## (c )

"": [] [] [] [] [] [] []
 Peaa: #litnetbtn{display: block;min-width: 270px;text-align: center;background: #6b083e; color: #fff; font-family: Arial; padding: 4px 10px; font-weight: bold; border-radius: 4px;text-decoration: none;}#litnetbtn:hover{background: #f4b00d;color: #333;} Litnet. ! #author_today_btn{display: block;min-width: 250px;text-align: center;background: #4582af; color: #fff; font-family: Verdana, Sans-serif; padding: 4px 8px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; border-radius: 4px;text-decoration: none;}#author_today_btn:hover{background: #5cb85c;} Author.Today
 --20 Peaa
 : 4, 29/08/2016. © Copyright .. (alik-vagapov@rambler.ru) : 30/01/2008, : 17/02/2009. 1398k. . : : 2.11*7   : :... (c ) . (on line version): http://nota.triwe.net/lib/hornby.htm

 ..

/. . . . . -- .: "", 1992. -- 336 . ISBN5-85603-008-7

, , . .
, . , , , , "" , . . , , "", . , , . . , , .
, : , , .
81.2 .
.
. . , 1992 "", 1992

. . ... . . . . ... .3
. ... . . . . . .5
I. ......8
. . ... . . . . . . 8
1 . . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . .
. . . . . . . . . . .10
2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . - . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . .
. ... . . .16
3. Am, is, are, was, were .... . .. . . . . 16
4. Have, has, had . . . . . . . . . . . .20
5. Do, does, did . . . . . . . . .. . . 20
6. Shall--should, will--would, can--could, may--might, must 20
7. Ought . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8. Need ... . . . . . . . . . .21
9. Dare . . . ... . . . . . . . . .23
10. Used to . . ... . . . . ... . .24
11. ......... 24 ( )
12. 1 (1) ....... 26
13. 2 (2) . ...... 27
14. 3 () . . . . . . . 31
15. 4 (4) . . . , . . . 34
16. 5 ( 5; 5) . . . . 38
17. 6 ( 6; 6) . . . . 44
18. 7 ( 7; 7) . . . . 48
19. 8 (8) . . . . . . .51
20. 9 (9) . . . . . . 53
21. 10 ( 10; 10) . . . 55
22. 11 ( 11; 11; 11) . 61
23. 12 ( 12) . . . . . . 65
24. 13 ( 13)... . . . 66
25. 14 ( 14) ...... 67
26. 15 ( 15) . . . . . 68
27. 16 ( 16) . . . . . . 70
28. 17 ( 17; 17; 17). 71
29. 18 ( 18; 18; 18) . 76
30. 19 ( 19; 19; 19) . 84
31. 20 ( 20) . . . . . .87
32. 21 ( 21) . . . . . . 89
33. 22 ( 22; 22; 22; 22) ............. 93
34. 23 ( 23; 23) . . . 104
35. 24 ( 24; 24) . 106
36. 25 ( 25; 25; 25; 25; 25; 25) . ... .... 114
II.
37. . . . . 121
38. .... . . . . . 122
39. ........ 122
40. write . . . . . . . . . 124
41. .... 125
42. . . . . . . ... . 125
43. . . . . . . . . . . 127
44. . . .... . . . . . . 129
45. , .. . . . . 133
46. , ..... 139
47. .............. 145
48. , . . . . . 149
49--52. , . . . . 151
53--57. . . . . . . . . . 155
58--60. . .. . . . . . . 158
61--71. . . . ...... 162
III. ,
72--75. ........ 169
76. . . . . 170
77. 1 ( 1) .171
78. 2 ( 2) . . . . 175
79. 3 3) . . . 178
80. 4 ( 4) . . . .. 181
81. . . .. . . 183
82. 1 ( 1; 1) . . 183
83. 2 ( 2) .... 193
84. 3 ( 3) . . . . 195
85. . . .. . 198
86. ........... 199
87. : . . . . . . 205
88. . . .. . 206
89. ............ 207
90. . . . . 207
91. ....... 209
92. . . . . 210
93. . . . 215
94. . . ... 317
95. . . . . . . 228
96. , ....... 229
IV.
97. . . ..... . . 231
98. . . .231
99--100. ... 232
99. . . 232
100. . . . . . 236
101. , ........ 242
102. ... . . . . . 245
103. ..... 247
104. ....... 247
105. . . . ....... 249
106. . . 252
107--108. , 254
V.
109. , , , , 263
110. ; .... . . . . . 270
111. , , ...... 272
112. ............. 277
113. .......... 279
114. . ....... 282
115. . . . ..... . . . . 287
116. ............. 289
117. . . . . . . .. . . . ... 293
118. ; ......296
119. . . . . . . ... 300
120. . . ... . . ... . 307
121. ............. 311
122. , ; . . . . . . 315
123. ... . . . . 318
124. . . . . . . ... . . 322
.... . . . . ... . . 326
. . . . . . . . 328

. , , . . . , . , . , , , , "" , . . , , "", . , , . . , , .
, : , , .
. , , - . , , , "" " " "", "" "". "", " "; " ", , , .
, , , . , . , , .
, - , . , (adverbial particles) , , -
3
, . , "" , . " ", , . . anomalous finites. , , , . , , , . . do, does did, , . anomalous finites , - " ".
. , , . , , ( if I knew...) " , ", . . ( at that moment I knew...).
He , , -- . , , , , . , ( ) , . . , *. , , .
. , " " ( 1954 .), . , , .

__________________________
* . .

, , , , . .
. , , . , , . . . .
, , . , , , , . . . , , , suggest, , , I intend (want, propose) to come, I suggest to come; , Please tell me the meaning Please show me the way, Please explain me this sentence , , began talking about the weather , began to talk about the weather, , stopped talking abvut the weather , stopped to talk about the weather.
, , . , , kind thoughtful, It was kind (thoughtful) of yqu to get tea ready for me How kind (thoughtful) of ynu to get tea ready for me! anxious, , : anxious about his son's health, anxious for news, anxious to start.
( ) , , , , . , , , , , . , -. succeed, , -, They succeeded in their
5
attempt They succeeded in climbing Mount Everest ( 24); intention has no intention of going ( 2), It is not his Intention to go ( 22), , , . intend, does not intend to go ( 2), , . ; , .
, -, "" . , , , , "", . V . be, have, can--could, will--would, shall--should, may--might must, ought, . , , , , necessity, necessary, compulsion, compulsory, obligation, obligatory (. 114). , , , . have to ( have got to), must, ought, should, ", " , . , , , , . , , , , , , , .
(Time) (Tenses). , (Time). , , , ; () , ? - ?
, ^ , . . , , . (%). , , . , , There, is a map on the wall , (%) A map is on the wall. , , , (%) Four windows are in this room.
-- , , , .
: " " (O. Jespersen "Modern English Grammar") ("Essentials of English Grammar", "Analytic Syntax"), " " (. Poutsma "A Grammar of Late Modern English", p. I. The Sentence) ( Cruisinga "A Handbook of Present day English") (R W. Zandvoort "A Handbook of English Grammar").
. (. Sweet "New English Grammar (Part II), . (. . Onions "An Advanced English Syntax ), . (. . Palmer "A Grammar of Spoken English") . (G 0 Curme "Syntax", volume III of "Grammar of the English Language ). , English Language Teaching" ( ) "English Studies" ( , ). (W' S. Allen "Living English Structure"), , .
, - . . , , , , ( "An Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English"), ( ) , . . "Grammar of English Words". , , .
.

I
VERBS AND VERB PATTERNS

1a. .
(Present Infinitive, Perfect Infinitive), (Present Participle, Past Participle) . . , b :
(to) be, (to) have been, being, been, -- am, is. are, was, were.
to, . :
I want to go. .
I ought to have gone. .
I can go. .
I could have gone. .
* :
The boys are swimming **. (Present Participle) .
The boys enjoy swimming. (Gerund) . .
1. B (Auxiliary Verbs) , , .
____________________
* , , (having swum), , (writing, being written, having written, having been written).
** are swimming . , , ( , ).
8
be (Continuous)*, : They are reading. . The boys were playing football. . be (Passive Voice), : The soldier was wounded. . The boxes were opened. .
have (Perfect) *, : has left. . They have gone. . They had finished their work. .
Will shall , , : Tomorrow will he Monday. . I shall be thirty next month. .
1. (Defective Verbs) , . , , must , . will, shall, can, may ought .
1. He (Irregular Verbs) , . . : go, went, gone; show, showed, shown; begin, began, begun; take, took, taken.
1 . (Anomalous Finites) 24 , .
 e (Non finites) (Finites) Indefinite Present Participle Past Participle Present Tense Past Tense 1 be being been am, is, are was, were 2 have having had have, .has had 3 do doing done do, does did 4 -- -- -- shall should 5 -- -- -- will would 6 -- -- -- can could 7 -- -- -- may might 8 -- -- -- must -- 9 -- -- ought -- 10 -- -- need -- 11 -- -- -- dare -- 12 -- -- -- -- used
_______________
* 12 "" .
anomalous "". , , , go show. 24 , . not, - isn't, wasn't, haven't, don't, didn't, shouldn't, couldn't, oughtn't. (Anomalous Finites) , not. , I haven't finished my work , I haven't time to do it now have, I have breakfast at seven o'clock -- . have , don't have (. 4 ).
24 . be : She is a teacher , They aren't busy . They were red . have : Have you. any money? () ? She has two brothers. . They had a good holiday. . I haven't time. .
Anomalous Finite, 24 , , -, ( be have ), -, ( ) -, ( be, do have ).
24 " " (Spacial Finites) " not" ("the 24 friends of not")

2. .
-, , . . , , / .
-, , (. . ) . (Modal Verbs) - (Modal Auxiliary).
(modal) modus ( mood ). , (can, could), (may, might), , (may, might, can, could), (must, ought to, have to). cm. 109--124.

2. not. 24 not. do.
They ought not to go tomorrow.
.
We dare not leave him alone.
. .
wants it. (He does want it.) He does not want it.
. ( .) .
wanted it. (He did want it.) He did not want it.
. ( .) .
They went there. (They did go there.) They did not go there.
. ( .) .
: isn't, aren't, didn't, wouldn't, usen't, usedn't.
: - not , 24-. 1611 .

2. ( 24- ) , , : Who came?, % Did who come?
can swim. .
Can he swim? ?
11
do.
They went away. (They did go away.) Did they go away?
( .) ?
likes it. (He does like it.) Does he like it?
. ( .) ?
. 24- . Went you there? ( Did you go there?) .

-
2
. not , .
Does he want it? (Does he not want it?) Doesn't he want it?
? ?
Did they go? (Did they not go?) Didn't they go?
? ?

2. 24- , (in no other way, hardly, scarcely, little),
Little did they know that... , ...
In no other way can the matter be explained. .
Hardly had we started when it began to rain. ( , ), .

2
. .
Did you find it? Yes, I did (. . I found it).
? .
Can you do it alone? Yes, I think I can (. . I can do it alone).
? , , .
Who broke the window? Tom did (. . m broke the window).
? .
12
Who wants to come with me? All of us do (. . All of us want to go with you).
? .
didn't often grumble and when he did (. . he grumbled) no one paid any attention to him.
, , .
2. .
Tomorrow's Sunday, isn't it? , ?
left yesterday, didn't he? , ?
You want five, don't you? , ?
They won't be here for long, will they? , ?
You can't speak Danish, can you? -, ?

2. , , .
, - so, (nor, neither) + + ( ).
I can do it and so can 'you (=you also can do it).
.
I can't do it and neither can 'you (=you can't do it either), (. . Neither you nor I can do it).
(. . ).
Torn went to school and so did his 'sister (=and his sister went to school, too).
, .
Harry didn't go to school; nor did his 'sister (= and his sister didn't go to school, either) (. . Neither Harry nor his sister went to school).
, (. . , ).
A: I must leave now.
.
: So must 'I (=and I must leave now, too).
.
13
so + + ( so + there + ), . .
A: I hear you went to Leeds last week.
, .
: So I 'did. (Yes, that's right. I went to Leeds last week.)
, . ( , .)
A: There are two tigers in the garden!
!
: So there 'are! (=Yes, you're right! There are two tigers in the garden!)
. (!)
No + + But + + , ( ). .
A: I hear you failed in your examination.
, .
: No, I 'didn't!
( ), !
A: Why did you hit that child?
?
: But I 'didn't!
!
A: Why didn't you help the old man?
?
: But I did!
!

