависит перевод слов also и again? Укажите воз-
  возможные варианты перевода каждого из этих слов (ј 74).
  4. Какие значения может иметь слово then (упр. 8)?
  220
  5. Как переводится слово otherwise, когда оно является
  а) средством связи, б) наречием (ј 74)?
  6. Какую роль в предложении могут играть слова yet и still
  (ј 74)?
  7. Какие значения может иметь слово rather? От чего зависит
  перевод этого слова (упр. 6)?
  8. Какие значения имеет союз while (упр. 14)?
  УРОК ДЕСЯТЫЙ
  Текст: Cosmic Rays.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод эллиптических конструкций (ј 100-104).
  Перевод сочетаний слов, выполняющих функцию союза типа In
  which year (упр. ?).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: encounter, Impart, eliminate, finally, ultimately, even-
  eventually, recognize, arrive, effect, affect, somewhat, something, thereafter,
  therefrom, therein, thereby, apparent, occasion.
  Перевод предлога by.
  Перевод слов с префиксами de- и fore- (упр. Yiy.
  Перевод сложных терминов типа combustion chamber surface area
  (упр. 18).
  ТЕКСТ
  COSMIC RAYS
  Primary cosmic rays are submicroscopic particles that travel
  in space outside * the earth's atmosphere at speeds nearly equal
  to that of light. Some of them happen to approach the earth and
  enter the atmosphere.
  High in the atmosphere, most of the primary cosmic rays
  collide2 violently3 with the atoms they encounter4 in the air, in
  which case they impart5 their energies to the fragments* resulting
  from the collision. In effect7, these fragments or secondary rays
  are what we observe at lower levels. Like the primaries they too
  collide with atoms in the air, or eventually8 with atoms in the
  earth, until ultimately9 the energy is all transformed into heat.
  The term cosmic rays is used to refer both to the primary' and
  secondary rays.
  Although an ancient phenomenon, cosmic rays
  because of their small effects went unrecognized10 until the end of
  the last century and the beginning of the present century. The
  222
  total energy of all cosmic rays arriving11 in the atmosphere per
  unit time is only about 10 microwatts per square metre, roughly12
  equal to the energy in starlight and a 100,000,000 times less than
  the radiant13 energy from the sun. Therefore, cosmic rays do not
  affect14 life on the earth appreciably in any direct, physical way.
  The discovery of the existence of cosmic radiation was a
  consequence of certain experiments undertaken 13 on the conducti-
  conductivity of gases. It was believed, on theoretical grounds, that a gas
  should be non-conducting in the absence of radiation, provided
  that the potential gradient across it was not so high that
  sparking16 could take place. Curiously enough 17, experiments
  undertaken to test this hypothesis showed that a sample18 of air in
  a closed vessel always exhibited a small electrical conductivity in
  spite of every precaution18 to eliminate20 radiation, and prevent
  leakage along the insulators. The conductivity was observed to
  increase in proportion to the pressure of the enclosed21 air, and
  to be diminished22 by surrounding the vessel with thick shields;
  therefore, it seemed to be due to some kind of radiation continual-
  continually entering the vessel through the walls. If so, this was a more
  penetrating radiation than had ever been known before.
  Various suggestions were advanced to explain this pheno-
  phenomenon, among them residual * radioactivity of the shielding ma-
  materials, and spontaneous ** ionization due to the thermal motion
  of the gas molecules.
  That these explanations were not sufficient to account for the
  observed phenomena was shown by the experiments of some
  scientists who, in the years immediately23 prior to 1914, sent
  ionization chambers up with balloons, and measured the variation
  of the conductivity of the contained gas as a function of altitude.
  They were able to show that conductivity, and hence the ionization
  produced in the gas, somewhat24 decreased up to an altitude of
  about 2,000 feet above sea-levei, indicating sources on the earth,
  and thereafter25 increased steadily up to the highest altitude
  which their balloons reached C0,000 feet), at which altitude it was
  many times greater than at sea-level. From this experimental
  result it was clear that, whatever the source, the whole of
  the residual Ionization observed at sea-level could not be at-
  attributed29 to the radioactivity of the earth, nor can it be a property
  of the gas with which the ionization chamber is filled. That the
  immediate source of the radiation is not the sun is a consequence
  of the fact that ionization was the same, whether day or
  night, and was therefore not due to rays coming directly from
  the sun.
  Although the above conclusions were confirmed эт by a number
  of physicists in the years immediately prior to the outbreak of the
  • residual - остаточный
  ** spontaneous - спонтанный, самопроизвольный
  223
  first world war, it was not until 1926 that the existence of the
  cosmic radiation was generally accepted.
  •The distinctive feature28 of cosmic rays is a unique concen-
  concentration of energy in single elementary particles. Though ap-
  apparently29 similar in substance (mainly protons
  or nuclei of hydrogen) to the rays that cause
  aurora borealis*, primary cosmic rays have individual
  energies about a million times greater, and penetrate far into the
  atmosphere and occasionally30 deep into the earth. Whereas31 the
  average quantum energy in starlight is merely32 2 ev, the average
  energy of single particles in the primary cosmic radiation is
  1010 times greater, or about 20 BeV **.
  Such particles are not deflected by the electric forces that
  normally keep atoms and particularly the nuclei of atoms apart;
  they can penetrate through the middle M of any nucleus and cause
  it to disintegrate and they can create out of their kinetic energies
  new types of unstable particles which otherwise would not exist
  naturally on the earth. The cosmic rays do not obey M Newton's
  laws of mechanics as do slower-moving bodies, but provide extr-
  extreme examples requiring application of the principles of relativity,
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  ч Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите эллиптические конструкции придаточным предложением. При-
  Приступая к переводу, сначала найдите подлежащее всего предложения, с тем
  чтобы знать, какое слово должно быть подлежащим придаточного предло-
  предложения (ј 101).
  Образец:
  When in rapid motion, electrons can produce."
  Когда электроны быстро движутся, они могут создавать...
  1. Though invisible in themselves, ultra-violet rays can be
  utilized in the production of light.
  2. Although a medium-small star, the Sun is over a thousand
  times as massive as Jupiter.
  3. When at its greatest distance from the Earth, Mars is about
  half as bright as the Polar star.
  4. Once in the air, the jet aircraft is relatively simple to fly,
  owing to the absence of some controls.
  5. Although a tremendous achievement, the first rocket-powered
  gyro-controlled missile was primitive by comparison with many
  modern guided missiles.
  * aurora borealis - полярные сияния
  ** A BeV is equal to 1,000,000 electron volts
  224
  6. The airships are filled with helium, which, although heavier
  than hydrogen, is non-inflammable '.
  7. Though highly tenuous2 at this altitude, the atmosphere is
  still sufficient to exert an influence on the rocket.'
  8. Although the simplest form of the propulsion unit imagin-
  imaginable, the rocket can assume a large variety of forms.
  9. Once in space, the vehicle moving at high velocity, say in
  a satellite orbit, requires no further propulsion to stay aloft3.
  10. With the launching of Sputnik I on October 4, 1957, the
  Earth acquired an artificial satellite which, though of only
  temporary duration, marked the beginning of "the space age".
  2. Переведите группы слов н предложения. Обратите внимание на выделен-
  выделенные эллиптические конструкции и запомните возможные соответствия при
  переводе их иа русский язык (ј 102).
  Образец:
  Whatever the shape of the magnet, it has two poles.
  Какова бы ни была форма магнита, он имеет два полюса.
  Независимо от формы каждый магнит имеет два полюса.
  1. Whatever the method, the calculation must be precise...
  2. Whatever the weather conditions, the airport...
  3. No matter how different in detail, many of the projectiles...
  4. The radiation, no matter how small, effects...
  5. However great the pressure changes, the density of the
  flow...
  6. The general principles of operation of automatic voltage
  regulators are similar whatever the size and type.
  7. No matter how complicated, the problem of space navi-
  navigation is expected to be finally solved.
  8. However thin the shock wave, the air speed is reduced and
  the air heated.
  9. Whatever the source, whatever the method of production, the
  electrons produced by one method are the same in all respects as
  those produced by another method.
  10. No matter what the nature of the surfaces that are moving
  over each other, there is always some opposition to the motion.
  11. Whatever the shape and size of the body, - it is always
  possible to find one point at which a force equal and opposite to
  the weight of the body can be applied so that the body will remain
  at rest.
  1 non-inflammable - невоспламеняющийся
  1 tenuous - разреженный
  * aloft - наверху; в полете
  8 Зак 849 225
  3. Переведите группы слов и предложения, содержащие вллиптическую кон-
  конструкцию "if any". Обратите внимание на способ перевода этой конструк-
  конструкции (ј 104).
  Образцы:
  The nacelles, if any,..
  Мотогондолы, если таковые имеются...
  The nucleus determines the radioactive properties, If any, of
  the atom.
  Ядро определяет радиоактивные свойства атома, если он
  таковыми обладает.
  1. The boosters, If any,...
  2. The cooling device, If any,...
  3. The gravitational attraction, if any,...
  4. The radioactive products, if any, ...
  5. The effect of weightlessness appears to have given Gagarin
  little discomfort, If any.
  6. The observations provide definite evidence that the atmo-
  atmosphere on Mercury must be of extreme rarity, If any at all.
  7. With no free oxygen and little, if any, water, Mars still ap-
  appears to have some evidence of life.
  8. The next problem of importance which occupied most of the
  investigators in this field was to determine the long-wave limit,
  if any, of the infra-red radiation.
  4. Переведите предложения, содержащие эллиптические конструкции.
  1. Although a theoretical possibility, the nuclear rocket motor
  is not likely to be used within the next few years.
  2. Electrical disturbances, no matter how weak, produce radio
  waves which are picked up by the antenna of the receiver.
  3. The total wing area will be determined by the gross weight
  of the airplane, the airfoil used, the type of high lift device, if any,
  and the required landing speed.
  4. Galileo proved that objects fall at the same speed whatever
  their weight.
  5. Though a quarter of million miles away, the Moon Is our
  nearest neighbour in space.
  6. When visible, sunspots are the most interesting objects on
  the solar surface.
  7. The light of the Sun is very intense, it is about 900 million
  limes that received from Venus, when at her brightest.
  8. No matter how complex the machine, it is always made up
  of standard simple machines.
  9. Electric charge, although not directly observable, makes
  itself evident by such means as the mechanical force between
  charged bodies, or the heating, magnetic or chemical effects as-
  associated with its motion as an electric current.
  226
  10. The first observations of stellar ultra-violet radiation have
  already been made, and although preliminary" have yielded some
  surprising results.
  б. Переведите предложения со словами типа in which year в значении союза.
  Обратите внимание иа то, что слово which, входящее в состав союза,
  переводится местоимением "этот" в соответствующем падеже.
  1. High-altitude flight to explore and record temperature,
  humidity and terrestrial magnetism were made as early as 1804,
  in which year a scientific ascent as high as 2,550 metres was
  made.
  2. It was estimated that the vehicle would make over 200 circles
  of the globe (over a period of 12 days) during which time it
  would transmit to Earth information of conditions in the upper
  atmosphere.
  3. Capacity may exist as a charge on" a single conductor that
  has no electrical relationship to any other, in which case it is
  referred to as 'self capacity'.
  4. The term 'high-speed flight'is applied especially to super-
  supersonic speeds, in which field many of the problems are as impor-
  important to rocketry as to aeronautics.
  6. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод средств
  связи и причастных конструкций.
  А. Средства связи (ј 68-74)
  1. The nuclear rocket does not use any combustion process.
  Rather, the hot exhaust gas is developed by passing a working
  fluid through a fission reactor. Liquid hydrogen is the propellant
  most often considered for a nuclear rocket because it yields the
  lightest exhaust gas possible. The hydrogen could be stored in
  liquid form In a single tank and forced into a reactor by a pump.
  After being heated in the reactor, it would be exhausted through
  a conventional rocket nozzle to obtain thrust.
  2. In attempting to discuss whether life can exist on any other
  world, we come up against the difficulty that we have no certain
  knowledge of how life originated on the Earth. All the Innume-
  Innumerable substances that we find on the Earth are the result of dif-
  different combinations of some of the ninety-two varieties of atoms.
  The same atoms are found also in the Sun, in the stars in the
  remote universe. Conversely, no element is known to occur in the
  Sun or the stars that has not been found on the Earth.
  3. Over a sufficiently long interval of time, the amount of
  energy returned from the Earth to space must be equal to that
  which has been received, otherwise there would be a noticeable
  change in physical conditions at the ground.
  preliminary - предварительный
  227
  4. It is easy to understand the non-self maintained gas dis-
  discharge. Here light or heat liberates electrons from metal surfaces;
  alternatively, X-rays or radioactive radiations generate in the gas
  the electrons and positive ions that carry the current.
  5. A variable electric field is always accompanied by a magne-
  magnetic field; and conversely, a variable magnetic field is accompanied
  by an electric field.
  6. Our primary interest in absorption spectra is due to the
  evidence they give of atomic structure and processes in gases.
  Furthermore, an investigation of the absorption of light will
  provide a chance to compare the spectra of gases, liquids and
  solids.
  Б. Причастие + инфинитив (ј 25)
  The physical and chemical characteristics of the planetary
  atmosphere strongly influence entry characteristics. To gain an
  appreciation of the gas dynamic ї forces and heating involved,
  a knowledge of the density variation in the atmosphere is suf-
  sufficient. The atmosphere of Venus, estimated to consist of about
  10 per cent nitrogen and 90 per cent-carbon dioxide, is somewhat
  more dense than the Earth's atmosphere, but varies in a similar
  way with altitude. The atmosphere of Mars estimated to contain
  about 95 per cent nitrogen and 5 per cent carbon dioxide, is ap-
  appreciably less dense than the Earth s atmosphere at surface level,
  but drops off much more gradually with increasing altitude and
  is actually more dense at high altitudes. The more gradual density
  variation on the Martian atmosphere makes it "softer," so that it
  would involve a comparatively less severe entry.
  В. Причастные обороты с союзами (ј 22)
  1. The На line of hydrogen appearing in the early stages of
  auroral' phenomena is considerably broadened when viewed
  towards the magnetic horizon and both broadened and displaced
  when viewed towards the magnetic zenith.
  2. On several occasions, while discussing absorption spectra
  we have mentioned the "lifetime of an excited2 state" of an atom.
  3. If the electron is at rest, it will not be affected by a magne-
  magnetic field, but when moving it behaves like a conductor carrying a
  current, and experiences a corresponding force.
  4. Recall that Planck believed that light, although emitted from
  its source discontinuously, travels through space as an electro-
  electromagnetic wave.
  5. Because of its very small mass, the electron has the advan-
  advantage of keeping its kinetic energy when suffering elastic collisions.
  ' auroral - вызванный полярным сиянием
  * excite - возбуждать
  228
  Лексические упражнения
  7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод выделенных гла-
  глаголов.
  encounter A0,4)
  1. Once a solid propellant motor is ignited, it is difficult to
  turn it off, a limitation not encountered in the liquid propellant
  engine.
  2. When radiant energy encounters a body or matter, part of
  the energy is stopped or absorbed by the matter.
  3. An object becomes weightless when it is free to move
  through space without encountering resistance.
  impart A0,5)
  4. The final stage of this multiple-rocket will impart roughly
  fifty per cent of the required velocity to the satellite itself.
  5. In the case of a rocket, the greatest possible quantity of
  thermal energy must be imparted to the matter ejected.
  6. Our only interest in the jet forces concerns the accelera-
  accelerations, both linear and angular, that they impart to the rocket.
  eliminate A0,20)
  7. In order to eliminate the drag of the landing gear during the
  flight, the wheels are usually retracted into the body or wings.
  8. In the principle of momentum the internal forces are elimi-
  eliminated; in the principle of energy they are not eliminated, except
  in the special case where they do no work and so contribute
  nothing to weight.
  8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа близкие по значению наре-
  наречия finally D,4), ultimately A0,9), eventually A0,8).
  1. Table II shows the complete series of radioactive elements,
  from uranium through radium and radon finally to lead l which
  is not radioactive.
  2. Heat produced by a radioisotope power system must even-
  eventually be radiated from the vehicle.
  3. Some specialists believe that we shall ultimately have to
  depend on the radiant energy that we receive directly from the
  Sun.
  4. Mendeleyev left blank spaces in his table predicting that
  eventually the missing elements would be found and described
  their properties.
  9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа многозначность выделен-
  выделенных глаголов.
  recognize A0,10)
  1. That some force is necessary to hold the planets in their el-
  elliptical orbits had been recognized before Newton.
  1 lead - свинец
  229
  2. That kinetic energy could be turned into potential energy
  was recognized in the early days of mechanics.
  3. Radar has been defined as the art of detecting by means of
  radio echoes the presence of objects, determining their direction
  and range and recognizing their character.
  4. The technician of an airplane must have sufficient know-
  knowledge of the system to enable him to recognize and meet the
  electrical emergencies that may occur during flight.
  arrive A0,11)
  5. The delegation arrived just in time to take part in the
  conference.
  6. In general celestiall mechanics arrives at its results by
  making use of a very far-reaching simplification.
  10. Переведите предложения. Различайте глаголы to effect "осуществлять"
  A0,7) и to affect "влиять" A0,14).
  1. On April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union effected the first manned
  space flight in history.
  2. The decrease of density of the air affects the power of the
  engine.
  3. Some mechanism is needed to inject the propellant into
  combustion chamber, and this is effected by the pressurization 2 of
  the propeilant tanks.
  4. The intensity of the cosmic ray radiation is greatly affected
  by solar activity.
  5. Protons, being positively charged particles, can be affected
  by electric as well as magnetic fields.
  6. Radioisotope thermionic systems are unaffected by space
  radiation.
  11. Переведите предложения. Различайте слова somewhat A0,24) и something.
  Заметьте, что somewhat переводится словами "несколько", "до некото-
  некоторой степени", a something означает "нечто", "что-то".
  1. Friction decreases somewhat with increasing speed.
  2. Atoms with the same atomic number may have somewhat
  different weights and still show almost identical physical and
  chemical properties.
  3. The tube used by Thomson in 1898 in studying cathode rays
  was something like the picture tube in a modern television
  receiver.
  4. The atom is something very different from the hard solid
  sphere that it was formerly believed to be.
  12. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова типа thereafter, therefrom
  A0,25).
  Заметьте, что эти слова состоят из слова there и какого-либо служеб-
  служебного слова after, from и т. д." Эти составные слова следует переводить,
  1 celestial - небесный
  1 pressurization -- герметизация
  230
  начиная со второго компонента, а первый компонент (there) переводить
  словом "таковой (этот)> в соответствующем падеже.
  thereafter: вслед за этим, после этого
  therefrom: из этого
  1. The high-velocity jet from a jet engine may be considered as
  a continuous recoil * imparting force against the airplane in which
  the engine is installed, thereby producing thrust.
  2. Scientists had to put forward various hypothesis to account
  for the movements of planets therewith.
  3. A molecule is a complicated structure with atoms and
  electrons therein.
  4. When the primary cosmic rays strike the air surrounding the
  earth, they collide with oxygen and nitrogen molecules in their
  paths, showers2 of secondary particles being produced thereafter.
  5. We can study only a very small class of meteor orbits, and
  to draw therefrom conclusions about the whole assemblage of
  meteoric bodies in the solar system.
  13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность прилага-
  прилагательного apparent A0,29).
  1. In recent years the value of infra-red analytical methods
  паз become apparent to industry.
  2 If energy changes are followed backward in the past, it
  becomes apparent that almost all the energy available to us has
  come ultimately from a single source - the Sun.
  3. Centrifugal force is only an apparent force, which arises
  because of the tendency of moving objects to travel in straight
  lines.
  4. Apparent movements of the planets are explained as combi-
  combinations of their actual motions around the Sun and our shift3 of
  position as the Earth moves.
  14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов occasion л,
  occasional a, occasionally adv, происходящих от общего корня A0,30).
  1. On the occasions when the Moon passes directly before or
  behind the Earth, an eclipse4 occurs.
  2. To-day a motor-car engine will run thousand of miles with-
  without needing any attention to the engine apart from occasional
  oiling.
  3. That water exists on Mars is indicated by the white polar
  caps and by occasional clouds, but its amount is very small.
  4. Most comets are visible only telescopically, but occasionally
  one becomes visible to the unaided eye.
  1 recoil - отдача
  1 shower - ливень
  1 shift - изменение, сдвиг
  ї eclipse - затмение
  231
  15. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения пред-
  предлога by:
  1. "спосредством>, спутем (чего-л.)"; 2. выражает отношения, переда-
  передаваемые творительным падежом (кем? чем?); 3. "к (какому-то времени)";
  4. "на (какое-то количество)"; 5. "по" "согласно (кому-л. или чему-л.)";
  в. "у", "возле", "около (чего-л.)"
  1. If the thrust generated by the jet engine is independent of
  the forward speed of the aircraft, we could convert the thrust
  to horsepower by multiplying the airspeed in miles per hour by the
  thrust and dividing the resultant product by 375.
  2. By 1914 the existence of radioactivity and the fact that
  atoms of one kind of element could change into another by emis-
  emission of alpha or beta rays was well known.
  3. By Newton's Second Law of motion, the product of a mass
  multiplied by its acceleration is equal to the unbalanced force
  causing the acceleration.
  16. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова
  account и сочетаний с ним:
  to give account, to take account, to take into account, account Is taken,
  on account of, to account for
  1. Maxwell's theory included an account of the propagation of
  electromagnetic waves in a medium such as glass. He was able to
  show that it gave a general account of the phenomena of reflection
  and refraction.
  2. This book provides an account of the structure and characte-
  characteristic activity of the sun.
  3. This is a new edition l of the book, with much new informa-
  information added to take account of recent developments.
  4. The difference between velocity and speed is that speed
  refers only to distance covered by an object as it moves; velocity
  also takes into account the direction in which the object is mo-
  moving.
  5. Account must be taken of forces which come into play when
  acceleration exceeds the specified value.
  6. On account of the complicated nature of the resistance of
  the air, an accurate mathematical prediction of the. trajectory of
  a projectile is difficult.
  7. The laws of classical mechanics were unable to account for
  simple experimental facts concerning the behaviour of atomic
  systems.
  8. Friction in liquids must be accounted for in this experiment.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  17. Переведите следующие глаголы, учитывая, что префикс de- придает слову
  значение обратного действия, а префикс fore- соответствует значению при-
  приставки "пред-":
  demobilize, decode, deform, demagnetize, demilitarize, foresee,
  foretell, forecast
  1 edition - издание
  232
  Упражнение иа перевод терминов
  18- Переведите сложные термины, в которых каждые два существительных,
  стоящих рядом, выражают одно понятие.
  combustion chamber surface area
  (камера сгорания) (площадь поверхности)
  площадь поверхности камеры сгорания
  Английский термин
  Область применения
  gas turbine power plant
  radio navigation land station
  picture signal carrier wave
  air defence guided missile
  radio-frequency high-voltage power supply
  pulse-type high-voltage power supply
  flight-path deviation indicator
  pulse-type radio altimeter
  двигатели
  радио
  телевидение
  ракетная техника
  радио
  "
  навигация
  радио
  Упражнения в чтении
  19. Прочитайте следующие глаголы с префиксами de-. un- и fore-, соблюдая
  правильное ударение:
  de'mobilize
  'de'code
  de'form
  'de'magnetize
  'de'militarize
  'un'arm
  'un'close
  'un'fix
  'un'lock
  fore'see
  fore'tell
  'forecast
  20. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  cosmic ('kazmik]
  unrecognized f'An'rekagnaizd]
  roughly ['rAfli]
  radiant ('reidjant]
  curiously ['kjuanasli]
  hypothesis (hai'p38isis]
  residual (n'zidjuall
  spontaneous [span teinjas]
  immediately [i mirdjatli]
  attribute ['aetnbju.tf
  aurora bor^alis (э:'гэ':гэ ,bo:n'eilis]
  whereas [wear'sez]
  21. Прочитайте предложения из основного текста, содержащие эллиптическую
  конструкцию. Соблюдайте правильное ударение и паузы.
  1. 'High in the 'atmosphere, | 'most of the 'primary 'cosmic
  'rays co'llide 'violently...
  2- Al'though an 'ancient phenomenon, | 'cosmic 'rays...
  233
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. EXPLORING OUR SUN*
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  How close to the Sun could a man-carrying ship approach in
  safety? The answer to this question depends upon the skill of the
  refregiration experts; my guess * is that five million miles i's an
  attainable distance even with a crew-carrying vehicle.
  There is one useful trick2 we may employ to get quite close to
  the Sun in (almost) perfect safety. This is to use some asteroid or
  comet as a sunshade, and the best choise known at the moment is
  the little flying mountain named Icarus.
  This minor planet travels on an orbit that every thirteen
  months brings it within a mere 17 million miles of the Sun.
  Occasionally, it-also passes quite close to Earth; it was within
  4 million miles of us in 1968.
  Though small in diameter (approximately one or two miles),
  Icarus casts a cone of shadow s into space, and in the cold shelter4
  of that shadow, a ship could travel safely around the Sun.
  Small though it is, this minor planet must weigh about 10 bil-
  billion tons.
  There may be other asteroids that go even closer to the Sun,
  if there are not, we may undoubtedly one day make them do so by
  a nudge 5 at the right point in the orbit.
  It is interesting to consider how long the travel would take.
  Being a rather small star, the Sun is "only" three million miles in
  circumference*. A satellite just outside its atmosphere would move
  about a million miles an hour, so would circle it every three hours.
  Magneto-hydrodynamics is concerned with the handling of very
  hot gases in magnetic fields. Already it has enabled us to produce
  temperatures of tens of millions of degrees in the laboratory, and
  ultimately it may lead us to the limitless power from hydrogen
  fusion.
  I suggest that, when we have acquired some real mastery of
  this infant science, it will also give us magnetic and electric
  shields that can provide far more effective protection against both
  temperature and pressure that can be obtained from any walls of
  metal.
  1 guess - предположение
  2 trick - прием, уловка
  8 cast a cone of shadow - бросать тень в виде конуса
  4 shelter - убежище, прикрытие-
  * nudge - толчок
  * circumference - окружность
  * А. С1 а г k. "Profiles of the Future".
  234
  2. DIGITAL COMPUTERS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Computer equipment may be divided into two major classifica-
  classifications: analog and digital.
  A digital device operates directly upon numbers. Its basic ope-
  operation is counting, whether the counting of beads, oi gear teeth,
  or of electrical pulses. All of the mathematical operations are
  performed by counting or addition. In digital computation a prob-
  problem is broken down into a series of arithmetic steps which are
  completed in sequence to arrive at the solution. This method is
  known as a sequential operation and is in effect the same as if
  pencil and paper were used to carry out arithmetic operations.
  The difference, of course, is that the tremendous speed and memo-
  memory capacity of the digital computer permit complex calculations to
  be made in a fraction of a second. A point to emphasize is that
  mathematical operations and the method by which the computer
  derives a final result have little, if any, resemblance to the actions
  of the physical problem under study.
  The accuracy of a digital computer solutions is theoretically
  unlimited. The precision of a digital computer is readily increased
  by providing additional decimal places in the numbers throughout
  the equipment. However this both increases the cost of the equip-
  equipment and decreases the speed of the computation.
  Because of its numerical nature, the digital computer is well
  suited to problems involving the processing of large masses of
  data where single calculations are repeated over and over again.
  Consequently, digital machines find their widest use in scientific
  problems involving statistical analysis and in business applica-
  applications such as accounting and record keeping.
  Digital computers are also being applied to the control of
  industrial processes. The computer generally performs supervisory
  function by evaluating process conditions against desired perfor-
  performance criteria and determining changes to provide optimum ope-
  operation. More recently, digital computers have been used to pro-
  provide direct digital control (DDC) of individual process variables.
  3. THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The Sun. Although a medium-small star, the Sun Is over a
  thousand times as massive as Jupiter, and over 300,000 times as
  massive as the Earth. Its energy output, as light and heat, is
  extremely constant, probably varying no more than about 0.5 per
  cent from the average value. However, it is much more variable in
  its production of ultra-violet radiation, radio waves and charged
  particles. At frequent intervals, extremely intense solar outbursts
  of charged particles (cosmic rays) have been observed.
  235
  All usable forms of energy on the Earth's surface, with the
  exception of atomic and thermonuclear energy, are directly or
  indirectly due to the storing or conversion of energy imparted by
  the sun.
  The Planets. The planet closest to the Sun, Mercury, is dif-
  difficult to observe because of its proximity to that body; hence, our
  knowledge of its physical characteristics is less accurate than of
  some of the other members of the solar system. Mercury has no
  moon, and its mass is about one-twentieth that of the Earth.
  Mercury is not known to have any atmosphere, nor would a
  permanent gaseous envelope be expected to occur under the
  conditions existing on the planet.
  In dimensions and mass Venus is somewhat smaller than the
  Earth. The interplanetary stations Venera 5 and Venera 6 reached
  the planet on May 16 and 17, 1969 and made measurements of
  Venus night-side atmosphere in the equatorial plane. The tempera-
  temperature, density and pressure results obtained with Venera 5 and
  Venera 6 provide a tentative model of the night-side planetary
  atmosphere. According to Venera 5 the surface pressure is 142 atm
  and the corresponding temperature 830№ K.
  Much more complete information is available about Mars. With
  a diameter half-way between that of the moon and the Earth, and
  a rate of revolution and inclination of Equator to orbital plane
  closely similar to those of the Earth, it has an appreciable atmo-
  atmosphere and its surface markings exhibit seasonal changes in colora-
  coloration. Its white polar caps, appearing in winter and vanishing in
  summer are, apparently thin layers of frozen water fractions of
  an inch to several inches in thickness.
  At opposition, that is, when the two planets lie in the same
  direction from the Sun, the approximate distance between Earth
  and Mars ranges from 35 million to 60 million miles.
  Bleak and desert-like as Mars appears to be, with no free
  oxygen and little, if any, water, there is some evidence of life.
  According to the hypothesis of a well known Soviet scientist, Prof.
  G.A. Tikhov, the seasonal color changes, from green in spring to
  brown in autumn, may suggest vegetation.
  Mars 2, a Soviet Automatic Interplanetary Station, was sent
  to Mars on May 19, 1971. It was followed by Mars 3, sent on
  May 28, 1971.
  Since November 27 and December 2, 1971, the two Soviet pro-
  probes are orbiting Mars and have taken photographs of its surface
  giving important data on planet's geological structure.
  The four members of the group of the giant planets have so
  many characteristics in common that they may well be treated
  together. They are all massive bodies of low density and large
  diameter and they all rotate rapidly.
  Because of their low densities @.7 to 1.6 times the density of
  water) and on the basis of spectral information, they all are
  236
  thought to have a "rock-in-a-snowball* structure - that is, a
  small dense rocky core surrounded by a thick shell of ice and
  covered by thousands of miles of compressed hydrogen and
  helium. Methane and ammonia also known to be present are minor
  constituents. Because of the low intensities of solar radiation at
  the distances of the giant planets, temperatures at the visible up-
  upper atmospheric surfaces range from -200№ to -300№ F.