2. , . , not . : I did 'not take your pen! ( I didn't take your pen.).
, ( 24- ).
If I 'do find the book, I'll send it to you.
- , .
14
doesn't often visit me, but when he 'does visit me, he stays for hours.
, , .
You are working hard!
!
A: Who broke this window?
?
: I didn't!
!
A: Who 'did break it?
- ? ( Who broke it? .)
, , .
( , - ).

2. , , , () .
We often go there. .
always goes by bus. .
, , .
I've often been there. .
She has already seen it. .
(. 2, ), .
:
We've never refused to help ( have). .
We never 'have refused to help ( have). .
( ) . 100 --, 101.
15

(NOTES ON THE ANOMALOUS F1NITES)
Am, is, are, was, were.
3. Am, is, are, was, were , . . do. - .. , be , , .
Why don't you be more reasonable?
?
Why don't you be a man and face your troubles bravely?
?
Why don't you be (. . train in order to become) an engineer?
?
Don't be quiet! Do be patient! Don't be so curious!
! ! !
4. Have, has, had , .
has left. .
He hasn't left.
Has he left? ?
have , . have, .
4. have - , , ( , ) , get .
How many books have you (have you got)?
?
hasn't got (hasn't) a pencil.
( ) .
Has your brotner (got) a bicycle?
?
16 .
How many pencils do you have?
? .
Tom doesn't have a pencil.
( ) .
Does your brother have a bicycle?
?
4. have . have be. :
 This room has five windows. There are fiv windows in this room. } .

 This Jacket has three pockets. There are three pockets in this jacket. } .

 Mary has blue eyes. Mary's eyes are blue. } .

 What long hair you have!How long your hair is! } !

 How many children have they (got) ?How many children are there in the family? } ( ) ?

have, get.
How many pockets has your jacket got?
?
Hasn't she got long hair!
!
I've got only one sister.
.
Have you got many friends in the district?
?
( do.
How many pockets does your jacket have?
?
Do you have many friends here?
?
4. , , , . have ( ).
1. Do you have (= drink) coffee or tea for breakfast?
?
17
: How we (got) (= is there) any coffee in the house? ?
2. At what time do you have (=take) breakfast? ?
3. Did you have (=experience) any difficulty in finding my house? ?
4. Does your teacher always have (=use) a textbook for English lessons? ?
:
Have you (got) your textbook with you today?
(, ) ?
?
:
Have you (got) your brother's last letter with you now? ?
6. How often does your cat have (=give birth to) kittens?
? :
Has your cat (got) any kittens now? ?
7. How often do you have (=take, receive) English lessons?
?
: Have you an English lesson this morning? (. . )?
4. ( ) have, , have, , . have , -- , get ( Present Perfect).
1. Do you have much time for tennis?
(, )?
:
Have you (got) for a game of tennis this afternoon?
() ( )?
18
2. Don't you have enough to eat?
(, ) ?
:
Have you got enough to eat?
() ?
3. Do they have much snow in Quebec in winter?
(, )?
:
Have they (=is there) much snow in Quebec now? ?
4. Do you often have (= suffer from) colds?
( )? :
You haven't got a cold now, I hope. , .
4. have . . . 13 , N 3. , , .
1. At what time do you have to be in the office every morning? (, ) ?
:
I have to be (I've got to be) in the office half an hour earlier than usual tomorrow.
, ( ).
2. We don't have to work on Saturday afternoons.
.
:
The firm is very busy this week, so we've got to work tomorrow afternoon, although it's Saturday.
, , ..
4. have * (. 20 , N 18), .
1. I have my hair cut once a month. , .
2. How often do you have your haircut? . ?
________________
* . . , , , , , - .
19
3. You don't have your hair cut once a week, do you?
, ?
4. When did you last have your haircut?
?
4. , rest, drink, dine, smoke, walk, have a rest ( drink, a smoke, a walk), have dinner . . have .
Did you have a pleasant walk? ?
Did you have a sleep? ?
Don't you sometimes have a rest? ?
have, "" "" . have, "", , , . , have, do, does, did.
Do, does, did
5. do ( , ), . do , .
Tom did most of the work. . :
Harry didn't do much of the work. .
Did Dick do any of the work? - ?
Martha does all the housework. .
Mary doesn't do any of the housework. .
Does Helen ever do any of the housework? - ?

Shall-Should; Will-Would; Can-Could; May-Might; Must
6. . (. ).
20
Ought
7. Ought . . . , , . ought did ((%) You didn't ought to do that. ).
Need
8. need, 3- . . -s (needs), do, does, did, need, -s 3- (need he, he needn't).
need ", ()" , ( 1)*, ( 17) ,
1. needs a new coat.
.
doesn't need new shoes.
.
Does he need a new shirt?
?
2. The work needed lime and patience. .
3. That blind man needs somebody to help him across the street.
( - ) .
4. My shoes need mending (need to be mended).
.
to ( 2) need, .
Do you need to work so late?
?
doesn't need to work so late, does he?
, ?
need , . to, need (3- . need, needs).
___________________
* ( 1 ).
21
Need he work so late?
?
needn't work so late, need he?
, ?
need, to, , must have to. Need will shall.
You must ( need to) start early in order to arrive before dark. , .
You'll have to ( you'll need to) hurry if you want to catch the 2.15 train. , , .
need . .
need to.
We didn't need to hurry. (=It wasn't necessary for us to hurry.)
.
need , to, .
We needn't have hurried. ( ) .
:
We didn't need to hurry. ( ).
We needn't have hurried. ( ) (. . , , ).
They didn't need to go. ( , ).
They needn't have gone. ( ).
needn't ( ) must have to, - ., (Mustn't .)
22
:
He needn't start yet. .
must start now. .
Need you go yet? ?
Yes, I must. , ( ).

Dare
9. dare , . ( to). 3- . . -s (dare, dares). Daren't , .
Harry met Mr. Green yesterday, but he daren't tell him that we had smashed the motorcar we borrowed from him.
, ,- , .
Will you tell Mr.. Green that we've smashed his motorcar? I daren't tell him.
He , ? .
dare to .
Harry met Mr. Green yesterday but he didn't dare (to) tell him that we had smashed the motor-car we borrowed from him.
, , , .
Will you tell Mr. Green that we've smashed his motorcar? I don't dare (to) tell him.
He , ? . . dare , how.
How dare you speak to me like that? ?
How dare he say such rude things about me? ?
dare to.
Do they dare (=are they impudent enough) to suggest that we have been dishonest?
( ) , ?
23
dare (. challenge), , to.
dared me to jump across the stream.
.
I dare anyone to prove that my facts are incorrect.
, , (. . ).
dare , .
was ready to dare any danger.
.
Used to
10. . 516. [ju:st], use, used, [ju:zd].
Used 24- . -- usedn't ['ju:sn't], -- used we (he, she . .).
used did.
You used to live-in Leeds, use(d)n't ( didn't) you?
, ?
A: Brown used to live in Leeds.
.
: Oh, did he? (Oh, used he?)
()?
-- Did he use to? didn't use to Used he to? usedn't to.
10. used to + be (get) used. [ju:st] to + , . ().
He's not used to hard manual work.
.

(VERB PATTERNS)
11. , , , "The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" (Oxford University Press). .
24
(. . , ). 20--25 (. . ).
 N ( ) 1 1 + 2 2 + (not +) to (+ ...) 3 3 + () + (not +) to (+...) 4 4 + () (not +) (to be +) 5 5 + () + to (+...) 6 6 + () + (+...) 7 7 + () + 8 8 + () + 9 9 + () + (past participle) 10 10 + () + 11 11 + that 12 12 + () + that 13 13 + * + to ( +...) 14 14 + () + + to ( +...) 15 15 + + 16 16 + () + + 17 17 + ( + ...) 18 18 + + + 19 19 + + 20 20 + (for +) , . . 21 21 ( ) 22 22 + 23 23 + 24 24 + + 25 25 + to ( +...)
___________
* . 24.
25
1
12. , ( ), , what. . 17. . 11, 12, 15, 16.
N 1 ( 1)
 + 1 I know your name. 1. , . 2 Do you want any help? 2. ? 3 You did not answer my question. 3. . 4 Who knows the answer? 4. ? 5 He cut his finger. 5. . --> 6[Author:S] [S1] He cut himself. 6. . 7 Shall I light the lamp? 7. ? 8 Have you had breakfast? 8. ? 9 Don't you remember my name? 9. , ? --> 10[Author:S] [S2] He dug --> a deep hole[Author:S] [S3]. 10. . 11 She said "Good morning!" 11. : " ". --> 12[Author:S] [S4] She laughed a merry laugh. 12. . 13 She smiled her thanks. 13. . 14 This climate does not suit me. 14. . --> 15[Author:S] [S5] Please describe carefully what you saw. 15. , , . --> 16[Author:S] [S6] Please describe what there is in front of you. 16. , , .
26

(6) .
(10) (a deep hole) *.
(12) , merry laugh -. (Cognate objact)
(15) (16) what (, ): what you saw; what there is in front of you. 15: I wonder what you saw. , , what you saw . (What did you see, I wonder?)
, , for + () + to , it.
:
Will that suit you? ?
When will it suit you for me to call? , ?
An idea struck me. .
It never struck me that you might need help.
, .
The news does not interest me. .
It does not interest me whether you succeed or fail. , .
, .
2
13. to ( not). to (be, come, agree, seem, happen, care .) . 22 25.
________________
* a deep hole , , , ; . I have written a letter= ( ) I have read a letter = .
27
N 2 ( 2)
 + (not + ) to (+...) 1 Please try to do better next time. 1. , . 2 Do they want to go? 2. ? 3 He has refused to help us. 3. . --> 4[Author:S] [S7] It has begun to rain. 4. . --> 5[Author:S] [S8] It came on to rain. 5. . 6 Do you intend to go to the meeting? 6. ? 7 He pretended not to see me. 7. , . 8 Have you learnt to swim yet? 8. ? 9 Would you like to come with me? 9. ? 10 Did you remember to post the letters? 10. ? 11 I forgot to post the letters. 11. .

(4) (5). it ( It is raining). (5) come on (). . 28, (3).
13. , (10), remember . remember , , 1 17. :
Please remember (=don't forget) to post the letters. ( 2) , .
I remembered (= didn't forget) to post the letters. ( 2) .
I can't remember his name. ( 1) .
28
I remember posting your letters. ( 17) , .
She said she remembered posting the letters. ( 17) , , .
13. , (11), foget . , 17.
:
I forgot to post your letters. ( 2) ( , ) .
Shall you ever forget hearing her sing? ( 17) , ?
13. , 2, 1. , , prefer pretend .
:
 I prefer an early start. ( 1) I prefer to start early. ( 2) } .

 pretended indifference. ( 1) pretended to be indifferent. ( 2) } .
13. , , . , decide hope 24. 11.
He decided not to go to the meeting. (2) .
decided (that) he wouldn't go to the meeting. ( 11) , .
decided against going to the meeting. ( 24) .
We're hoping to have better weather soon. ( 2) . , .
We're hoping (that) the weather will be better soon. ( 11) , .
We're hoping for better weather soon. ( 24). .
13. think 11. 2 , :
29
I never thought (= expected) to see you here. (= ) .
thinks to (=has the idea that he can or will) deceive us. (; , ) .
:
I never thought to consult the time-table. ( 25) .
I never thought of consulting the time-table. ( 24) , .
2 : attempt, begin, cease, come on ( ), commence, continue, dare, decide, desire, endeavour, expect, fear, forget, guarantee, have, hope, intend, learn, like, love, mean ( ), need, offer, ought, prefer, pretend, promise, propose, purpose, refuse, regret, remember, start, swear, try, undertake, want, wish.
N 3 ( 2)
13. 2 have . (. 114, .) have to have got to, had to had got to.
have we to do we have to . . . 4 .
 + to (+...) 1 I shall have to go. 2 Have we (got) to change trains here? 3 Does he often have to go to the doctor? 4 They haven't (got) to go to school on Sundays, have they? 5 You don't have to go to school on Sundays, do you? 6 Have we to answer all these questions?
1. .
2. ?
3. ?
4. , ?
5. , ?
6. ?
30

13. 2 to . ( ) to. -- do, does, did ( ), will -- would, shall--should, can -- could, may -- might, must, dare, need -- (. ) .
You had better start at once. .
I'd rather not go. , .
3
14
. () to, , Accusative + Infinitive.
N 4 ( 3)
 + (not +) to 1 I do not want anyone to know. 2 Do you wish me to stay? 3 Will you help me to carry this box upstairs? 4 We can't allow them to do that. 5 He likes his wife to dress well 6 Didn't I ask you not to do that? 7 Who taught her to swim? 8 She can't bear you to be unhappy. 9 Did he mean us to know? 10 We should prefer them to come next week. 11 The rain caused the weeds to grow fast. 12 They warned me not to be late. 13 The officer ordered his men to advance. 14 Did you advise your brother to accept the offer? 15 They led me to believe that there was no danger.
31
1. , - ( ).
2. , ?
3. ?
4. .
5. , .
6. ?
7. ?
8. , .
9. , ( )?
10. , .
11. ( ).
12. , .
13. .
14. ?
15. ( ), .