  Almost nothing is known about Pluto, the most distant member
  of the known solar system, except its orbital characteristics and
  the fact that it is extremely cold, with a small radius and a mass
  about 80 per cent that of the Earth.
  The Planets
  Planet
  Mercury . . .
  Venus ....
  Earth ....
  Mars ....
  Jupiter ....
  Saturn ....
  Uranus ....
  Neptune . . .
  Pluto ....
  Mean
  Distance
  from Sun
  (millions
  of miles)
  36.0
  67.2
  92.9
  141.6
  483.3
  886.2
  1783.0
  2794.0
  3671.0
  Period of
  Revolution
  (sidereal)
  88
  224
  365
  686
  11
  29
  84
  164
  247
  days
  7 d
  2 d
  98 d
  86 yr
  46 yr
  01 yr
  8 yr
  .7 yr
  Period of
  Rotation
  (sidereal)
  88 days
  224.7 d?
  23h 56m
  24h37m
  9h55m
  10h38m
  10h40m
  12h 40m
  6.39 d
  Mean
  Diameter
  (miles)
  2,900
  7,600
  7,913
  4,200
  86,800
  71,500
  29,400
  28,000
  3,700
  Mass
  (Earth
  -
  0.
  0
  1
  0
  318
  95
  15
  17
  0
  l)
  054
  815
  00
  11
  1?
  The 3izes of the planets (but not their distances) are diagramed in relation to a
  section of the Sun,
  237
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Какая конструкция называется эллиптической (ј 100)?
  2. Какие элементы предложения чаще всего опускаются
  (ј ЮО)?
  3. Где раскрывается лексическое значение опущенного подле-
  подлежащего: A bullet cannot alter its course, while in flight; When
  in rapid motion, electrons can...
  4. Укажите особенность перевода эллиптической конструк-
  конструкции с союзом whether: The aeroplanes, whether light or heavy...
  5. Назовите возможные варианты перевода эллиптических
  конструкций с уступительными союзами: whatever the shape of
  the magnet...; no matter how weak the impulse...; ... however
  remote the planet...
  6. Как переводится эллиптическая конструкция if any?
  УРОК ОДИННАДЦАТЫЙ
  Текст: The Nature and Origin of the Primary Cosmic Radiation.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Слова, словосочетания и обороты,- служащие для выражения отно-
  отношения автора к высказываемой мысли н для ее уточнения (ј 75-81).
  Перевод конструкции с двойным управлением (ј 105-Ю7>.
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: borne, whereby, arise, rise, raise, capture, trap, Initiate,
  originate, agree, speculate.
  Перевод глагола to depend с двумя предложными дополнениями.
  Перевод предлога over.
  Перевод многозначного служебного слова Just и словосочетаний с
  ним (упр. 10).
  Перевод слов с префиксами inter-, mal-, mis- (упр. 23).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE PRIMARY COSMIC
  RADIATION
  Once the existence of the cosmic radiation was established
  work on its properties greatly intensified. Primary cosmic rays
  have been registered by balloon-borne * and rocket-borne cloud
  chambers *, Geiger and other tube counters, and in photographic
  emulsions called nuclear emulsions.
  Of the various known types of particles only nuclei, protons,
  photons and electrons could be primary cosmic radiation. Mesons
  and neutrons are unstable, and would decay before they reached
  the earth. Electrons, positrons and photons were ruled out3 as
  possibilities by some experiments in 1950. It was found that these
  components, if present at all, comprise less than 0.5 per cent of
  the primary radiation of more than 1 Bey energy. When account
  was taken of the production of these particles in the upper atmo-
  cloud chamber - камера Вильсона
  239
  sphere as secondaries to nuclear processes, it was possible to
  reduce the upper limit to 0.25 per cent.
  With neutral particles, photons, positrons and electrons ruled
  out, and the primaries known to be stable and positively charged,
  the most likely conclusion is that they are protons (the nuclei of
  hydrogen atoms) and possibly the nuclei of heavier atoms.
  This is indeed 3 the case.
  In the extreme relativistic range of velocities within which the
  primary radiation arrives in the atmosphere, it is not possible to
  measure directly the masses of particles passing through,
  or causing interactions4 in, nuclear emulsions
  or counters, but, within certain limits, it was possible to
  determine their energies and charges.
  The other very important field of cosmic ray research was the
  study of the intensity of the radiation and its variation with place
  and time of observation. Time variations in intensity were found
  to be small, (if any) leading to the conclusion that the immediate
  source of radiation is not within the solar5 system. But the cor-
  correlation8 between certain large solar flares7 has led to the idea
  that the sun is i n fact8 responsible for a t 1 e a s t a part of the
  lower energy radiation.
  That the whole of the primary radiation cannot originate from
  the sun, nor be accelerated in the rapidly varying magnetic fields
  associated with sunspots9 and solar flares, is clear from energy
  considerations. For, even if one supposes that the whole of the
  low energy radiation originates from the sun, one is forced to as-
  assume some sort of suitable magnetic field around the solar system,
  which captures 10 the radiation in such a way that it becomes more
  or less" uniformly distributed in direction. Even assuming a
  rather high value for such a field, it would be difficult to hold
  imprisoned particles with energies as high as 1010 Bev known to
  exist in the cosmic radiation.
  If one is going to give some account of the acceleration of the
  particles comprising the whole of the energy spectrum of the
  cosmic radiation, one must find some mechanism whereby12
  particles with energies of 1010 BeV could be produced or, to put
  it in another way13, accelerated in interstellar space. Such
  a mechanism was suggested by Fermi in 1949. On his hypothesis
  the radiation arises14 from the stellar 15 magnetic disturbances",
  and is further accelerated by the interstellar magnetic fields, so
  that the whole of it is trapped 17 within the galaxy *. He showed
  that particles with initial18 energies of a few BeV could be ac-
  accelerated in the interstellar magnetic fields to very much higher
  energies.
  The Fermi process may be described shortly as follows: the
  particles of the cosmic radiation which have escaped from the
  * galaxy - галактика
  240
  immediate neighbourhood 19 of the stars in which they are pro-
  produced move in spiral paths about the lines of force of the inter-
  interstellar fields. These magnetic fields originate from, and are
  coupled20 to, turbulent21 motions of the interstellar
  clouds of ionized gas. The particles are, so to say22, "locked"
  to particular lines of force and must follow the curvature of these
  in space, so that there is an interchange23 of energy between the
  cosmic ray particles and the interstellar clouds. Now, Fermi could
  show that, if one assumes that the motion of the clouds is quite
  random24 in all directions, the net25 result is that the cosmic ray
  particles gain energy exponentially *. On the other hand, a particle
  can lose its energy again if it is involved in a nuclear collision in
  interstellar spa'ce, which will, on the average, happen about once
  in 6ХЮ7 years. The equilibrium M between these two effects results
  in an energy spectrum which falls off according to a power law
  with increasing energy, and by using reasonable quantities27 for
  the various parameters which enter into the theory one may obtain
  a good agreement28 with the experimental energy spectrum of the
  primary radiation.
  However, it should be pointed out that there are few fields in
  physics or astrophysics, within which the accepted ideas change
  so quickly or so radically as that of the origin of the cosmic radia-
  radiation. And nowadays there is much speculation29 as to this
  problem. It is, therefore, necessary to treat any ideas on this
  subject with very considerable reserve.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов,
  словосочетаний н оборотов, выражающих уверенность ("конечно", "само
  собой разумеется"). При переводе опирайтесь на значения слов, входящих
  в состав этих сочетаний (ј 76).
  1. То be sure, these various methods may be combined, as we
  shall see later, to give a more complete analysis of the ionization
  phenomena occurring in matter.
  2. Needless to say, both analog and digital equipment have
  their advantages and limitations.
  3. True, the explosion of the bomb causes considerable air
  displacement.
  4. To tell the truth, neither of these methods has been applied.
  5. It is true that in the course of their descent cosmic rays are
  subjected to considerable disintegration.
  6. There is every indication that the mass and weight of the air
  changes constantly with the seasons of the year, geographic loca-
  locations, temperature and altitude variations.
  * exponentially - матем. экспоненциально
  241
  7. It is a safe assumption that improvements in construction
  will play a great part in the reduction of the all-up weight of fu-
  future space vehicles.
  8. It is safe to assume that near the Earth's surface all meteo-
  ritic material travels in the velocity range from 11.3 to 73 m/sec.
  9. To be sure, Reynolds was not the first to observe and
  analyse the phenomena of turbulent flow.
  10. An automatic computer, it is true, may be instructed to
  perform the change automatically.
  11. Needless to say, studies of the structure and chemical
  composition of meteorites provide us with exceedingly important
  information concerning the nature of matter.
  12. Formerly, meteors were often called falling stars or shooting
  stars. To say the truth, there is nothing at all in common between
  real stars (distant suns) and meteors that glow through the
  Earth's atmosphere.
  13. It Is certain that cosmic rays studies yield very important
  facts about the upper layers of the atmosphere.
  14. To be sure, the world's supply of petroleum, if we keep on
  burning it as fast as we do to-day, may be used up in the near
  future.
  2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов, выражающих
  вероятность ("по-видимому", "очевидно") (ј 77).
  1. Perhaps, one of the most outstanding achievements of the
  20th century is the launching of the artificial satellite.
  2. я-meson and ц-meson can have positive or negative charges.
  They are apparently created by the primary cosmic ray in a
  nuclear explosion process.
  3. Rutherford noticed as early as 1914 that when alpha particles
  were shot into nitrogen, some high-speed long-range particles,
  presumably protons, were out.
  4. High-speed flight now implies1 flight at speeds of the order
  of the speed of sound in air, or faster - say, 700 miles per hour
  or more.
  3. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод выделенных слов,
  словосочетаний и оборотов, дающих оценку высказыванию с точки зрения
  его желательности или нежелательности ("к счастью", "к сожалению", "к
  нашему удивлению") (ј 78).
  1. Happily, the probability of a rocket ship encountering a
  random meteor is not very great.
  2. It is most unfortunate that our present understanding of the
  physical phenomena which underlie the emission of electrons from
  the cathode of a vacuum tube is still insufficient.
  3. Curiously enough, a very small amount of material is
  required to cause a visible emission of light.
  1 imply - предполагать
  212
  4. Strange enough, nearly half a century passed before any
  trace of the Tungubka meteorite was found.
  5. It is hardly surprising, that in modern radar systems, more
  and more emphasis is being placed on the accurate control or
  knowledge of transmitter phase.
  4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов и словосо-
  словосочетаний, служащих для выделения или уточнения ("вообще говоря", сточ-
  нее говоря", "в известном смысле", "в лучшем случае" н т. д.) (ј 79).
  1. Generally speaking, we may call any waves of length less
  than 100 meters short waves, although the tendency is to apply
  that term only to waves of 50 meters or less.
  2. Strictly speaking, the tail plane is not a control surface.
  3. In this book we shall be concerned with the progress made
  on aircraft structure, or more generally, in aircraft design.
  4. All the electronic computers may, in a general sense, be said
  to have the same logical design and they consist of five main
  parts.
  5. In a broad sense, electronics may be said to be concerned
  with the emission of electrons, the interaction of electrons with
  electric and magnetic fields, the flow of electrons in various kinds
  of circuits and the production and interaction of electromagnetic
  radiation.
  6. A large military searchlight is a photon rocket in a sense.
  7. Wavelengths can be measured with an accuracy of 0.001 A
  at best.
  8. Using this method of measurement we can get only average
  figures at best.
  9. The number of hyperbolic meteors, coming from interstellar
  space, is at most 1 per cent of the total quantity.
  10. Another ten years, at the most, will see nuclear-powered
  aircraft in the air.
  11. There are certain processes for which D. C. is either es-
  essential or at any rate desirable.
  12. It is not possible to predict all the fields in which we shall
  use atomic energy. At any rate, its application will be numerous.
  13. Most organic substances fluoresce to some extent.
  14. The light reflected from any material is in general pola-
  polarized to some extent.
  15. Much research work has been and is being carried out on
  activated inorganic "phosphors," i.e. compounds that fluoresce and
  also phosphoresce to some degree.
  6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний
  to say nothing of и not to mention, выражающих ограничение ("не говоря
  уже о чём-л.") (ј 79).
  to say nothing of
  1. Not all of the aircraft are suitable for high-speed flight to
  say nothing of helicopters.
  243
  2. Photography has become an effective tool in the study of
  meteors to say nothing of radar.
  3. One of the advantages of radar techniques in studying the
  upper layers of the atmosphere from meteor data is the speed
  with which they are obtained, to say nothing of the possibility of
  conducting observations in the day-time and bad weather.
  4. Meteors represent a definite hazard l to rocket ships, for
  even the smallest meteoric particles are capable of penetrating the
  skin of such a vehicle to say nothing of large ones.
  not to mention
  5. Jupiter has 12 moons, Saturn nine, Uranus five, and Neptune
  and Mars have two each. The Earth has one natural Moon, not to
  mention the artificial ones.
  6. The use of stratosphere rockets, not to mention artificial
  Earth satellites, presents a most promising method for the study
  of the upper layers of the atmosphere.
  6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных сло-
  словосочетаний типа "другими словами", "иначе говоря" (ј 80).
  1. With present rockets and fuels it appears that it needs about
  a ton of take-off mass to enable a pound of matter to escape from
  the Earth's gravitational field - to give it, in other words, the
  escape velocity of 25,000 miles per hour.
  2. When an object is heated, the average speed of its molecules
  is increased, their average kinetic energy becomes greater or, to
  put it In another way, the object is said to be at a higher tempera-
  temperature.
  3. In plain words, electrons are electricity, and for this reason
  the electron is often considered as the unit of electrical charge.
  4. The unit of specific impulse is lb/lb/sec or, more simply,
  seconds.
  5. The major part of the energy of an ordinary electric lamp is
  emitted in the infra-red region, or in other words, as heat.
  6. When we drop a stone into water it does not move outward
  from the central point, but it rises and then falls again. To be
  more exact the particles of water are vibrating relative to their
  former position in the vertical plane.
  7. The Curies were able to calculate that within the space of
  1600 years half of any given quantity of radium disappears, to be
  more accurate, half of its matter turns into radiation.
  7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на обороты, выражающие
  общепризнанность сообщаемой информации ("общеизвестно", "признано,
  что") (ј81).
  I. It is common knowledge that energy reaches the Earth from
  the Sun by radiation.
  1 hazard - опасность
  244
  2. It is common knowledge that the information about the
  meteoric phenomena are obtained largely by visual and photo-
  photographic observations.
  3. It has long been an accepted fact that waves are formed
  about any disturbance in a supersonic stream of air.
  4. It has long been an accepted fact that the problem of static
  electricity is particularly serious with airplanes.
  5. It has been generally established that the monoplane has
  many advantages over the biplane especially from an aerodynamic
  efficiency point of view.
  • 6. It has been established that as one moves from the mag-
  magnetic equator towards the poles, the intensity of the incoming
  cosmic radiation increases.
  7. It has been recognized to an increasing degree that in nature
  many forces take place quite suddenly; that is to say, the forces
  acting are rapidly changing in magnitude and direction.
  8. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания, служащие для выражения
  отношения автора к высказанной мысли и для ее уточнения:
  of course, to say the truth, by no means, in effect, perhaps, to
  be sure, possibly, needless to say, in all probability, at any rate,
  curiously enough, no doubt, happily, true, say, apparently, strange
  enough, basically, unfortunately, at best, more or less, surprisingly,
  in a sense, so to speak, in other words, presumably, suppose, For-
  Fortunately, particularly, at most, generally speaking, not to men-
  mention, to put it in another way, so to say, in plain words, as a rule,
  to a certain extent, to say nothing of, to be more exact, indeed,
  more simply, as a matter of fact, beyond doubt, to be more precise,
  just, largely, merely, essentially, strictly speaking, in a broad
  sense, to be specific
  9. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию, в которой одно суще-
  существительное управляется двумя различными предлогами, связанными
  союзом. ,
  Помните, что при переводе этой конструкции приходится, как правило,
  повторить существительное дважды.
  Образец:
  An antenna radiates most efficiently at or near its funda-
  fundamental wave.
  Антенна излучает наиболее эффективно на основной волне
  или вблизи основной волны (нее).
  1. At the beginning of the 20th century people did not think of
  flying at or above the speed of sound.
  2. This tube was designed for and will find its widest applica-
  application in colour TV receivers.
  3. The vast majority of transformers receive power from and
  deliver power to circuits with approximately constant potentials.
  245
  4. By using magnetometers and telemetering it is possible to
  study electrical currents flowing in and beyond the ionosphere.
  5. In addition to the stars there are the nebulae, rarefied clouds
  of luminous gas, which are found only in or near the Milky Way.
  6. Should a coloured light be desired from filament lamps it
  can only be obtained by transmitting the original light through, or
  reflecting it from, a material which absorbs the colours which are
  not required.
  7. There are few occasions, except in laboratory work, when
  short-wave ultra-violet is permitted to travel through or beyond
  the lamp bulb.
  8. One can think of investigations in the neighbourhood of, and
  even on, the planets Venus or Mars, which are similar to those
  described above for the moon.
  9. An understanding of these interaction processes is of vital
  importance to anyone who wishes to work with or use any form
  of nuclear radiation.
  10. What do we mean by a wave motion? Stated simply, it is
  a form of disturbance with certain fixed properties which travels
  through or in a substance.
  11. The photo-electric cell is an essential unit in sound film
  reproduction, but for the moment we will examine its application
  to the transmission of pictures with and without wires.
  12. Television is defined as a system whereby the image of a
  scene can be translated to, and reproduced in, another place.
  10. Переведите предложения, содержащие многозначное служебное слово just
  и словосочетания с ним:
  just 1. "только", "лишь"; 2. "только что"; 3 "точно", "как раз"; just
  now "только что"; just as... so "так же как... так и"; just as (like) "точно
  так же, как"
  1. Hydrogen has just one proton and one electron in each
  atom.
  2. The number of the element in Mendeleyev's table is just
  equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
  3. Free electrons may be obtained by methods other than the
  high-temperature emission just discussed.
  4. Just as the planets travel round the Sun, so most of the
  planets have smaller bodies circling round them.
  5. Mars is only one-tenth the mass of the Earth, and its diame-
  diameter is just over one-half that of our planet.
  6. Bergerac's machine was simple enough-just a box with
  a number of rockets attached to it.
  7. The big advantage of a liquid propellant rocket is that it is
  їcompletely controllable. The power, or thrust, can be regulated
  just like in an ordinary engine.
  8. Thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power are deter-
  determined in the electron theory by methods analogous to those just
  їoutlined.
  246
  9. Scientists are just now starting to explore the chemistry of
  low temperature.
  10. Just as an electric field exists in the region around an-
  electric charge, so a magnetic field exists in the region around a.
  magnet.
  11. We have just seen that the simplest way to determine by
  experiment the density of a substance is to weigh it.
  12. Measurement of the temperatures shows just what we-
  might expect: that the further we are away from the Sun, the lower
  the temperature is.
  11. Повторение. Переведите отрывки текста, обращая внимание на перевод;
  эллиптических конструкций.
  1. Of all the planets in the solar system, Venus most nearly
  resembles1 the Earth in size, in mass and in density: and so it is-
  on Venus that we have the greatest expectation of finding condi-
  conditions very much like those that exist on the Earth. The path of
  Venus lies inside the path of the Earth. When at its nearest to the
  Earth, Venus is only 26 million miles away. No other body ever
  comes so near the Earth, with the exception of the Moon and an
  occasional comet or asteroid. When at its farthest from the Earth,
  Venus is 160 million miles away. With such a wide range between
  its greatest and its least distances, it is natural that at some times
  Venus appears much brighter than at others. When at its
  brightest, it is easily seen with the unaided eye in daylight.
  2. In order that any particle, whether large or small, may be
  able to escape into outer space it is necessary that its velocity
  should exceed a certain critical value called the velocity of escape.
  If we know the velocity of escape from any planet (which is
  dependent upon a knowledge of the mass and radius of the planet)
  and the average velocity of the molecules (which is determined by
  the molecular weight and the temperature), we can estimate with
  considerable accuracy whether the planet is likely to have retained
  its original atmosphere almost in its entirety, or to have lost a
  portion of its atmosphere or to have lost essentially the -whole of
  its atmosphere.
  The inspection of the figures for the velocities of escape for
  different planets suggests that the large planets may be expected
  to have much more extensive atmospheres than that of the Earth.
  Лексические упражнения
  12. Переведите предложения, содержащие сложные прилагательные, в состав
  которых входит слово borne A1,1).
  1. Rocket-borne ionization chambers are widely used to in-
  investigate primary ray intensity.
  1 resemble - быть похожим, напоминать
  247
  2. All electronic assemblies of airborne radar are cooled during
  the flight.
  3. Once the wheels leave the' ground, the airplane is airborne.
  4. Between 1909 and 1914 a number of balloon-borne expe-
  rimentors learned that the proportion of ions found in the atmo-
  atmosphere increased as they went up away from the Earth.
  13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность слова
  whereby A1,12).
  1. The cathode oscillograph is an instrument, whereby the
  wave form of an alternating voltage may be shown on a screen.
  2. In an ion rocket the ions are pushed backward, whereby the
  rocket drives itself forward.
  3. There is a process, called radiolysis, whereby nuclear radia-
  radiation can cause water to decompose into hydrogen and oxygen.
  14. Переведите предложения. Различайте глаголы rise (rose, risen) "подни-
  "подниматься", raise (raised, raised) "поднимать" и arise (arose, arisen) "возни-
  "возникать" A1,14).
  1. An important special case arises when two particles do not
  interact with each other.
  2. Some isotopes are stable; the differences between them are
  those arising from difference in mass.
  3. The sun rises in the East, moves across the sky, and sets in
  the West, only to repeat this journey the next day.
  4. The energy supplied in electrical form to a cathode will
  continue to raise the temperature of the cathode until the rate of
  heat loss from the cathode balances the rate of heat input.
  15. Переведите предложения, содержащие глаголы to capture A1,10) и to trap
  A1,17), близкие по своему значению.
  1. Many of the neutrons that remain in the atmosphere are
  captured by the nuclei of nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere.
  2. In the development of nuclear reactions a new energy source
  has been trapped - the energy stored in the interior of atoms.
  3. The prospect of reaching other planets has captured the
  imagination of a great number of people.
  16. Переведите предложения, содержащие близкие по значению глаголы Initiate
  A1,18) и originate.
  Помните, что глагол Initiate является переходным ("положить начало
  чему-л."), а глагол originate - непереходным ("возникнуть").
  1. The complex nuclear reactions, which initiate the transition
  of the primary cosmic ray beam in the atmosphere, form the main
  point of interest for the cosmic ray physicist.
  2. The program directed toward the development of advanced
  technology radioisotope thermionic power supplies for space ap-
  applications was initiated in 1966.
  3. Many of the most important advances in the field of optics
  in the last decade or two nave been directly stimulated by or
  originated through progress in electrical engineering and its
  branches of communication sciences, microwave electronics and
  radioastronomy.
  4. The large variety of new particles which originate in the
  process of forming heavy mesons have been discovered in cosmic
  ray recordings.
  17. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to agree A1,28), имеющий
  несколько значений. Назовите слова, которые определили перевод "того
  слова.
  1. All the scientists agree that with its low escape velocity, the
  Moon would be valuable as a starting-off point for interplanetary
  voyages.
  2. In scientific matters usually facts must be based on observa-
  observations. Scientists may disagree about how observations should be
  interpreted, but about the observations themselves there should be
  no dispute.
  3. The usual method to prove the correctness of a scientific
  hypothesis is to test whether it agrees with observations or not.
  18. Переведите предложения, содержащие глагол to speculate и существитель-
  существительное speculation A1,29).
  speculate и
  1. We are especially interested in the composition .of the atmo-
  atmospheres of the planets, since we cannot speculate about conditions
  there without this knowledge.
  2. Once it was clear that the nucleus of an atom was made up
  of particles, Rutherford began to speculate on the possibility of
  knocking out1 one or more of these particles.
  3. Before attempting to speculate about the origin of cosmic
  radiation it was necessary to establish in detail the characteristics
  of this radiation.
  speculation n
  4. Speculation about how the mind works is as old as phy-
  losophy itself.
  5. The discovery that atoms contain electrons led to the specu-
  speculation that atomic spectra may result from electron motion within
  atoms.
  6. There was considerable speculation as to the nature of
  X-rays.
  7. Man has for centuries applied his intellect to speculations
  about celestial objects.
  1 knock out - выбивать
  249
  '19. Переведите существительные (левая колонка) и соответствующие им при-
  прилагательные (правая колонка). Обратите внимание на то, что прилагатель-
  прилагательные образованы от другого корня:
  star
  earth
  sun
  moon
  stellar
  terrestrial
  solar
  lunar
  20. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность предлога
  over:
  1. "над" (чём-л.); 2. "через" (с глаголами движения); 2. "свыше"
  (какой-то величины); 4. "по сравнению" (с чём-л.); 5. "на протяжении; в
  течение" (какого-то периода времени); "на" (какое-то расстояние)
  1. Our control over nature is increasing every day.
  2. The Chinese made the kite of a light framework of bamboo
  'over which there was a cover of strong paper.
  3. During the I. G. Y. (International Geophysical Year) scien-
  scientists from over sixty nations studied the surface of the earth on
  -a scale never before possible.
  4. Radiation is a high-speed process which may transfer heat
  energy over great distances.
  5. Ramjet is an advance over a piston engine.
  6. One of the main advantages of fission energy over chemical
  energy is the vastly greater content achieved per pound of fuel.
  21. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода гла-
  глагола depend с двумя предложными дополнениями.
  1. All electromagnetic devices that do mechanical work depend
  for their operation on the forces that arise in the presence of
  electric and magnetic fields.
  2. Fuel cells and other systems that depend on chemical reac-
  reaction for the generation of energy were rejected because of exces-
  excessive logistics 1 cost.
  3. Angular velocity, like linear, depends for its value upon two
  variables, namely, the direction of the axis of rotation and the
  rate of rotation.
  22. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод гла-
  глаголов и глагольных словосочетаний.
  А. Глаголы:
  to promise, to store, to extend, to avoid, to affect, to ensure, to encounter,
  to Impart, to attribute, to recognize.
  1. The first manned space flight is an indication that our
  medical scientists working in this field have been following a cor-
  correct road which promises further success.
  2. The process whereby the brain stores and uses information
  Is little understood even to-day.
  1 logistics -транспортировка
  250
  3. Man's flight into space extended immeasurably the horizons
  of our knowledge.
  4. A large percentage of test equipment failures can be avoided
  by careful handling.
  5. Having discussed the various factors which affect the ulti-
  ultimate sensitivity of thermal detectors we must now discuss photo-
  detectors.
  6. On the spaceship Vostok two-way communication with the
  Earth was ensured by a radio-telephone system working on short
  waves.
  7. A special type of motion that we have not yet examined but
  that Is encountered in many familiar situations is vibratory mo-
  motion.
  8. The earth, by virtue of its rotation, imparts to the launching
  vehicle an initial velocity relative to free space.
  9. Beta radiation was originally attributed to the emissions of
  beta rays, but subsequent investigations showed that the particles
  in question were electrons.
  10. Fields of force are recognized by the tendency of objects in
  them to move; accordingly, we describe fields in terms of motions.
  Б. Глагольные словосочетания:
  to take advantage, to be In progress, to be in a position, to be referred
  to as, care is taken, reference is made, mention is made, use is made
  11. We must study radio-astronomy in the microwave range in
  order to take best advantage of the low sky temperatures general-
  generally found at these frequencies.
  12. Research work is constantly in progress to find materials
  with magnetic properties better than those in use, to improve the
  technique of the utilization of materials in current demand, and to
  explore the deeper secrets of magnetism.
  13. Having introduced the forces acting on the rocket we are
  now in a position to write down the equations of motion.
  14. Sometimes the walls of a rocket combustion chamber are
  cooled by the propellant which is later burned. This technique is
  referred to as "regenerative cooling."
  15. Extreme care should be taken in making connections be-
  between instruments on the instrument pannel.
  16. Protons can only be separated from an atom under very
  abnormal conditions to which reference will be made later.
  17. Mention has already been made of disturbances in radio-
  communication due to variations in the ionization of the D-layer.
  18. In the Geiger-counter method, use is made of the fact that
  the alpha particle produces intense ionization along its-path while
  passing through a gas,- - . . ; i
  -251
  В. Словосочетания глагол + прилагательное:
  to be responsible, to be familiar, to be aware, to hold true, to make sure
  19. In the case of an atom Bohr assumed -that only the outer-
  outermost electron is responsible for the emission of visible light.
  20. Ordinary magnets are familiar to everybody.
  21. Each person really carries about 60,000 pounds of atmo-
  atmospheric weight. Physically we are not aware of this pressure.
  22. The assumption of Bohr's theory that we can determine
  precisely the location and speed of individual particles at all times
  holds true for microscopic objects, but it does not hold true for
  minute, submicroscopic particles.
  23. Make sure that all fuel lines are shielded in so far as is
  possible from all sources of heat.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  23. Прочтите следующие слова, учитывая, что префикс inter- соответствует
  значениям приставок "между-", "взаимно-", "внутри-", а префиксы mal-
  и mis- имеют значение "неправильно", "неверно":
  /inter'act, 'interat'omic, 'interchange, 'interconnect,'inter'stel-
  lar, 'mal'function, 'maladjustment, 'misin'form, 'mis'use, 'misun-
  der'stand, 'miscalculate
  Упражнения в чтении
  24. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  register ['red3istg] spiral f'spaiaral]
  whereby [wea'bai] turbulent l'te:bjutant]
  galaxy Cgaelaksi] exponentially [,ekspou'nen/ah]
  neighbourhood ['neibahud]
  25. Прочитайте предложения из текста (содержащие слова от автора), соблю-
  соблюдая указанные паузы.
  1. ...particles could be produced or, || to put in another way,
  accelerated in...
  2. The particles are, | so to say, | "locked" to particular lines
  of force...
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  I. SOLAR RADIATION
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  It is common knowledge that all motions in the Earth's
  atmosphere, all weather, and life itself owe their origin to energy
  received from the Sun. This energy is transmitted to the Earth in
  the form of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation oc-
  occurs over a wide spectrum of wavelengths. At one end of a complete
  spectrum are the extremely short waves, including the cosmic rays,
  gamma rays, and X-rays. Next come the ultra-violet rays, visible
  light, and infra-red rays. Finally at the other end of the spectrum
  are the very long waves used in radar", television and radio broad-
  252
  casting. Solar radiation is spread over but a part of this spectrum;
  it includes "only visible light and parts of the ultra-violet and
  infra-red bands.
  The quantity of solar radiation received at the outer layers of
  the Earth's atmosphere on a unit of surface in a unit of time is
  called the solar constant. Its value has been calculated to be
  1.97 cal/cm2/min. Not until this radiation is absorbed is heat libera-
  liberated '. As stated above, a fraction 2 of the incoming solar radiation,
  about 50%, is absorbed by the ozone layer.