- .
(4) They can't be allowed to do that.
.
(9) Were we meant to know?
, ( )?
(12) I was warned not to be late.
, .
(13) The men were ordered to advance.
.
help 5 (. N 9), . . to.
Will you help me (to) carry this box upstairs, please?
He ?
: advise, allow, ask, (can't) bear, beg, cause, challenge, choose, command, compel, dare (= challenge), decide, determine, encourage, entreat, expect, force, get, give (someone to understand...), hate, help, implore, instruct, intend, invite, lead ( ), leave, like, love, mean ( ), oblige, order, permit, persuade, prefer, prepare, press ( ), promise, remind, request, teach, tell, tempt, trouble, urge, want, warn, wish.
32
5 ( 3)
14. Accusative + Infinitive there + to be + ( ). (. 32, N 45. 21
:
I do not want any of you to misunderstand me.
, - .
I do not want there to be any misunderstanding.
, - ( ).
, 3.
 + there to be + ( ) 1 You wouldn't want there to be another war. 2 I don't want there to be any trouble. 3 Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the question? 4 He meant there to be no disobedience. 5 We should hate there to be any trouble. 6 I should prefer there to be no public discussion of my affairs. 7 I expect there to be no argument about this.

1. , .
2. .
3. , ?
4. , ( ) .
5. , - ( ).
6. , () .
7. , .
, be, (. . Accusative + Infinitive) , . : You don't want another war to break out You don't want there to be another war. He : % You don't want another war to be.
33
4
15 . ( , , , ), ( ) . , , . - (. 11).
, what ( N 6, 4), , it ( N 7). 4 - be. ( ).
to be . (), to be. , to have been, .
N 6 ( 4)
 + to be + 1 Most people supposed him (to be) innocent. 2 They proved him (to be) wrong. 3 Do you think him (to be) a good worker? 4 I consider what he said (to be) unimportant(of little importance). 5 I have always found Smith (to be) friendly(a good friend, of a friendly disposition). 6 Do you believe such inquiries (to be) useful? 7 All the neighbours upposed her to be a widow. 8 They have proved themselves (to be) worthy of promotion. 9 Everyone reported him (to be) the best man for the job. 10 I should guess her to be about fifty.
34
 + to be+ 11 declared himself to be a member of the Roman Catholic Church. 12 We all felt (saw) the plan to be unwise. 13 We believe it to have been a mistake. 14 Do you deny this to have been the case? 15 They knew the man to have been a spy. 16 I judged him to be about fifty.
1. () .
2. , .
3. ?
4. (, ) .
5. ( ).
6. , ?
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. , .
11. , - .
12. (), .
13. , .
14. , ?
15. , .
16. -, ().

, :
(1) Most people supposed (that) he was innocent. () , .
(2) They proved (that) he was wrong. , .
35
(3) Do you think he's a good worker?
. ; () ?
(7) All the neighbours supposed (that) she was a widow.
, .
(8) They've proved that they're worthy of promotion.
, .
, N 6:
(1) What he said is considered to be of little importance.
To, , () .
(6) Are such inquiries believed to be useful?
() ?
(9) was reported to be the best man for the job.
.
(12) The plan was felt (seen) to be unwise.
(), .
(15) The man was known to have been a spy.
, .
:
This custom, which I think barbarous,... , , ...
The prisoner, whom I considered to be innocent,... , , ..
The visitor, whom I guessed to be about sixty,... , , -, ,...
She is not so young as I supposed (her to be). , .
You're not so clever as I believed you to be. , .
N 7 ( 4)
15. , () N 6, : that, , for + () + to, . it, ; - to be .
36
 + It , , 1 Do you think it odd that I should live by myself? 2 I think it a pity (that) you didn't try harder. 3 We all thought it wrong that they should be wasted. 4 We all consider it wrong to cheat in examinations. 5 Don't you think it unwise to climb the mountain without a guide? 6 Don't you think it prudent to wait until you can get a guide? 7 I think it a pity to waste them. 8 They considered it a great compliment for the President to visit them. 9 Everyone thought it most foolish for you to climb the mountain alone. 10 We think it most dangerous your climbing the mountain alone. 11 I count it an honour to serve you.
1. He , ?
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. , ?
6. , , ?
7. , .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .

N 6 N 7.
Do you think my behaviour odd?
?
Do you think it odd that I should live by myself?
, ?
37
N7 ( ).
(1) Do you think it odd for me to live by myself?
(3) We all thought it wrong for them to be wasted.
(4) We all consider that it is wrong to cheat in examinations.( 11)
(7) I think it is (would be) a pity to waste them. ( 11)
(8) They considered it a great compliment that the President should visit them.
(9) Everyone thought it most foolish that you should try to climb the mountain alone.
(11) count 11.
it think ( see) fit to do something.
We must wait until they think fit to help us (. . until they decide to help us).
. , , () .
:
We must wait until they think it right to help us.
. , .
4- :
acknowledge, believe, consider, count, declare, deny, esteem, fancy, feel, find, guess, imagine, judge, know, prove, realize, report, see, show, suppose, suspect, take ( ), think, .understand.
5
16. ( ), to. , to. (. .)
N 8 ( 5 )
. 6
I saw the man cross the road. ( 5) , .
I saw the man crossing the road. ( 6) , .
38
5 , 6 . Indefinite Continuous.
I saw the man cross the road. (=The man crossed the road and I saw him do this.)
, , .
I saw the man crossing the road. (=The man was crossing the road and I saw him while he was doing this.)
, , .
:
I saw Mr. White get off a bus. ( 5)
, . (, .)
I saw Mr. White looking into a shop window.
, . ( , , , .)
 + (+...) 1 Watch that boy jump! 2 Did you see him go out? 3 Did anyone hear John leave the house? 4 We felt the house shake. 5 I like to hear her sing. 6 Did you notice anyone come in?
1. , !
2. , ?
3. - , ?
4. , .
5. , .
6. , - ?

( ) , see, feel 11.
:
I saw him hit the cat. ( 5, .)
, .
I saw (felt) that he disliked the cat. ( 11, .)
(), .
39
I saw him leave the. room. ( 5)
, .
I saw that he disapproved of what we were doing. ( 11)
(), , .
look at listen to 5.
Look at that boy jump!
, .
Do you like listening to other people talk?
, ?
5 - , :
Was he seen to go out?
- , . ?
Was John heard to leave the room?
- , ?
5 : feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, watch.
N 9 ( 5 )
16. N 9 5 , .
 + (+...) . 1234 They made What makes Let We can't let me you me the matter do it. think so? go. rest here. 567 I will let Shall I help He bade you you the attendants have news.carry that box?leave the hall. 8 I have never known him behave so badly before. 9 10 Have you ever known I have known her educated persons lose her temper? make this mistake.
1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
40
5. .
6. ?
7. .
8. , .
9. -, ( ) ?
10. , .

to.
(1) I was made to do it.
.
(9) She has never been known to lose her temper.
() , ( ).
let Passive . allow.
(4) The matter cannot be allowed to rest here.
.
help 3, ( ) 5.
?
16. know , ( Past Past Perfect), , , .
I have never known (=seen) that man smile.
, .
That man has never been known (=seen) to smile.
, .
Have you ever known (= heard) me tell a lie?
- , ( )?
That man has never been known (= heard) to tell a lie.
, ().
16. , , let there + be + ( be ).
41
Let there be light! ( f Let light be.) !
Let there be an end of this misunderstanding. .
N 5 N 45.
have:
Let's have no misunderstanding. .
let go, fall slip, , , , ( let ), , , , , go, fall, slip.
Let it (him, her, them) go. (, ).
Let go the rope. .
The ship let go her anchor. .
Don't let it (him, her, them) fall. (, ) .
let fall a hint about his intentions. ( ) .
Don't let it (him, her, them) slip.
He (, ) ().
Don't let slip any opportunity of practising your English.
He .
, "" .
( 10):
Throw them away. .
Throw away all those that are useless or worn out.
, .
5 : bid, help, know, let, make.
42
N 10 ( 5 )
, have .
 + (+ ...) 1 I will (would) have you know that... 2 What would you have me do? 3 Would you have me believe that? 4 You wouldn't have me do that, would you? 5 He would have had her believe that he was penniless. 6 She likes to have the house. look clean and tidy. 7 We like to have our friends come to stay with us. 8 I had a most extra ordinary thing happen to me. 9 Please have the porter carry these boxes up to my room.
1. ( ), , ....
2. , ?
3. . , .. . ?
4. . , , ?
5. , , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. .
9. , ( ) .

have will would , . will have (would have) want, wish, like, expect.
(1) I want you to know that...
(2) What do you want (wish) me to do?
(3) Do you wish (expect) me to ...?
(4) You wouldn't like (don't want) me to...
(5) He wanted (would have liked) her to believe...
:
(6) She likes the house to look clean and tidy. She likes to have the house in a clean and tidy state.
43
(7) We like our friends to come to stay with us. We like to have visits from our friends.
(8) A most extraordinary thing happened to me. I had a most extraordinary experience.
9 .(. 20, N 18), :
Please have (get) these boxes carried up to my room. , , , .
6
17. ( ) (Present Participle). 16 .
N 11 ( 6)
 . + (Present Participle) 1 I saw the thief running away. 2 We watched the train steaming past. 3 I heard him giving orders. 4 Can you smell something burning? 5 She could feel her heart beating wildly. 6 Did you notice anyone standing near the door? 7 We listened to the band playing in the park. 8 Just look at the rain coming down!
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , - ?
5. , .
6. - ?
7. , .
8. , !
44

, :
(1) The thief was seen running away.
, .
(3) was heard giving orders.
, .
6 : feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, smell, watch.
N 12 ( 6)
17. 6 ( ).
 + (Present Participle) 1 I found him working at his desk. 2 We mustn't keep them waiting. 3 They left me waiting outside. 4 The news left me wondering what would happen next. 5 This set me thinking. 6 Don't let me catch you doing that again. 7 I caught him stealing apples from my garden. 8 Please start the clock going. 9 You had better start the engine running. 10 We'll soon get things going. 11 Keep the ball rolling.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , , .
5. .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. () .
10. ( ).
11. . *
__________________
* ; , , , : Keep the ball rolling, the kitter. will run after it. , .
45

, :
(1) was found working at his desk.
.
(2) They mustn't be kept waiting.
(, ) .
(3) I was left waiting outside.
.
6 : catch, find, get, imagine, keep, leave, set start.
?
17. . , , () , . , , ( ), .
:
I cannot understand his behaviour. ( 1)
.
I. cannot understand why he behaves like that. ( 15)
, .
I cannot understand his behaving like that. ( 17 )
, .
:
I cannot understand him behaving like that. ( 6 )
, .
, , - ( ), , , . -'s. :
, ?
Do you remember John and Mary asking you about your uncle?( John and Mary's.) ( 6 )
, ?
46
How can we stop (prevent) them landing? ( )? landing , from. :
Can you imagine these two old men climbing Mt. Kenya? (6)
, ?
Can you imagine their doing such a thing? ( 17 )
, ?.
N 13 ( 6)
17. have 6.
 + (Present Participle) 1 I can't have you doing that. 2 We can't have. them wasting their time in this way. 3 We shall soon have the mists rising. 4 He soon had them all laughing. 5 I'll have you all speaking fluent English within a year.
1. (), .
2. , .
3. .
4. . :
5. -.