  The next barrier is the cloud layers, which can be considered
  to provide an average cover of about half the sky. The reflecting
  ability of the clouds is about 0.80, so that 40% of the total radia-
  radiation is reflected back to space without releasing its heat.
  Included in these figures is the small amount of radiation
  reflected either back to space or down to Earth by the process
  known as scattering3, light waves being scattered, or reflected in
  all directions, when striking very small particles.
  Ц is a safe assumption that since the Earth is not growing
  progressively hotter, all the absorbed radiation must necessarily
  be radiated back to space. The wavelength of radiant energy
  varies inversely* with the temperature of the emitting body. The
  Earth, a relatively cool body, radiates entirely in the long-wave
  infra-red band. The atmosphere is not nearly so transparents to
  these long waves as it was to the short-wave solar radiation.
  Water vapour, clouds, and to a smaller degree, carbon dioxide, are
  all good absorbers of rays in the infra-red spectrum. Thus the
  energy is, so to speak, trapped and the lower layers of the
  atmosphere are warmed.
  liberate - выделять, высвобождать
  fraction - часть, доля
  scatter - рассеиваться
  inversely - обратно пропорционально
  be transparent - быть прозрачным для..., пропускать
  2. VELOCITIES NEAR THAT OF LIGHT
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  As the velocity of a space vehicle nears that of light (not likely
  to be achieved in the immediate future), the effects of relativity
  theory enter into situation of particular interest, the so-called
  "time dilatation" effect predicted by this theory - and supported
  by experimental evidence in the physics of high-speed particles.
  Briefly, the predicted effect is as follows: consider two men, A
  and B, of identical age, say 20 years old. A will remain at home
  on the Earth, and В will undertake a voyage in space at a speed
  Very near that of light and eventually return to Earth. The total
  253
  duration of the voyage will be different, as measured by the two
  men, the exact amount of the difference depending upon how
  close B's vehicle approached the speed of light. As an example,
  suppose В took a round trip to a near star at a speed very near
  that of light (about 186,000 miles per second). It would appear
  to A that the trip took, say, 45 years - he would be 65 years old
  when his friend returned. To B, however, the trip might appear to
  take about 10 years, including a year or so for acceleration to
  light speed and deceleration for the return landing - he would be
  30 when he returned.
  Different values of vehicle speed will lead to widely different
  time disparities. By approaching ever closer to the speed of light,
  В could take more extended trips that would last millions of years
  in earth time, but still appear to him to take only a few years.
  Achievement of near-light velocities would require great amounts
  of propulsion energy - not less than complete conversion of mat-
  matter into usable energy.
  3. RELIABILITY OF MISSILES AND SPACE VEHICLES
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Reliability is above all a design parameter; it must be thought
  of as a physical property of a device which behaves in accordance
  with certain physical laws. In other words, reliability starts with
  engineering and is a basic property which must be designed into
  the equipment by engineers. It is true that there are other major
  factors which influence the performance in the final application,
  such as manufacturing, quality control, and handling and checkout
  in the field. If manufacturing process is not carried out with the
  proper precision and skill, if the inspection and testing in the
  factory are not done with proper care, and if the field crews at the
  launch site do not checkout, test, and launch the vehicle in accor-
  accordance with proper procedures, the net result will certainly be mis-
  mission failures. To be sure, no amount of manufacturing precision,
  care in the inspection and testing, -and proficiency of the launch
  crews can make a missile or space mission succeed if the basic
  design is not right in the first place.
  Although reliability is one of the primary parameters in deter-
  determining the capability of the missile or space system to perform its
  overall mission, it must nevertheless be kept in balance with other
  systems parameters. Therefore, as part of the systems design, a
  trade-off * between reliability and other systems parameters such
  as weight, accuracy, speed, and orbital precision must be made.
  Considerable gain in over-all system effectiveness can sometimes
  be obtained by sacrificing some accuracy or performance of the
  system for the sake of an improvement in reliability. Conversely,
  gains may also be realized by sacrificing some reliability in fa-
  favour of improvements in accuracy and reduction of weight. The
  '254
  important point here is that a balance must be struck between
  reliability and other systems parameters.
  To illustrate the severity of the reliability problem in satellites
  and space vehicles Table presents some relative reliability require-
  requirements for a typical subsystem, say, a 25-watt UHF (ultra-high
  frequency) transmitter which might be used in any one of three
  applications.
  Typical Reliability Requirements for Electronic Subsystem,
  25-watt UHF Transmitter
  Application
  Aircraft
  Missile
  Satellite A
  Satellite В .
  Mission Time
  8 hr, without
  maintenance
  1.75 hr
  1 month
  1 yr
  Reliability, Pro-
  Probability of No
  Failure during
  Mission
  0.92
  0.99
  0.96
  0.96
  Mean Time to
  Failure (MTTF)
  100 hr
  175 hr
  25 months
  A8,000 hr)
  25 yr
  B16,000 hr)
  Although the mean time to failure (MTTF) for the transmitter
  in a missile application is only slightly higher than the MTTF
  required in an aircraft application, the MTTF requirements for
  space are several orders of magnitude greater than those for either
  missile or aircraft.
  Hence, the resulting reliability problem is different in nature
  and much more severe in the case of space vehicles.
  1 trade-off - компромисс
  4. NOBLE GAS ION LASERS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Experimental observation of laser action involving the excited
  states of noble gas ions was first reported in 1964.
  Since that time, a voluminous literature reporting on the opera-
  operational characteristics, spectroscopy, - and probable excitation
  mechanisms for these gaseous ion lasers has appeared from many
  different parts of the world. These intensive research efforts have
  255
  also been accompanied by rapid commercial development of prac-
  practical noble gas ion lasers capable,of operating continuously at the
  output power level of several watts from a single mode over a
  long period of time.
  In comparison with gaseous atom lasers (e.g. the helium-neon
  laser, which operates in the red and near-infra-red region), and
  the continuous duty gaseous molecule lasers (e.g. the N2-CO2
  laser which operates in the infra-red), the noble gas ion lasers
  generally offer the advantage of shorter wavelength operation,
  ranging from the blue-green part of the visible spectrum up to the
  near ultraviolet (where photodetectors are generally more sensi-
  sensitive, which is an important consideration in many scientific
  research and communication application).
  While not nearly as powerful, nor as thermally efficient as the
  continuous duty molecular lasers, the noble gas ion lasers are at
  ' least as efficient as, and much more powerful than (by factors of
  the order of 103), the gaseous atom lasers. Even though the pulsed
  molecular nitrogen laser does operate in the near ultra-violet at
  very high peak power, the noble gas ion lasers are more flexible,
  in the sense that they offer a wide selection of wave lengths in the
  visible and the near ultra-violet regions, and that they can be ope-
  operated in both the continuous and the pulsed modes.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Какими знаками препинания обычно выделяются слова и
  словосочетания, идущие от автора?
  2. Как переводятся следующие словосочетания, характеризу-
  характеризующие отношение автора к тому, что он сообщает:
  to be sure, in effect, needless to say, to say the truth, presu-
  presumably, say, strange to say, strictly speaking, at any rate, curiously
  enough, at most, in a sense, not to mention, to put it in another
  way, to say nothing of, so to speak, in plain words.
  3. Переведите следующие обороты:
  it is true; there is every indication; it is a safe assumption; it
  is hardly surprising; it is most unfortunate; it is common know-
  knowledge; it has been an accepted fact.
  4. Укажите способ перевода конструкции, в которой к одному
  существительному относятся два различных предлога (ј 105):
  to receive power from and to deliver power to circuits.
  5. Укажите значения слова just (упр. 10).
  6. Какое значение имеют префиксы mal- и mis-? Каким при-
  приставкам соответствует префикс inter- (упр. 23)?
  УРОК ДВЕНАДЦАТЫЙ
  Текст: The Progress of Contemporary Physics.
  Грамматические основы перевода
  Перевод конструкций "have + существительное + инфнннтнв" (ј 109),
  "have + существительное + причастие II" (ј 108).
  Лексические основы перевода
  Перевод слов: set (с послелогами), valid, escape, superior, Inferior,
  number, numerable, numerous, numerical, effort, endeavour.
  Перевод предлога against.
  Перевод многозначного служебного слова ever (упр. 3).
  Перевод глаголов с префиксом out- (упр. 13).
  Перевод терминов, в состав которых входят прилагательные high и
  long (упр. 14).
  ТЕКСТ
  THE PROGRESS OF CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS
  The progress ol contemporary * physics is a very wide subject,
  for progress Was made in so many different directions, and at so
  swift2 a rate, that it would require many books to set them out3
  in detail. But though difficult, the subject is still worth discussing.
  Like all the natural sciences, physics advances by two distinct
  roads4. On the one hand, it operates empirically, and thus is
  enabled to discover and analyse a growing number of pheno-
  phenomena - In this instant, of physical facts. Observations of the
  world around us whether haphazard5 or controlled, lead to the
  accumulation of experimental facts. On the other hand, physics
  also operates by theory, which allows it to have the known
  facts collected and assembled in one consistent8
  system. New ideas are gradually introduced as hypothesis to be
  tested by experiment. Some of them approved7 by the experi-
  experimental results are incorporated8 in, and lead to, alternations of
  the theory. Once a new theory has been shown to be consistent
  with known facts, or, In other words, to be valid9, It is used to
  9 Зак. 849 257
  predict the results of the experiments not yet performed. The
  introduction of a new theory is always followed by a period of
  extended testing and, as usually happens, limitations are found at
  some point. Thus, thermodynamics reached a barrier when applied
  to the study of wavelength distribution of radiant energy from hot
  bodies. Only by an assumption of energy quanta was a satisfac-
  satisfactory escape 10 shown. This new theory soon established a domain
  of its own where it demonstrated its superiority " over thermody-
  thermodynamics as in explaining the photoelectric effect, specific heats of
  solids and gases and many other phenomena. Thus, the joint12
  efforts of experiment and theory, at any given time, provide the
  body of knowledge which is the sum 13 total of the physics of the
  day.
  The great task and the splendid u achievement of nineteenth
  century physics consisted in increasing the exactness and range -
  in every direction - of our knowledge of the phenomena taking
  place on the human scale. Not only did it continue to develop
  mechanics, acoustics and optics - the leading branches of clas-
  classical science - but it also created on every side new sciences pos-
  possessing innumerablels aspects, such as thermodynamics and the
  science of electricity. In this way nineteenth century physics suc-
  succeeded in achieving the complete domination ie of the phenomena
  we observe around us. No doubt research into these phenomena
  can still lead to the knowledge of many further facts and to new
  applications; yet it appears that in this sphere17 the essential
  work has been completed.
  From the beginning of the twentieth century the attention of
  pioneers of physics has been turning Increasingly toward more
  subtle phenomena - molecular, atomic and intra-atomic. The more
  deeply they descended into the minute structures of matter, the
  more clearly they saw that the earlier concepts - especially of
  time and space - failed them in an endeavour18 to describe the
  new worlds which they were entering. Certain fundamental dif-
  difficulties affecting the whole basis of physical science were reve-
  revealed. It became apparent that it was necessary to introduce comp-
  completely novelle concepts which had been entirely unknown to clas-
  classical physics. These new concepts are the atomic theory, the theory
  of relativity and the quantum theory - three questions which do-
  dominate modern physics and influence every branch.
  The discovery of the double nature of electrons, as at once a
  particle and a wave, was followed by a change in the quantum
  theory, so that this was given a new form called wave mechanics.
  Wave mechanics has brought about a better understanding and
  prediction of those phenomena which depend upon the existence of
  quantized stationary states of atoms. The new theory contributed
  to every branch of science, including chemistry, because this has
  brought with it an entirely novel and interesting manner of inter-
  interpreting 20 chemical combinations.
  258
  However, the great book of science is never finished: other
  surprises await21 us - who knows what mysteries are hidden22
  within the nucleus of an atom, which although a million million
  limes smaller than the smallest living thing is yet a universe in
  itself.
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
  Грамматические упражнения
  1. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию "to have + существи-
  существительное + причастие II".
  Заметьте, что при переводе предложений с этой конструкцией суще-
  существительное-подлежащее обычно ставится в косвенном падеже, существи-
  существительное, входящее в состав конструкции, становится подлежащим, при-
  причастие II - сказуемым, глагол to have отдельным словом не переводится
  (ј 108).
  Образец:
  Both cockpits have controls connected together so that...
  В обеих кабинах (самолета) органы управления соединены
  между собой так, чтобы...
  1. Machines of many types have their operations controlled by
  a computer.
  2. A colliding molecule may have an atom or two knocked out
  of it.
  3. The theory of atomic structure developed by Bohr has the
  electrons distributed around the nucleus in shells (orbits).
  4. The larger air-cooled engines have the cylinders arranged
  radially.
  5. An atom which has one or more of its electrons raised to a
  higher than normal energy level is said to be in an excited * state.
  6. Current transformers are step-up transformers having their
  primaries connected in series with one line and their secondaries
  connected to the ammeter terminals.
  2. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию cto have + существи-
  существительное + инфинитив".
  Помните, что глагол to have в этой конструкции имеет значение побуж-
  Дения к действию и переводится словами "заставить", "сделать так, чтобы".
  Заметьте, что глагол to have может употребляться не только в форме ннфн-
  нитива, ио и в форме герундия нли причастия (ј 109).
  Образец:
  It is possible to have the particles move...
  Можно заставить частицы двигаться...
  1. It is necessary to have the personnel be aware of the dangers
  involved in operating such a device.
  1 excite - возбуждать
  9" 259
  2. Slow neutrons can be detected by having them Interact with
  an isotope of boron.
  3. The advantage gained by having specialized groups con-
  concentrate on various tasks is obvious.
  4. The main advantage of the autotransformation is the saving
  of copper obtained by having part of the winding serve as both
  primary and secondary.
  5. In the early days of aviation, engines were small and could
  be started by having someone turn the propeller by hand.
  6. Because of the many types of turbine engines, it is not pos-
  possible to list all the major components and have the list apply to
  all engines.
  3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значения слова ever и его
  сочетаний.
  1. The earliest electrical experiment ever recorded is probably
  that of the Greek philosopher Thales F24-546 B.C.1).
  2. Neutrons are ever present in all materials.
  3. The science of chemistry is a vital and ever-changing
  science.
  4. The ever-present force of gravity supplies the invisible force
  necessary for the forward motion of the plane.
  5. Ever since Galileo invented his telescope men had been
  studying the motions of the planets with ever increasing interest
  and accuracy.
  6. Ever since it was observed that biological organisms per-
  perform certain functions much more efficiently than machines, in a
  very much smaller space scientists have been interested in the
  laws of similitude2.
  4. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод ин-
  инверсии, эллиптических конструкций и на различные значения глагола to
  have.
  А Инверсия (ј 93-97)
  1. The defining property of gases is their ability to expand inde-
  indefinitely. Coupled with this is their extreme compressibility with
  even a small increase in pressure.
  2. In one of the biggest particle accelerators a magnetic field
  is produced between the horizontal circular poles of a very large
  electromagnet. Placed between these poles is an evacuated cham-
  chamber containing a hollow copper electrode.
  3. Air-current speeds increase roughly 2.7 m/sec per kilometre
  of altitude. At 75 km. height the average velocity of stratospheric
  wind is 10 m/sec, while at about 100 km. it is already 60 m/sec.
  Noted also are considerable fluctuations in the direction and
  1 B.C. - до нашей эры
  2 similitude - сходство, подобие
  intensity of the wind, which is an indication of complex and ir-
  irregular air currents at high altitudes.
  4. Only in the case of the very largest asteroids has it been
  possible to measure their diameters.
  5. Not only is the entire solar system isolated in space, but
  each of its principal members is separated from the others by
  distances that seem very large by everyday standards.
  6. During World War II intensive work was done on silicon
  and germanium rectifiers for use in microwave and radar ap-
  applications. Not until 1948, however, was the transistor discovered.
  7. Without the luminescence the early discovery of X-rays
  would not have taken place, nor would there be, at the present
  time, certain methods of X-ray photography,
  Б. Эллиптические конструкции ј 100-104)
  We have seen that there is little expectation, if any, of the
  existence of any atmosphere on Mercury. Though, at the present
  time, Mercury could hold an atmosphere composed of the heavier
  gases, the atmosphere must have escaped entirely if Mercury has
  remained very hot for any length of time after its formation. We
  have already concluded that the Earth, where conditions are much
  less favourable for the escape of an atmosphere, must have lost
  most of its original atmosphere whilst it was still hot. It is just
  possible that, though Mercury lost all its original atmosphere,
  gases were given off by the crust as it solidified and, if so, Mer-
  Mercury may possibly now have an extremely thin atmosphere of
  carbon dioxide.
  It is not easy to find out anything very definite about con-
  conditions on Mercury by direct observations. Only telescope makes
  it possible for Mercury to be seen in broad daylight. Exceptionally
  steady atmospheric conditions are required for the study of the
  surface of Mercury.
  Difficult as it is to observe the surface markings of Mercury,
  it is far more difficult to obtain any certain evidence of an
  atmosphere. Observations of the changes of phase suggest that
  there can be little, if any, atmosphere, and that the light is
  reflected from a rough surface, like that of the Moon.
  В. Различные значения глагола to have
  1. From what has been said so far, one might think that alter-
  alternating current has little advantage over a direct current.
  2. A solid propellant is often used for the final stage when the
  direction of final thrust has to be maintained accurately without
  further guidance and control.
  3. These systems have similar tactical duties to perform.
  4. The methods for making such predictions have long been
  known; in many areas methods of working out the correct answer
  or the optimum course of action exist,
  261
  5. We have already described interference phenomena in con-
  connection with the waves on the surface of a liquid, and the same
  reasoning can be applied to the interaction of two light waves.
  6. A small amount (~20%) of excess power is provided to
  allow for failures and still have the reactor produce the desired
  power.
  Лексические упражнения
  5. Переведите предложения, содержащие глаголы to set, to set up, to set out,
  to set forth, to set forward и словосочетания to set in motion A2,3).
  1. The directional gyro can be set to give any desired compass
  reading.
  2. When a current flows through a conductor it sets up a mag-
  magnetic field.
  3. The different applications of radar are so numerous that it
  is impossible to set them out in detail in such a short article.
  4. Considerations of VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing)
  aircraft have been set forth in an article published recently.
  5. When new scientific theories are set forward they usually
  begin with relating new observations to familiar concepts based
  upon older observations.
  6. A force is needed to set a mass in motion.
  6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод прилагательного
  valid и существительного validity A2,9).
  1. We shall assume that the equations are valid in regard to
  static or slowly varying fields.
  2. A review of digital computers and their applications must
  include considerations of the validity of the answers obtained. To
  be sure that the results are valid is of importance to the designer,
  builder and user.
  3. The discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846 furnished
  the final tests of the validity of Newton's gravitational hypothesis.
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие-глагол to escape A2,10). Укажите,
  от чего зависит выбор перевода этого глагола.
  1. An electron escapes, from a conductor with greater ease if its
  speed is increased.
  2. During the process of charging and discharging hydrogen
  is formed, which must be allowed to escape.
  3. The four satellites of Jupiter that Galileo discovered are
  visible in a small telescope. The remaining eight are very small;
  one of them escaped detection until recent years,
  262
  8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов"
  антонимов.
  superior A2,11), inferior
  1. Nuelear energy is far superior to the energy of chemical
  propellants.
  2. Saturn is the second of the giant planets of our solar
  system; in size and mass it is inferior only to Jupiter.
  3. In general, the liquid propellants in common use yield spe-
  specific impulses superior to those of available solid propellants.
  4. Nickel and cobald are far inferior to iron as magnetic ele-
  elements.
  5. The liquid propellant engine sometimes is a superior power
  plant for larger missiles.
  9. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова одного корня.
  number n, numerable a, innumerable а, numerous а, nume-
  numerical а A2,15)
  1. Enormous numbers of neutrons are available inside a reac-
  reactor.
  2. The quantity of stars of the first magnitude is quite nume-
  numerable.
  3. There are over a hundred elements which combine in dif-
  different ways to produce the innumerable different substances.
  4. The factors affecting the choice of propellants for a par-
  particular application are numerous.
  5. Because of its numerical nature, the digital computer is well
  suited to problems involving the processing of large masses of
  data.
  10. Переведите предложения, обрьшая внимание на то, что существительные
  effort и endeavour A2 18) имекл близкие значения.
  1. It is interesting to note that many studies are being directed
  to the complicated chemistry of high temperature air. These efforts
  have yielded many interesting results.
  2. All the endeavours of the scientists to find ways of elimi-
  eliminating errors in measuring the quantity of radiation reaching the
  screen have failed.
  3. A variety of methods employing kinetic theory treatments
  have been developed in an effort to calculate the aerodynamic
  characteristics for a body flying in near free molecular conditions.
  И. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность предлога
  against:
  1. спротив" (чего-л.); 2- "по отношению* (к чему-л.); 3. "на фоне"
  (чего-л.)
  1. The air-to-air missile is one which is launched from one
  airplane against another flying aircraft or air target.
  263
  2. Consider now the case where a rocket-propelled missile is
  propelled in a frictionless medium without doing any work
  against gravity.
  3. Work is the result of a force which acts against opposition
  to produce movement.
  4. Air pressure is the combined force of the molecules of air
  pressing against an object.
  5. We have already learned how a heavier-than-air machine is
  partially supported by the upward component of the air against
  which the airplane is driven.
  6. The pilot must be seated so that he has full outside vision
  and thus will be able to check the instrument readings against the
  observed motions of the airplane.
  7. The light from the sodium * layer is invisible by day against
  the background of bright sunlight.
  8. The motion against the star background of the planets, the
  Sun and the Moon was the subject of some of the earliest observa-
  observations and speculations by man.
  12. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод сле-
  следующих слов и словосочетаний.
  А. Наречия:
  hardly, continuously, nearly, readily, appreciably, conclusively, virtually,
  materially, eventually, ultimately
  1. We hardly can say that we fully understand even the most
  elementary facts about the inner structure of the neutron.
  2. Liquid rocket engine designers are continuously searching
  for fuel-oxident combinations with higher energy content.
  3. A galvanometer has nearly all the essential parts of a simple
  electric motor.
  4. It appears that better conductors are those whose atoms will
  fairly readily give up electrons from its outer orbit.
  5. Alpha particle would penetrate the atom but it is not ap-
  appreciably affected by electrical forces of repulsion.
  6. Within recent years research has demonstrated conclusively
  the existence of close relationship between the atom and the unit
  electric charge.
  7. In contrast with gases, liquids are virtually incompressible.
  8. The above-mentioned construction materially simplifies the
  calculation procedure and Is expected to introduce only slight
  amounts of error into the computations.
  9. Uranium, by loss of alpha particles and beta particles or
  electrons, gradually turned into substances of smaller atomic
  weight, eventually becoming radium.
  * sodium - натрий
  264
  10. The Earth's magnetic field which stores and traps the par-
  particles comprising the radiation belt1, decreases in strength with
  decreasing distance from the Earth and ultimately becomes too
  week to store a significant amount of radiation.
  Б. Словосочетания, выполняющие роль предлогов:
  irrespective of, along with, aside from, except lor, Instead of, in addition
  to, on account of, In view of, owing to, at the expense of, because of, in
  comparison with, in contrast with, prior to, with respect to
  11. Irrespective of frequency, the speed of radio waves through
  the atmosphere remains constant.
  12. The high frequencies and short wavelengths of the X-ray
  lines along with the high voltages needed to produce them sug-
  suggests that an atom undergoes large energy changes when releasing
  X-rays.
  13. Aside from the Sun, the presently known solar system
  consists of 9 planets, more than 1500 catalogued asteroids,
  31 satellites, and an unknown but very large number of comets
  and meteors.
  14. Except for the lightest elements, the nucleus is a complica-
  complicated system.
  15. Instead of using protons and alpha particles, scientists
  began to direct beams of neutrons against target nuclei.
  16. In addition to the planets and their moons, there is a group
  of solid bodies known as asteroids.
  17. On account of the rapidly increasing temperature towards
  the interior, the degree of ionization of the solar atoms also in-
  increases toward the solar centre.
  18. In view of the change in fundamental concepts of length
  and time, it is to be expected that the concept of relative velocity
  should also change.
  19. Owing to the fact that they need not carry their own oxidi-
  zer, jet engines are finding some application in guided missiles.
  20. The increased thrust of an engine must be provided at the
  expense of as little additional weight or drag as possible.
  21. Because of its greater speed, the ramjet will probably
  replace the turbojet in future designs.
  22. Gases, unless highly compressed, are characterized by
  extreme lightness in comparison with liquids and solids.
  23. In contrast with gases, liquids are virtually incompressible.
  24. Prior to removal of the rocket catapult on the ground
  through the cockpit floor opening, make sure that the catapult
  safety pin* is properly installed on the rocket catapult.
  • radiation belt - радиационный пояс
  1 safety pin - предохранительная чека
  265.
  25. The three types of hydrogen atoms (isotopes) were found
  to have exactly the same characteristics, the only difference be-
  between them being with respect to mass.
  В. Словосочетания со словами as н so:
  as long as, as far as, as soon as, as to, as if, as well as, as well, as
  a whole, as for, so that, so far, so on, so far as (smth.) is concerned
  26. Once converted into a liquid, oxygen will remain in its
  liquid state as long as the temperature is maintained at or
  below - 297№ F.
  27. The importance of reducing the weight and bulk* of
  aircraft equipment as far as possible is generally appreciated.
  28. As soon as the piston meets the liquid, the liquid pressure
  can be raised to the required value.
  29. Much uncertainty exists as to the precise physical pro-
  properties of meteoroids.
  30. In effect, each particle of iron (or any other material that
  can be magnetized) behaves as if it had a north pole and a south
  pole.
  31. When electric charges are in motion, they are surrounded by
  magnetic fields as well as by electric fields.
  32. For most metals ultra-violet light is necessary for electron
  emission to occur, but very active metals, such as potassium and
  cesium, respond to visible light as well.
  33. The atom as a whole is electrically neutral.
  34. In liquids a rise in temperature means an increase in
  average speed of translational motion; in solids a rise in tem-
  temperature means an increase in vibrational motion. As for gases,
  we further assume that liquid and solid particles can take up
  energy in other ways, so that absorption of 1 cal. of heat by 1 g. of
  different materials may produce different increases in temperature.
  35. So far we have treated the Earth as spherically sym-
  symmetrical, but this is not the case.
  36. If an object can reflect red light but absorbs other colors,
  it will appear red in sunlight; if it reflects chiefly green light, it
  will appear green in sunlight, and so on.
  37. So far as space-flight is concerned, we have already seen
  that there is no alternative at present to some form of rocket
  motor.
  Словообразовательное упражнение
  13. Переведите следующие глаголы с префиксом out-, который придает глаголу
  значение "превзойти* (кого-л., в чём-л.):
  outperform, outweigh, outnumber, outgrow, outmaneuvre
  1 bulk - объем
  Упражнение на перевод терминов
  14. Переведите сложные термины, в состав которых входят прилагательные
  high и long.
  Английский термин
  Область применения
  авиация
  ракетная техника
  то же
  аэродинамика
  двигатели
  авиация
  ракетная техника
  радиоэлектроника
  навигация
  high-lift wing profile
  high-energy rocket propellant
  high-performance rocket engine
  high-speed aerodynamic tunnel
  high-pressure propellant tank
  long-range transport aviation
  long-range guided ballistic rocket
  long-playing magnetic tape
  long-distance navigation aid
  Упражнение в чтении
  15. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:
  haphazard F'haep'haezad] endeavour [m'deva]
  superiority [sju:,pi8ri'onti] contribute flon'tnbju:t]
  acoustics [a'ku:stiks] interpret [in'ta:pnt]
  innumerable [l'njuimarabl] mysteries ['mistanz]
  subtle I'sAtl]
  ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS WITH A COLLINEAR ELECTRODE PLASMA
  ACCELERATOR AND A COMPARISON WITH ION ACCELERATORS
  (Для перевода без словаря)
  Several ways have been suggested for the electromagnetic
  acceleration of ionized material for propulsive purposes. Two ways
  which seem most promising at present and are receiving the most
  attention are ion drivei and plasma drive. Because these devices
  differ in some important aspects and because of the still limited
  amount of critical experimental data, it is difficult to conclude
  with certainty which type of device will ultimately prove to be
  superior. It is not unlikely that each type will be useful for some
  particular application.
  In an ion drive device, positive ions, quite likely produced by
  surface ionization, are accelerated by static electric fields. Elec-
  Electrons or negative ions must be added to the accelerated positive
  ion beam to provide overall charge neutrality and maintain proper
  functioning of the accelerator.
  267
  Ion-propelled spaceship on round trip to Mars.
  In a plasma drive device, neutral plasma is accelerated by
  rapidly varying magnetic fields. These fields may result from large
  currents developed in a plasma discharge by externally applied
  voltages. The plasma itself can be produced by the action of the
  discharge.
  Ion accelerators are simpler than plasma accelerators, and
  considerable experience with ion and electron guns exists. Pos-
  268
  sibly because of these reasons the ion drive device has received
  the greater attention. However, ion accelerators designed for ter-
  terrestrial 2 purposes are not particularly satisfactory for space ap-
  application, and considerable effort will be required to develop an
  ion accelerator suitable for space propulsion. Considerable effort
  is also required for the development of a suitable plasma accele-
  accelerator. Nevertheless, plasma drive offers several distinct advantages
  over ion drive.
  Because of the relative complexity of the interaction of mag-
  magnetic fields and plasmas and the resulting variety of plasma ac-
  accelerator configurations, experiments are needed to determine the
  design of suitable plasma drive devices. The Plasma Physics
  Department of Lockheed's Missiles and Space Division has been
  engaged 3 for a considerable time in experiments involving plasma
  acceleration, and measurements are being made with several dif-
  different plasma accelerators.
  Description of the Apparatus. Fig. 1 presents a schematic of
  the collinear electrode plasma accelerator. In essence the device
  consists of a pair of collinear discharge electrodes connected to a
  Insulated electrode
  lead to provide
  accelerating ~~"~
  magnetic force
  Electrode
  Plasma
  -discharge
  Direction
  - of plasma
  acceleration
  To electrode
  energy storage
  system and high
  voltage potfer
  supply
  Fig. I. Schematic diagram of the collinear elect-
  electrode plasma accelerator.
  low Inductance, high energy capacitor. The leads between the
  condenser and the electrodes are arranged to keep the inductance
  of the discharge circuit as low аз possible and also to orient the
  direction of the discharge forces.
  1 ion drive - ионный двигатель
  2 terrestrial - наземный
  3 be engaged - заниматься (чём-л.)
  269
  2. APPLICATION OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS FOR AUTOMATIC
  TRANSLATION OF LANGUAGES
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  One of the tasks for which a digital computer can be used is
  the automatic translation of languages. The idea of translation by
  computers was first suggested in 1946. The aim of the scheme is
  not, of course, to produce literary masterpieces, but to give rough-
  and-ready translations which are more or less correct in meaning
  and grammar. This is likely to be of tremendous value to scien-
  scientists, who have a vast amount of foreign scientific literature
  available but are not able to read a great deal of it. Even very
  rough translations would be useful here, for they would allow the
  specialist to skim quickly through the papers and articles in his
  particular field of study and pick out those of special interest
  which could then be sent to human translators for more exact
  renderings.
  The general idea, then, is to code the foreign words into nume-
  numerical form and make the computer operate on these numbers in a
  certain routine to which the translation process can be reduced.
  Without going into particulars this routine involves three main
  operations - comparing the incoming foreign words with entries
  in a mechanized "dictionary," recognizing particular patterns of
  words (as in idioms), and transferring information to and from
  a store.
  The size of a store necessary to contain the total vocabulary for
  a non-technical translation would be extremely large. The number
  of terms used in specialized branches of science, however, is consi-
  considerably smaller than required for general literature. Consequently,
  by limiting the automatic translation to a particular branch of
  science, the "dictionary" may be reduced to a size manageable by
  present techniques of storage. Besides reducing the size of vocabu-
  vocabulary, concentration on technical literature reduces the problem of
  ambiguity. And by further specialization on, say, a particular
  branch of mathematics, ambiguity of technical terms within that
  branch is lessened. For technical translation, then, a mechanized
  "dictionary" must be compiled in two stages: first, by collecting
  together the general language of mathematics, that is, the langu-
  language common to all or most branches of mathematics - and, se-
  secondly, by assembling a glossary of all the technical words in the
  particular branches of mathematics. The translation of a paper on,
  say, group theory, would thus be preceded by feeding into a
  computer a "dictionary" of the general language of mathematics
  and a glossary of group-theory terms.
  Automatic translation is, of course, a very specialized applica-
  application of digital computers, but it is worth more than just a casual
  270
  mention because it does illustrate the kind of techniques which are
  likely to be used more and more for non-numerical "data proces-
  processing."
  3. PLASMA MICROWAVE DEVICES
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Promising applications of the properties of plasmas appear
  in the field of guidance and generation of high Rf energy. Since a
  column of plasma will support the propagation of various field
  configurations of electromagnetic waves, a considerable effort is
  presently being devoted to an understanding of plasma wavegui-
  waveguides. The waveguide is the basic component of the microwave
  system, and its characteristics will determine and limit the other
  microwave devices which are possible. An electromagnetic wave
  travelling down a plasma column will have its phase and ampli-
  amplitude altered, depending on the plasma properties and configura-
  configuration and prototype attenuators, and phase shifters have been built
  in several laboratories.
  Plasma properties can also be used for waveguide switching.
  In addition, since plasma exhibits interesting properties such as
  the Faraday effect, polarization characteristics, double refraction
  and nonlinearity, they can be utilized for circuit and microwave
  applications.
  It has been demonstrated* that slow electromagnetic waves can
  propagate in a plasma cylinder in the presence of a dc magnetic
  field. As a consequence, intense investigations are being made in
  attempts to utilize a plasma as, the slow-wave structure of travel-
  travelling wave tubes. In this manner, the characteristics of the slow-
  wave structure can be altered externally by changing the plasma
  properties.
  Suggestions have been put forth In which the nonlinear effects
  of a plasma at high power levels are utilized as the nonlinear pro-
  propagating medium of a paramagnetic amplifier. The generation of
  millimeter waves by plasma techniques is another field of great
  interest and current importance.
  In a gaseous discharge plasma system, it is possible for a
  metastable states of a given atom to be used as carriers of energy
  to excite specific quantum energy levels of another atom. If the
  excitation cross section for this process is large, then excess of
  atoms in this excited state will occur. This is precisely the condi-
  condition required for maser action, and the successful operation of
  such a quantum plasma device producing maser oscillations at
  optical frequencies has been achieved recently.
  Further schemes have been put forth whereby the ion sheaths
  surrounding hypersonic re-entry vehicles would be utilized as
  coherent radioactive elements and hence as a plasma antenna.
  271
  4. ENERGY BALANCE AND MATERIAL PROBLEMS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  It is obvious that controlled thermonuclear power will not be
  possible unless the many problems of stable plasma confinement
  and heating are solved. Therefore, thermonuclear research has so
  far concentrated, and rightly so, almost exclusively upon these
  problems.
  The subject has occupied our thoughts through the preceding
  chapters. It will again do so in the chapters following this one,
  where we shall discuss briefly a number of recent experimental
  developments and enlarge upon some of the principles behind
  them. But there is another aspect: even if confinement and heating
  were achieved, the structure of a practical thermonuclear power
  generator would still not be clear. Little real thought has gone
  into energy balance and material problems pertaining to such a
  hypothetical device. While any such calculations will be highly
  speculative, some worth-while points can be made. In particular,
  we shall conclude that a thermonuclear reactor will be large, with
  somewhat less assurance, we conclude that profitable power pro-
  production from a fast pulsed system looks extraordinary difficult of
  achievement.
  One thing appears clear - the energy of the thermonuclear
  neutrons must be recovered as heat. This single fact makes neces-
  necessary the presence of a heat-recovery blanket surrounding the
  reactor. In addition, if the reactor operates by D-T fusion
  (Deuterium - Tritium), the tritium must be regenerated by these
  neutrons, for no other method seems to be available for producing
  tritium in the amount required. The blanket then becomes compli-
  complicated on this account. Further difficulties arise at the vacuum wall
  that faces the plasma. The heat flux on it may be large, and
  special efforts may be required to cool it.
  The function of the blanket must also be compatible with the
  establishment of the magnetic induction. If the current-carrying
  coils were normal conductors, they would have to be protected
  from the neutron flux in order to prevent structural damage and
  consequent increased resistivity. If such normal conductors were
  used, the coil power loss would be a significant and perhaps large
  fraction of the electrical output of the system.
  Vastly more attractive is the use of superconducting coils for
  generating static or quasi-static magnetic inductions. Very recent
  advances in superconducting materials have been unbelievably
  spectacular. The possibility of reducing the coil power to zero will
  affect the net power behaviour of thermonuclear reactors very
  favourably.
  This application Is only one of many which can be envisaged
  for exploiting loss-free high-magnetic field structures. •
  272
  5. DOPPLER TECHNIQUES FOR MtSS-DlSTANCE INDICATING SYSTEMS
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  The main purpose of Miss-Distance Indicating Systems is to
  determine the minimum distance between an airborne target and
  the attacking missile during a particular mission.
  There are two reasons for the need of this information. With
  modern missiles, a direct hit on the target is not always necessary
  and misses up to certain distances, depending on the target and
  missile, will still destroy the target. Also'during some training
  and missile evacuation missions it is desirable not to destroy the
  target, which can be made recoverable. In this case, the attacking
  Fig. I. Diagram of a Doppler
  miss-distance indicating system.
  missile can be programmed to miss the target by a certain dis-
  distance and the knowledge of the actual miss-distance then becomes
  necessary.
  There are several systems for obtaining this miss-distance
  Information. The most popular systems are:
  optical, in which cine cameras, in "the target or on the
  ground, are used to photograph the approaching attacking missile.
  After analysis of the film, the path of the missile, with respect to
  the target, can be established;
  273
  radioactive, in which a radioactive isotope is placed in
  the attacking missile and the radiation intensity is monitored
  with instruments in the target. Knowing the sensitivity of the
  monitoring equipment, the record of intensity vs. time can be used
  to determine the miss-distance;
  electronic, in which the miss-distance is determined by
  electronic means. The electronic approach seems to be the most sa-
  satisfactory for most applications.
  Fig. 2. Typical examples of Doppler frequen-
  frequencies shifts in a miss-distance indication. "
  The Doppler-type miss-distance indicating system is an elec-
  electronic system. Basically, this system relies on the apparent fre-
  frequency shift when the source and the observer are in motion with
  respect to each other. (Such a typical frequency shift is shown in
  Fig. 2.) The slope of the curve and the assymptotes give the mis-
  sdistance. The distance'between the two assymptotes is a function
  of the relative velocity between the missile and the target. Fig. 1
  shows the three major parts of the system with which this type of
  data can be obtained. The source of the RF signal is usually in the
  274
  missile (A). In most cases the telemetry transmitter, used for
  other purposes, is sufficient. However, for special applications a
  compact stable signal source is also available. There are two
  signal paths to the ground receiver (B). One is the direct one. The
  other path Is through a receiver-transmitter combination in the
  target (C). To differentiate between these two signal paths, the
  signal through the target Is shifted in frequency. The two signals
  are then compared in the ground station receiver. As long as the
  system is stationary, the difference frequency between the two
  paths will be a constant. If the missile and the target are in rela-
  relative motion to each other, the difference frequency-will exhibit the
  typical Doppler characteristic shown in Fig. 2.
  The Doppler system is often chosen, since for the majority of
  missions it has several advantages.
  This system has some problems. The first problem is that of
  data reduction. While the reduction of ideal data is quite simple,
  the data actually obtained may be difficult to interpret. Curve В
  in Fig. 2 shows the effect of noise, the intercept occurring at a
  distance of about 80 miles from the ground station. Curve С
  shows the effect of pulse reversal in the missile antenna lobes.
  This causes a discontinuity in the curve.
  There are other.more subtle changes in the Doppler curve,
  which are caused by acceleration of the missile or the target as
  shown in Curve D.
  6. A FIRST LOOK AT RANDOM NOISE
  (Для перевода со словарем)
  Synopsis: The aim of this paper is to discuss some elementary properties
  of a type of noise which has been called "Gaussian" or "random". The power
  spectrum is discussed and its relation to the autocorrelation function is pointed
  out. Two probability distributions associated with the noise are described.
  Occasionally one encounters engineering problems which invol-
  involve the random fluctuations of an electric current or voltage, or
  some other quantity. These fluctuations are often called "noise".
  A considerable amount of information about such fluctuations has
  been obtained by mathematicians who have studied the subject
  under the name of "stochastic processes". The aim of this paper is
  to present an introduction to the subject by mentioning some of
  the main properties of the fluctuations, which in accordance with
  engineering usage, will be spoken of as noise.
  There is a wide variety of noises, but this paper will be restric-
  restricted to those called "stationary processes". That is, they go on
  about the same forever, and their statistical properties do not
  change with time. Furthermore, the discussion will be concerned
  mostly with a special kind of noise which has been called
  "random" or "Gaussian" noise. Its second name comes from the
  fact that its statistical properties are closely related to the Gaus-
  sian distribution used in probability theory. Random noise Is a
  mathematical idealization of certain types of noise occurring in
  nature. One such type is thermal noise, which occurs as a result
  of the thermal agitation of electrons in a conductor.
  Noise consisting of impulses that can be heard separately is
  not considered to be random noise in the sense that the term will
  be used here. For example, noise from relay clicks and ignition
  noise from automobile engines are not random noises. When such
  trains of impulses are expressed as Fourier series or as Fourier
  integrals there is a considerable amount of correlation between the
  phases of the various components. This is not true for random
  noise.
  Why are engineers interested in the properties of noise? One
  reason is that noise produces interference in transmission systems.
  A knowledge of the statistics of the noise is helpful in estimating
  the quality of a proposed system while it is still in the design
  stage. In some cases the noise is large in comparison with the
  signal, as in the problem of detecting airplanes or submarines.
  The question here is how best to overcome the noise. Again, car-
  carrier communication systems are coming into use which employ a
  wide band of frequencies to transmit a large number of telephone
  channels. The output of such a system resembles random noise,
  and this fact may be used in designing the system.
  Random noise has been studied more extensively than other
  types of noise. The probable reason for this is that it is easier to
  handle mathematically than the other types. Furthermore, some
  frequently encountered noises, such as thermal noise in conductors
  and shot-noise in vacuum tubes, are close approximations to
  random noise.
  КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ
  1. Укажите способ перевода конструкции "to have the engines
  installed" (ј 108).
  2. Как переводится глагол to have в конструкции "to have the
  body move" (ј 109)?
  УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ПО ОТДЕЛЬНЫМ ВОПРОСАМ
  ПЕРЕВОДА
  1. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что при переводе
  предложения, состоящего из подлежащего и сказуемого (без дополнения
  и обстоятельств), подлежащее часто ставится после сказуемого.
  Подлежащее в данном английском предложении является главным
  для сообщения. В противоположность английскому языку главное для
  сообщения в русском языке обычно стоит в конце предложения.
  Примерная схема предложения: "Делается то-то".
  1. Further studies of the solar radiation are needed.
  2. When monatomic hydrogen reassociates into the normal
  molecular form a great deal of energy is released.
  3. Within recent years the application of radio techniques in
  the study, of various problems of astronomy has led to remarkable
  results. A new science, Radio Astronomy, has emerged.
  4. Detailed Information on different types of particle accele-
  accelerators- the heavy artillery of the atomic world shooting invisible
  bullets at invisible targets - Is now available.
  5. The temperature of the upper atmosphere may be calculated
  if the local speed of sound is known.
  6. Thermoelectric generators with power ratings from a few
  watts to 50 kilowatts have been developed and generators with
  ratings of hundreds or thousands of kilowatts are being conside-
  considered.
  2. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что при переводе пред-
  предложения, состоящего из обстоятельства (стоящего на первом месте), под-
  подлежащего и сказуемого (без дополнения), подлежащее, как правило, ста-
  ставится после сказуемого. Укажите, какое это имеет смысловое значение.
  Примерная схема предложения: "Тогда-то (там-то) делается
  то-то".
  1. In radio calculations the metric system is used.
  2. About 1940 another circular accelerator, the betatron, was
  developed.
  3. In a voltmeter high current sensitivity is desired.
  4. To improve fuels light metals such as lithium, boron, and
  beryllium are being added.
  277
  5. To detect the Very weak radio signals coming to the Earth
  from extra-terrestrial sources, a directive antenna and a highly
  sensitive radio receiver must be used.
  6. In this part (of the book) most of the principal techniques
  involved in the fabrication of semiconductor devices are covered.
  7. In sec. 6 the methods of purification and single-crystal pre-
  preparation of semiconductors are discussed.
  8. At the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at
  Sevres, France, the ultimate standards of length and mass are
  kept.
  9. In several countries particle accelerators serving to split
  atoms and explore the fundamental nature of matter are being
  used.
  3. Переведите предложения, в которых главным для сообщения является под-
  подлежащее (выраженное, как правило, существительным с неопределенным
  артиклем или без артикля при существительном во множественном числе);
  после сказуемого стоит группа слов, поясняющая его.
  При переводе предложений подлежащее следует поставить после ска-
  сказуемого (в конце предложения), а обстоятельственные слова, относящиеся
  к сказуемому, перенести на первое место в предложении.
  Примерная схема предложения: "В таких-то случаях важно
  то-то".
  1. Several conclusions may be drawn from the discussion.
  2. Much has been written on the problem of reliability of mis-
  missiles.
  3. In recent years, considerable research has been done, and
  complex, yet highly reliable, fuses are available for a variety of
  missile applications.
  4. A serious problem arises In relation to take-off power
  requirements of the earth satellite.
  5. It is usual to regard the troposphere and stratosphere as the
  lower atmosphere and the remaining regions as the upper atmo-
  atmosphere. Other classifications are sometimes employed.
  6. The investigations of the upper atmosphere are being at-
  attempted in many countries. Rapid progress is to be expected
  during the coming year.
  7. One of the leading rocket experts said that a 1,000,000 lb.
  thrust chamber is feasible from an engineering point of view.
  8. An important special case arises, when two particles do not
  interact with each other.
  4. Переведите предложения, а которых главным для сообщения является под-
  подлежащее; после сказуемого стоит обстоятельственный инфинитивный обо-
  оборот (относящийся к сказуемому).
  При переводе таких предложений подлежащее обычно должно стоять
  после сказуемого, а обстоятельственный оборот переносится в начало
  предложения.
  Примерная схема предложения: "Чтобы достичь цели, нуж-
  нужно сделать то-то".
  278
  1. Reactors must be cooled to prevent extremely high tem-
  temperatures at their cores.
  2. Piston engines are used to rotate a propeller, thus causing
  thrust which drives the aircraft through the air.
  3. In aircraft defence systems, an additional device is needed
  to distinguish between friend and enemy so that the aircraft
  defence will not shoot down friendly aircraft.
  4. A great deal of care has to be taken by the aircraft designer
  to lessen the noise in a passenger air liner.
  5. Research work and experimental investigations are con-
  constantly in progress to find materials with magnetic properties bet-
  better than those in use.
  6. Care must be exercised to prevent damaging the instruments
  during the vibration test.
  7. Use should be made of the oscilloscope to help localize
  troubles in the radar set.
  5. Переведите предложения, в которых главным для сообщения является
  подлежащее; после сказуемого стоит группа слов, относящаяся к подле-
  подлежащему.
  Заметьте, что при переводе таких предложений подлежащее будет
  стоять после сказуемого, а слова, относящиеся к подлежащему, следуют
  за ним.
  Примерная схема предложения: "Был создан прибор, кото-
  который..."
  1. A small atomic battery has been developed which uses radio-
  radioactive strontium from the ashes of nuclear furnaces.
  2. Rocket fuels are used that burn at extremely high tempe-
  temperature resulting in high combustion chamber pressures and very
  high jet velocities.
  3. A device is now in use which automatically opens the para-
  parachute at a predetermined altitude.
  4. Toward the end of the nineteenth century a number of inves-
  investigations were made of the discharge of electricity through
  rarefied gases.
  5. Full investigation is being made into the tremendous pos-
  possibilities of the applications of isotopes.
  6. A need exists for airborne electronic equipment of minimum
  size and weight combined with utmost reliability.
  7. For the first time, a radio telescope has been constructed
  with sufficient directivity for the production of detailed "radio
  pictures" of the brightness distribution on the solar disc at deci-
  decimetre wavelengths.
  8. An investigation is described of the effect of extraneous
  radio-frequency interference in frequency-modulated multichannel
  radio-telephony transmission systems,
  279
  в. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что если после оборота
  с местоимением it (Л.) или с вводящим there (В.) стоит обстоятельство,
  то его лучше поставить в начале предложения.
  A. 1. It has been known for many years that as one moves
  from the magnetic equator towards the poles, the intensity of the
  incoming cosmic radiation increases.
  2. It has been mentioned before that the only type of pump that
  is inherently light enough for rocket applications is the centri-
  centrifugal.
  3. It can be seen from Table 1 that the tank volume and, hence,
  its weight is greater for a given weight of low density propellant
  than for the same weight of high density propellant.
  4. It is possible by using instruments mounted on rockets to
  find how ozone and molecular oxygen are distributed through the
  atmosphere.
  5. It has been established by the use of recorders that the Sun
  is an intense source of X-rays.
  6. It is essential In aeronautical study to understand how speed
  is measured.
  B. 1. There is much less wind at high altitude.
  2. There are other questions in addition to the question of
  weight and drag which determine the speed of the airplane.
  3. In recent years there has been a rapidly growing interest
  among solid-state researchers in the problem of direct conversion
  of heat to electric energy by thermoelectric means.
  7. Переведите предложения, содержащие сложное дополнение "существитель-
  "существительное + пассивный инфинитив".
  Заметьте, что перевод таких конструкций лучше начинать с инфини-
  инфинитива (в активной форме), а существительное (обозначающее объект дей-
  действия) поставить после инфинитива.
  1. If we want some information to be sent rapidly we send it by
  radio.
  2. Automation in industrial plants permits much-needed man-
  manpower to be used elsewhere.
  3. Materials are constantly being improved and their introduc-
  introduction will enable weight to be reduced.
  4. Spectroscopic studies of the radiation from aurora have
  enabled determinations to be made of the temperature in the
  region near the 70-mile level.
  5. Solar battery is the ideal generator for an artificial satellite
  and will permit data to be obtained through the entire life of its
  electronic equipment.
  6. The decrease in the weight of the structure of the aeroplane,
  enables more passengers or more freight to be carried.
  280
  8. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что при переводе вы"
  деленных глаголов и прилагательных приходится добавлять пояснительные
  слова.
  1. Application of the principle of phase stability led to several
  new machines, the electron synchrotron, the proton synchrotron
  and the electron cyclotron.
  2. The pressure that forces free electrons through the con-
  conductors and electrical devices is called electromotive force.
  3. About 1940 another circular accelerator, the betatron, was
  developed by D. W. Kerst at Illinois. This electron accelerator was
  capable of energies reaching as high as 300 MeV.
  4. After the rocket motor has used up its fuel, the missile
  continues on its trajectory using up the energy imparted to it by
  the high initial thrust.
  5. As has already been seen, temperature tends to decrease
  with altitude when flying in the troposphere.
  9. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание иа то, что при переводе от-
  отрицательную формулировку часто приходится заменять положительной и,
  наоборот, положительную - отрицательной.
  Образцы:
  1. It will not Ъе out of place here...
  Здесь будет уместно... (дословно "Не будет неумест-
  неуместно...")
  2. There is little doubt...
  Нет сомнения... (дословно "Мало сомнения...")
  1. It is still far from clear how much of the primary cosmic
  radiation is subject to solar influence and what is the nature of
  this influence.
  2. There seems to be littie doubt that in a suitable mixture of
  hydrogen isotopes a thermonuclear explosion will take place when
  it is raised to the required temperature.
  3. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that, by the use of
  very low temperatures, for example, a stable solution of monato-
  mic hydrogen may be produced.
  4. Even when future space-travellers succeed in landing on the
  moon, their troubles will be far from over.
  5. Glancing through this book you can see numerous strange
  signs and symbols. Most of the diagrams consist of little else.
  6. It is impossible in a discussion such as this to do more than
  suggest a solution of one or two particular difficulties.
  7. The blast effect of the fragmenting type of warhead is not
  negligible.
  8. It will not be out of place here to describe briefly a number
  of ways of creating shock waves.
  281
  9. It Is not out of question that the nuclear sources will even-
  eventually compete economically with coal as a source of energy.
  10. The details of the processes by which meson can produce
  the magnetic field are far from being completely understood.
  11. On October 4, 1957, Russian scientists successfully laun-
  launched the first Earth Satellite. The news was first given by Moscow
  Radio just before midnight, and it was not long before radio
  signals from the orbiting vehicle were picked up in many parts of
  the world.
  12. Nuclei are known to possess many other properties in ad-
  addition to those mentioned, and under certain circumstances are
  anything but inert.
  10. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание иа то, что причастные обо-
  обороты, придаточные предложения или приложения, входящие в состав
  сложного предложения, при переводе в некоторых случаях лучше заменять
  самостоятельный предложением.
  1. The fixed-frequency cyclotron is the oldest of the circular
  accelerators, having been first built in the early 30's.
  2. The term "rocket engine" is becoming more common than
  the older "rocket motor", which term is now tending to be used
  only for the solid-propellant variety.
  3. The term "high-speed flight" is applied especially to super-
  supersonic speeds, in which field many of the problems are as impor-
  important to rocketry as to aeronautics.
  4. It is convenient in practice to use the foot as the unit of
  length, for which reason the resistances of all conductors are
  specified and compared with each other on the basis of a wire
  having a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 1 ft.
  5. The lighting system in the aircraft has numerous separate
  lights, some of which may be fluorescent, a practice that is beco-
  becoming commoner in air liners with the availability of a high-voltage
  electric supply.
  11. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что при переводе вы-
  выделенной части предложения приходится изменять структуру предложения.
  1. In 1899 Rutherford was experimenting on the extent to
  which radioactive radiations could pass through thin sheets of
  aluminium.
  2. The degree to which a machine possesses inherent stability
  depends upon such things as size and purpose.
  3. For many purposes the Sunspot number is a useful guide to
  the degree of solar activity, i. e., the extent to which solar condi-
  conditions are disturbed.
  4. The important property of the atmosphere, in so far as the
  rocket is concerned, is its density and the way in which the density
  varies with altitude.
  282
  5. The uses to which miniature satellite yehicles may be put
  are varied.
  6. The purpose of the injector is to mix and atomize the ptopel-
  lants, the degree to which it performs each of these funations
  depending very largely on the propellants used.
  12. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на то, что при переводе при-
  приходится изменять структуру всего предложения.
  1. Men have never created an offensive weapon without some-
  someone's devising a corresponding defensive weapon.
  2. It is a matter of everyday experience that objects having dif-
  different masses also have different weights.
  3. The problem of describing the motion of bodies, such as
  particles and rigid bodies, in space is that of kinematics.
  4. Of all the problems frictional heating seems to involve the
  greatest likelihood of hazard, and is at the moment one of the
  most unknown factors.
  5. Our detailed knowledge of atomic structure is quite new, but
  the concept of the atom is very old.
  6. The authors of "High speed flight" tried to make the dis-
  discussion as non-technicai as possible but any attempt to deal
  adequately with a subject into which science and technology enter
  so extensively must involve some technicalities.
  7. Opinion in late years, influenced partly by the theory of the
  expanding Universe, has tended towards making the birth of the
  Sun and solar system more or less synchronous.
  8. The airplane has opened backward areas. Many countries
  once isolated by terrain or by travel time have been brought within
  visiting range of the rest of the world.
  9. Uranium is somewhat like the father of a family tree in
  which radium is the fifth generation and lead is the last.
  10. By the age of sixteen, Tsiolkovsky's store of learning was
  considerable; but he had now reached a point where reading at
  home could teach him no more and his father made arrangements
  for him to go to Moscow.
  11. Pilots of high speed aircraft always keep a careful eye on
  their ma dimeter.
  12. It is already a fact of observation that the mean level of
  the northern seas is some six inches lower in the northern spring
  than in the northern autumn, that of the southern seas six inches
  lower in the southern spring.
  13. A typical example of a ramjet installation in a guided mis-
  missile shows the ramjet engine attached to a strut below the body.
  283
  13. Переведите предложения, содержащие образные выражения.
  1. The launching of Sputnik I started a virtual avalanche of
  interest in the field of astronautics.
  2. The plum-pudding model of the atom had earlier been used
  by S. S. Thompson as a basis for a calculation of the most pro-
  probable angle of scattering of the X-particles.
  3. The four giant planets of the solar system are thought to
  have a "госк-in-a snowball" structure - that is, a small dense
  rocky core surrounded by a thick shell of ice and covered by
  thousand of miles of compressed hydrogen and helium.
  4. Tsiolkovsky did the first careful spadework in what seemed
  to many at the time to be a very unpromising garden.
  ПОУРОЧНЫЕ РАЗРАБОТКИ СЛОВ
  Каждая словарная статья имеет, следующую структуру.
  Левая - иностранная часть словарной статьи начинается со слова, вы-
  выделенного в основном тексте урока. Если это слово является корневым, оно
  дается после порядкового номера с отступом, выделяется жирным шрифтом.
  После него с тем же отступом даются производные слова этого же корня.
  Если слово, выделенное в основном тексте урока, не является корневым, оно
  дается после порядкового номера светлым шрифтом без отступа. От этого
  слова идет вертикальная линия со стрелкой, которая указывает его место в
  словообразовательном ряду. Таким образом, все слова данной статьи образуют
  словоббразовательный ряд. Налример:
  I
  13. brightness
  bright a . яркий, светлый
  Ex. bright colours яркие цвета
  brightness n яркость
  Ex. brightness of the яркость изображения
  image
  Предполагается, что слова, данные светлым шрифтом в словообразова-
  словообразовательном ряду, известны учащемуся.
  Звездочка обозначает слова, известные к началу работы по учебнику и
  близкие по значению к новому слову по поурочной разработке. Например:
  30. explore v исследовать, изучать
  Ex. to explore the up-' исследовать верхние
  per atmosphere слои атмосферы . .
  * study v ї изучать, исследовать
  * investigate v . . исследовать
  ' * search v . __ исследовать
  Условные сокращения:
  a (adjective) имя прилагательное
  adv (adverb) иаречие
  с/ (conjunction) союз
  Ex. (example) пример
  п (noun) имя существительное
  pi (plural) множественное число
  p.p. (past participle) причастие прошедшего времени
  pre' . v приставка
  (Pronoun) местоимение
  ПредЛ0Г
  глагол
  285
  Арабские цифры со скобкой служат для выделения разных значений одно-
  одного и того же слова. Например:
  gain и 1) получать (преимущество, одобрение), приобретать (знания)
  2) выиграть, сэкономить
  В скобках даются пояснения, а также сравнения с близкими по звучанию
  и значению словами русского языка. Например: train и обучать (ср. трени-
  тренировать).
  Урок первый
  1. outset ['autset] n
  Ex. at the о u t s e t
  from the outset
  * beginning n
  2. on the one hand
  I hand [hand] n
  '-*• on the one hand
  on the other hand
  3. sort [sD:t] n
  Ex. a s о г t of motion
  Ex. a s о г t of work
  Ex. The Earth itself is a sort of
  magnet.
  4. gain [gein] v
  Ex. to gain approval
  Ex. to g a i n knowledge
  Ex. Atoms become "ions" when
  they gain or lose electrons.
  Ex. to g a I n speed
  Ex. to gain time
  gain n
  Ex. a gain of negative electrons
  Ex. a g a i n of time
  5. universal
  I universe ['ju:niva:s] n
  '-"• universal [,ju:ni'va:sel] a
  Ex. a universal law of nature
  6. acceptance
  accept [sk'sept] v
  Ex. to accept a new design
  Ex. By accepting the limita-
  limitations we...
  -*ї acceptance [ak'septans] n
  Ex. acceptance of a new
  theory
  acceptable [ak'septebl] a
  Ex. acceptable characteristics
  начало
  вначале, сначала
  с самого начала
  начало -
  рука
  с одной стороны
  с другой стороны
  вид, род, сорт, нечто вроде, своего
  рода
  вид движения
  род работы
  Сама Земля представляет собой
  нечто вроде магнита (своего рода
  магнит).
  1) получать (преимущество, одобре-
  одобрение), приобретать (знания), увели-
  увеличивать (скорость)
  получать одобрение
  приобретать знания
  Атомы становятся "ионами", когда
  онн приобретают или теряют
  электроны.
  увеличивать скорость
  2) выигрывать
  выигрывать (экономить) время
  1) приобретение, увеличение
  захват (приобретение) отрица-
  отрицательных электронов
  2) выигрыш, экономия
  экономия (выигрыш) во вре-
  времени
  3) усиление, коэффициент усиления
  мир, вселенная
  всеобщий (охватывающий весь мир),
  универсальный
  всеобщий закон природы
  1) принимать (что-л.)
  принять новую конструкцию
  2) соглашаться (с чем-л.)
  Соглашаясь с ограничениями,
  мы...
  принятие; признание, одобрение
  признание новой теории
  приемлемый
  приемлемые характеристики
  (характеристики, которые можно при-
  принять, с которыми можно согласиться)
  286
  7. remarkable
  L remark [n'mcck] n
  Ex. some remarks on the
  compressibility of caseous fluids
  remarkable [n'mcrkabl) a
  Ex. remarkable achievements
  of our science
  8. in terms of
  I term n
  '-*• In terms of
  Ex. to measure In terms of
  weight
  Ex. These concepts are most easily
  understood In terms of simple
  experiments.