(1) (2) have , . (3) have , (4) (5) have . have , make, allow .
(1) I can't allow you to do that. You mustn't do that.
(2) We can't allow them to waste their time in this way.
(3) The mists will soon be rising.
(4) He soon -made them all laugh.
(5) I will teach you all to speak fluent English within a year.
47
7
18. , (Predicative Adjective). 7 , , -. 7 ( ) , .
N 14 ( 7 )
18 . (), , -. , We painted the door green , . , , , . , slept himself sober. , , , .
 + 1 Can you push the door open? 2 She flung alt the windows open. 3 We had to break the trunk open. 4 The cat licked the saucer clean. 5 The Governor set the prisoners free. 6 We hammered (beat) it flat.. 7 The cold weather is turning the leaves yellow. 8 She boiled the egg hard. 9 The pain drove her almost mad. 10 You've made your shoes muddy. 11 He slit the envelope open. 12 They beat the poor boy black and blue. 13 The sun keeps us warm. 14 You'd better pack the dresses flat. 15 Open your mouth wide. 16 Raise your head higher. 17 Don't make yourself ill. 18 He shouted himself hoarse. 19 The blister on my heel made walking painful.
48
1. He , , ?
2. .
3. , , .
4. .
5. .
6. (. . ) .
7. ( ) .
8. .
9. ,
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. - .

, :
(3) The trunk had to be broken open.
.
(5) The prisoners were set free.
.
(9) She was driven almost mad by the pain.
.
(14) The dresses had better be packed flat.
.
.
(5) The Governor set the prisoners at liberty.
.
, . :
The Governor set the prisoners free.
.
The Governor set free all those prisoners whose offences were purely political.
, -.
, ,
49
He made clear his strong objections to the proposals.
, .
short cut, good make, ( ).
cut short the introductions. (Ho: Cut it short!)
() (). ( !)
They managed to make good their retreat.
.
to, that , it, - .
made it clear that he objected to the proposals.
, .
You have not made it clear whether I am to go or not.
, .
The blister on his. heel made it painful to walk.
.
N 14 ( 7 )
18. ( ) -.
 + 1 I found the box empty. 2 He likes his coffee strong. 3 I want everything ready by seven o'clock. 4 I hope I see you well. 5 I shall hold you responsible. 6 He wished himself dead.
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. . ( .)
6. . .
50

(1) , , , I found the empty box .. :
They found the boy fast asleep. .
(2) :
likes his coffee to be strong. ( 3) .
(4) : , , (, ).
(6) : wished that he was dead. ( 11) . .
himself 7 : shouted himself hoarse. (. . , ).
(1) find 7 4.
We found the bird-cage empty ( 7).
. ( , .)
We found John (to be) a hard worker ( 4) We found that John was a hard worker. ( 11)
, (. . , , ).
7 : bake (, bake it hard , , ), beat, boil, burn (, burn it black ), colour (, colour it red ), cry, cut, drive, dye, eat (, eat oneself sick ), fill, find, get, hammer, hold, keep, lay (, lay the country waste ), leave, lick, like, make, paint, render, see, set, sleep (, sleep oneself sober ), turn, wash, wipe, wish.
8
19. , (Predicative Adjunct), , (Noun Clause), what.
51
N 16 (8)
 + ( ) 1 They made Newton President of the Royal Society. 2 They wanted to crown Caesar king. 3 They elected Mr. Grey (as) chairman. 4 We appointed him manager. 5 He has made the company what it is today. 6 They nominated him President. 7 They have named they call the babyit Richard but Dick. 8 They named the ship "Queen Mary". 9 Call it what you will. 10 They found (they) left the placeit a prosperous village and a ruin.
1. (. . ).
2. ().
3. .
4. .
5. , .
6. .
7. , .
8. " ".
9. , .
10. , .

.
(1) Newton was made President of the Royal Society.
.
(4) was appointed manager.
.
. (7) will be called (named, styled, entitled, designated) Prince Consort.
(, , ) -.
. (7) What is the baby called?
?
52
choose elect, (Predicative Adjunct) as for.
Whom will they choose for a chief?
?
I wonder who(m) they will elect as chairman.
, .
Whom will they choose as (for) their leader?
? .
. His parents chose him a good healthy girl as wife. ( 19)
. , :
appoint, baptize, call, choose, christen, crown, designate, dub (), elect, entitle, find, leave, make, name, nickname, nominate, style.
9
20. - , (Past Participle).
N 17 (9)
 + (Past Participle) 1 He couldn't make his voice heard. 2 He made his influence felt. 3 You must make yourself respected. 4 I heard my name called. 5 We found the house deserted. 6 Have you ever heard this opera sung in Italian? 7 I want this work finished quickly. 8 He had seen towns destroyed by bombing. 9 He felt himself lifted up.
1. , .
2. , .
3. , (), , .
4. , .
5. .
6. - ?
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
53
: feel, find, hear, like, make, prefer, see, want, wish ( N 18) get have.
N 18 ( 9)
20. . have get (. 4).
 + (Past Participle) 1 I must get my hair cut. 2 We shall have the house painted. . 3 Where did you have (get) your cards printed? 4 You had better have that tooth pulled out. 5 We must have (get) it seen to. 6 They will have you put in prison.
1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. .
5. , .
6. , .

, - - , . :
(1) I must go to the barber and tell him to cut my hair.
( ).
(2) We shall tell the decorators to. paint the house.
.
(3) Which firm of printers printed your cards?
?
(4) It would be a good thing if you asked a dentist to pull that tooth out.
. , .
(5) We must find someone to see to it.
-, .
(6) They will cause you to be put in prison.
, .
54
N 19 ( 9)
20. have , , , . get - .
 + (Past Participle) 1 She has had her handbag stolen. 2 The General had two horses shot under him. 3 King Charles 1 had his head cut off. 4 The soldier had his left leg amputated. 5 Some of the houses had, their windows broken by the explosion. 6 We have had our house broken into by thieves. 7 We have the enemy almost surrounded. 8 They have scarcely any money saved for their-old age.
1. .
2. .
3. I .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. - .

(8) 1 -- They have saved (Psesent Perfect) scarcely any money for their old age.
10
55
N 20 ( 10 )
21 . (. 106) on, off, up, down, in, out, away, back . " , put on, take off, pick up, put down, give away, send out, knock down.
, , , , , . : it, them, him, her, you, me, us.
. N 21, , . ( .)
 + 1 Put your hat on. 2 Take your coat off. 3 Lock this up. 4 Don't lock yourself out. 5 Send them back. 6 Have you given it away? 7 Bring her in. 8 Take the dog out. 9 The bus knocked him down. 10 I can't get this nail out. 11 You should wind it up. 12 They laughed (shouted) the man down. 13 Have you packed them up? 14 I hope you'll back them up. 15 The child picked itself up. 16 Take yourself off!
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. (), , .
5. .
6. () ?
7. .
8. ().
9. .
10. .
11. ().
12. () , .
56
13. ?
14. , ?
15. ( ).
16. ()!

(12) They reduced the man to silence by laughing (shouting) at him.
() .
(15) : The child got to its feet (after a fall).
( ).
(16) Go away! !
N 21 ( 10 )
21. 10 . , .
 + ( ) 1 Put on your other hat. 2 Take off your overcoat. 3 We must lock up the house. 4 He gave away every penny he had. 5 You should put on the warmest clothes you have. 6 Please bring in those chairs that are in the garden. 7 She cleaned out every room in the house. 8 Don't throw away anything that might be useful. 9 She put on an air of innocence. 10 You've brought about my ruin. 11 He has brought about great reforms.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. , , .
7. ,
8. , .
9. .
10. .
11. () .
57

N 20.
(1) Put your other hat on.
(3) We must lock the house up.
, ( 10 ):
Put it on. Take it off. We must lock it up. ( : % Put on it. Take off it. Lock up it.)
4--11 , .
:
The house must be locked up. .
Every room in the house was cleaned out. .
N 22 ( 10 )
21 . ( , , , , , . .), . N 23.
 + 1 Please put the book on the table. 2 Shall we carry the box upstairs? 3 Don't throw it out of the window. 4 We took the children for a walk. 5 The servant showed me to the door. 6 I found the book under the desk. 7 He regards me as a good friend. 8 I look upon him as a good friend. 9 They engaged Rebecca as governess. 10 We can employ you as a clerk. 11 They chose Mr. Brown as chairman. 12 We followed them (for) five miles.
58
1. , .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .

, 20 21, , , , , . , , :
Please put on this table all the books from the shelves in my study and on that table all the books from the shelves in the living-room.
, , .
(11) 8. . N 16.
(12) (for) five miles . 20.
N 23 ( 10 )
21. 10 , , ( ).
 + to, 1 I sent m to buy some stamps. 2 brought his brother to see me. 3 took the medicine to please his wife. 4 I shall need only an hour to finish the job. 5 You must do what the doctor tells you in order to get well again.
59
 + to, 6 I did it to please my wife. 7 I don't know her to speak to. 8 91011 We make He openedThey left Take our shoes the door me this book to last. for the cat to go out. to do all the work. to read during the journey. 12 13 They appointed Make an official the shoes to superintend the work. so that they will keep out water. 14 15 You mustn't treat We found her the books as if she were a servant. where we had left them.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , .
5. , , , .
6. , .
7. . ( , .)
8. , .
9. , .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. , .
14. . , , .
15. , .

10 3.
I want Tom to buy some stamps. ( 3) , . I sent to buy some stamps. ( 10 ) .
10 . 60
:
I sent Tom in order that he should buy some stamps. , .
(7) : I know her by sight. ( 10 ) .
(8) : , .
(9) for (for + + to). :
opened the door. so that the cat could (might) go out. , - .
11
22. , that. see, feel hear , (. . see , feel --, , hear -- ). , 1, 5, 6. lest that fear , , . lest . that , think, expect, hope, wish.
, :
acknowledge, admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, demonstrate, deny, doubt, expect, explain, fear, feel, hear, hope, imagine, intend, know, mean, mind ( ), notice, perceive, prefer, propose, request, require, report, say, see, show, specify, suggest, suppose, think, understand, urge, wish, wonder ( ). .
N 24 ( 11 )
 + that 1 I suppose (that) you will be there. 2 I wish you wouldn't interrupt. 3 We all hope (that) you'll be able to come. 4 Do you think it will rain? 5 She suggested that we should'start, early. 6 He intended that you should be invited. 7 I expect he'll be late.
61
 + that 8910 11 12 13 14 15 I daresay He said The telegram says We saw We felt I hear Do you doubt We feared it's all right. he was busy. that they have reached Rome. that the plan would fail. that you would like to know. (that) you've been ill. that I can do it?lest he should fall.
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , ?
5. , . .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. (), .
12. (), .
13. (), .
14. , ?
15. , .

that , , , , , that . :
He insisted upon his innocence.
He insisted that he was innocent.
N 62 ( 24 ).
doubt , (14). doubt , , whether ( 15). "" doubt but that.
62
I do not doubt but that you are surprised.
, . .
fear (15) be afraid.
We were afraid he might fall.
, .
N 25 ( 11 )
22. - that to. : admit, confess, explain, suggest, say.
 + to that 1 He admitted to his employer that he had made a mistake. 2 confessed to her that he had spent all his money. 3 I suggested to them that it might be better to wait. 4 We explained to everyone present that the delay was inevit able. 5 She said to him that...
1. , .
2. , .
3. , , , .
4. , .
5. , ...

(5) : She told him that ... ( 12).
26 ( 11 )
22. , that so, -
63
-- not. so not believe, expect, hear, hope, notice, say, see, suppose, think.
A: The new teacher is very strict.
.
: So I've heard.
. (. . I've heard that he is very strict.
, .)
So I was told.
, (. . I was told that he is very'strict.
, .)
A: It's going to rain.
.
: I hope not.
, . (. . I hope that it's not going to rain.
, .)
so , . ,-, : So I believe I believe so. : % I see (notice) so. :
So I see (notice).
.
 So + so/not 12 So So I see (notice, believe, hear). I said (hoped, thought, supposed, noticed, heard). 34 5 So I've heard (seen, noticed). I believe (expect, hope, think, say, suppose) We believe (hope, suppose, expect, think) so. not. so. 6 I don't think (I didn't say)
1. (, , ), .
2. (, , , , ).
3. (, ) .
4. (, , , ), .
5. , (, , ), .
6. ( ) .

(4) :
I said so. . .
64
12
23. - , that.
N 27 ( 12)
 + that 1 Did he warn you that he might be late? 2 They told me that I was too early. 3 Remind him that the meeting is on Friday. 4 We informed the manager that we were willing to work overtime. 5 Has this accident taught you that driving at eighty miles an hour dangerous? 6 We satisfied ourselves that all the doors and windows were secure.
1. , ?
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , ( ) 80 ?
6. ( ), .

, , 18. :
(1) Did he warn you of the danger?
?
(2) She told me of her father's illness.
.
(3) Remind him of his promise.
.
(4) We informed him of our willingness to help.
.
, 12 assure promise.
65
13
24. 13 - ( to).
N 28 ( 13)
 + . + (+...) 1 I wonder how to get there. 2 Do you know how to do it? 3 I forget where to turn off the main road. 4 She didn't know which one to buy. 5 I don't see how to stop him. 6 He didn't know whether to go on or turn back. 7 We must find out what to do next. 8 Do you know what to look for? 9 Remember when to turn. 10 I'll inquire how to get there. 11 Have you settled where to go?
1. . , .
2. , ?
3. , .
4. , .
5. ( ), .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , ?
9. , .
10. , .
11. , ?

(how, what, when, where, who, whom, whose, why), . if, whether, ( ).
, ( , ), , . . 15. :
Do you know how to do it? ( 13)
, () ?
66
Do you know how your brother did it? ( 15)
, ?
, 15, 13.
Do you know what to look for? ( 13)
Do you know how your brother did it? ( 15)
, () ?
:
Have they decided upon a site for the new school? ( 24)
, ?
Have they decided where to build the new school?
- , ?
13. 1 (Have they decided the question of where to build...?) 24 (Have they decided upon where to build...?). cm. 35, N 63.
13 : ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, guess, hear, inquire, know, learn, observe, perceive, remember, see, settle, tell ( , ), think ( ), understand, wonder ( ).
14
25. - ( ), to.
N 29 ( 14)
 + + 1 I showed them how to do it. 2 Please tell me which to take. 3 They told the girl where to start. 4 Will you advise me which to buy? 5 Show him where to put it. 6 sk your teacher how to pronounce the word. 7 Please infom me where to get tickets.
1. , () .
2. , , ( ) .
67
3. , .
4. , ( ) .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , , ..

(1--3) , 16.
(1) I showed them how they should do it.
2) Please tell me which I should take.
3) They told the girl where she should (must, ought to, was to) start.
( ) 14 - , -- .
:
I showed them how to do it. (, 14) , .
I showed them my books. ( 19) .
( ) .
:
, .
.
He , ?
, .
, , ' teach.
15
26. - , if, whether. -
_________________
68
. . . 80, 4. 35 ( 24 , N 63).
N 30 ( 15)
 + + .1 Nobody will believe how difficult this work has been. 2 I wonder why he hasn't come. 3 Please say where you want to go. 4 Nobody knows. whose it is. 5 I wonder what it is. 6 I can't imagine why she left without saying good bye. 7 The tribunal has to decide (the question) who the land belongs to. 8 The captain decides who shall play in the team. 9 We were deliberating whether we should go. 10 Can you suggest where this should be put? 11 Few people know how hard he works. 12 I don't know how many there are. 13 I will ask when the train leaves.
1. , .
2. . , .
3. , , . .
4. , ().
5. , .
6. , , ..
7. ( ), .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , ?
11. , .
12. , .
13. , .
, , : discover, discuss, find out, reveal, show, tell ( ), understand.
69
16
27. - ( ) , , .
14.
N 31 ( 16)
 + + 1 2 34 Tell Ask Can you inform Please advise me him me us what this is. where he put it. whether this train stops at Luton. whether these seeds should be sown now. 567 She asked Can you tell Everyone told her brother me us when he would be back. how high it is. how well you played.
1. , .
2. ( ), ().
3. , ?
4. , , ?
5. , .
6. , ( )?
7. , .

, , 18, 19, .
Tell me your name. ( 19) .
Ask him his name. ( 19) .
I was told of your success. ( 18) .
, show teach.
70
17
28. . . .
28. N 32 , , , *. - , , . ( to) , , , -. (. forget.)
N 32 ( 17 )
 + 1 Please stop talking. 2 Has it stopped raining yet? 3 Has it left off raining, yet? 4 Have you finished talking? 5 Please excuse my being so late. 6 We must go on working. 7 She enjoys playing tennis. 8 I shall never forget hearing you sing. 9. I remember doing it. 10 Don't give up trying. 11 The boy went on looking for the money he had lost. 12 She couldn't help laughing. 13 Would you mind coming earlier next time? 14 Do you mind my staying out late? 15 You should practise playing the piano regularly. 16 Why don't you stop smoking? 17 Try cleaning it with petrol.
1. , .
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. , . ( ), .
6. .
7. .
8. , .
_____________________
* stop, finish, leave off, go on , .
71
9. , .
10. ( ).
11. , , .
12. .
13. ?
14. , ?
15. .
16. ?
17. .

(1)* : We stopped to talk. ( 25 )
(. . -), .
(2) : Has the rain stopped yet? ?
(3) Leave off , . : Has the rain left off yet? ? , come on, leave off, . Come on 2: It has come on (begun) to rain. .
(5) : Please excuse me for being late. , , . . N 12 .
(6) : went on to say that... ( 25 ) , , ...
(8) : I forgot to post the letter. (. . ) . . (II) N 2.
(9) : I remembered to do it. ( 2) . . (10) N 2.
(10) give up , .
(12) help can't (couldn't) help.
(17) Try . 1 2, try , .
_________________________________
* We stopped talking -- ; stopped , talking. We stopped to talk -- , -- . to talk .
72
17 : admit, advise, avoid, consider, defend, enjoy, excuse, fancy, fear', finish, forbid, forget, give up ( ), go on ( ), (can't) help, keep (on), leave off ( ), mind, miss, practise, remember, risk, (can't) stand, stop, suggest, try, understand.
N 33 ( 17 )
28 . , . 2, . . . 17 2 (, like swimming like to swim) *.
 + 1 She likes swimming. 2 He began talking. 3 4 Don't start She loves borrowing money. going to the cinema. 5 I hate refusing every time. 67 I hate He prefers You must continue having to refuse every time. staying indoors during the cold weather. making efforts. 910 She can't bear He can't endure seeing the children cold and hungry. being disturbed in his work.
1. .
2. .
3. ( ) .
4. .
5. ().
6. , ().
7. .
8. .
9. . 10. , .
_________________________
* (2) (3) begin start , , (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (11) N 32.. ( ) .
73

, (, () , () ) - , ( 17 ) , to ( 2) (, would should).
I like swimming.
().
I should not like to swim in that cold lake.
, .
Would you like to go for a swim. this afternoon?
He ()?
They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold.
.
Would you prefer to stay at home this evening?
He ?
I should prefer not to go.
.
I should like to go to the theatre with you this week.I don't like going alone.
. ; ( ) .
begin start 17 2.
began borrowing money. began to borrow money.
( ).
Continuous, 2, . . , -ing .
It's beginning to rain. (: It's beginning raining.)
.
He is beginning to study English. (: ^ He is beginning studying English.)
.
begin understand, see ( ) realize .
began to.understand (see) how it was done.
,
74
As soon as the floods went down, we set about repairing the damage.
, .
start out , .
started out to write his report, on the accident.
() .
regret 2, 11 17. , , . 11 ., .
 I regret not having worked harder at school. ( 17) } , . I regret that I didn't work harder at school. ( 11)

 I regret having followed his advice. } , . I regret that I followed his advice.

2 regret .
 I regret to inform you that... } , ... ( () , ...) I regret to have to inform you that...
17 : (can't) bear, begin, commence, continue, dislike, endure, hate, intend, like, love, mean (- ), prefer, regret, start.
N34 ( 17 )
28 . , , .
 + (+...) 1 2 3 4 5 My shoes want Your work needs He will need His language won't bear It won't bear mending. correcting. looking after. repeating. thinking of.
75
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. () ( ).
5. .

:
(1) My shoes need to be mended.
(2) Your work needs to be corrected.
(3) He will need to be looked after.
(4) His language is not fit to be repeated. (. . is too bad, too full of swear words, etc.).
(5) It is too horrible (frightening, etc.) to think of.
bear won't couldn't. bear ., , , ,
 can't bear (=endure) being disturbed. } , . He can't bear (=endure) to be disturbed.
18
29. 18 , . ' .
N 35 ( 18 )
29 . , to. 19 (. ). ( ), , 18 . , ( ) , , 19 .
76
 + to ( ) 1 He read the letter to all his friends. 2 He offered some to everyone in the room. 3 sold his car to a man from Leeds. 4 I still owe money to my tailor. 5 I don't lend my books to anybody. 6 Please pass this note to the man in the corner. 7 He promised the money to me, not (to) you. 8 Please take these books to your brother. 9 Will you hand this letter to the secretary of the society? 10 They told the news to everybody in the village. 11 Don't show the letter to any of your friends. 12 I have written letters to most of my old pupils. 13 Bring the box to me, not (to) my brother.
1. .
2. , .
3. - .
4. ( ).
5. .
6. , , ( ) .
7. , .
8. ^ .
9. ?
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. () , () .

19 .
.
(2) offered me some.
.
(3) Will you sell me your car?
He ?
(4) I still owe him ten pounds.
.
77
7 13 ya . 19 , .
promised me a good birthday present.
.
Bring me the box.
.
, ( ) , , , . Give me it ( Give me the book - ) Give it me. ( .)
, .
They offered the position to Mr. Green.
.
The position was offered to Mr. Green.
.
Mr. Green was offered the position.
.
, , . , '.
They gave a prize to Mr. Black.
.
Mr. Black was given a prize. ( Mr. Black.)
.
They gave the first prize to Mr. Black.
.
The first prize was given to Mr. Black. ( the first prize.)
.
. , , write.
The secretary wrote a long letter to Mr. Brown.
.
A long letter was written to Mr, Brown.
.
: % Mr. Brown was written a long letter.
, 18 A: allot, allow, award, bring, deny, do (, do good to somebody, do some- body good), fetch, give, grant, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, proffer, promise, read, refuse, reader, restore, sell, send, show, take, teach, tell, write.
78
N 36 ( 18 )
29. , for. 19 . , ( 18 19 ).
 + for ( ) 12 She bought Have you left a dictionary any food for for her brother. the other members of the party? 34 She has made Will you cook coffee these eggs for for all of us. Mrs. Grey and her children? 5 6 7 She ordered Please save We must choose a new dress some presents for for for herself. your sister. your brothers and sisters.
1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. ?
5. ( ) .
6. , .
7. .

19 .
(1) I bought her a new hat.
.
(2) Have you left me any?
-?
(3) I'll make you some coffee.
.
(5) She ordered herself a new dress.
.
79
18 :
bring, buy, cash, choose, cook, do, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play, reach, save, spare, write.
19 , . :
 Please reach my hat for me. ( 18) Please reach me my hat. ( 19) } , . He made up a parcel of books for me.( 18) He made me up a parcel of books. ( 19) } ( ) . Won't you play a Beethoven sonata for me? ( 18) Won't you play me a Beethoven sonata? ( 19) } ( ) ? Can you cash this cheque for me? ( 18) Can you cash me a cheque? ( 19) } () ? ( ?)
N 37 ( 18 )
29. , ( ). . , to congratulate somebody on (upon) something. 19 . - ( ), , to compare one thing with (to) another thing. . , (10).
18 10 ( N 22). Put the book on the table on the table (
80
there, here, down), on (under, near. by). ( 18 ) - .
 + ( ) 1 We congratulated him on his success. 2 They accused her a lot of taking the money. 3 He spends of money on books. 4 I have spent a lot of time on this question. 5 Don't waste your time on useless things. 6 What prevented you from coming earlier? 7 Thank you for your kind help. 8 I must remind him about it. 9 She reminds me of her mother. 10 That reminds me of how I once won a competition. 11 Excuse me for being late. 12 I explained my difficulty to him. 13 Add this to what you already have. 14 Compare the copy with the original. 15 He compared the heart to a pump. 16 Who will protect us from the enemy? 17 Please keep this for me.
1. .
2. , .
3. .
4 .
5. ( ).
6. ?
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. , - .
11. .
12. .
13. , .
14. .
15. .
16. ?
17. , .
81
N38 ( 18 )
29 . . , . , . 11 ( N 25), that.
 + 1 I explained to him the impossibility of granting his request. 2 We heard from Jones all about his sister's escape. 3 Add to the examples you already have those I have written on the blackboard. 4 She expressed to her husband. her conviction that economy was essential.
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. , .