  9. give rise
  I rise [raiz] n
  -*ї give rise (to smth)
  Ex. to give rise to some dif-
  difficulty
  Ex. to give rise to new
  problems
  10. exceed [ik'sl:d] v
  Ex. Gas temperature In this type
  of engine may exceed
  4,000№ F.
  exceedingly [ik'skdirjli] adv
  Ex. exceedingly high tempe-
  temperature
  excess n
  excessive [ik'sesiv] a
  in excess of (smth)
  Ex. Speeds in excess of
  500 miles per hour.
  to be in excess (of smth)
  Ex. The speed of this aeroplane
  is in excess of 700 mph.
  11. fall [fell] v
  Ex. The experiment failed.
  Ex. The pump failed.
  Ex. He failed to understand.
  Ex. They did not fail to
  understand the importance of
  this invention.
  failure I'feila] n
  замечание
  некоторые замечания no eortpo-
  cy сжимаемости газов
  замечательный (достойный быть за-
  замеченным)
  замечательные достижения
  нашей науки
  термин; понятие, выражение
  1) в единицах, в величинах
  измерять в единицах веса
  2) на основании, с точки зреиня
  Эти теоретические положения легче
  всего понять иа основании про-
  простых опытов.
  повышение, подъем; увеличение
  вызывать, создавать (трудность);
  являться причиной (чего-л.); вы-
  выдвигать (проблему)
  вызвать (создать) некоторые
  затруднения
  выдвинуть (поставить) новые
  проблемы (задачи)
  превышать, превосходить 4что-л.)
  Температура газа в этом типе дви-
  двигателя может превышать
  4000№ по Фаренгейту,
  чрезвычайно, очень, в высшей сте-
  степени
  чрезвычайно высокая темпера-
  температура
  избыток, излишек
  избыточный
  свыше, больше
  Скорость свыше 500 миль в час
  превышать (что-л.) (Доел, "быть в
  избытке")
  Скорость этого самолета п р е в ы-
  ш а е т 700 миль в час.
  1) не удаваться, не иметь успеха, по-
  потерпеть неудачу; выходить из строя
  Опыт ие удался.
  Насос вышел нз строя (отка-
  (отказал).
  2) не суметь (что-л. сделать); не (пе-
  (перед инфинитивом другого глагола)
  Он не сумел понять. Он не по-
  нял.
  OtputfaTeAbHOM форма глагола to
  fail (напр. do not fail) перед нифнии-
  тивом другого глагола придает пред-
  ложению утвердительное значение.
  Они сумели понять значение
  этого изобретения.
  1) неуспех, неудача
  287
  Ex. to end In failure
  Ex. It was necessary to provide
  an adequate protection against
  thermal failure.
  12. suggest [safest] о
  Ex. to suggest a plan
  Ex. The scientists suggested
  tbat fission of the nucleus would
  result in a tremendous outburst
  of energy.
  Ex. As the name of this book
  suggests it deals with such
  forms of energy as heat and ra-
  radiation,
  suggestion [s3'd3estjanj n
  13. associate [a'sou/ieit] v
  Ex. A wave is associated
  with e?ch electron and...
  associated p.p.
  Ex. the transmitter and the a s-
  sooiated antenna
  14. return
  turn v
  return [n'tarrt]""
  Ex. to return books to the
  library
  Ex. to return to the atmosphere
  return n
  Ex a r e t u г п to the old theory
  15. at least
  I least [li:st] a
  I (превосходная степень от little)
  >-*ї at least
  Ex. There are at least two
  layers in the ionosphere, which...
  16. adequate ['aedikwit] a
  Ex. an adequate supply of air
  Ex. an adequate definition
  Ex. an adequate method
  . to be adequate
  adequately
  закончиться неудачей
  2) повреждение, авария
  Необходимо было создать соответ-
  соответствующую защиту от аварий, выз-
  вызванных высокой температурой.
  1) предлагать
  - предложить план
  2) предполагать, высказывать пред-
  предположение
  Ученые предположили, что
  расщепление ядра приведет к огром-
  огромному выбросу энергии.
  3) наводить на мысль, давать основа-
  основание предполагать, подсказывать
  Как подсказывает название
  этой кннгн, в неб рассматриваются
  такие формы энергии, как теплота и
  излучение,
  предположение
  связывать(ся), ассоциироваться
  С каждым электроном связана
  волна не-
  несвязанный с (ним, ней) (в функции
  левого определения)
  передатчик и связанная с иим
  антеииа
  1) вращать(ся), поворачивать (ся)
  2) переходить к (чему-л.)
  возвращать (ся), вернуть (ся)
  возвращать книги в библио-
  библиотеку
  вернуться в атмосферу
  возврат, возвращение
  возвращение к прежней тео-
  теории
  наименьший
  по крайней мере (Доел, "как самое
  малое")
  В ионосфере имеется по край-
  крайней мере два слоя, которые...
  соответствующий, необходимый, до-
  достаточный, правильный, точный,
  удовлетворительный, подходящий
  пригодный
  необходимое количество воз-
  воздуха
  правильное (точное) опреде-
  определение
  удовлетворительный (под-
  (подходящий) метод
  подходить, быть пригодным для
  (чего-л.), соответствовать постав-
  • ленной цели
  удовлетворительно, надлежащим об-
  образом
  288
  17. assume [a'sju:m] v
  Ex. Let us assume (hat...
  Ex. The antenna may assume
  a number of forms depending
  on...
  assumption fa'
  Ex. to make some assump-
  assumptions
  18. beam [bi:m] n
  Ex. a beam of light
  19. correspond ^kans'pand] о
  Ex. These results correspond
  to the laboratory data
  correspondence
  [,lons pandans] n
  Ex. There is a close correspon-
  correspondence between the diameter
  of the wire and its electrical
  resistance.
  corresponding-
  Lkaris'pandin] а
  correspondingly adv '-
  20. nearly ['шэЬ] adv
  Ex. nearly vertical
  21. twice adv
  Ex. twice the speed of this
  airplane
  twice as much
  22. ordinary ['oidinsri] a
  Ex. an ordinary experiment
  * conventional a
  • common a
  23. distribute [dis'tnbiu:t] v
  Ex. to distribute the load
  along the wing
  distribution [distn'bju:fn] n
  Ex. the distribution ol
  energy
  distributive [dis'tnbjutiv) a
  24. just as
  just [d3Ast] adv
  -*ї just as
  Ex. The rudder of the airplane
  works just a s the rudder on
  a boat.
  25. uniform ['ju:nif3:m] a
  Ex. uniform shear
  Ex. u n 1 f о г m motion
  Ex. uniform speed
  uniformly adv
  10 Зак. 849 *
  1) предполагать
  Предположим, что...
  2) принимать, приобретать
  Антенна может быть выпол-
  выполнен а в нескольких вариантах в за-
  зависимости от... (Доел, сможет при-
  принять несколько форм"),
  предположение
  сделать некоторые предполо-
  предположения
  луч; пучок лучей
  луч света
  соответствовать (чему-л.);
  согласовываться (с чем-л.)
  Эти результаты соответству-
  соответствуют лабораторным данным,
  соответствие, соотношение, связь
  Существует тесная связь между
  сеченнем провода и его электриче-
  электрическим сопротивлением.
  соответственный, соответствующий
  соответственно
  почти, приблизительно
  почти вертикальный
  вдвое, в два раза (больше)
  в два раза больше скорости
  этого самолета
  вдвое больше, в два раза больше
  обычный, обыкновенный, простой
  обычный опыт
  обычный, стандартный
  обычный, часто встречающийся
  распределять
  распределять нагрузку по
  крылу
  распределение
  распределение энергии
  распределительный
  1) точно, как раз
  2) только, лишь
  3) только что
  точно так же, как; так же, как
  (Доел, "точно, как")
  Руль направления самолета дейст-
  действует точно так же, как руль
  лодки.
  1) единообразный, однородный
  однородный сдвиг
  2) равномерный
  равномерное движение
  3) постоянный
  постоянная скорость
  1) единообразно
  2) однородно
  3) равномерно
  289
  uniformity n
  Ex. uniformity of nature
  26. Irregularity
  L regular I'regjula] о
  regularity [,regju'laenti] n
  Irregularity
  [i,regju'l"nti] n
  Ex. irregularities of motion
  Ex. irregularities of the
  surface
  27. discontinuous
  continue [kan'tinju] v
  continuous [kan'tinjuas] a
  Ex. continuous discharge
  Ex. continuous line
  Ex. continuous load
  continual [lon'tinjual] a
  Ex. a continual change
  discontinuous
  [,diskan'tinjuas] a
  Ex. discontinuous function
  Ex. discontinuous waves
  Ex. the discontinuous
  structure of the gas
  discontinuity
  ['dis,kDnti'n]u:iti] n
  28. in a similar way
  way [wei] n
  -*ї in a similar way
  in this way
  to be under way
  ' Ex. This program lsnowunder
  way.
  20. presence
  present ['prezant] a
  Ex. to be present at a lecture
  Ex. at the p r e s e n t time
  Ex. present achievements in
  physics
  -"ї presence ['prezans] n
  Ex. the presence of meteorites
  in space
  30. readily
  L ready ['redi] a
  readily adv
  Ex. a readily adjustable device
  31. dual I'dju:al] a
  Ex. the dual character of light
  Ex. dual controls
  1) единообразие, единство
  единство природы
  2) однородность
  3) равномерность
  правильный, регулярный; постоянный
  правильность, регулярность;
  порядок, система
  1) беспорядочность
  беспорядочное движение
  2) неровность
  неровности поверхности
  продолжать (ся), не прерывать (ся)
  непрерывный, сплошной, постоянный
  непрерывный разряд
  сплошная линия
  постоянная нагрузка
  непрерывный
  непрерывное изменение
  прерывистый, не сплошной, не посто
  яииый
  прерыввая функция (матем.)
  затухающие волны (радио)
  прерывистая (ие сплошная)
  структура газа
  отсутствие непрерывности, перерыв,
  разрыв, неравномерность
  1) путь
  2) метод, способ
  таким же путем, таким же способом
  (методом, образом)
  таким путем (методом, способом)
  осуществляться (Доел, "быть иа пу.
  ти" к чему-л.)
  Эта программа сейчас осуще-
  осуществляется.
  1) присутствующий, имеющийся на-
  налицо
  присутствовать на лекции
  2) настоящий, современный
  в настоящее время
  современные достижения фи-
  зикн
  присутствие, наличие
  наличие метеоритов в космосе
  1) готовый
  2) легкий
  легко, без труда
  легко регулируемый прибор
  1) двойственный
  2) двойной (состоящий из двух частей)
  Двойственный характер света
  Двойное управление
  290
  32. complementary
  complement
  I'komplimant] v
  Ex. complement of an angle
  complementary
  Uomph'mentsn] a
  Ex. a complementary angle
  Ex. complementary aspects
  33. domain [da'mein] n
  Ex. the domain of physics
  34. doubt [daut] n
  without doubt |
  beyond doubt >
  no doubt I
  Ex. Without doubt, these
  problems are best solved by
  experiment.
  doubt v
  Ex. to doubt the accuracy of the
  measurements
  doubtful ['dautful] a
  Ex. a doubtful result
  undoubtedly adv
  Ex. Peace, undoubtedly,
  serves "the interests of all people.
  35. evidence
  evident ['evidsntl a
  Ex. an e v i d e n t fact
  evidently ['evidantli] adv
  Ex. Leonardo da Vinci, evid-
  evidently, gave much thought to
  flying.
  • obvious a
  * obviously adv
  evidence fevidans] n
  Ex. The spectroscope shows
  evidence of oxygen in the
  atmosphere oi Mats.
  36. fundamental [^Anda'mental] a
  Ex. a fundamental rule
  Ex. fundamental changes
  Ex. fundamental research
  fundamentally adv
  fundamentals n pi
  Ex. fundamentals of physics
  дополнять (друг друга)
  дополнение до прямого угла
  (матем.)
  дополнительный,- взанмнодополняю-
  щий, добавочный
  дополнительный угол
  точки зрения, взанмнодопол-
  н я ю щ и е друг друга
  область, сфера
  область физики
  сомнение
  без сомнения, несомненно, вне сон-
  нения
  Несомненно, такие проблемы
  лучше всего решаются эксперимен-
  экспериментально,
  сомневаться (в чем-л.)
  сомневаться в точности изме-
  измерений
  сомнительный
  сомнительный результат
  несомненно, бесспорно
  Мир, несомненно, отвечает ин-
  тересам всех народов.
  очевидный, ясный
  очевидный факт
  очевидно, несомненно
  Леонардо да Вннчи, очевидно,
  уделял много внимания вопросам по-
  полета.
  очевидный, явный
  очевидно, конечно
  1) доказательство, основание
  2) данные
  Спектроскопические исследования '
  доказывают наличие (дают дока-
  доказательства наличия) кислорода в
  атмосфере Марса.
  1) основной, коренной, существенный
  основное правило
  коренные (существенные) изме-
  изменен ня
  2) основополагающий, теоретический
  теоретические исследования
  в сущности, по существу, по сутн
  основы
  основы физики (основные прин-
  принципы, основные положения)
  Урок второй
  1. unlike
  like a
  alike [a'laik] а
  10*
  похожий
  похожий, подобный
  291
  Ex. These two models are alike,
  liken ['laikan] v
  Ex. The rocket can be likened
  to a continually firing machine-
  gun.
  unlike ['An'Iaik] a
  like prp
  Ex. to operate 1 i к е a rudder
  unlike prp
  likely adv
  Ex The paper is likely to be
  of interest to many people.
  unlikely ['An'laikh] adv
  Ex. The temperature is unlikely
  to rise...
  2. Infant ['infant] a
  Ex. This field of science is still in
  an Infant state.
  8. grown-up ['groun'Ap] n
  4. by now
  now adv
  by prp
  by now
  Ex. В у now many types of these
  instruments have been constru-
  constructed.
  by then
  Ex. В у then the results of the
  experiments had been known to
  many workers.
  5. to be in use
  I use [ju:s] n
  '-*ї to be In use
  Ex. Electronic devices for control
  of solar telescopes have been
  in use for many years.
  Словосочетания такого типа (to
  be+существительное с предлогом)
  обозначают *быть, находиться в
  каком-то состоянии*. На русский
  язык они переводятся глаголом или
  соответствующим словосочетанием
  to be under study
  to be in operation
  to be in service
  to be in existence
  to be under development
  292
  Этн две модели похожи,
  сравнивать (с чём-л.), уподоблять
  (чему-л.)
  Ракетный двигатель можно
  сравнить с непрерывно стреляю,
  щим пулеметом
  непохожий
  подобно
  действовать подобно рулю
  в отличие от
  вероятно (в составе сложного ска-
  сказуемого типа is likely to return)
  Эта статья, вероятно, предста-
  представит интерес для многих людей,
  маловероятно (в составе сказуемого
  такого же типа)
  Маловероятно, чтобы темпе-
  температура повысилась...
  (Температура, вероятно, не по-
  повысится... Температура вряд л н
  повысится...)
  начальный
  Эта отрасль наукн только начи-
  начинает развиваться (Доел, "на-
  "находится на начальном этапе")
  взрослый (человек)
  сейчас, в настоящее время
  (перед словами, обозначающими вре-
  время, переводится предлогом *к")
  к настоящему времени, сейчас
  К настоящему времени
  уже создано много типов таких при-
  приборов.
  к тому времени
  К тому времени результаты
  опытов были известны многим ис-
  исследователям.
  пользование, применение
  использоваться, применяться
  В течение многих лет для управле-
  управления солнечными телескопами н с-
  пользуются электронные при-
  приборы.
  изучаться, находиться в стадии изу-
  изучения
  действовать, работать, быть в дейст-
  действии
  служить, действовать, работать
  существовать
  разрабатываться, находиться в ста-
  стадии разработки
  to be under construction
  to be under test
  to be under consideration
  to be In progress
  * to be in excess (of smth)
  * to be under way
  6. come [клгп] (came, come) v
  Ex. The word "television" has
  come to mean the essentially
  instantaneous transmission of...
  7. instantaneous
  instant ['instant] n
  Ex. at this instant
  the instant
  * moment я
  * minute я
  -*ї instantaneous
  [/nstan'teinjas] a
  Ex. instantaneous transmis-
  transmission
  instance finstans] n
  for instance
  8. image ['imid3] n
  Ex. the image of the target on
  the sight
  imagine [i'maed3in] v
  Ex. Imagine the early airplanes
  powered with steam engines.
  imaginable
  [i'maed3inabl] a
  Ex. the simplest form of propulsion
  unit imaginable
  imaginary [i'maed3inan] a
  Ex. The magnetic lines of force are
  purely imaginary,
  imagination
  [d'j
  [l^naedsineijn] я
  9. Involve [m'volv) v
  Ex. An adequate amount of high
  Mach flights was involved
  in the test.
  • include v
  Ex. This method involves many
  difficulties.
  involved p.p.
  строиться, находиться в стадии стро-
  строительства
  испытываться, находиться в стадии
  испытаний
  рассматриваться, находиться в ста-
  стадии рассмотрения
  происходить, иметь место
  превышать (что-л.)
  осуществляться, происходить, нахо-
  находиться в стадии разработки, строи-
  строительства
  1) приходить, приезжать
  2) происходить, случаться
  3) стать (перед инфинитивом другого
  глагола)
  Слово "телевидение" стало озна-
  означать по существу мгновенную пере-
  передачу...
  мгновение, момент
  в этот момент
  в тот момент, когда
  момент
  момент, минута
  мгновенный, немедленный
  мгновенная передача
  пример, случай
  например
  изображение, образ
  изображение цели в прицеле
  воображать, представлять себе
  Представьте себе первые
  самолеты с паровыми двигателями.
  вообразимый, который можно себе
  представить
  самый простой вид силовой уста-
  установки, какой только можно
  себе представить
  воображаемый, мнимый
  Магнитные силовые линии являются
  чисто воображаемыми линиями.
  воображение, фантазия
  1) включать (в себя)
  В это испытание было включе-
  н о достаточное количество полетов
  на высоких числах М.
  включать (в себя); содержать
  (в себе)
  2) быть связанным (с чём-л.); влечь
  за собой, вызывать
  Этот метод влечет за собой
  (вызывает) много трудностей.
  в функции правого определения: свя-
  связанный с (чём-л.), рассматривае-
  рассматриваемый., данный, имеющийся, имеющий
  место, используемый н т. п.
  293
  Ex. The technical prpblems
  involved in the construction
  of an ion rocket are considered
  in some detail below.
  Ex. the process involved
  10. point [paint] я
  Ex. the main points of the
  article
  at this point
  Ex. A t this point it is neces-
  necessary to leave analogies and turn
  to the mathematical equations.
  up to this point
  Ex. Up to this point the
  air resistance was not taken into
  consideration.
  point v
  Ex. The gyro-compass always
  points to the geographic
  north.
  point out v
  Ex. It Is necessary to p о 1 n t о ut
  that...
  11. visible fvizsbl] a
  Ex visible world
  vision t'vi39n] n
  Ex. field of vision
  12. smoothly
  smooth [smu:6] a
  Ex. smooth motion
  smoothly ['smu:61i] adv
  Ex. to move smoothly
  13. conform [кэпЪ:т] v
  Ex. to conform with the rise
  in temperature
  14. brightness
  I bright [brait] a
  Ex. b r i g h t colours
  '-ї brightness ['braitnisj я
  Ex. brightness of the image
  15. variable
  vary ['vean] v
  various ['vednas] a
  variety [va'raiati] я
  Ex. a variety of methods
  -ї variable ['vesnabl] a
  Ex. variable speed
  variable л
  Ex. an independent variable
  16. channel ['tjaenl] я
  17. take advantage
  I advantage [ad'va:ntid3l я
  '-" take advantage (of smth)
  Технические проблемы, связан-
  связанные с конструированием ионной ра-
  ракеты, рассматриваются несколько
  подробнее ниже.
  процесс, имеющий место
  1) точка
  2) положение, вопрос, дело-
  основные положения этой
  статьи
  здесь, на эгом этапе, на этой стадии
  На этой стадии необходимо
  перейти от аналогий к математиче-
  математическим уравнениям,
  до сих пор
  До сих пор сопротивление воз-
  воздуха не принималось во винмание.
  указывать (на что-л.)
  Гирокомпас всегда указывает
  на географический север.
  указывать, отмечать
  Необходимо указать, что...
  видимый
  видимый мнр
  1) зрение
  поле зрения
  2) обзор
  плавный, гладкий
  плавный ход
  плавно, гдадко
  двигаться плавно
  согласовываться (с чём-л.), соответ-
  соответствовать (чему-л.)
  соответствовать повышению
  температуры
  яркий, светлый
  яркие цвета
  яркость
  яркость изображения
  изменять (ся), отличать (ся)
  различный, разнообразный
  1) множество, много, многообразие
  2) ряд, несколько
  несколько (ряд) методов
  переменный
  переменная скорость
  переменная (величина)
  независимая переменная
  канал
  преимущество
  использовать (что-л.); воспользовать-
  воспользоваться (чем-л.)
  294
  Ex. to take
  this design
  advantage of
  Пассивная форма:
  advantage is taken (of smth)
  Ex. Advantage must be
  taken of special properties of
  germanium.
  Другие словосочетания с глаголом
  to take:
  to take part
  to take place
  to take care
  to take into consideration
  to take into account
  18. sight [saitl n
  Ex. at first sight
  Ex. in s i g h t
  * vision я
  19. finite ['fainait] a
  Ex. finite number
  20. shade [reid] n
  I shadow ['Jaedou] л
  >-*ї shade v
  21. provided
  provide [pra'vaid] v
  Ex. The ramjet provides
  a very satisfactory engine.
  provision [pra'vi3n] я
  to make provision (for smth)
  Ex. to make provisions
  for increasing the temperature
  Пассивная форма:
  provision is made (for smth)
  Ex. Provision should be
  made to reduce the velocity of
  the rocket in the vicinity of the
  moon,
  provided [pra'vaidid] cj
  Ex. Provided the satellite's
  kinetic energy is high enough to
  overpower gravity and drag."
  provided that cj
  Ex. There is no danger In using
  radioactive materials provid-
  provided that some precautions are
  taken,
  providing cj
  использовать данную конст-
  конструкцию (воспользоваться ее преиму"
  ществами)
  используется (что-л.)
  Необходимо использо-
  использовать особые свойства германия.
  принимать участие
  иметь место, происходить
  заботиться (о чём-л.); принимать ме-
  меры (для чего-л.)
  принимать во внимание
  принимать во внимание, учитывать
  1) зрение
  2) взгляд
  с первого взгляда
  3) поле зрения
  в поле зрения
  зрение, поле зрения
  ограниченный, имеющий предел
  ограниченное (определенное)
  количество
  тень
  тень
  затенять
  1) давать, обеспечивать, снабжать
  2) представлять собой, являться
  Прямоточный реактивный двигатель
  представляет собой хороший
  тип двигателя.
  1) обеспечение
  2) мера (предосторожность)
  предусматривать (что^л.), обеспечи-
  обеспечивать (что-л.), принимать меры
  (для чего-л.)
  обеспечить увеличение темпе-
  температуры
  предусматривается (что-л.), прини-
  принимаются меры (для чего-л.)
  Необходимо предусмот-
  предусмотреть уменьшение скорости ракеты
  вблнзн Луны.
  прн условии, что; если только
  При условии, что кинетиче-
  екая энергия спутника достаточно вы-
  высока для преодоления силы тяжести
  и лобового сопротивления...
  прн условии, что; если только
  Использование радиоактивных ма-
  материалов не представляет опасности
  прн условны соблюдения некото-
  некоторых предосторожностей,
  при условии, что; если только
  295
  Ex. If two horse-shoe magnets are
  placed face to face, they will at-
  attract each other, providing
  that the distance is not too
  great.
  22. compose [kam'pouz] v
  Ex. to be composed of many
  ingredients
  composition Lkompa'zijn] n
  Ex. the composition of a
  compound
  23. discrete [dis'krkt] a
  24. satisfactory
  satisfy ['saetisfai] v
  Ex. to satisfy the terms
  satisfactory
  [,saetis'faektan] a
  Ex. satisfactory results
  25. view
  view [vju:] я
  Ex. the view from the pilot's
  cockpit
  Ex. to take a different view
  point of view
  view point (viewpoint)
  * standpoint ['standpoint] я
  Ex. From this point of view,
  aircraft instruments may be
  divided...
  In view of prp
  Ex. In view of recent de-
  developments of jet propulsion...
  with a view to
  Ex. They carried out all the neces-
  necessary work with a view to
  testing the craft,
  view [vju:] v
  Ex. to view the subject from ail
  its aspects
  • consider v
  26. succession [ssk'sejn] n
  Ex. succession of events
  Ex. In an ordinary a.c. curcuit
  in succession
  Ex. In an ordinary a.c. circuit
  the current goes through ail its
  phases in succession,
  succeeding [sak'si:din] a
  Ex. in the succeeding chapters
  we shall speak of photoelectri-
  photoelectricity.
  27. precede [pn:'si:d] v
  296
  Если два подковообразных магнита
  поместить разноименными полюсами
  друг к другу, они будут притягивать
  друг друга прн условии, что рас
  стояние между ними не очень ве-
  велико.
  составлять (что-л.)
  состоять (быть составленным)
  из многих ингредиентов
  строение, состав
  состав сложного вещества
  отдельный, дискретный
  удовлетворять, соответствовать
  удовлетворять условиям
  удовлетворительный
  удовлетворительные ре-
  результаты
  1) вид, обзор
  обзор из кабины пилота
  2) взгляд, мнение
  иметь другое мнение (другой
  взгляд)
  точка зрения
  С этой точки зрения авиаци-
  авиационные приборы могут быть разделены
  на...
  ввиду, принимая во внимание
  Ввиду последних достижений в
  области реактивных двигателей...
  с целью, с намерением
  Они выполнили всю необходимую
  работу с целью проведения испы-
  испытаний самолета,
  рассматривать, обозревать
  рассмотреть вопрос со всех
  сторон
  рассматривать, считать
  1) последовательность
  последовательность собы-
  событий
  2) непрерывный ряд
  непрерывный ряд импульсов
  последовательно
  В обычной цепи переменного тока
  ток проходит через все фазы после-
  последовательно. У
  последующий, следующий
  В последующих главах мы
  будем говорить о фотоэлектричестве.
  предшествовать (чему-л.)
  Ex. It Is usual to precede
  experiments by some basic
  research.
  Ex. the preceding chapter
  28. scene [si:n] я
  29. convey [ksn'vei] v
  Ex. Air conveys sound.
  Ex. to convey information
  * conduct v
  * transmit v
  30. analyse faenalaiz] v
  Ex. to analyse light by means
  of a prism
  Ex. to analyse the performance
  of an airplane
  analysis [s'naelasiz] n
  31. explore [iks'pb:] v
  Ex. to explore the upper
  atmosphere
  * study v
  * investigate v 1
  * search v )
  an exploring element
  exploration
  [,ekspb:'reijn] я
  Ex. explorations in space
  * study я I
  * investigation я>
  * research я j
  explorer [iks'pb:ral я
  Ex. Zavadovsky Island was
  discovered by two Russian
  explorers Bellinshausen and
  Lazarev more than a hundred
  years ago.
  32. locate [iou7keit] v
  Ex, to 1 о с a t e an enemy
  Ex. to locate in the rear of the
  fuselage
  33. link [lirjkl я
  Ex. at the receiving end of the
  link
  link v
  Ex. The development of rocket
  propulsion has been linked
  with the use of the rocket
  primarily as a military weapon.
  * connect v
  34. screen [skri:n] я
  Ex. the screen of a cathode-ray
  tube
  Обычно опытам предшествую
  ю т некоторые теоретические исследо-
  исследования.
  предыдущая глава
  сцена, место действия
  1) передавать, проводить
  Воздух проводит звук.
  2) сообщать
  сообщать данные
  проводить, передавать
  передавать
  1) разлагать (на составляющие
  части)
  разложить свет прн помощи
  призмы
  2) анализировать
  анализировать характеристи-
  характеристики самолета
  анализ
  исследовать, изучать
  исследовать верхние слон ат-
  атмосферы
  изучать, исследовать
  исследовать
  развертывающий элемент (в телеви-
  телевизионном передатчике)
  исследование, открытие
  исследования в космосе
  исследование
  исследователь
  Остров Завадовского был открыт
  . двумя русскими исследователя.
  м и Беллинсгаузеном и Лазаревым
  более 100 лет тому назад.
  1) определять место (положение),
  обнаруживать
  определить местополо-
  местоположение противника
  2) располагать
  расположить в задней части
  фюзеляжа
  звено (цепи); связь; соединение
  на приемном конце линии связи
  связывать (ся); соединяться
  Создание ракетного двигателя бы-
  было связано с применением раке-
  ракеты главным образом в качестве воен-
  военного оружия,
  соединять, связывать
  экран
  экран электроннолучевой трубки
  297
  Урок третий
  1. warfare ['wo:fea] n
  Ex. modern warfare
  2. nevertheless [,nev3fe'lesl c]
  Ex. Experiments provided most
  interesting data; neverthe-
  nevertheless, a detailed theoretical
  study is necessary to look de-
  deeper into the phenomena.
  * yet cj \
  * still cj j
  3. be aware
  ~ aware [a'ww] a
  '-ї be aware (of smth)
  Ex. Roentgen was aware of
  the existence of X-rays.
  4. incendiary lin'sendjan] n
  5. suppose [sa pouz] v
  Ex. They suppose the device
  will work.
  Ex. The charged particles are
  supposed to have.-
  * assume v
  * believe v
  * consider v
  suppose (supposing) cj
  Ex. Suppose the temperature
  reached 200№ F, then...
  Ex These data may prove very
  important supposing they
  are accurate.
  supposition [/
  6. Ignite [lg'nait] v
  Ex. to ignite the mixture in the
  combustion chamber
  Ex. Combustible materials ignite
  if...
  ignition [lg'nijn] n
  Ex. ignition ol the mixture
  7. ancient ['einfant] a
  Ex. conceptions of ancient
  scientists
  8. succeed [ssk'sl.d] v
  Ex. Experiments succeeded
  theoretical research.
  * follow v
  Ex. The theory of electrons suc-
  succeeded in explaining electro-
  electromagnetic phenomena.
  Ant. fail v
  success [ssk'ses] n
  298
  война, методы ведения войны
  современная война, современные
  методы ведения войны
  тем не менее, однако, все же
  Опыты далн очень интересные дан-
  ные; тем не менее необходимо
  более глубокое теоретическое иссле-
  исследование для того, чтобы лучше по-
  понять эти явления.
  тем не менее, однако
  сознающий, знающий, осведомленный
  знать, сознавать (что-л.), отдавать
  себе отчет (в чем-л.)
  Рентген знал о существовании
  Х-лучей.