(2) : We heard all about his sister's escape from Jones. ( 1)
, .
(3) , . Add the examples I have written on the blackboard to those you already have. , , (). , , .
(4) to her husband , :
She expressed her conviction that economy was essential for her husband.
, .
82
N 39 ( 18 )
29. . 18, , it.
 + it 1 I must leave it to your own judge ment to decide whether you should come or not. 2 We owe it to society to help in the apprehension of criminals. 3 He owes it to his father's influence that the Committee appointed him to the position. 4 You mustn't take it upon yourself to spend such large sums of money without getting the Treasurer's approval. 5 I put it to you whether this man could have acted in such a cruel way.
1. ( ), .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. (), .

, .
(1) I must leave the decision to your own judgement.
.
(2) We owe a duty to society.
.
83
(3) He owes his appointment to his father's influence.
.
(4) You mustn't take too much upon yourself.
, .
(5) I put the question to you.
.
19
30. , , : . .
N 40 ( 19 )
30. , 18 ( to). . 5 N 35.
 + 1 Have they paid you, the money? 2 Will you lend me your pen? 3 He handed her the letter. 4 Please pass me the salt. 5 Will you send her some? 6 Won't you tell us a story? 7 Did it cause you much trouble? 8 The pupils wished their teacher "Good morning". 9 The teacher gave them an English lesson. 10 He denies her nothing. 11 Show me your hands. 12 I will read you the letter. 13 You must write her a letter. 14 Please throw me that magazine. 15 I never gave the matter a thought. 16 Don't give it a second thought. 17 Don't give yourself airs.
1. ?
2. . ?
3. .
4. , .
84
5. -?
6. - ?
7. ?
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. , .
15. .
16. () ( ).
17. .

19 , . , . N 35.
(17) 18 .
N41 ( 19 )
30. 18 ( for).. . N 36.
 + 1 Will you buy me some? 2 Did you leave me any? 3 She made herself a new dress. 4 He ordered himself a good dinner. 5 We must choose Mary a good birthday present. 6 His parents chose him a sensible but plain looking wife. 7 Can you get me a copy of that book? 8 She cooked her husband a pound of sausages. 9 Will you do me a favour? 10 You should get . yourself a new hat. 11 Will you reach me my hat? 12 Can you spare me a few minutes of your valuable time?
85
1. ?
2. -?
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. , .
7. ?
8. .
9. ()?
10. () .
11. , ( ) .
12. ?

18 :
He ?
(5) We must choose good birthday presents for Mary and John.
.
(11) Will you .reach my hat for me?
, ( ) .
(12) a few minutes of your. valuable time spare.
Can you spare me a few minutes? ( 10 ), a few minutes , , ( for ). : " ?", " () ?" for , . : We followed them (for) five miles. ( 10 A) .
N 42 ( 19 )
30. , , , -- . 18.
86
 + 1 We asked him several questions... 2 Ask him his name. 3 I envy you your fine garden. 4 That will save me a lot of trouble. 5 Can't I save you the trouble of doing that? 6 I struck the door a heavy blow.
1. .
2. , ( ).
3. , .
4. .
5. ( )?
6. , ( ).

(1), (2) : ask a question of someone, .
(3) envy 18, envy of at, , to feet envy of (at) something.
(4), (5) save to , .
All this trouble would be saved to them if...
, ... :
They would be saved all this trouble if...
. , ...
(6) strike on against, 19 .
20
31. . (, , , . .). , , for, .
87
cost, last, take .
, , . , come, go, walk, ride, fly, fall, run, jump, sail, sink, slip.
N 43 ( 20)
 + ( ) 1 We walked (for) five miles. 2 He has travelled thousands of miles. 3 They had come a long way. 4 Have you ridden far? 5 The forests stretch (for) hundreds of miles, 6 He fell fifty feet. 7 The soldiers marched a long way. '8 The rain lasted all day. . 9 We waited (for) two hours. 10 The meeting lasted (for) two hours. 11 He may live (for) many years yet. 12 Have you been working a long time? 13 The play ran (for) more than a hundred nights. 14 Won't you stay (for) the night? 15 The book costs ten shillings. 16 The book cost (me) ten shillings. 17 18 The baby weighs The thermometer rose nine pounds. ten degrees. 19 20 The temperature fell The work took (them) several degrees. three hours. 21 These shoes will last (you) two or three years. 22 23 It will last The desk measures (the owner) a lifetime. four feet by two feet.
1. .
2. -.
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. . .
88
10. .
11. .
12. ?
13. .
14. ?
15. .
16. () .
17. .
18. ( ).
19. .
20. .
21. () - .
22. () .
23. ().

be.
I shall be here (for) two weeks.
( ).
for (getting on for + , ):
We have been here for getting on for ten months.
.
, be cost, weigh, measure . .
This book is ten shillings.
.
(20) , it.
It'took them three hours to do the work.
, .
21
32. , , . , . ;
I rolled the ball. . ( 1)
The ball rolled. . ( 21)
89
N 44 ( 21)
32. .
 1 We all breathe, eat, and drink. 2 The sun was shining. 3 The moon rose. 4 Fire burns. 5 Fishes swim. 6 Nothing matters. 7 Who cares? 8 It was raining. 9 What I said does not matter. 10 (Men pass away but) the universe remains.
1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. ?
8. .
9. , , .
10. ( , ) .
45 ( 21)
32. be, , , there, . there, , . : There was a large crowd ( ^ A large crowd was). There's your hat. Bo , there ( ) . . 3-4 ( 23 , N 59).
there , , , .
90
 There+ 1 There was no wind. 2 There won't be enough time. 3 There's no doubt about it. 4 There have been many such incidents. 5 There is no time for 'us to visit the Museum now. 6 There is a man to see you. 7 There entered a strange-looking little man. 8 There was every reason for him to be satisfied. 9 There's no denying the fact that... 10 There was much foolish talking. 11 There's no getting over it. 12 There is a map on page five. 13 There was very little work done that day,
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. , .
6. - .
7. .
8. . , .
9. , ....
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .

(9), (11) . there's + gerund .
(9) We cannot deny the fact that ... , .., The fact that ... cannot be denied. , .... .
(11) , We cannot evade (ignore, get away from) ... ( , . . ), , get over , : We cannot get over this fence. ( ).
91
(12) A map is on page five , *.
(3) : Very little work was done that day. , .
N 46 ( 21)
32. it , . : It appears that he had been ill. , , ^ That he had been ill appears. .
21.
 It + 1 It doesn't matter whether we start now or later. 2 Does it matter when we start? 3 It seems (that) Mr. White is heavily in debt. 4 It would seem that Mr. Grey wants to retire. 5 It seemed that the day would never end. 6 It (so) happened that I was out of London at the time. 7 It (so) chanced that we were out when she called. 8 It seems (to me) you're not really interested in the question.
1. , ' ,
2. - (), . ?
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , , ,
8. , . .

so happen chance.
seem appear . it seems (seemed, appears, appeared -- , ) -
___________________
* , . there, (. (5), (12), (13) ). , .
92
, ( ) seemingly, apparently -- -, .
It seemed that the road over the pass was still blocked by snowdrifts.
-, - .
The road over the pass was still, it seemed, blocked by snowdrifts.
, -, - .
happen chance by chance . 25 , ( N 67, 6):
(6) I happened to. be out of London at the time.
(7) We chanced to be out when she called.
22
33. - ; , , , , , , , ( ), .
N 47 ( 22 )
33. - be. , , that.
, .
 + - be 1 This is a book. 2 His father is a lawyer. 3 That house is the doctor's. 4 That box is mine. 5 What is that?
93
 + - be 6 Who is she? 7 It is I (me). 8 The total' is seventy-three. 9 It was dark. 10 Seeing is believing.. 11 That will be enough. 12 Is this the first time? 13 We were ready to start. 14 These shoes are just the right size. 15 The two boys are exactly the same weight. 16 The statue will be life-size. 17 That he will refuse is impossible. 18 Whether he will agree is another question. 19 The trouble is that we are short of money. 20 Is this what you are looking for? 21 What surprised me most was that they were so cheerful about their loss. 22 Everything is as it should be. 23 This is where I work. 24 Everything was just as we had left it. + - be 25 What price is that article? 26 What are cabbages today? 27 What age is he?
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ?
6. ?
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. ( ).
12. ?
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. .
17. , .
18. , .
94
19. , .
20. ?
21. , ().
22. , ,
23. .
24. , .
25. ( ) ?
26. ?
27. ?

(26) What , .
, how what:
How tall you are! !
What a high tree that is! !
N 48 ( 22 )
33 . - be. , , , at liberty , in love with (), beyond me , out of danger ( ), in foal . 23, . (, The book was on the desk. .)
 + - be 1 Th war is over. 2 Evrithing is at an end between them. 3 She is in good. health. 4 Is he in love? 5 We were all out of breath. 6 Are these boats for hire? 7 Are you in a hurry? 8 The fruit is far from ripe. 9 Evervthing else is of-no account. 10 At last we were at liberty.
95
 + - be 11 The book is beyond me. 12 Is he of age? 13 14 We are not The teacher was otit of danger yet. in a bad temper. 15 The mare is in foal. 16 17 18 It is Everything is The machine is of no importance. in good order. out of order.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
7. . ?
8. .
9. .
10. , .
11. ( ).
12. ?
13. . .
14. .
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. .
N 49 ( 22 )
33 . - be ( ) .
 + - be (+...) 1 This house is to let. 2 The worst is still to come. 3 What's to pay? 4 Who is to blame?
96
 + - be (+...) 5 The causes are not far to seek. 6 You are to be congratulated. 7 My aim was to help you. 8 To know her is to like her. 9 To know all is to forgive all.
1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .

(3) How much is there to pay?
(4) : Who is to be blamed?
(5) : One needn't go far to find the causes.
He , .
N50 ( 22 )
33 . , it.
 it + - be 1 It is easy to do that. 2 It was useless to try. 3 It will be wiser to drive slowly. 4 It's a pity to waste it. 5 It would be a mistake to ignore his advice.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
97
N 51 ( 22 )
33 . it , .
 - be 1 .It's no use your trying to do that. 2 It's no good hoping for their help. 3 It won't be much good complaining to the authorities. 4 It wouldn't be any good my talking to him. 5 It's no use crving over spilt milk. 6 It wasn't much use my pretending that I didn't know the rules. 7 It was a difficult 8 It's business foolish getting everything ready in time. behaving like that.
1. .
2. () .
3. , .
4. .
5. () : ( .)
6. , .
7. .
8. .

N 53.
(6) It wasn't much use for me to pretend that...
(8) It's foolish of you (her, them, etc.) to behave like that.
.
it's no (not much) use (good).
-, 22 , what how. it is (was) .
What a nuisance - having to wait an hour- for the next bus! , ! (= Having to wait an hour for the next bus is a nuisance, It's a nuisance having to wait an hour for the next bus!)
98
What a nuisance turning us out so early!
, ! (= Their turning us out so early (. . , ) is a nuisance.)
How annoying having to stand all the way home in the bus!
, ! (= Having to stand all the way home in the . bus is annoying.)
;
, .
What a bore to have to wait an hour for the next bus!
, !
N 52 ( 22 )
33 . it , .
 it + - be 1 It was a pity (that) you couldn't come. 2 It was unfortunate that the weather was so wet. 3 It's strange that he should have said that. 4 It's splendid news that you have won the scholar ship. 5 It's likely that there will be rain before evening. 6 It's a mystery how the burglars got into the house. 7 It was curious how often one saw them together. 8 It's doubtful. whether he will be able to come. 9 Is it possible that he misunderstood what I said? 10 Is it true that he is going to retire next year? 11 It's a wonder you weren't all killed! 12 It will be a great day when you .are promoted to be managing director. 13 Is it a fact that you're going to be married? 14 It's a mystery why all our attempts have been unsuccessful. 15 It was a good thing (that) you reached home before the storm broke. 16 It was obvious that he didn't intend to help us.
99
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , ?
10. , ?
11. , !
12. , .
13. , ?
14. , / .
15. , , .
16. , .
N 53 ( 22 )
33 . it , for .
 it + - be 1 It was hard for him to live on his small pension. 2 Is it easy for a rich widow to .find a handsome husband? 3 It was unusual for Victorian ladies to earn their own living. 4 It was the rule for men and women to sit apart. 5 It is no uncommon thing for her husband to be away from home for weeks at a time. 6 Isn't it wrong for the neighbours to gossip about us in that cruel way? 7 It's impossible for our two countries ever to quarrel. 8 It's impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. 9 Is it the custom for young people to give up their seats to old people in. crowded buses in your country? 10 It's difficult for anyone to be angry with her.
100
1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. , , .
5. , ( ).
6. , ?
7. , () - .
8. , .
9. , ?
10. ( ) ,
N54 ( 22 )
33 . seem appear. to be, 25 (. N 67). , , . *
 + - 1 He seemed surprised at the news. 2 seemed much older. 3 This seems (to be) an important point. 4 The situation seemed (to us) quite hopeless. 5 This appears to be the only exception to the rule. 6 To me his new book does not appear (to be) so good as, his earlier book on this subject. 7 I seem (to be) unable to solve this problem. 8 He seemed unable to get out of the habit.
1. , , .
2. .
3. , -, .
4. () .
5. , -, .
6. , , () .
7. , , .
8. -, .
____________
* , - .
101

can.
(7) I can't seem to solve this problem.
(8) He couldn't seem to get out of the habit.
N 55 ( 22 )
33 . it seem appear, , . * , be (. N.50--53).
 it + - 1 It seemed useless to go on. 2 It seems a pity not to use it. 3 It seemed (to me) a bold plan to advance against such strong opposition. 4 It doesn't seem much good going on. 5 It appears unlikely that we shall arrive in time. 6 It doesn't, seem much use for us. to try to catch the two o'clock train.
1. , .
2. , .
3. , , () .
4. , -, .
5. , .
6. -, () .
_______
* ( . Nominative + Infinitive). .
102
N 56 ( 22 )
33 . , . 61--71 " ".
 + - 1 The leaves are turning brown. 2 The dinner smells good. 3 Why is he looking angry? 4 He is growing aid. 5 Silk feels soft and smooth. 6 This sentence doesn't sound right. 7 She married young. 8 Everything looks different. 9 Please keep quiet. 10 The door blew open. 11 The fire has burnt low. 12 He shammed dead. 13 He fell in love. 14 One of the tigers broke loose. 15 He went mad. 16 Your dreams may come true. 17 He still remains poor. 18 The city lies sleeping.. 19 The birds came hopping round my window.
1. (: ).
2. .
3. ?
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. -.
9. , .
10. ().
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. .
103
23
34. - , .
N 57 ( 23 )
34. .
 ( + 1 Come. in. 2 Stand up. 3 We must turn back. 4 She went upstairs. 5 He arrived home late. 6 We didn't go anywhere last week. 7 We talked face to face. 8 They were fighting tooth and nail. 9 The books were lying on the floor. 10 It looks like rain. 11 I will live a bachelor. 12 He works hard. 13 It looks as if it were going to snow. 14 He looks as though he had seen a ghost. 15 He behaves (acts) as if he owned the place. 16 This old umbrella has stood me in good stead.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. ( ).
9. .
10. , .
11. .
12. .
13. , .
14. , .
15. .
16. .
104

(). 106, , . (, In they went!) 34 .
N 58 ( 23 )
34. there, , . % A book is on the desk, There is a book on the desk. there, ( N 59).
 There + + 1 There are three windows in this room. 2 There are some boys at the door. 3 There comes an end to all things. 4 Are there many apples. on your trees this year? 5 There are many churches there.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ?
5. .

there ; there ( ) -- .
N 59 ( 23 )
34. . here there . . , ( 1--5), , ( N 6--11), -.
105
 Here/There + 1 Here they come! 2 Here it is! 3 There she goes! 4 There they come! 5 Here you are! + 6 Here 's your book! 7 There comes the station bus! 8 Here are the papers you've been looking for! 9 There are the other members of the party! 10 There are the others! 11 Here 's the one you want!
1. !
2. !
3. ( . .)! (.) !
4. , !
5. !
6. !
7. .
8. , !
9. !
10. !
11. , (, ).

here there , . . : [d(r)], [hi(r)].
Here you are! , , ( ), , ( . ). There you are! , ( ). 106 .
24
35. , , : succeed in (something, doing something), belong to (somebody). -
106
, : complain to (somebody), complain about ( of) (something).*
, , . , .
N 60 ( 24 )
35. , .
 + 1 You can rely upon that man. 2 You can rely upon his discretion. 3 You can rely upon his being discreet. 4 Can I count on your help? 5 The success of the picnic will depend on the weather. 6 .He succeeded in solving the problem. 7 Do you believe in getting up early? 8 He failed in . his examinations. 9 They all longed for the holidays. 10 You needn't wait for me. 11 This belongs to me. 12 Have you decided upon a career yet? 13 Listen to what I have to say. 14 What had happened to them? 15 He aimed at the tiger. 16 He consented to the proposal. 17 We agreed upon a plan. 18 Would you care for one of these? 19 She complained of the heat..
1. !
2. . .
3. ( , ).
4. ?
5. , .
6. .
7. , ?
8. .
9. .
10. ( ) .
11. .
12. ?
13. , .
14. ?
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. - ()?
19. .
_________________
* , . , , , , , , (. (6) (7) N 60).
107

; .
 is a man I can rely on. ( ) is a man upon whom I can rely... ( ) } , . What was the proposal you consented to? ( ) What was the proposal to which you consented? ( ) } ? The proposal he consented to... ( ) The proposal to which he consented... ( ) } (, ... : You have nothing to complain of. ( ) You have nothing of which to complain. ( ) } . .
.
That man can be relied upon.
.
Was the proposal agreed to?
?
Can his support be depended upon?
() ?
108
Has a plan been agreed upon? ?
(19) :
She complained of its being too hot. , .
its being (it being the room being):
She complained of the room being too hot. , .
, , , :
She complained that the room was too hot. (. N 62.) , .
that, it, occur. :
An idea occurred to me. .
It occurred to me that you would like to know what happened. , , .
Has it ever occurred to you that... - , ...?
N 61 ( 23 )
35. , "Accusative + Infinitive". 3.
 + - "Accusative + Infinitive" 1 I rely upon you to be discreet. 2 Can I count on all of you to help? 3 Everyone was longing for the term to end and the holidays to begin. 4 I will arrange for a taxi to meet you at the station. 5 We're waiting for John to arrive.
109
 + "Accusative + Infinitive" 6 She always so much wished for everyone to be happy. 7 He pushed the glasses along the counter and nodded for them to be refilled. 8 We have fixed for the meeting to be held on Friday. 9 I shall vote for you to captain the First Eleven.
1. .
2. , ?
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , .
7. , .
8. .
9. , . .

N 60.
(2) Can I count on your help (the help of all of you)?
(3) Everyone was longing for the end of the term and the beginning of the holidays.
(5) We're waiting for John's arrival.
3.
(3) Everyone wanted the term to end and the holidays to begin.
, .
(6) She wanted everyone to be happy.
, . (8) fix , .
110
N 62 ( 24 )
35. N 60 61 , , , , "Accusative + Infinitive". He that ( , , : in that ; save that , ; notwithstanding that. , ).
, 24, , that. , 11, . , it. .
complained of unfair treatment.
.
complained that he had been treated unfairly.
, .
.
I will answer for it that this man is honest.
( ), .
24.
 + () (it) that 1 I agree that it was a mistake. 2 He complained that he had been underpaid. 3 He insists that he was nowhere near the scene of the crime. 4 He rejoiced that he had won the first prize. 5 I will see (to it) that everything is ready in time. 6 Can you swear (to it) that the accused, man was at your house all Friday evening? 7 You may depend upon it that every member of the Committee will support your proposal. 8 He insisted (upon it) that he was innocent. 9 He boasted that no one had ever beaten him at chess.
111
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. ( ), ?
7. , . .
8. , () .
9. , .

, , , .
(1) I agree (with you) about that (upon That condition, as to that condition).
( ) ( ). .
(2) complained of having been underpaid.
, .
(3) insists upon the fact that... (. 79, 3.)
, ...
insists on coming.
, .
, .
insists on Betty and Lizzie apologizing.
, .
(5) I will see to everything. .
(6) Can you swear to having paid the money?
, ?
Can you swear to his having paid you the money?
, ?
(7) You may depend upon their support.
.
(8) insisted upon his innocence.
.
(9) boasted of having never been defeated at chess.
, .
112
rejoice (4) grieve . rejoice , , grieve-- that (I grieve that ... , ...).
N 63 ( 24 )
35. - , , ( that). . (, ), , .
 + () () 1 Have you decided (upon) where you will spend the holidays? 2 Have you decided (upon) where to put the piano? 3 Everything depends on whether you pass the examination. 4 I don't care whether he approves or isapproves. 5 I don't care about where you go. 6 Don't worry how the money was spent. 7 They couldn't agree about who should do the work.
1. , ?
2. , ?
3. -, .
4. (), .
5. (), .
6. , ( ) .
7. , .

15, (. 26, N 30).
113
25
36. to. . 2. 25 6 .
N 64 ( 25 )
36. .
 + to 1 We stopped to have a rest. 2 I am waiting to hear your explanation. 3 Somebody has called to see you. 4 We went to see the Exhibition. 5 He got up to answer the bell. 6 I stood up to see better. 7 I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. 8 They ran to help her. 9 Would you care to go for a walk? 10 She longed to know how -the children were get ting on. 11 They agreed to join us. 12 Don't hesitate to refuse if you think the plan is unwise.
1.. .
2. .
3. -- .
4. . .
5. , , .
6. , , .
7. ( ), , .
8. .
9. ?
10. , . .
11. .
12. , , , .

(1) We stopped (in order) to have a rest. stop 17 ( N 32).
114
(9) : Would you care for a -walk? ( 24)
(10) : She longed for news of the children. ( 24) .
(11) : They agreed to our suggestion. ( 24) . .
(12) : Hesitate about (something). ( 24) (-).
N 65 ( 25 )
36. ().
 + to 1 He came to see that he was mistaken. 2 How do you come to know that? 3 Now that I come to think of it... 4 How can I get to know her? 5 He lived to be ninety. 6 You will live to regret it. 7 Will he live to finish his great work? 8 The news proved (turned out) to be true. 9 He is growing to be more obedient.
1. , .
2. ?
3. , ...
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. ?
8. - ().
9. .

grows 65.
stand :
We stand to lose a large slim of money.
.
115
N 66 ( 25 )
36. (Coordinate Clause).
 + 1 awoke to find the house on fire. 2 The drunken man awoke to find himself in prison. 3 The good old days have gone never to return. 4 The jet air-liner has come to stay. 5 I rejoice to hear of your success. 6 I grieve to hear of your failure. 7 She shuddered (trembled) to think of it.
1. (, ) .
2. , .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. () .

:
(1) awoke and found the house on fire.
(2) The drunken man awoke and found himself in prison.
(3) The good old days have gone and will never return.
(4) The jet air-liner has come and will continue to be used.
(5) I rejoice because I hear of your success. ( . : I rejoice at the news of your success. . .)
(7) She shuddered when she thought of it. (: She shuddered at the thought of ... ...)
116
N 67 ( 25 )
36 . (2--5) *.
 + 1 I fail to see what you mean. 2 We happened to be there. 3 I chanced to meet him in the park. 4 He appeared to enjoy the concert. 5 They seemed not to notice it. 6 The swimmer failed to reach the shore.
1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. -, .
5. , ,
6. .

:
(1) I do not see what you mean.
(2) We were there by chance (by accident).
(3) I met him by chance in the park.
(4) He apparently enjoyed the concert.
(5) Apparently (seemingly) they did not notice it.
(6) The swimmer did not reach the shore.
N 68 ( 25 )
36 . to be (am, is, are, was, were) ( , ( ) . .). must, ought, can, could, will **.
________________________
* (2), (3), (4) (5) ( + ).
** 1--11 , be .
117
 + (+ ...) 1 John and I are to meet at the station at six o'clock. 2 We are to be married in May. 3 We were to be married in May. 4 We were to nave been married in May. 5 At what time am I to come? 6 Where am I to put this box? 7 Am I to stand here for ever? . 8 You are always to knock before you come into my room. 9 I am to inform you that... 10 Nobody is to know. 11 How am I to pay my debts? 12 The purse was not to be found. 13 As I was about to say... 14 This I was only to learn later. 15 He was never to see his wife or children again. 16 The new building is to be six stories high.
1. .
2. .
3. . .
4. .
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. , .
9. , ...
10. .
11. ?
12. ( ).
13. ...
14. .
15. .
16. .