  зажигательное вещество
  предполагать, полагать
  Они предполагают, что этот
  прибор будет работать.
  Заряженные частицы, как пола-
  полагают, имеют...
  предполагать
  думать, полагать
  полагать, считать
  если, предположим, исходя из пред-
  предположения, что
  Предположим, что температу-
  температура достигла 200№ F, тогда...
  Этн данные могут оказаться очень
  важными, еслн (исходя из
  предположения, что) онн точ-
  точные.
  предположение
  зажигать(ся), воспламенять(ся)
  зажечь смесь в камере сгорания
  Горючие материалы воспламе-
  воспламеняются, если...
  воспламенение, зажигание
  зажигание смесн (в двигателе
  внутреннего сгорания)
  древний, античный
  взгляды д р е в н н х ученых
  1) следовать за (чём-л.), происходить
  после (чего-л.)
  Опыты были проведены после
  теоретических исследований,
  следовать (за чем-л.)
  2) удаваться, нметь успех (перед
  In+-ing)
  Электронной теории удалось
  объяснить электромагнитные явления.
  не Удаваться, не иметь успеха
  успех, удача
  Ant. failure л
  successful a
  successfully adv
  9. destruction [dis'tnikjn] n
  Ex. to prevent destruction
  of the working parts
  destroy [dis'troi] v
  Ex. to destroy a building
  • break (up, down) v
  destructive [dis'trAktiv] a
  Ex. destructive forces
  10. disposal
  dispose [dis'pouz] v
  Ex. to dispose troops
  dispose of (smth.)
  disposal [dis'pouzsl] n
  Ex. The scientist had all the
  necessary equipment at
  disposal.
  his
  Ex. the disposal of waste heat
  II. capable fkeipabl] a
  Ex. a device capable of con-
  converting electrical energy into
  mechanical energy
  • able a
  capability [,keipa'biliti] n
  Ex. the capability of hot
  bodies to rediate energy
  capabilities n pi
  Ex. The rocket engine possesses
  unique capabilities as a
  propufsion mechanism for travel-
  travelling into space.
  • capacity n
  12. attain ['stein] v
  Ex. to attain high velocity
  • reach v
  • achieve v
  • obtain v
  • get v
  attainable [a'teinabl] a
  Ex. attainable speed
  • obtainable a
  attainment (a'teinnwnt] n
  Ex. the attainment of the
  desired results
  • achievement n
  13. at all
  I all [o:l] a
  '-ї at all
  ' Ex Contrary to alpha rays and
  beta rays gamma lays have no
  charge at all.
  неуспех, неудача
  успешный, удачный
  успешно, удачно
  разрушение, уничтожение
  предотвратить разрушение ра-
  рабочих частей
  разрушать
  разрушить здание
  разрушать
  разрушительный
  разрушительные силы
  1) располагать, размещать
  расположить войска
  2) избавиться от (чего-л.), устранить,
  ликвидировать (что-л.)
  \) распоряжение, возможность распо-
  распорядиться (чём-л.)
  Ученый имел в своем распоря-
  распоряжении все необходимое оборудова-
  оборудование.
  2) удаление, устранение, отвод
  (чего-л.)
  отвод ненужного тепла
  способный, одаренный
  машина, способная превращать
  электрическую энергию в механиче-
  механическую
  способный
  способность
  способность горячих тел нз-
  лучать энергию
  возможности
  Только ракетный двигатель облада-
  обладает теми возможностями, кото-
  которые позволяют использовать его в
  качестве двигателя для полетов в
  космос.
  способность, мощность
  достигать, добиваться
  достичь высокой скорости
  достигать, доходить (до чего-л.)
  достигать (цели), добиваться
  достигать, добиваться
  достигать, получать
  достижимый (такой, которого можно
  достичь, добиться)
  достижимая скорость (ско-
  (скорость, которой можно добиться)
  достижимый
  достижение
  достижение желательных ре-
  результатов
  достижение
  весь, вся, все, всё
  вообще
  В противоположность альфа-лучам
  и бета-лучам гамма-лучн вообще не
  имеют никакого заряда.
  299
  Лоте atl
  Ex. That arrangement was, аЪо-
  ve all, most useful for provid-
  providing extra power,
  after all
  Ex. After a 11, a nonmetal may
  possess one or more characte-
  characteristics typical of metals.
  all over
  Ex. їall оver the world
  first of all
  Ex. First of a 11, we have to
  examine the data available.
  14. abandon [a'baendan] v
  Ex. The method was soon
  abandoned.
  15. expand [iks'paend] v
  Ex. Gases expand at high
  temperature.
  expansion [iks'paenjn] n
  16. missile fmisail] л
  17. as early as
  I early ['э:П] adv
  I-*- as early as
  Ex. As early as the 19th
  century...
  18. cannon ['кэепзп] п
  * Run [g\n] n
  19. no longer
  long [brjl a
  Ex. a long line
  Ex. along distance
  Ex. a long period of time
  long adv
  Ex. The piston engine has long
  been the only power plant for
  aircraft
  long ago
  Ex. The theory was abandoned
  long ago.
  no longer
  Ex. There came a stage when
  people no longer regarded
  flight as a supernatural pheno-
  phenomenon,
  as long as 1
  so long as /
  Ex. The product of the pressure by
  the volume of given mass of gas
  is constant as long as the
  temperature does not change.
  long before
  Ex. Some phenomena were ap-
  applied long before they were
  300
  главным образом, прежде всего
  Это устройство оказалось преж>
  де всего очень полезным для соз-
  создания дополнительной мощности,
  в конце концов (Доел, "после всего")
  В конце концов неметалл мо-
  может иметь одно или несколько
  свойств, типичных для металла,
  повсюду
  во всем мире
  прежде всего
  Прежде всего мы должны
  проверить имеющиеся данные,
  отказываться (от чего-л.)
  От этого метода скоро отказа-
  отказались.
  расширяться, увеличивать (ся) в объе-
  объеме
  Газы расширяются при высо-
  высокой температуре,
  расширение, распространение
  артиллерийский снаряд (сейчас упот-
  употребляется в основном для обозна-
  обозначения управляемых ракет)
  рано
  уже (еще) (Доел, "так рано, как")
  У ж е в 19 столетии...
  Еще в 19 столетии...
  пушка, орудие
  пушка, орудие
  1) длинный, большой (о расстоянии)
  длинная линия
  большое расстояние
  2) длительный (о времени)
  длительный период времени
  в течение длительного времени
  В течение длительного
  времени поршневой двигатель был
  едниствеинои силовой установкой для
  самолетов.
  давно
  От этой теории давно отказались.
  больше не
  Наступило время, когда люди
  больше не считают полет сверхъ-
  сверхъестественным явлением.
  пока; до тех пор, пока; при условии,
  что; поскольку
  Произведение давления на объем
  данной массы газа есть величина по-
  постоянная при постоянной температуре
  (Доел, "до тех пор, пока темпе-
  температура не изменяется"),
  задолго (до того, как)
  Некоторые физические явления
  практически использовались з а д о л -
  understood.
  length [Ieg8] n
  Ex. wavelength
  lengthen [Чепвэп] v
  Ex. to lengthen a line
  20. armour ['a:ma] n
  armoured ['a:m9d] a
  Ex. armoured vehicle
  21. make out
  I make [meik] v
  '->ї make out v
  Ex. to m а к е о u t the practical
  value of the research
  make up v
  Ex. An atojn Is made up of
  a nucleus and one or more
  electrons.
  Ex. to make up a list
  Ex. to m а к в up for the loss of
  oxygen due to the drop of pres-
  pressure with increasing altitude
  22. thrower
  throw [6roul (threw, thrown) v
  Ex. A gun throws a shell,
  thrower ['Вгоиэ] п
  23. troops [tru:ps] n pi
  Ex. armoured troops
  24. in spite of [spait] prp
  Ex. In spite of some improve-
  improvements the modified design does
  not meet all requirements.
  despite [dis'pait] prp
  Ex. Despite the universal ac-
  acceptance of this concept...
  25. Inferior [in'iianal a
  Ex. steel of inferior characteri-
  characteristics
  to be inferior
  Ex. Steel i s i n f e r 1 о г in strength
  to some plastics.
  26. due to
  due [dju:] a
  Ex. with due attention
  Ex. a d и е explanation
  Ex. Kinetic energy is energy due
  t о motion.
  го до того, как их поняли,
  длина
  длина волны
  удлинять
  удлинять линию
  броня
  бронированный
  бронированная машина
  делать
  разбираться (в чём-л.), понимать
  (что-л.)
  понять практическое значение
  этих исследовании
  1) составлять (если дальше стоит
  предлог of или предлога вообще
  нет)
  Атом состоит (составлен) нз
  ядра н одного или нескольких элек-
  электронов,
  составить список
  2) компенсировать, восполнять, воз.
  мешать (если дальше стоит пред-
  предлог for или by)
  компенсировать (воспол-
  (восполнить) потерю кислорода, обусловлен-
  обусловленную падением давления при увеличе-
  увеличении высоты
  бросать, метать
  Пушка выбрасывает снаряд,
  метательное устройство
  войска
  бронетанковые части
  несмотря на (что-л.)
  Несмотря на некоторые усовер-
  усовершенствования, модифицированная
  модель не отвечает всем требованиям,
  несмотря на (что-л.)
  Несмотря на всеобщее прнзна-
  нне этой теории...
  плохой (по качеству), низший, худ-
  худший
  сталь плохого (невысокого) ка-
  качества
  уступать (по качеству)
  Сталь уступает в прочности
  (хуже по прочности) некоторым
  пластмассам.
  1) должный, надлежащий, правиль-
  правильный (в функции левого определе-
  определения)
  с должным вниманием
  правильное объяснение
  2) обусловленный (в функции право-
  го определения и предикатива)
  Кинетическая энергия есть энергия,
  обусловленная движением.
  301
  Ex. lonization of the upper atmos-
  atmosphere is due to Sun's ultra-
  ultraviolet radiation.
  due to prp
  Ex. Due to centrifugal forces,
  bodies at the equator weigh less
  than they weigh at the poles.
  27. projectile
  project [prg'd3ekt] v
  Ex. to project rays of light
  • throw v
  project f'prod3ekt] n
  Ex. aircraft reactor project
  Ex. Man-in-space project,
  projectile ['prod3iktaill л
  28. lack [lxk] n
  Ex. lack of stability
  lack v
  Ex. The system lacks accuracy.
  29. facilities
  facilitate [fa'siliteit] о
  Ex. to facilitate the execution
  of the task
  facility [fa'silitil n
  facilities n pi
  Ex. research facilities
  Ex. laboratory facilities
  30. ton [Unl л
  31. prevent [pri'vent] о
  Ex. They could not prevent the
  release of detailed information.
  Ant. allow v
  Ex. to prevent war
  prevention [pn'venjnj n
  32. it appears (that)
  appear [s'pial о
  Безличное предложение:
  It appears (that).-
  Ex. It appears that first
  rockets were invented in the
  thirteenth century.
  L
  Ионнзаиия верхних слоев атмосфе.
  ры обусловлена действием уль-
  трафиолетовых солнечных лучей,
  благодаря, вследствие (чего-л.)
  Благодаря центробежным си-
  силам тела на экваторе весят меньше,
  чем онн весят на полюсах.
  1) проектировать
  2) выдаваться, выступать (вперед)
  3) бросать
  бросать лучн света
  бросать
  1) проект
  проект авиационного реактора
  2) программа исследований
  Программа исследований
  "Человек в космосе",
  снаряд
  недостаток, нехватка, отсутствие
  недостаток стабильности (от-
  (отсутствие достаточной стабильности)
  недоставать (чего-л.), испытывать
  недостаток (в чём-л.), не хватать
  (чего-л.)
  Этой системе недостает точ-
  точности.
  облегчать, содействовать
  облегчить выполнение задачи
  легкость
  средства; оборудование, устройство,
  установка
  оборудование для научно-ис-
  научно-исследовательской работы
  лабораторное оборудование
  тонна
  1) мешать, препятствовать, не позво-
  позволять, не допускать
  Онн не могли помешать опуб-
  опубликованию подробной информации,
  позволять, допускать
  2) предупреждать, предотвращать
  предотвратить войну
  предотвращение
  казаться, оказываться
  Кажется..., Оказывается..., По-внди-
  мому...
  Оказывается, первые ракеты
  были изобретены в 13 веке.
  302
  Урок четвертый
  1. Introduce [,intra'dju:s] v
  Ex. to introduce
  method
  a new
  Ex. to introduce to the terms
  used in aircraft engineering
  Introduction
  [,intra'dAk/n] n
  introductory
  [t'dkt
  [^ntradAktan] a
  Ex. an introductory course
  2. Inlet ['inlet] n
  Ex. inlet temperature
  Ex. the Inlet of the ramjet
  Ant. outlet ['autiet] n
  Ex. outlet pressure f
  3. chamber ['tjeimbg] n
  Ex. combustion chamber -
  4. final ['fainal] a
  Ex. the final chapter
  finally ['fainah] adv
  Ex. Starting; with a ton of pitch-
  pitchblende the Curies finally
  separated out 0.02 gr. of a subs-
  substance which was more powerful
  than uranium.
  • al last
  5. absence ['aebsans] n
  Ex. absence of information
  • Ant. presence n
  absent ['aebsgntl a
  6. permit [ps'mit] v
  Ex. to p e i m 11 supersonic flight
  to be accomplished
  • allow v
  permissible [ps'misabl] a
  Ex. permissible voltage
  permission [pa'mifnl л
  7. extremely
  extreme [iks'triim] a
  Ex. e x t r e m e position
  Ex. extreme range
  extremely [lks'trkmhi adv
  Ex. extremely high velocities
  extreme [iks'tri:ml n
  Ex. wide temperature extremes
  8. cost [kost] n
  Ex. Low cost is one of the
  advantages...
  1) вводить
  ввести новый метод
  2) познакомить, ознакомить (с чем-л.)
  (Ср. "ввести в курс дела")
  ознакомить с терминологией,
  применяемой в области самолето*
  строения
  введение, предисловие
  вводный, предварительный
  вводный курс
  1) впуск
  температура впуска
  2) входное устройство
  входное устройство прямо-
  прямоточного двигателя
  выпуск, выход
  давление на выходе
  камера
  камера сгорания
  конечный, заключительный (Ср. "фи-
  "финал")
  заключительная (последняя)
  глава
  в конце концов, и наконец, в конеч-
  конечном счете, в заключение
  Начав с тонны ураннта, Кюрн в
  конце концов выделили
  0,02 грамма вещества более активно-
  активного, чем уран.
  наконец
  отсутствие
  отсутствие информации
  присутствие
  отсутствующий
  позволять, Допускать
  позволить выполнить сверхзву-
  сверхзвуковой полет
  позволять, допускать
  допустимый, позволительный
  допустимое напряжение
  позволение, разрешение
  крайний, предельный
  крайнее (предельное) положение
  наибольшая (предельная)
  дальность (Ср. "экстремальные" вели-
  величины)
  чрезвычайно, крайне
  чрезвычайно высокие скорости
  крайность, предельное положение
  резкие колебания (край-
  (крайности) температуры
  иена, стоимость
  Низкая стоимость есть одно из
  преимуществ...
  303
  9. specific [s-pi'sifik] a
  Ex. specific qualities
  Ex. specific weight
  specify ['spesifai] v
  Ex. to specify the
  spectrum
  specification
  t,spesifi'keijn| л
  velocity
  Ex. ...whether the receiver is
  performing according to the
  required sensitivity s p e с i f i с a-
  t i о n...
  10. competitive
  compete [lo'mpiit] v
  Ex. to compete with piston
  engine
  competitive [kgm'petitiv] a
  Ex. This engine is competi-
  competitive with a turbojet in fuel
  consumption,
  competition [,kompi'tijn] л
  Ex. a competition for a prize
  11. ratio ['reijiou] n
  Ex. charge-to-mass ratio
  Ex. ratio of transformation
  Ex. ratio of compression
  12. external [eks'tg.nal] a
  Ex. an external action
  • Ant. internal a
  exterior [eks'tigris] a
  Ex. exterior ballistics
  л
  Ex. the exterior of the engine
  • Ant. interior a
  n
  13. booster
  I boost [burst] v
  \-+ booster ['bu:st9] n
  Ex. a booster rocket
  14. jettison ['d3etisn] v
  Ex. to jettison the bomb load
  15. inherent [щ'ЫэгэпЦ а
  Ex. Inherent disadvantages of
  this method
  Ex. inherent characteristics
  Inherently [ln'hiarantlil ado
  Ex. Analogue computers are not
  inherently fast.
  16. tip [tipl л
  Ex. the tip of the blade
  304
  1) специфический, особый
  особые (специфические) свойства
  2) удельный
  удельный вес
  точно определять, устанавливать
  точно установить спектр
  скоростей
  1) спецификация
  2) техническое условие, инструкция,
  указания
  ...работает ли приемник в соответ-
  соответствии с техническими усло-
  условиями в отношении чувствитель-
  чувствительности...
  конкурировать, соревноваться, состя-
  состязаться
  конкурировать с поршневым
  двигателем
  конкурирующий (равный или луч-
  лучший по сравнению с другим)
  Этот двигатель может конку-
  конкурировать с турбореактивным по
  расходу топлива.
  конкуренция, соревнование
  соревнование иа приз
  отношение, коэффициент, степень
  отношение заряда к массе
  коэффициент трансформации
  степень сжатия
  внешний, наружный
  внешнее воздействие
  внутренний
  внешний, наружный
  внешняя баллистика
  внешний вид (часть)
  внешний вид двигателя
  внутренний
  внутренняя часть, внутреннее строе-
  строение
  ускорять, разгонять
  стартовый двигатель, ускоритель,
  бустер
  стартовая ракета
  выбрасывать (за борт), сбрасывать
  сбросить бомбы
  присущий, свойственный, неотъемле-
  неотъемлемый
  недостатки, присущие этому ме-
  методу -
  неотъемлемые свойства
  по (своему) существу, по (своей)
  природе
  Моделирующие счетно-решающие
  устройства не являются по суще-
  существу быстродействующими,
  конец, кончик
  конец лопасти
  17. overall ['ouv9ro:ll a
  Ex. о vera 11 height
  Ex. overall gain
  18. unfortunately
  fortune ['fo:tj9nl n
  fortunate ['fo:tjnitl a
  Безличный оборот:
  It is fortunate that.-
  Ex. It is fortunate that
  flight results are now available
  and...
  unfortunate [An'fD:tJnitl a
  . Безличный оборот:
  It Is unfortunate that...
  Ex. It is unfortunate
  that most important details
  have not been considered here.
  fortunately ['fD:tJmtli] adv
  Ex. Fortunately enough
  measures were taken to...
  unfortunately [An'fD:tJnitli] adv
  Ex. Unfortunately, liquid
  hydrogen Is difficult to handle.
  19. tend [tend] v
  Ex. In the absence of the force of
  gravity a body will tend to move
  In a straight line.
  tendency ['tendansi] n
  20. upper
  I up adv, prp
  !-*• upper ['лрэ] а
  Ex. the upper atmosphere
  uppermost ['Apdmoust] a
  Ex. the uppermost part of the
  atmosphere
  • upward (s) adv
  Ex. to move upwards
  21. entry
  L enter ['enta] v
  Ex. to enter the upper atmo-
  atmosphere
  entry ['entri] n
  Ex. entry of the rocket into the
  lower atmosphere
  re-entry [ru'entri] n
  Ex. The possibility of a successful
  re-entry of the rocket was
  demonstrated by...
  entrance ['entrans] n
  22. leave [li:v] (left) v
  Ex. to leave space for a radio
  set
  Ex. to 1 e a v e- the earth
  Ex. This process leaves the mis-
  missile with a positive charge.
  полный, общий
  полная высота
  общее усиление
  счастье, удача (Ср. "фортуна")
  счастливый, удачный
  К счастью...
  К счастью, в настоящее время
  мы располагаем данными о резуль-
  результатах полета и...
  неблагоприятный, неудачный
  К сожалению... Плохо, что...
  К сожалению, здесь не были
  учтены очень важные детали.
  к счастью
  К счастью, были приняты меры<
  чтобы...
  к сожалению
  К сожалению, с жидким водо-
  водородом трудно обращаться,
  стремиться (что-л. сделать), иметь
  тенденцию С" чему-л.)
  В условиях отсутствия силы тя-
  тяжести тело будет стремиться к пря-
  прямолинейному движению,
  тенденция, стремление, наклонность
  вверх
  верхний
  верхние слон атмосферы
  самый верхний
  самая верхняя часть атмос-
  атмосферы
  вверх, по направлению вверх
  двигаться вверх
  входить, проникать
  войти в верхние слои атмосферы
  вход, вступление, проннкновеине
  вход ракеты в нижние слои ат-
  атмосферы
  возвращение, вход (в плотные слои
  атмосферы)
  Возможность успешного возвра-
  возвращения ракеты (в плотные слон ат-
  атмосферы земли) была продемонстри-
  продемонстрирована...
  вход, вступление
  1) оставлять
  оставить место для радиоуста-
  радиоустановки
  оторваться от земли
  Этот процесс ведет к тому, что
  снаряд становится положительно
  заряженным (Доел. "Этот процесс
  305
  Ex. When the gases leave the
  combustion chamber, they...
  23. appreciably
  appreciate [a'pri:Jieit] о
  Ex. We appreciate the efforts
  made by...
  • value v
  Ex. to appreciate a difficulty
  Ex. to a p p г е с i a t e the neces-
  necessity
  * understand v
  appreciable a
  Ex. an appreciable change
  • considerable
  -*- appreciably [э'рги/эЬЬ] adv
  Ex. an appreciably larger
  size
  24. available [s'veibbl] a
  Ex. available information
  Ex. available means
  Ex. There are several
  available books dealing
  with...
  to be available
  Ex. Aluminium alloys are available
  in many forms so that...
  availability [a,veila'bilitil n
  Ex. the availability of
  aluminium alloys
  25. It follows
  follow ['foloul v
  Безличные обороты:
  It follows...
  Ex. Since electric charge can
  neither be created nor destroyed,
  It follows that...
  It follows from smth that...
  Ex. It follows from this
  theory that..
  2в. Item f'aitaml n
  Ex. Every item on the spaceship
  has weight which has to be con-
  considered.
  Ex. Another Item to analise is
  meteoric dust distribution.
  27. suffer ['sAfal о
  Ex. to suffer alteration
  306
  оставляв! снаряд с положитель-
  положительным зарядом").
  2) уходить, выходить, уезжать
  Когда газы выходят из камеры
  сгорания, онн."
  1) (высоко) оценивать
  Мы высоко ценим работы, вы-
  выполненные...
  оценивать, ценить
  2) понимать, отдавать себе отчет
  (в чем-л.)
  понять трудность
  понять необходимость
  понять
  значительный, заметный, ощутимый
  значительное (заметное) из-
  изменение
  значительный
  значительно, заметно, ощутимо
  значительно больший размер
  имеющийся, доступный
  имеющиеся данные
  доступные средства (средства,
  имеющиеся в распоряжении)
  При наличии конструкции there Is
  (are) "available" обычно не перево-
  переводится
  Имеется несколько книг,
  рассматривающих...
  иметься, получаться
  Алюминиевые сплавы имеются
  во многих видах, так что...
  наличие, доступность
  наличие алюминиевых сплавов
  следовать (за чем-л.)
  Из этого следует."
  Так как электрический заряд нельзя
  ни создать, ни разрушить, то и s
  этого следует, что...
  Из чего-л. следует, что...
  Из этой теории следует,
  что...
  1) предмет, деталь
  Каждый предмет на межпланет-
  межпланетном корабле имеет вес, который не-
  необходимо учитывать.
  2) пункт, вопрос
  Другим вопросом, который нуж-
  нужно проанализировать, является рас"
  пределенне метеоритной пылн.
  1) испытывать, претерпевать
  испытывать изменения
  Ex .to suffer a loss of stability
  Ex. The stability of the airplane
  should not suffer if...
  28. significant
  sign [sain] n
  signify ['signifai] v *
  Ex. This work signifies a
  new approach to the problem.
  • mean v ^
  Ex. Such rise of temperature
  does not signify anything
  for...
  • to be of importance
  significant [sig'nifikantl a
  Ex. significant accom-
  accomplishments ^,
  • important a X
  • considerable a J
  significance [sig'nifiksns] n
  Ex. the military significance
  of rockets
  • importance n
  29. currently
  L current I'kArgntl a
  Ex. the current theory
  • present a
  currently ['kArgnthl adv
  Ex. aircraft currently in service
  30. lead [li:dl (led) v
  Ex. to 1 e a d a search
  • guide [gaid) v
  • Ant. follow v
  Ex. Apart from determining: the
  structure of the atom, Ruther-
  Rutherford's experiments led to a
  number of other discoveries.
  Ex. This experiment led many
  scientists to appreciate...
  31. revival
  I revive [ri'vaiv] о
  -*ї revival [n'vaival] л
  32. propellent
  | propel [pra'pel] v
  '-"ї propellent [pra'pelant] n
  Ex. liquid propellent"
  33. saving
  save [seiv] v
  Ex. to s a v e time
  saving ['seivirjl n
  Ex. saving of ten per cent in
  cost
  испытывать потерю устойчи.
  вости
  2) страдать
  Устойчивость самолета не должна
  ухудшаться (пострадать), если...
  знак, признак
  1) означать (служить признаком)
  Эта работа означает новый под.
  ход к решению этой проблемы,
  означать
  2) иметь значение
  Такое повышение температуры ке
  имеет никакого значения для...
  иметь значение
  значительный, важный
  значительные (важные) до-
  достижения
  важный, значительный
  значение, важность
  военное значение ракет
  значение, важность
  современный, текущий
  современная теория
  современный, настоящий
  в настоящее время, в данное время
  самолеты, которые в настоящее
  время находятся в эксплуатации
  1) вести, возглавлять, руководить
  руководить поисками
  руководить, направлять
  следовать, идти (за чем-л. или за
  кем-л.)
  2) приводить (к чему-л.); заставлять
  Опыты Резерфорда привели не
  только к определению строения ато-
  атома, во н к ряду других открытий.
  Этот опыт заставил ученых оце-
  ннть... (привел к тому, что ученые
  оценили...)
  возрождать
  возрождение
  приводить в движение
  ракетное топливо
  жидкое топливо (ракеты)
  1) спасать
  2) экономить
  экономить время
  экономия
  экономия на десять процентов
  от стоимости
  ' 307
  34. so adv
  Ex. It is s о necessary that...
  so cj
  Ex. S o, we are able now to send
  a rocket to...
  so as to cj
  so that cj
  Ex. Aluminium alloys are available
  in many forms so that the
  proper material may be selected
  for any particular application.
  so far
  Ex. So far we have dealt with
  problems affecting...
  so long as
  Ex. So long as there is a
  relative motion between a con-
  conductor and a magnetic field...
  so far as
  Ex. Sofar as we1 know...
  and so forth \
  and so on J
  Ex. Force may be measured in
  such common units as pounds,
  kilograms and so on.
  or so
  Ex. 500 m. p.h. о г s o.
  35. promise ['pro:mis] v
  Ex. to promise assistance
  promise n
  promising ['promisirjl a
  Ex. a promising design
  36. impact ['impaektl n
  Ex. impact velocity
  Ex. to have an i m p а с t on the
  development of aviation
  • influence n
  37. technique [tek'ni:k] n
  Ex. pulse technique
  Ex. a number of new experimental
  techniques for controlling...
  38. expect [iks'pekt] v
  • hope v
  Ex. We must expect that...
  В конструкции типа cthe scientist
  is supposed to develop":
  1) так, таким образом
  2) настолько (усилительное слово)
  Это настолько необходимо,
  что...
  3) таким образом, поэтому, итак
  (сгоот в начале предложения, отде-
  отделено от него запятой и служит для
  связи с предыдущим высказыванием)
  Итак, (поэтому) сейчас мы
  можем послать ракету на...
  с тем, чтобы; для того, чтобы; так,
  чтобы
  так что; таким образом; так, чтобы
  Имеется много видов алюминиевых
  сплавов, так ч т о в каждом отдель-
  отдельном случае можно выбрать надлежа-
  надлежащий сплав,
  до сих пор, пока
  До сих пор мы рассматривали
  проблемы, относящиеся к...
  до тех пор, пока; поскольку
  До тех пор пока происходит
  взаимное перемещение магнитного по-
  поля и проводника...
  поскольку, иаскоЛько
  Поскольку нам известно...
  и т. д.
  Сила может быть измерена в таких
  обычных единицах, как фунты, кило-
  килограммы и т. Д.
  или около этого
  500 миль в час или около это-
  этого,
  обещать, подавать надежды (на
  что-л.)
  обещать помощь
  1) обещание
  2) перспектива
  перспективный, многообещающий
  перспективная конструкция
  1) удар, столкновение
  скорость при ударе
  2) влияние, воздействие
  оказать влияние на развитие
  авиации
  влияние, воздействие
  1) техника
  импульсная техника
  2) метод, способ
  ряд новых экспериментальных м е -
  т о д о в управления...
  1) ожидать, иадеятьсн
  надеяться
  2) предполагать, думать
  Мы должны предполагать,
  что...
  308
  Ex. The pump Is expected to
  run at a very high speed.
  • believe v
  * consider v
  • suppose v
  * assume v
  expectation
  [,ekspek'tei,fn] n
  39. mix [miksl о
  mixed [mikst] a
  Ex. mixed construction
  mixture ['mikstja] n
  40. scale [skeilj n
  Ex. a scale to measure degrees
  of temperature
  Ex. a full-scale model
  Насос, как предполагают,
  будет работать с очень большой ско-
  скоростью. (Обратите внимание на то,
  что стоящий за словом expected
  инфинитив обычно переводится буду-
  будущим временем сбудет работать")
  полагать
  полагать, считать
  предполагать
  предполагать
  1) ожидание
  2) вероятность
  смешивать
  смешанный
  смешанная конструкций
  смесь (Ср. "микстура")
  1) шкала
  шкала для измерения температу-
  2) масштаб
  модель в натуральную ве-
  величину ("полного масштаба")
  Урок пятый
  1. star [sta:] n
  i. matter ['maeta] n
  Ex. This is a matter of great
  interest,
  subject matter n
  Ex. The subject matter of
  the article is...
  as a matter of fact
  Ex. As a matter of fact, fric-
  tional forces exist whether
  bodies move within fluids,
  liquids or gases.
  no matter (how, when, what...)
  Ex.. Electrical disturbances, n о
  matter how weak, produce
  radio waves, which...
  Ex. No matter what modifica-
  modifications were introduced in this
  design, it is...
  S. acquirement
  acquire [a'kwaia] v
  Ex. to acquire knowledge
  Ex. to acquire
  sound
  * attain о
  * obtain v
  * receive v
  acquirement
  [a'kwaiamant] n
  the speed of
  звезда
  1) материя, вещество
  2) вопрос, дело
  Это вопрос, представляющий
  большой интерес.
  основной вопрос, сущность, содержа-
  содержание
  Основной вопрос этой ста-
  статьи состоит в...
  фактически, на самом деле
  Фактически силы трения су-
  существуют независимо от того, дви-
  движется лн тело в жидкости нлн в газе.
  независимо от того (как, когда, какой,
  почему и т. д.)
  Электрические возмущения, как
  бы слабы они не были (независимо
  от того, насколько они слабы), соз-
  создают радиоволны, которые...
  Независимо от того, какие
  изменения были внесены в эту конст-
  конструкцию, она...
  1) приобретать
  приобретать знаиня
  2) достигать
  достичь скорости звука
  достигать
  достигать, добиваться
  получать, достигать
  приобретение
  309
  Ex. acquirement of knowledge
  4. order l'o:ds] n
  Ex. to arrange elements in the
  order of atomic weights
  Ex. to put in о r d e г
  • in order that с/ \
  * in order to c/ /
  5. Immense [l'mens] a
  Ex. the immense power of the
  modern rocket
  * great о
  * tremendous a
  * enormous a
  6. number ['плтЬэ] п
  Ex. the number of experiments
  Ex. a number of experiments
  Ex. (he atomic number of the
  element
  number v
  * count о
  7. fine [fain] a
  Ex. fine weather
  Ex. a f 1 п е line
  Ex. fine droplets
  8. intensity
  L intense [in'tens] a
  Ex. an intense source of emis-
  emission
  Intensity [ln'tensiti] n
  Ex. intensity of emission
  Intensify [ln'tensifai] о
  Ex. to intensify the process
  of burning
  Intensive [m'tensiv] a
  Ex. intensive research
  8. vapourize
  vapour (vapor) ['veipa] n
  Ex. Vapour is any substance in
  the gaseous condition.
  * steam n
  -* vapourize f/veiparaiz] v
  Ex. to vapourize a substance
  vapourisation
  [,veip8rai'zeijn] n
  10. luminous ['lu:minas] a
  Ex. a luminous body
  luminosity
  (,lu:mi'n3siti] n
  11. yield [ji:ld] о
  Ex. These processes yield
  enough energy to...
  310
  приобретение знаний
  1) порядок, последовательность
  расположить элементы в поряд-
  порядке атомных весов
  2) порядок, исправность
  приводить в порядок, исправ-
  исправлять
  для того, чтобы; с тем, чтобы
  огромный, громадный
  огромная сила современной ра-
  ракеты
  большой; великий
  огромный, колоссальный
  огромный
  1) количество, число
  количество (число) опытов
  2) ряд (с неопределенным артиклем)
  ряд опытов
  3) номер
  атомный номер элемента
  насчитывать, составлять
  считать, подсчитывать
  1) отличный, прекрасный
  прекрасная погода
  2) тонкий
  тонкая линия
  3) мелкий, тонконзмельченный
  мелкие капельки
  интенсивный, сильный, напряженный
  интенсивный (сильный) источ-
  источник излучения
  интенсивность, сила, напряженность
  интенсивность излучения
  усиливать
  усилить процесс горения
  интенсивный
  интенсивные исследования
  пар, пары, газообразное состояние
  Пар - это любое вещество в газо-
  газообразном состоянии,
  пар
  превращать в пар, приводить в газо-
  газообразное состояние, испарять (ся)
  привести вещество в газообраз-
  газообразное состояние
  парообразование, испарение
  светящийся, раскаленный
  светящееся тело
  свечение
  давать, производить
  Эти процессы дают (производят)
  достаточно энергии для того, чтобы.-
  * give v
  • produce v
  12. glow [glou] v
  Ex. glowing discharge
  glow n
  Ex. glow lamp
  13. exhibit [lg'zibit] v
  Ex. to exhibit an Increase of
  resistance
  ї show v
  Ex. to exhibit engines
  exhibition Uksi'bijnl n
  Ex. The 1958 Brussels exhibi-
  exhibition
  14. but
  but [bAf] cj
  but prp
  Ex. All experiments proved suc-
  successful but the last one.
  but adv
  Ex. The investigations have but
  begun.
  but for
  Ex. This engine could be widely
  used but for extremely high
  ratio of weight to power output
  cannot but
  Ex. We cannot but accept
  this proposal.
  15. occur [a'ka:] v
  Ex. Wide temperature changes
  occur in the atmosphere.
  Ex. In some instances gasoline
  vapour explosions occur.
  * take place v
  • happen v
  Ex. Uranium occurs In three
  i so topic forms.
  • meet v
  occurrence [э'клгэпв] n
  Ex. Sometimes we find the о с -
  currenceofa sudden increase
  In the intensity of the cosmic
  radiation.
  16. background ['bxkgraundl n
  Ex. against the background
  of the dark sky
  Ex, the scientific background
  of space travel
  давать
  производить
  накаляться докрасна (добела), све-
  светиться (как при накаливании)
  светящийся разряд
  свечение, накаленность
  лампа накаливания
  1) проявлять, показывать (какое-л.
  свойство)
  проявлять (показывать) увели-
  увеличение сопротивления
  показывать
  2) выставлять, экспонировать
  выставить двигатели (показать
  двигатели на выставке)
  выставка
  Брюссельская выставка 1958 г.
  а, но, однако, тем ие менее
  кроме, за исключением
  Все опыты оказались удачными,
  кроме (за исключением) послед-
  последнего,
  только
  Исследования только начались.
  если бы не
  Этот двигатель можно было бы
  широко использовать, если бы у
  него н е был слишком высокий удель-
  ный вес.
  не может не
  Мы ие можем ие принять этого
  предложения.
  1) происходить, иметь место, слу-
  случаться
  В атмосфере происходят рез-
  резкие колебания температуры.
  В некоторых случаях имеют
  место взрывы паров бензина,
  иметь место, происходить
  случаться, происходить
  2) встречаться
  Уран встречается в виде трех
  изотопов,
  встречаться
  случай, происшествие
  Иногда мы сталкиваемся со с л у •
  чаем внезапного увеличения косми-
  космического излучения.
  1) фон
  на фоне темного неба
  2) основные положения, основы
  научные основы межпланетного
  полета
  3) подготовка (усвоение основ)
  311
  Ex. to have an adequate back-
  background In physics
  17. Interpose
  pose [pouz] v
  Ex. to p о s e a difficult design
  problem
  interpose [,inta'pouz] v
  Ex. to interpose a screen grid
  between the cathode and the
  plate
  18. iron ['aian] n
  19. cloud [klaud] n
  Ex. а с 1 о u d of smoke
  cloudless ['klaudiis] a
  Ex. cloudless sky
  20. in (with) respect to
  I respect [ris pekt] n
  '-+ї in (with) respect to (of) (smth)
  Ex. in respect to this type of
  radiation we can say that...
  Ex. Acceleration is the rate of
  change of velocity with res-
  respect to time.
  21. surround [sa'raundi v
  Ex. The earth is surrounded
  by a dense atmosphere.
  surroundings
  [sd'raundirjz] n pi
  Ex. In this case fusion processes
  yield enough energy to account
  for the losses to the surroun-
  surroundings.
  22. outer
  I out [aut] a
  '-*ї outer ['auta] a
  Ex. outer coverings
  outermost ['autamoust]
  Ex. Neptun Is the outermost
  of the four giant planets of the
  solar system.
  23. conclusively
  conclude [kan'klu:d] v
  Ex. We must conclude that
  this engine was an advance
  over the piston type.
  * determine v
  conclusion [кэп'к1и:зп] n
  Ex. to form conclusions
  from experience
  conclusive [kan'k)u:siv| a
  Ex. a conclusive phase
  Ex. a conclusive evidence
  '-ї• conclusively
  [ksn'klutsivh] adv
  312
  иметь достаточную подготовку
  по физике
  ставить, предлагать (вопросы, зада-
  задачу)
  поставить трудную конструк-
  конструктивную задачу
  вставлять, вводить (ставить между)
  вставить (ввести) экранирую-
  экранирующую сетку между катодом и ано-
  анодом (поставить экранирующую
  сетку между катодом и анодом)
  железо
  облако, туча
  облако дыма
  безоблачный
  безоблачное иебо
  отношение, касательство
  в отношении, что касается (чего-л.)
  В отношении этого типа нзлу-
  чеиия мы можем сказать, что...
  Ускорение - это изменение вектор-
  векторной скорости п о времени.
  окружать
  Земля окружена плотной атмо-
  атмосферой,
  окружающие условия, окружающая
  среда
  В этом случае процессы синтеза да-
  дают достаточно энергии, чтобы ском-
  скомпенсировать потери в окружаю-
  окружающую среду. 4
  внешний
  (сравнительная степень от out) внеш-
  внешний, наружный
  внешние покрытия
  (превосходная степень от out) самый
  дальний Cor центра)
  Нептун - самая удаленная
  из четырех планет-гигантов солнечной
  системы.
  заключать, делать вывод
  Мы должны сделать вывод,
  что этот тип двигателя представляет
  собой шаг вперед по сравнению с
  поршневым двигателем,
  определять, решать
  заключение, вывод
  делать выводы на основании
  опыта
  1) заключительный
  заключительная фаза
  2) убедительный, окончательный
  • убедительное доказательство
  убедительно; окончательно
  Ex. to prove conclusively
  24. fairly f'feali] adv
  Ex. a fairly large power plant
  • rather adv
  25. abundance [a'bAndans] n
  Ex. the abundance of Iron in
  the Sun
  Ex. the abundance of each
  element
  abundant [a'bAndsnt] a
  Ex. ores, abundant in iron
  abundantly [a'bAndanth] adv
  Ex. Aluminium alloys are a b u n-
  d a n 11 у used in industry.
  26. double ['dAbl] v
  Ex. to double the length of the
  wire
  double a
  Ex. double controls
  27. moreover [mD:'rouva] cj
  Ex. An airplane has not only to
  be able to raise itself from the
  ground but also be controllable;
  moreover it should be stable.
  28. Identify [ai'dentifai] v
  Ex. to identify an airplane
  identification
  [ai,dentiii'keirnj n
  Ex. target identification
  Ex. The identification of
  such a strong source with such
  a distant object...
  29. draw [dn>:] (drew, drawn) v
  Ex. to draw a train
  Ex. to draw a plan
  to draw conclusions
  drawback ['droibaek] n
  Ex. The large amounts of power
  required constituted a serious
  drawback to the develop-
  development of multitube receivers.
  30. estimate ['estimeit] v
  Ex. to e s t i m a t e the practical
  value of an invention
  Ex. to estimate the speed of
  the future airplane
  убедительно (окончательно)
  доказать
  достаточно (в достаточной степени),
  довольно
  достаточно большая силовая
  установка
  довольно (до некоторой степени)
  1) изобилие, большое количество
  большое количество желе-
  железа на Солнце
  2) распространенность
  распространенность каж-
  каждого элемента
  1) обильный, богатый (чем-л.)
  руды, богатые железом
  2) распространенный
  обильно, широко
  Алюминиевые сплавы широко
  (в больших количествах) применяют-
  применяются в промышленности,
  удваивать, увеличивать в два раза
  удвоить длину провода
  двойной
  двойное управление
  более того, к тому же, кроме того
  Самолет"должен не только поднять-
  подняться с земли, но он должен быть и уп-
  управляемым, и, кроме того (к то-
  тому же), устойчивым.
  опознавать; определять; различать;
  отождествлять
  опознать самолет
  1) опознавание
  2) отождествление
  опознавание цели
  Отождествление такого силь-
  сильного источника (излучения) со столь
  удаленным объектом...
  1) тащить, тянуть
  тянуть железнодорожный состав
  2) чертить, рисовать; составлять
  (план)
  составить план
  3) выводить, делать (вывод)
  делать выводы
  недостаток, задержка, погрешность
  Потребность в больших мощностях
  задерживала создание много-
  многоламповых приемников (Доел, сбыла
  серьезной задержкой в создании..."),
  оценивать, понимать значение (че-
  (чего-л.); вычислять, определять (при-
  (приблизительно)
  определить практическую цен-
  ценность изобретения
  вычислить (приблизительно)
  скорость будущего самолета
  313
  В конструкции типа "the scientist
  is supposed to develop":
  Ex. Pluto's time of rotation 1 s
  estimated to Ьеб'/jdays.
  ї value v
  * determine v
  estimate ['estimif| n
  Ex. estimates of the probabi-
  probability of vehicle skin penetration
  by meteorites
  underestimate
  [rAndar'estimeit] v
  Ex. to underestimate a dif-
  difficulty
  overestimate
  [,ouvar'estimeit] v
  31. throughout [Oru:'aut] prp
  Ex. throughout the 19th
  century
  Ex. throughout the world
  • all over
  throughout adv
  Ex. The airflow in this case rema-
  remains steady throughout
  32. revelation
  reveal [n'vi:l] v
  Ex. to reveal traces of hydrogen
  Ex. to r e v e a i information
  • discover v
  ї disclose о
  • show v ї
  -* revelation [,revi'leifnl n
  ї discovery n
  S3. familiar [fa'miljai a
  Ex. a familiar method
  • well-known a
  to be familiar (with smth)
  Ex. Everyone is now familiar
  with the principles on which ra-
  radar works.
  to become familiar (with smth)
  Ex. This permits us to become
  familiar with the methods
  of science before.-
  84. rest [rest] n
  Ex. t h e r e s t of elements
  35. turn out ['<э:п 'aut] v
  Ex. He turned out an excellent
  designer.
  8 конструкции типа "appears to
  differ":
  Вычислено, что период обраще-
  обращения планеты Плутон составляет
  &Чг Дня.
  ценить
  определять, устанавливать
  оценка, определение
  определение возможности
  пробивания метеоритами обшивки
  межпланетного корабля
  недооценивать
  недооценить трудность
  переоценивать
  через, по всему, на протяжении
  - иа протяжении всего 19 сто-
  столетня
  во всем мире
  повсюду
  повсюду, на всем протяжении, от на-
  начала до конца
  В этом случае воздушный поток
  остается устойчивым на всем
  протяжении.
  i
  обнаруживать, раскрывать, разобла-
  разоблачать, показывать
  обнаружить следы водорода
  опубликовать данные
  открывать, обнаруживать, раскры-
  раскрывать
  раскрывать, обнаруживать
  показывать
  открытие, обнаружение
  открытие
  хорошо знакомый, известный
  хорошо известный метод
  известный
  знать (что-л.), быть знакомым
  (с чем-л.)
  Сейчас все знают принципы, иа
  которых работает радиолокатор.
  ознакомиться (с чем-л.)
  Это дает нам возможность позна-
  познакомиться с научными методами,
  прежде чем... •
  1) отдых, покой
  2)
  2) остаток, остальное (с определен-
  определенным артиклем)
  остальные элементы
  оказываться
  Он оказался прекрасным конст-
  конструктором.
  314
  Ex. These phenomena turn out
  to be produced by the flow of
  electric current.
  Безличный оборот:
  It turns out that-
  Ex. It turns out that this
  field of science is as important
  for aviation as thermodynamics.
  Эти явления, оказывается, соз-
  создаются прохождением электрического
  тока.
  Оказывается..
  Оказывается, era область нау-
  науки так же важна для авиации, как и
  термодинамика.
  Урок шестой
  1. fit [fit] v
  Ex. theories which fit the facts
  Ex. to f i t with a radio set
  • equip v
  ' furnish v
  2. be in a position
  I position [pa'zi/п] n
  '-"• be In a position (to do smth)
  3. keep in mind
  I mind [maind] n
  keep [ki:p] v
  -*ї keep in mind
  Ex. The designer must always
  keep in mind the purpose for
  which...
  bear In mind
  4. medium ['mi.diam] n (pi -S, -ia)
  Ex transparent medium
  годиться
  соответствую
  1) соответствовать,
  теории, которые
  ют фактам
  2) оборудовать, снабжать (чем-л.)
  оборудовать (снабдить) ра-
  радиоустановкой
  снабжать, оборудовать
  снабжать
  положение
  быть в состоянии (сделать что-л.)
  ум, разум
  держать, сохранять
  помнить (о чём-л.), учитывать
  (что-л.) (Доел, "держать в уме>)
  Конструктор должен всегда пом-
  и и т ь о цели, для которой...'
  помнить (о чем-л.)
  1) среда
  прозрачная среда
  2) средство, способ
  Ex. through the medium (of посредством (чего-л.)
  smth)
  * means n
  medium a -
  Ex. a medium bomber
  5. band [baend] n
  Ex. frequency band
  6. responsible [ns'ponsabl] a
  Ex. a man responsible for
  this work
  Ex. radiation responsible for
  the creation of this layer
  be responsible (for smth)
  Ex. Certain physical processes
  are responsible for the
  presence of cosmic rays.
  7. be referred to
  I refer [ri'fa:] v -
  -*ї be referred to (as smth)
  Ex. The period In which we live
  Is frequently referred
  to as the "air age".
  средство
  средний
  средний бомбардировщик
  полоса, диапазон
  полоса частот
  1) ответственный (за что-л.)
  человек, ответственный за
  эту работу
  2) обусловливающий, создающий
  радиация, обусловливающая
  создание этого слоя
  обусловливать, вызывать (что-л.), яв-
  являться причиной
  Определенные физические процессы
  обусловливают наличие косми-
  космических лучей.
  1) относиться (к чему-л.) ї
  2) ссылаться (на что-л.)
  называться, именоваться, обозначать.
  ся
  Первод, в котором мы живем, ч а-
  сто называют "веком авиации".
  315
  reference ['refransi n
  make reference (to smth)
  Ex. It is possible to make
  reference to a number of
  papers dealing with...
  • mention n
  make mention (of smth)
  Пассивные формы:
  reference is made (to smth)
  Ex. In the introduction refer-
  reference i s m a d e to the problem
  of...
  mention is made (of smth)
  Ex. in this chapter mention is
  made of disturbances which...
  8. sharply
  sharp [/a:pl a
  Ex. a sharp tdge
  Ex. a sharp line of demarcation
  -ї sharply ['Jorphl adv
  Ex. a sharply defined region
  9. region ['гМзэп] n
  Ex. The regions from which the
  lines of force arise are called
  magnetic poles.
  10. decided
  L decide [di'said] v
  decided [di'saidid] a
  Ex. a decided advantage
  11. materially
  material [ma'tianal] a
  Ex. material to the accomplish-
  accomplishment of the research
  -* materially [ma'tianali] adv
  Ex. to differ materially
  • considerably adv
  12. make use (of smth)
  I use [ju:s] n
  '-*ї make use (of smth)
  Ex. to make use of some
  property
  Пассивные формы:
  is made use (of smth) 1
  use I" made (of smth) /
  Ex. This phenomenon is made
  u s e of in...
  Ex. In this book use is made
  of the meter-kilogram-second
  system.
  1) ссылка
  2) упоминание
  ссылаться (на что-л.), упоминать
  (что-л.)
  Можно сослаться на ряд ста-
  статей, рассматривающих...
  упоминание, ссылка
  упоминать (что-л.)
  делается ссылка (на что-л.), упоми-
  *• иается (что-л.)
  В предисловии упоминается
  проблема...
  упоминается (что-л.)
  В этой главе упоминаются
  помехи, которые...
  1) острый; заостренный
  острый край
  2) определенный, отчетливый, резкий
  отчетливая разграничительная
  линия
  1) остро
  2) определенно, отчетливо, резко
  резко очерченная область
  область, район
  Области, откуда идут магнитные
  силовые линии, называются магнит-
  магнитными полюсами.
  решать (что-л.)
  определенный, явный ("решенный")
  определенное (явное) преиму-
  преимущество
  1) материальный
  2) существенный, важный
  существенный для завершения
  исследования
  существенно, значительно
  существенно (значительно)
  отличаться
  значительно
  использование, применение
  использовать, применять (что-л.)
  (Доел, "сделать применение" че-
  чего-л.)
  использовать (применить) ка-
  какое-то свойство (материала)
  используется (что-л.)
  Это явление используется в-
  В этой книге используется си-
  система м/кг/сек
  316
  13. emit [iW] v
  Ex. to emit gamma ray
  emission fi'mijn] n
  emissive fi'misivj a
  14. brief [bri:f] a
  Ex. a brief speech
  briefly ['brirflij adv 1
  In brief /
  Ex. In brief, the task of a
  transmitter is to generate and
  radiate energy in wave form at
  4 radio frequency.
  15. idle ['aidll a
  Ex. idle time
  Ex. idle speed
  16. pick up
  pick [pik] v
  Ex. to pick one's way
  pick up ['pik 'лр] v
  Ex. to p 1 с к up information
  Ex. to p i с к up remote signals
  17. Inch [int/J rt
  18. be bound (to do smth)
  I bound [baund] a
  '-* be bound (to do smth)
  Ex. Space rockets are bound
  to assist in advancing our know-
  knowledge of...
  19. straight [streit] a
  Ex. a straight line
  20. horizon [hs'raizn] n
  horizontal [,hDri'z3ntll a
  21. half [ha.f] n (pi. halves)
  Ex. h a 1 f of the work
  22. total ['tout!] a
  Ex. the total amount
  Ex. total emission
  totally ['toutalil adv
  Безличные обороты:
  23. It takes... (to do smth)
  Ex. It takes about 2G1"
  protons to make up a pound of
  mass.
  It takes smb (smth)... (to do
  smth) /
  Ex. It took nature millions
  of years to make eoal.
  It requires.- (to do smth)
  испускать, излучать
  испускать гамма-лучи
  излучение, эмиссия
  излучающий
  краткий
  краткая речь
  вкратце, коротко говоря, в немногих
  словах (суммирование предыдущего
  высказывания)
  Короче говоря, задача пере-
  передатчика состоит в том, чтобы генери-
  генерировать и излучать энергию в форме
  волны на радиочастоте,
  незанятый, бездействующий
  простой, вынужденная ос-
  остановка (Доел, "незанятое время>)
  холостой ход (Доел, "бездейст-
  "бездействующая скорость")
  выбирать
  выбирать путь
  подбирать, собирать, принимать
  (сигналы)
  собира гь сведения
  принимать дальние сигналы
  дюйм (мера длины, равная 2,54 см)
  обязательный, непременный
  (Выражает обязательность действия,
  обозначаемого инфинитивом следу-
  следующего глагола: должен, вынужден
  делать* что-л.) обязательно, непре-
  непременно (сделать что-л.) .
  Космические ракеты должны по-
  помочь расширить наши знания о...
  прямой
  прямая линия
  горизонт
  горизонтальный
  половина
  половина работы
  общий (Ср. ."тотальный"), полный
  общее количество
  полная эмиссия
  полиостью, совершенно
  Требуется... (для того, чтобы сделать
  что-л.)
  Требуется 26*" протонов, чтобы
  образовать один фунт массы.
  Кому-л. (чему-л.) требуется... (для
  того, чтобы сделать что-л.)
  Природе потребовались
  миллионы лет для того, чтобы создать
  уголь.
  Требуется... (для того, чтобы сделать
  что-л.)
  317
  Ex. it requires an hour to
  carry out this experiment.
  It seems that..
  Ex. It s e e m з possible that
  the results-
  It happens that...
  Ex. It happens that the
  atom loses one of its electrons
  when...
  * it appears that...
  * it turns out that...
  * it follows...
  * it follows from smth...
  24. duration [djua'reijn] n
  Ex. duration of flight
  durable ['djusrabl] a
  Ex. durable materials
  Ex. durable peace
  durability [,djuara'biliti] n
  Ex. the durability of this
  plastics
  * during ['djuanrj] prp
  25. bring into use
  Ex. Radio was brought into
  u s e to communicate with ships
  at sea
  Приводимые ниже словосочетания
  такого же типа (глаголы to bring, to
  put, to set+существительное с пред-
  предлогом into) обозначают *приводить
  в какое-то состояние". На русский
  язык они переводятся соответствую-
  соответствующим словосочетанием или глаголом.
  to bring into action
  to put into operation
  to put Into use
  to put Into practice
  to set in (Into) motion
  26. go into particulars
  I particulars [pa'tikjulaz] n pi
  -*ї go Into particulars
  Ex. The writer did not go
  into particulars as...
  Приводимые ниже словосочетания
  такого же типа (глаголы to go, to
  come+существительное с предлогом
  Into) обозначают * приходить в ка-
  какое-то состояние". На русский язык
  они переводятся соответствующим
  словосочетанием или глаголом.
  I go into play
  I play Ipleil n
  -*ї to go Into play
  to go into service
  to come into use
  Требуется час для того, чтобы
  провести этот опыт.
  Кажется, что...
  Кажется возможным, что ре-
  результаты...
  Случается, что...
  Случается, что атом теряет
  один из своих электронов, когда...
  оказывается...
  оказывается... '
  нз этого следует, что...
  из чего-то следует, что...
  продолжительность, длительность
  продолжительность полета
  прочный, долговременный
  прочные материалы
  прочный (длительный) мир
  прочность, выносливость
  прочность этой пластмассы
  в течение, в продолжение
  начать использовать, применять
  {Доел, "привести к использова-
  использовании")
  Радио начали применять
  для связи с кораблями в море.
  приводить в действие
  ' вводить в действие
  вводить в действие, начинать приме-
  применять (использовать)
  . вводить в действие, осуществлять
  приводить в движение
  подробности, детали
  вдаваться (входить) в подробности
  Автор не вдавался в под-
  подробности, так как...
  to come Into action
  действие, деятельность
  вступать в действие
  вступать в действие (в строй)
  начать применяться, находить приме-
  применение '
  вступать в действие
  318
  to come into play
  Ex. A new radar recently went
  into service.
  to come Into being
  I being ['bi:irjl n
  '-" to come into being
  27. as follows
  I follow ['faloul v
  '-+• as follows
  Ex. This phenomenon may be
  explained as follows.
  28. distant ['distant] a
  ї Ex. a distant object
  • remote a
  вступать в действие
  Недавно вступил в действие
  новый радиолокатор.
  существование
  возникать, появляться
  следовать (за чем-л.)
  следующим образом
  Это явление можно объяснить
  следующим образом,
  далекий, отдаленный
  отдаленный объект
  отдаленный, дистанционный
  Дополнительный список словосочетаний по теме урока
  Словосочетания глагола "to
  ществительное с предлогом of>:
  be of no account
  account n
  be of no account
  be of (some) consequence
  consequence ('konsikwans] n
  -*ї be of (some) consequence
  Ex. Space has three dimensions, a
  fact which is of great con-
  consequence in describing the
  motions of physical objects.
  * be of interest
  * be of importance
  * be of value
  * be of significance
  Словосочетания *глагол+существи-
  *глагол+существительное":
  give consideration
  Ex. It is important to
  consideration- to
  problem of...
  Пассивная форма:
  consideration is given
  give
  the
  Ex. Careful consideration
  is also given to the method
  of."
  * take into consideration 1
  * take into account /
  place emphasis
  emphasis ['emfasis] n
  place emphasis
  Ex. The author places empha-
  emphasis upon the fact that...
  значение, важность
  не иметь значения
  следствие, результат
  иметь (некоторое) значение (Доел.
  "иметь некоторое следствие:")
  Пространство имеет три измерения,
  факт, который имеет большое
  зиаченне прн описании движения
  физических тел.
  представлять интерес, быть интерес-
  интересным
  иметь большое значение, быть важ-
  важным
  представлять ценность, быть ценным
  иметь значение
  рассматривать, учитывать (что-л.)
  Важно рассмотреть проблему...
  (уделить внимание проблеме...)
  рассматривается (что-л.), учитывает-
  учитывается (что-л.)
  Тщательно рассматривается
  также метод." (Большое внимаине
  уделяется также методу...)
  принимать во внимание
  ударение, упор
  подчеркивать, выделять (что-то), при-
  придавать особое значение (чему-л.)
  Автор подчеркивает тот факт
  (придает особое значение тому фак-
  факту), что...
  319
  Пассивная форма:
  emphasis Is placed
  Ex. As great emphasis was
  placed on the development of
  high energy rocket propellents...
  Словосочетания €глагол+прила-
  €глагол+прилагательное":
  hold true
  hold [hould] v
  true [tru:] a
  hold true
  Ex. These data hold true for
  many...
  feel certain (sure)
  feei [fi:!| v
  sure [Jitel a )
  certain ['sa:tn] a )
  feei certain (sure) (about smth)
  Ex. The scientist felt certain
  that...
  make certain (sure)
  Ex. The designer had to make
  certain that...
  подчеркивается, придается особое
  значение
  Так как большое значение
  придавалось созданию высоко-
  высокоэнергетических ракетных топлив...
  держать
  правильный
  являться справедливым (правиль-
  (правильным)
  Эти данные являются спра-
  справедливыми для многих...
  чувствовать
  уверенный
  быть уверенным (в чем-л.) (Доел.
  уверенным"
  себя
  "чувствовать
  в чем-л)
  Ученый был уверен, что...
  удостовериться, убедиться
  Конструктор должен был удо-
  удостовериться в том, что...
  Урок седьмой
  1. feed [fi:d] (fed) v
  Ex. to feed the reactor with
  natural uranium
  * supply v
  * provide v
  teed [fi:d] n
  Ex. feed system
  * supply [sa'plai] n
  Ex. Fuel supply will last for
  two months.
  2. raw [n:] a I
  Ex. raw materials
  3. slight [slait] a
  Ex. slight deflection
  4. schedule ['Jedju:11 n
  Ex. schedule work
  5. process [pra'ses] v
  Ex. to process numerical data
  process ['prousas] n
  processing [pra'sesirj] n
  Ex. data processing
  6. input ['input] n
  Ex. data Input
  Ex. input power
  * Ant. output n
  питать, подавать
  подавать в реактор натураль-
  натуральный уран
  питать, снабжать
  обеспечивать, снабжать
  питание, подача
  система питания
  1) снабжение, питание
  2) запас, некоторое количество
  Запаса топлива хватит на два
  месяца.
  сырой, необработанный
  сырые материалы
  легкий, слабый, незначительный
  незначительное отклонение
  расписание, график, план
  работа по графику (плану)
  обрабатывать (подвергать что-л. тех-
  техническому процессу)
  обрабатывать цифровые дан-
  данные
  процесс
  обработка
  обработка данных
  1) ввод, подвод
  2) вводимое количество
  ввод данных
  мощность на входе
  выход, отдача, отдаваемая мощность
  320
  '. extensive
  extent [iks'tent] n
  Ex. the e x t e n t of the atmosphere
  to a certain extent
  Ex. A glider was, to a certain
  extent, controllable.
  > extensive [iks'tensiv] a
  Ex. extensive plans
  extend v
  Ex. to extend to the upper
  atmosphere
  extended [iks'tendid] a
  Ex. extended period of time
  extensively
  [iks'tensivli] adv
  Ex. Amplifiers are extensively
  used in radio transmitters.
  i. prior ['praial a
  Ex. prior processing
  prior to prp
  Ex. Prior to 1943 heavy water
  was produced by electrolysis of
  water.
  priority [prai'oriti] n
  . skilled
  skill [skil] n
  Ex. the skill of the engineer
  > skilled [skild] a
  Ex. a skilled worker
  L labour ['leibdi n
  . up to prp
  Ex. flights at speeds up to
  Mach 3
  down to prp
  Ex. operation at temperatures
  down to -5№С
  . experience [iks'pianans] ft
  Ex. After many years' experi-
  experience in training aviation
  mechanics the author has found-
  experience v
  Ex. to experience lack of
  oxygen
  * undergo (underwent, under-
  undergone) v
  experienced a
  Ex. an experienced person
  '• devise
  device [di'vaisl я
  > devise [di'vaiz] v
  Ex. to devise an engine
  * invent v
  I Зак. 849
  1) протяженность, размер
  протяженность атмосферы
  2) степень, мера
  в известной степени, до некоторой
  степени
  Планер был до некоторой
  степени управляем,
  обширный, большой (по размерам, по
  протяженности)
  обширные планы
  простираться, распространяться
  простираться до верхних сло-
  слоев атмосферы
  длительный, продолжительный
  длительный период времени
  широко, много, подробно
  Усилители широко используются
  в радиопередатчиках,
  предшествующий, предварительный
  предшествующая обработка
  до
  Д о 1943 года тяжелая вода произ-
  производилась путем электролиза воды.
  приоритет, первенство, преимущество
  ("первое место")
  умение, мастерство, квалификация
  квалификация инженера
  квалифицированный
  квалифицированный работ-
  работник
  труд, работа
  до, вплоть до (указывает на движе-
  движение вверх)
  полеты на скоростях до ЗМ
  до, вплоть до (указывает на движе-
  движение вниз)
  работа при температуре до -5№С
  (накопленный) опыт, практика
  На основании многолетнего о п ы-
  т а работы по обучению авиационных
  механиков автор пришел к выводу...
  испытывать, ощущать
  испытывать недостаток кисло-
  кислорода
  испытывать, подвергаться (чему-л.)
  опытный, знающий, квалифицирован-
  квалифицированный
  опытный (знающий) человек
  приспособление, прибор, устройство
  изобретать, разрабатывать
  изобрести двигатель
  изобретать
  321
  14. лог [пэ:1 с! \
  neither ['naioal cj J
  Ex. The choice of fuels for conven-
  conventional power plants is not wide,
  n о г is the variation of perfor-
  performance great.
  • neither a
  * neither... nor cj
  15. sequence ['si: к wans] n
  Ex. sequence of operation
  subsequent
  ['sAbsikwa
  ['sAbsikwant] a
  Ex. Any space travel must provide
  means for a subsequent
  return to the Earth.
  subsequently
  ['sAbsikwsntli] adv
  Ex. Subsequently the prob-
  problems will be solved.
  16. add [aedl v
  Ex. to в d d new information to
  the data already available
  Ex. to a d d 10 to 20
  Ex. This information adds greatly
  to our knowledge of space.
  addition [a'difn] n
  Ex. a useful addition to the
  paper
  Ex. vector addition
  In addition to
  Ex. In additionto registering
  corpuscular radiation...
  In addition
  Ex. Radio wind balloons provide
  wind Information. In addi-
  addition, such balloons carry in-
  instruments for measuring pres-
  pressure, temperature and humidity,
  additional [a'dijanal] a *
  Ex. an additional load
  17. along with (smth) prp
  Ex. Along with a list of pos-
  possible attractive features of
  reactors, there are, unfortuna-
  unfortunately...
  18. modify ['modifai] v
  modification [,modifi'keijn] л
  также ... не (перед глаголом)
  Выбор различных видов топлива
  для обычных двигателей ве велик,
  также и е велико различие в харак-
  характеристиках двигателей,
  никакой (ии один из двух; ни тот ии
  другой)
  ни ... ии (ии то ... ии другое)
  последовательность; порядок; ряд
  последовательность опера-
  операций
  последующий
  При любом путешествии в космос
  нужно предусмотреть средства для
  последующего возвращения иа
  Землю,
  впоследствии, потом, позже
  Впоследствии (позже) эти
  проблемы будут разрешены.
  1) добавлять, дополнять, присоеди-
  присоединять, прибавлять
  дополнить имеющиеся данные
  новыми сведениями
  2) складывать {числа, величины)
  к 10 прибавить 20 (Доел.
  €СЛОЖИТЬ")
  3) увеличивать
  Зти сведения значительно увели,
  ч и в а ю т наши знания о космосе.
  1) дополнение, добавление
  полезное дополнеине к статье
  2) сложение (матем.)
  сложение векторов
  кроме (чего-л.), в дополнение (к че-
  чему-л.)
  Кроме регистрации корпускуляр-
  корпускулярных излучений...
  в дополнение к сказанному, помимо
  того, кроме того (средство связи,
  стоит в начале предложения и
  обычно отделено от него запятой)
  Радиозонды дают сведения о силе
  и направлении ветра. Кроме то-
  того, иа них имеются приборы для из-
  измерения давления, температуры и
  влажности,
  дополнительный
  дополнительная нагрузка
  наряду с (чём-л.), вместе с (чем-л.)
  Наряду со многими положи-
  положительными особенностями реакторов,
  к сожалению, имеются.-
  видоизменять, модифицировать, вно-
  вносить изменения
  изменение, модификация
  322
  19. recall
  I caii v
  '-* recall [п'кэ:11 v
  Ex. to recall the necessary data
  20. virtually
  virtue f/va:tju:] n
  Ex. The device has the virtue
  of being adjustable.
  Ex. coolant of great virtue
  by (in) virtue of prp
  ' Ex. Water in a wave obtains kine-
  kinetic energy by virtue of its
  motion.
  virtual fv3:tjual] a
  Ex. a virtual voltage .
  ->• virtually adv
  Ex. The space station would
  virtually be a scientific
  laboratory.
  21. store [sb:] v
  Ex. to store information
  store n
  Ex. store of useful data
  storage ['stoindj] n
  Ex. energy storage
  22. not until prp
  Ex. Not until the end of the
  century...
  not until cj
  Ex. Not until the program is
  prepared...
  23. to be more precise
  I precise [pn'saizl a
  '-*ї to be more precise
  Ex. Electricity is a condition or
  state of matter or, to b e more
  precise, the electric current
  is a flow of electrons or ions.
  to be more exact
  24. comprise [kam'praiz] v
  Ex. The book comprises
  detailed information on...
  • include v
  25. express [lks'presl v
  Ex. to express an opinion
  expression [iks'prejn] n
  II*
  звать, призывать; называть
  вспоминать, напоминать
  вспоминать необходимые дан-
  данные
  1) достоинство, преимущество
  Это устройство имеет то досто-
  достоинство, что его можно регулиро-
  регулировать.
  2) сила, действие
  хороший охладитель (охлади-
  (охладитель большой силы)
  в силу, вследствие (чего-л.}, благодаря
  (чему-л.)
  Вода в волне приобретает кинети-
  кинетическую энергию вследствие дви-
  движения.
  действительный, действующий, фак-
  фактический
  действующвя величина напря-
  напряжения
  фактически, в сущности
  Космическая станция была бы в
  сущности научной лабораторией.
  запасать, накапливать, хранить
  накапливать (хранить) ин-
  информацию
  запас
  запас полезных сведений (дан-
  (данных)
  накопление, хранение
  накопление энергии *
  только в, только после (далее идет
  существительное или числительное,
  обозначающее время)
  Только в конце столетия...
  только когда
  Только когда программа под-
  подготовлена...
  точный
  более точно, точнее (дополнительное
  пояснение к ранее высказанной
  мысли)
  Электричество есть некоторое со-
  состояние материи или, более точ-
  и о, электрический ток есть поток
  электронов или ионов,
  более точно, точнее
  состоять из, включать, охватывать
  Книга включает подробные
  сведения о...
  включать, содержать в себе
  выражать (ся)
  выразить мнение
  выражение
  323
  Ex. These algebraic expres-
  expressions represent the relationship
  between input and output.
  26. subject ['sAbd3ikt] a
  Ex. The altimeter is subject to
  errors due to...
  subject [sab'd3ekt] v
  to be subjected
  Ex. When protons are subject-
  subjected to high electric potential -
  they move.
  subject ['sAbd3iktl n
  subject matter
  27. avoid [a'vaidj v
  Ex. to avoid making errors
  • escape v
  avoidable [a'vDidabl] a
  Ex. JVith this arrangement the er-
  errors seem completely avoid-
  avoidable.
  Ant. unavoidable
  [Ana'voidabl] a
  Ex. unavoidable difficulties
  28. This (such) is^the case
  Ex. The lower limit of the cosmic
  ray speeds is the result of the
  action of the magnetic field of
  the Sun. If this is the case
  then the lower limit of the
  cosmic ray energies...
  As is the case
  Ex. As is usually the case,"
  there are several types of sys-
  systems that may...
  This is not the case
  Ex. Venus was formerly believed
  to be slightly larger than the
  Earth, but this is not the
  case.
  29. once [wAns] adv
  Ex. We saw him once in his
  laboratory.
  once more adv
  Ex. to check the work once
  more
  at once adv
  Ex. The computer gave us a t
  once all the necessary informa-
  information.
  once adv
  824
  Эти алгебраические выражения
  представляют соотношения между
  входными и выходными сигналами,
  подверженный, испытывающий дейст-
  действие (чего-л.)
  Высотомер может дать непра-
  неправильные показания вследствие...
  (Доел. сВысотомер подвержен ошиб-
  ошибкам вследствие...")
  подвергать (действию чего-л.)
  подвергаться (действию чего-л.), ис-
  испытывать (что-л.)
  Когда протоны подвергаются
  действию (испытывают действие)
  высокого электрического потенциала,
  они движутся,
  тема, предмет, вопрос
  сущность, основное содержание, те-
  тема
  избегать, уклоняться for чего-л.)
  избегать ошибок
  избегать (опасности); вырываться,
  освобождаться
  то, чего можно избежать
  С применением этого устройства
  можно, по-видимому, полностью
  избежать ошибок,
  неизбежный
  неизбежные трудности
  Это имеет место, это происходит, это
  так
  . Нижний предел скорости космиче-
  космических лучей определяется действием
  магнитного поля Солица. Если
  это так, тогда нижний предел
  энергии космических лучей...
  Как это имеет место (происходит,
  бывает)
  Как обычно бывает, есть не-
  несколько типов систем, которые мо-
  могут...
  Это ие происходит; Это не так
  Раньше полагали, что Веиера не-
  немного больше Земли, но это не-
  неверно (это не так).
  1) однажды, один раз
  Мы видели его однажды (один
  раз) в его лаборатории,
  еще раз, снова
  проверить работу еще раз
  сразу (Доел, "с одного раза")
  Счетно-решающее устройство сра-
  сразу же выдало нам все необходи-
  необходимые сведения.
  2) когда-то (однажды)
  Ex. Atoms were once supposed to
  be indivisible units.
  once cj
  Ex. Once you know this principle,
  you carf better understand...
  Ex. Once cannon became avai-
  available, these types of fortifications
  became obsolete.
  30. as far as smth is concerned
  as far as
  concern [kan'sainl v
  as far as (so far as, in so far
  as) smth Is concerned...
  Ex. As far as the time
  scale is concerned, it is
  considered that...
  31. error-free
  I error ('era] n
  free [fri:l a
  -*ї error-free ['era'fri:] a
  Ex. error-free operation
  32. alternative ,
  I alter ['э:Нэ] v
  >-*ї alternative [o.Tta.nativ] n
  Ex. There are some alterna-
  alternatives to this arrangement.
  Ex. They had the alternative
  of going by rail or by air.
  Ex. You have no alte'rnative
  but...
  alternative a
  Ex. An alternative method
  was...
  33. art [a:t] я
  Ex. а г t of flying
  Ex. the art of electronics
  artificial [,a:ti'fij3ll a
  Ex. artificial horizon
  state of art (state-of-the-art)
  Ex. The author will review the
  state-of-the-art in the
  field of...
  34. so [sou] c\
  Когда-то считали, что атомы
  являются неделимыми частицами.
  1) если, когда
  Если вы знаете этот принцип, вы
  можете лучше понять...
  2) когда, как только
  Как только появилась пушка,
  эти типы укреплений оказались уста-
  устаревшими.
  поскольку, насколько
  касаться (чего-л.), иметь отношение
  (к чему-л.)
  что касается чего-л., то;
  поскольку речь идет о...
  Что касается шкалы вре-
  времени, то считают, что...
  ошибка, погрешность
  свободный
  безошибочный, правильный
  €свободиый от ошибок")
  правильная работа
  (Дом.
  изменять, менять
  1) вариант (другой прибор, оругое
  устройство и т. д.)
  Существуют несколько вариан-
  вариантов (других типов) этого устройства.
  2) выбор (одного из двух)
  Оии могли сделать выбор
  между путешествием по железной до-
  роге и путешествием на самолете.
  3) другой выход (из положения)
  У вас иет другого выхода,
  кроме...
  другой, противоположный
  Другой метод заключался в том,
  что...
  1) искусство, уменре, опыт
  техника пилотирования (умение,
  опыт в пилотировании)
  2) область (науки или техники)
  область электроники
  искусственный
  искусственный горизонт
  (авиагоризонт)
  уровень знаний, уровень технического
  развития, состояние, положение
  (в данной области)
  Автор сделает обзор о п о л о ж е-
  н и и в области...
  1) таким образом, итак, поэтому
  2) то же Относится и (к чему-л.); ана-
  аналогичным образом, также (перед
  вспомогательным или модальным
  глаголом при инверсии. Подроб-
  Подробнее см. ј 93).
  325
  Ex. Weight and lift are closely
  associated, s о are thrust and
  drag.
  35. feel [fi:ll (felt) v
  Ex. to f e e 1 changes
  feel certain (about smth)
  We feel that™
  Безличный оборот:
  It is felt that...
  Ex. It is felt that this type
  of treatment is suitable since...
  Вес и подъемная сила тесио связа-
  связаны между собой, то же относит-
  относится и к тяге и лобовому сопротивле-
  сопротивлению (аналогичным образом связаны
  между собой тяга и лобовое сопро-
  сопротивление).
  1) чувствовать, испытывать
  чувствовать изменения
  быть уверенным (в чем-л.)
  2) полагать, считать
  (Мы полагаем, что...
  Нам кажется, что...
  Кажется, что...
  Кажется, что такой подход
  является правильным, так как...
  Урок восьмой
  1. semiconductor
  I conductor [kan'dAktal я
  sem\-pref
  -*ї semiconductor
  ['semikan'dAkta] n
  2. unique [ju.'ni:k] a
  Ex. unique properties
  3. rectifier
  I rectify f/rektifai] v
  '-* rectifier ['rektifaia] я
  Ex. cold-cathode rectifier
  4.
  L
  e.
  rectification
  [,rektifi'keijn] я
  Ex. anode rectification
  non-linear
  line [lain] n
  linear ['limy} a
  non-pref
  non-linear ['пэп'Ьшэ] а
  put forwaid
  put v
  forward adv
  put forward
  ['put 'fD:wad] v
  Ex. to put forward an argu-
  argument
  account for [s'kaunt 'fo:} v
  Ex. This phenomenon accounts
  for the decrease in conductivity
  of metals.
  Ex. Friction in liquids must be
  accounted for in this experi-
  experiment,
  проводник
  полу-
  полуполупроводник
  единственный в своем роде, своеоб-
  своеобразный, уникальный
  свойства, единственные в
  своем роде
  1) выпрямлять
  2) детектировать
  выпрямитель тока, детектор
  выпрямительс холодным като-
  катодом
  выпрямление, детектирование
  аиодиое детектирование
  линия, черта
  линейный, прямолинейный -
  не-
  нелннейиый
  ставить, класть
  вперед, дальше
  выдвигать, предлагать
  (Доел, "ставить вперед")
  выдвинуть доказательство
  1) объяснять
  Это -явление объясняет умень-
  уменьшение проводимости металлов.
  2) учитывать
  В этом эксперименте необходимо
  учитывать трение в жидкостях.
  3) компенсировать
  826
  Ex. In this case fusion processes
  yieid enough "nergy to ac-
  account f о г the losses fo the
  surroundings.
  7. surprising
  I surprise [sa'praizj.n
  '-"• surprising [ss'praizuj] a
  Ex. surprising news
  surprisingly [sa praizirjli]
  Безличные обороты:
  It is not surprising that™
  Ex. It is not surprising
  that semiconductors found
  many applications in electrical
  engineering.
  It is hardly surprising that."
  8. by no means
  L means [mi:nz] n
  by no means
  Ex. The rocket is by no means
  a modern development.
  9. emerge [i'ma:d3] t;
  Ex. In designing the engine special
  problems may emerge from...
  emergency [i'm3:d3ansil я
  Ex. in case of emergency
  Ex. a device for use in emer-
  emergencies
  emergency a
  Ex. emergency landing
  10. at some length
  length [IenBl n
  at length
  Ex. to discuss smth at length
  at some length
  11. owing to (smth) f'ouirj'tu:]
  Ex. Owing to its great mass,
  Jupiter has a very marked effect
  upon the motion of...
  Несвободные словосочетания, близ-
  близкие no значению:
  because of (smth) 1
  on account of (smth)J
  by (in) virtue of (smth) -
  in view of (smth)
  due to (smth) \
  thanks to (smth) /
  12. displacement
  place v
  displace [dis'pleis] v
  displacement
  [dis'pleismant] n
  В этом случае процессы синтеза да.
  ют достаточно энергии, чтобы ком.
  пеисировать потери в окружаю,
  щую. среду.
  1) удивление
  2) неожиданность (Ср. "сюрприз:")
  удивительный, неожиданный
  неожиданные новости
  к нашему удивлению
  Неудивительно, что...
  Неудивительно, что полу-
  проводники нашли широкое примеие.
  ние в электротехнике.
  Едва ли вызывает удивление тот
  факт, что...
  средство, способ ,
  никоим образом; отнюдь не
  Ракета отнюдь ие является сов-
  современным изобретением,
  появляться, возникать
  При конструировании этого двига-
  двигателя могут возникнуть особые
  проблемы в связи с...
  1) чрезвычайное положение, особая
  обстановка, необходимость
  в случае крайней необход и.
  мости
  2) авария, выход из строя
  приспособление, применяемое в
  случае аварии
  запасной, вспомогательный, аварий-
  аварийный
  вынужденная посадка
  длина
  подробно (Доел, "длииио")
  подробно обсуждать (что-л.)
  в некоторых подробностях
  благодаря {чему-л.), вследствие
  (чего-л.)
  Вследствие своей огромной
  массы, Юпитер имеет весьма значи-
  значительное влияние иа движение...
  из-за, вследствие (чего-л.)
  в силу, из-за (чего-л.)
  ввиду, из-за (чего-л.)
  благодаря (чему-л.), вследствие
  (чего-л.)
  размещать, помещать
  смещать, перемещать
  смещение, перемещение
  327
  Ex. displacement current
  13. within prp, adv
  Ex. to move within the semicon-
  semiconducting solid
  14. аз distinct from (smth)
  I distinct [dis'tinkt] a
  >-*ї as distinct from (smth)
  Ex. As distinct from the
  electric motor a rocket motor
  converts heat into mechanical
  movement.
  Несвободные словосочетания, близ-
  близкие no значению:
  In contrast to (with) (smth)
  contrary to (smth)
  15. zero ['ziarou] n
  Ex. zero temperature
  16. on the whole
  I whole [houl] я
  -*ї on the whole
  Ex. О n the w h о I e, the weight
  of the device should not exceed
  50 lbs
  17. Interfere with [,inta'fia] у
  Ex. Ionosphere storms interfe-
  interfere with reception.
  interference
  ^inta'fiarans] n
  Ex. interference elimination
  18. loosely
  loose [lu:z] a
  Ex. loose parts
  Ex. loose coils
  loosely ['lu:zli] adv
  Ex. 1 о о s e i у bound
  19. impurity
  pure [pjual a
  Ex. pure water
  purity ['pjuanti] n
  Ex. purity of metals
  impurity [im'pjuantil л
  20. dissolve [di'zDlv] v ,
  Ex. Water dissolves salt.
  Ex. Many substances dissolve
  in alcohol.
  21. transfer [trxns'fs:] v
  Ex. Gas is transferred by
  underground tubes.
  * transport v
  * transmit v
  * conduct v
  * convey v
  transfer л
  Ex. transfer of heat
  328
  ток смещения
  в пределах, внутри
  двигаться внутри
  щего твердого тела
  полупроводя*
  особый, отличный
  в отличие от (чего-л.)
  В отличие от электрического
  двигателя ракетный двигатель пре-
  превращает тепло в механическое дви-
  движение.
  в отличие от (чего-л.), в противопо-
  противоположность (чему-л.)
  в противоположность (чему-л.)
  нуль
  нулевая температура
  1) целое
  2) все
  в целом, в общем
  В целом вес прибора не должен
  превышать 50 фунтов.
  мешать, препятствовать
  Ионосферные бури мешают приему
  (радиосигналов),
  помеха, интерференция
  защита от помех
  свободный, неплотный, слабый
  свободные (неплотно закреп-
  закрепленные) части
  слабые витки
  свободно, неплотно, слабо
  слабо связанный
  чистый, беспримесный
  чистая вода
  чистота
  чистота металлов (отсутствие
  примесей)
  примесь
  растворять (ся)
  Вода растворяет соль.
  Многие вещества растворяют-
  растворяются в спирте,
  переносить, передавать
  Газ подается (переносится) по
  подземным трубам,
  передавать, переводить, перемещать
  (Ср. "транспортировать:")
  передавать
  проводить
  передавать
  перенос, передача
  теплопередача
  22. trace [treis] n
  Ex. a t г а с е of oxygen
  trace [treis] v
  Ex. The ancient dream of human
  flight can be traced in
  many legends,
  traceable ['treisabl] a
  tracer ['treisa] я
  Ex. the use of tracers in diag-
  diagnostics
  23. on the contrary
  j contrary ['kontran] a
  '-*ї on the contrary
  Ex. There are two methods of
  increasing radiated power; one
  is by increasing the size of the
  transmitter itseif; the other is,
  on the contrary, by pro-
  providing a large transmitted
  antenna gain.
  24. remove
  Lmove v
  remove [ri'mu:vl v
  Ex. to remove troops
  removal [n'muivall n
  Ex. removal of heat
  removable [ri'mu:vabl] a
  Ex. removable undercarriage
  25. hole [houl] n
  Ex. hole conduction
  26. defect [di'fekt] я
  Ex. defect conduction
  27. for the time being
  Ex. For the time being this
  phenomenon can be considered
  as...
  Другие несвободные словосочета*
  ния со словом time:
  at times
  In time
  28. amplifier
  (amplity ['amplifai] v
  Ex. to amplify the current
  -*ї amplifier ['aemplifaia] я
  Ex. reception amplifier
  amplification
  [^mplifi'keifn] n
  Ex. amplification factor
  29. as compared with
  I compare [кэт'реэ! v
  [-*ї as compared with (to) (smth)
  1) след (Ср. "трасса")
  2) незначительное количество
  незначительное количе-
  количество (следы) кислорода
  проследить
  Во многих легендах можно про-
  проследить древнюю мечту человека о
  полетах,
  прослеживаемый
  1) регистрирующее устройство
  2) меченый атом, радиоактивный
  (изотопный) индикатор
  использование меченых ато-
  атомов в диагностике (болезней)
  противоположный
  и наоборот, напротив, в противопо-
  противоположность этому, с другой стороны
  (средство связи, выражающее про-
  противопоставление)
  Существует два метода увеличения
  мощности излучения; одни состоит в
  увеличении размера самого передат-
  передатчика, другой, наоборот, состоит в
  создании большого коэффициента
  усиления антенны.
  двигать (ся) "-
  удалять, убирать, отодвигать
  вывести (Доел, "удалить") вой-
  войска
  устранение, удаление
  отвод тепла
  подвижной, съемный
  убирающееся шасси
  отверстие, дырка
  дырочная проводимость
  недостаток, дефект
  дефектная проводимость
  в данное время, пока, на некоторое
  время
  Вдаииое время это явление
  можно рассматривать как...
  иногда (Доел, "по временам")
  вовремя
  усиливать, увеличивать
  увеличить силу тока
  усилитель
  усилитель приема
  усиление
  коэффициент усиления
  сравнивать
  по сравнению с. (чем-л-)
  329
  Ex. This engine is Inefficient a s
  compared with other
  aircraft engines.
  30. tube[tju:b]n
  Ex. a glass tube
  Этот двигатель является неэффек-
  неэффективным по сравнению с другими
  авиационными двигателями.
  1) труба, трубка (Ср. "тюбик")
  стеклянная трубка
  2) электронная лампа
  Дополнительный список словосочетаний по теме урока
  словосочетания ' со
  Несвободные
  словом part:
  Lfor the most part
  part [pa:tl n
  for the most part
  Ex. The study of the properties of
  germanium will, for the
  most part, be restricted to...
  In part
  Ex. The speed of the airplane
  depends, in part, on...
  on the part of (smb)
  Ex. This work demands great skill
  on the part of the person-
  personnel.
  Несвободные словосочетания со
  словом date:
  I up to date
  date [deit] n
  -* up to date
  Ex. up to date equipment
  out of date
  Ex. As the equipment was out
  of d a te, it was necessary."
  to date
  Ex. To date little is known of
  such semiconductors as...
  Несвободные словосочетания со
  словом as:
  as yet
  Ex. As yet the speed of the
  airplane was limited to...
  as If
  as though
  Ex Electrons In crystals have
  wave properties as if they were
  in free space.
  Несвободные словосочетания, вы-
  выполняющие функцию предлогов:
  apart from (smth)
  apart [a'pa:tl eio
  apart from (smth)
  Ex. Apart from Its pioneering
  effort in the field of guidance
  this rocket was,..
  ПОЛ1
  I
  часть
  главным образом, по большей части
  Изучение свойств германия глав-
  главным образом будет ограничено...
  частично, отчасти
  Скорость самолета зависит о т-
  части от...
  со стороны (кого-л.)
  Эта работа требует большой ква-
  квалификации со стороны персонала.
  дата, число
  современный, новейший (Доел, "при-
  "приблизившийся к настоящему време-
  времени")
  современное оборудование
  устаревший
  Так как оборудование уста рело,
  было необходимо...
  на сегодняшний день, до настоящего
  времени, до сих пор
  До настоящего времени
  (на сегодняшний день) мало известно
  о таких полупроводниках, как...
  еще, до сих пор, все еще, пока
  До сих пор скорость самолета
  была ограничена...
  |как если бы
  Электроны в кристаллах проявляют
  волновые свойства, как если бы
  они находились в свободном прост-
  пространстве.
  отдельно, в стороне /
  помимо, кроме (чего-л.)
  Помимо того, что эта ракета бы-
  была первой попыткой создать ракету q
  системой наведения, она...
  ?зо.
  aside from (smth)
  aside [a'saidl adv
  aside from (smth)
  Ex Aside from safety conside-
  consideration we must take into ac-
  account...
  together with (smth)
  together [ts'geoal adv
  together with (smth)
  Ex. The more complex atoms have
  more and more protons and
  neutrons in the nucleus, to-
  together with a corresponding
  increase of planetary electrons.
  Несвободные словосочетания, близ-
  близкие no значению:
  combined with (smth)
  combine [kam'bainl v
  -*ї combined with (smth)
  * in conjunction with (smth)
  * along with (smth)
  with (in) reference to (smth)
  reference ['refransl n
  with (in) reference to (smth)
  Ex. The wing does not move
  with reference to the rest
  of the airplane.
  * with (in) regard to (smth)
  * bs regards (smth)
  * with respect to (smth}
  irrespective of (smth)
  irrespective [,ins'pektiv] a
  Irrespective of (smth)
  Ex. Irrespective of the
  number of neutrons, isotopes of
  an element are atoms whose
  nucleus...
  at the expense of (smth)
  expense [iks'pensi n
  at the 'expense of (smth)
  Ex. Piasma oscillations grow a t
  the expense of the electron
  energy.
  previous to (smth)
  previous f/pri.-vjas] a
  Ex. on the previous page
  * former a
  * prior a
  previous to (smth)
  Ex. Previous to the discovery
  of the atomic energy...
  * prior to
  previously f/prhvjasli] adv
  Ex. a factor previously known
  Ex. Some of these factors have be-
  been considered previously.
  в стороне
  кроме, помимо (чего-л.)
  Помимо соображений безопас-
  безопасности, мы должны принимать во вни-
  внимание...
  вместе
  наряду с (чем-л), вместе с (чеи-л.)
  Более сложные атомы имеют все
  большее и большее количество прото-
  протонов я нейтронов в ядре наряду с
  соответствующим увеличением пла-
  планетарных электронов.
  объединять (ся)
  наряду, вместе с (чем-л.) (Доел.
  "объединенные с" чем-л.)
  наряду, вместе, в связи с(чем-л.)
  наряду, вместе с (чем-л.)
  отношение
  в отношении (относительно) (чего-л.)
  Крыло неподвижно относитель-
  н о остальной части самолета.
  относительно, что касается, в отноше-
  отношении (чего-л.)
  что касается, в отношении (чего-л.)
  что касается, в отношении (чего-л.)
  безотносительный, независимый
  независимо от (чего-л.) (Доел, "без-
  "безотносительно" от чего-л.)
  Независимо от количестна
  нейтронов, изотопы элемента пред-
  представляют собой атомы, ядро кото-
  которых...
  трата, расход, счет
  за счет (чего-л.)
  Колебания плазмы увеличивают-
  увеличиваются а а счет энергии электронов.
  предыдущий, прежний
  иа предыдущей странице
  прежний
  п редшествующий
  до (чего-л.), перед (чем-л.)
  До открытия атомной энергии...
  до, перед (чеи-л.)
  1) заранее, предварительно
  фактор, заранее известный
  2) раньше
  Некоторые из этих факторов рас"
  сматривались раньше.
  331
  Другие несвободные словосочетания:
  now that cj
  Ex. Now that the "canals" on
  Mars seem to be definitely
  natural features, interest focuses
  on...
  I except for
  except [ik'sept] prp
  -*ї except for (smth)
  Ex. Except ior Mercury and
  Venus, each of the planets has
  at least one satellite.
  on the average
  average ['8evnd3] n, a
  on the average
  Ex. This phenomenon happens, о n
  the average, about once in
  6X107 years.
  one another
  each other
  Ex. In the ideal gas molecules
  exert no forces upon one
  another.
  теперь, когда
  Теперь, когда определено, что
  "каналы" на Марсе являются, по-ви-
  по-видимому, естественными особенностя.
  ми ландшафта, интерес сосредоточи-
  сосредоточивается на...
  кроме, исключая
  за исключением (чего-л.)
  За исключением Меркурия и
  Венеры, каждая планета имеет по
  крайней мере один спутник.
  среднее число; среднее
  в среднем
  Это явление происходит в сред-
  среднем примерно раз в 6Х10' лет.
  | друг друга
  В идеальном газе молекулы не воз.
  действуют друг на друга.
  Урок девятый
  1.
  prospect ['pro