, , :
118
(1) John and I have arranged, (agreed) to meet... () have been asked (told) to meet....
() ... ( ) ...
(2) We have agreed (arranged) to marry...
() ...
(3) We agreed (arranged) to marry...
() ...
(4) We had agreed (arranged) to marry in May (but we didn't marry).
( ).
(5) At what time do you wish-me to come?
, ?
(6) Where shall I put... (Where would you like me to put...?)
...? , ...?
(7) Must I stand ,..? Do you expect me to stand here ...?
:.? , ...?
(8) You must always knock...
() ...
(9) I am instructed to inform you ...
...
(10) Nobody must know.
.
(11) How can I pay my debts?
() ?
(12) The purse could not be found.
.
(13) As I was on the point of saying...
- ...
(14) I did not learn this until later.
.
(15) It was his destiny never to see...
...
(16) The new building is designed to be...
( )...
N 69 ( 25 )
36. go Continuous ( 1--5), ( 6-11) , -
119
, ( 12 13).
 + (am, is, are, was, were) going ( to) 1 Is it going to be fine tomorrow? 2 The shortage is going to continue. 3 He felt he was going to be sick. 4 It's going to rain soon. 5 The work is going to be more difficult than I expected. 6 Where are you going to spend your holidays? 7 I'm going to finish this work before six o'clock. 8 When is she going to help you? 9 We're going to plant some apple-trees here. 10 Are you going to learn Russian? 11 She said she was going to have her own way. 12 I'm going to tell you a story. 13 She's going to have a baby.
1. ?
2. (), , .
3. , ( : ).
4. .
5. , .
6. ?
7. .
8. ?
9. .
10. ?
11. , -.
12. .
13. .
. 116 112.

II
(TIME AND TENSE)
37. . . . , . . . , , , , . , .
: (Simple Present Tense), , he writes (Simple Past Tense), , he wrote ().
, , . :
A: How does Mr. Brown earn his living?
?
: sells books. .
-- sells, , . , .
:
The liner sails for New York at 3.00 p. m. tomorrow.
- 3 .
-- sails, .
, , (Present Tense), (Past Tense) (Future Tense) , , .
121
(COMPOUND TENSES)
38. .(Present Tense, Past Tense), . . be have.

I am writing a letter now. .
I have written three letters today. .
said that he had been writing since two o'clock. , .
be have (Auxiliary Verbs). . 1 . do , . , 2.

39. 38, , . , may -- might, must, ought, need, should (. 1 ), , ( ), , , , , , ..
, , . (Moods). should, would, must, . ( modal modus -- . mood.)
39. : (Indicative), (Imperative) (Subjunctive) *.
________________________
* , , (, , ), (, , , . .), ( , , ). , , should would. (must, can, may) .
122
(Indicative Mood) .
(Imperative Mood) . : Shut the door, please! , , ! Hurry up! ! Don't do-that! e !
(Subjunctive Mood) - . , , .
Subjunctive Mood - : Long live our country! ! Heaven forbid that...! ! Grammar be hanged! !
, .
V. may, , , .
You may remember the evening we first talked about going to London.
, , . .
may perhaps:
Perhaps you remember the evening we first talked about going to London.
may, remember.
remember ; perhaps.
, ., . . V.
128
WRITE
40. , .
 1 2 (Simple Present Tense) (Present Continuous Tense) I write I am writing You write You are writing He writes He' is writing We write We are writing They write They are writing 3 4 (Simple Past Tense) (Past Continuous Tense) I wrote I was writing You wrote' You were writing He wrote He was writing We wrote We were writing They wrote They were writing 5 6 (Future Tense) (Future Continuous Tense) I shall write I shall be writing You will write You will be writing He will write He will be writing We shall write We shall' be writing They will write They will be writing 7 8 (Present Perfect) (Present Perfect Continuous) I have written I have been writing You have written You have been writing He has written He has been writing We have written We have been writing They have written They have been writing 9 10 (Past Perfect) (Past Perfect Continuous), I had written I had been writing You had written You had been writing He had written He had been writing We had written We had been writing They had written They had been writing
124
 11 12 (Future Perfect) (Future Perfect Continuous) I shall have written You will have written He will have written We shall have written They will have written I shall have been writing . You will have been writing He will have been writing We shall have been writing They will have been writing

41. , . . - , . . , .
42.
42. ( ), , () , . . . .. (Present Continuous). , (, now, today), .
What is she doing now? She's mixing a cake.
? .
The boys are playing tennis in the park.
() .
What is the orchestra playing?
?
Present Continuous Tense , , , , .
Mr. Green is writing a letter now.
(. . . ) .
Mr. Green is writing another novel.
. ( , , . , , , .)
125
: Mr. Green writes novels. (. 43.) ().
Harry .is playing football now.
.
Harry is playing in the first eleven this season. (cm. 52.)
.
:
Harry plays football well. (. 43.) .
42. , , (Simple Present Tense). - , , . Simple Present Tense . Simple Present Tense , . : I'm going to the door, I'm opening it, I'm shutting it. , , . . : % I go to the door, I open it, I shut it... (cm. 43, . 496.)
: I sift the flour, salt, and baking powder into a bowl. I mix them well. Then I break the eggs into a cup. If they are good, I add them to the mixture in the bowl. Then I beat the mixture thoroughly.
, , . . , . .
Whenever I make this kind of batter -- , , () .
42. Simple Present Tense , here there. . 34, N 59.
Here he comes!
!
Here comes the bus!
!
There she goes!.
!
There goes the bell!
!
Present Continuous Tense.
is coming.
.
The- bus is coming.
.
The bell is ringing.
, .
126
42. continue . Simple Present Tense, , go on.
The weather continues cold and wet.
. (: It is still raining. .)
The war goes on, with all its hardships and horrors.
, .
, go on . , What's going on here? ?
42. Simple Present Tense, .
Do you hear a strange noise?
? ( : % Are you hearing a strange noise?)
. 53--57.
42. . .
likes fish..
.
knows French.
.
. " ", 58--60.
, Present Continuous Tense , ; , , , , : It is raining.. . Continuous, , . , () . (),
43.
43. , - , , (Simple Present Tense).
The sun shines during the day.
.
127
Birds fly.
.
The River Nile rises in Central Africa.
.
The earth moves round the sun.
.
Horses are animals.
-- .
Twice two is four.
.
" ". , , , , .
-.
Mr. Green writes novels.
.
John prefers films to stage plays.
.
My cat likes fish.
.
"" - (Simple Present Tense) . 58-- 60 " ".
42. .
It says in the Bible, "Thou shalt not steal." : " !"
The author of this book says that... , ... ( , , .)
I see in this week's "Spectator" that... "" , ...
The newspaper says that it's going to be cold today. , .
Simple Present Tense , , , , . , . , , Simple Present Tense.
128
John says in this letter that he's enjoying his holidays.
, .
, , .
The weather report this morning said that we should have rain.
, --, , .
, , .
43. get Present Perfect Tense. I've got , I have. . 46, .
Has your father got a motor car? ?
How many books have you got? ?
What long hair you've got! !
44.
44. , , (Simple Past Tense). , , ago . (. 99, .N 80.) , , . 99. ( 1--4), ( 5--7). ( 8--10) , .
1. was born in 1906.
1906 .
2. The First World War. began in 1914.
. 1914 .
3. Harry came to see me yesterday.
.
4. I heard the news an hour ago.
.
5. The Greens lived in Ireland during the war.
.
129
6. She studied music while she was in Paris.
, .
7. Most of our cathedrals were built during the Middle Ages.
.
8. I bought this fountain pen in London.
.
9. Did you sleep well?
? ( , , , .)
10. Napoleon marched his army to Moscow.
.
() , .
11. woke at seven, got out of bed, washed, shaved, dressed, went downstairs, had breakfast, put his overcoat on, hurried to the bus stop, and caught a bus to the station.
, , , , , , , , .
() , (Past Perfect), . 46.
44. ( ), , , (Past Continuous).
1. When George arrived home, his sister was listening to the wireless.
, ,
2. Where were you living when the war broke out?
, ?
3. I saw Mr. Grey while I was walking to school.
, .
4. The boy was knocked down by a bus while he was crossing the street.--
, .
5. We were playing tennis in the garden when you telephoned.
, ( ).
6. Was it still raining when you came in?
, ?
7. My hat blew off while I was crossing the bridge.
, .
130
8. Mary fell and broke her leg while she was skating.
, .
9. The sun was just setting as we reached home.
, .
10. I dropped my watch while I was winding it last night.
, .
44. , , , , , .
1. What were you doing all morning? ?
2. She was listening to the wireless all evening. .
3. The girls were making cakes this morning. .
4. She was writing letters all afternoon. .
( , . .). , , . :
1. What did you do this morning? ?
2. She listened to the wireless yesterday evening. .
3. The girls made some cakes this morning. .
4. She wrote some letters in the afternoon. .
. , :
"Did you hear about that terrible motor-car accident on the Dover Road last week?"
" ( ) ?" :
"Yes, Black told me about it." (, .)
:
"Oh, Brown was telling me about it yesterday." (, .)
131
, , , . , , , .
44. , .
1. While I was sowing seeds, Harry was digging up potatoes and George was picking plums.
(), , .
2. Martha was cleaning the windows and Helen was polishing the forks and spoons.
, .
, , , , . (1) :
I sowed some seeds, Harry dug up some potatoes, and George picked plums.
, , .
44. . 51.
44. , . " " , (, ) *.
The messenger arrives with news of the disaster. At once preparations are made to send relief to the victims of the flood. Boxes of food and bundles of clothing are loaded on to lorries,...
. . ...
____________
* . " " .
132
(" ") , .
So she goes up to the policeman. "There's a burglar in my house!" she says. "Are you sure of that?" asks the policeman. "Yes", she says. So the policeman goes to her house and starts looking for the burglar.
: " . - !" " , ?" -- . "", -- . .
45. ,
45. , .
, , , (Present Perfect Tense). :
has often been to Amsterdam. .
. , . , .
, , . , since the end of the war -- during the last ten years -- , (often -- , never -- ). , , .
1. Have you (ever) read "David Copperfield"? (-) " "?
2. Have you had any serious illness? - ?
3. It has been known to snow here in May! , !
4. Have. you ever been up in an airplane? - ?
5. I have never known her to be angry. .
6. Mr. Brown has never had to punish his children. .
133
7. Mr. White has been to Burma. . (: Mr. White has gone to Burma. .
Present Perfect Tense, , 456. Mr. White has been to Burma , - , -: Mr. White has gone to Burma , .)
45. , , .
Present Perfect Tense , , . ( ) .
1. I've come toschool without my glasses (so now I can't see to read).
( .)
2. She has spent many years in France (so now she probably knows a lot about France and the French).
( , , ).
3. Mr. Green has bought a motor-car (so now he needn't use buses and trams).
( -).
4. Mr. Grey has been out of work,for several months (so now he and his family are short of money).
( ).
5. I've finished my work (so now I can sit back and rest).
( ).
6. You haven't finished, your work (so you must still go on working).
( ).
7. The man has called for the rent (so now you will have to pay him).
(, ).
8. I've bought a copy of the "Concise Oxford Dictionary" (so now I possess this dictionary).
(, ).
134
9. Who has eaten all the cherries? ' (Who is to be blamed for the fact that there are now no cherries?)
? ( , ?)
10. Mr. White has gone to Burma (so now he is not here).
( ). (. N 7, 45 .)
45. , , , , , (Present Perfect Continuous).
1. She lias been waiting to see you since two o'clock.
( ).
2. I've been wanting to see you about several important matters.
( ) , .
3. They've been studying English for three years.
.
4. It has been raining since early morning.
.
5. The baby has been crying all morning.
.
6. has been working late every evening this week.
(. . ).
7. I've been reading "David Copperfield" this week.
" ". (, .
Copperfield" this week -- , . . . ,
: I have read "David Copperfield", Present Perfect, 45. -
.)
8. She has been taking violin lessons this year.
. (, .)
9. They have been living in England since 1948.
1948 . ( , .
: At various times they have lived in Persia, Japan, Egypt, and Nigeria. , . , . . 45.)
135
10. I have been writin letters all afternoon.
. (, , , ; , . 45. : I Have written half a dozen letters this afternoon. , . . . . 456.)
45. , ( ), , . , , , . Present Perfect Continuous.
1. I don't feel like going out this evening. I've been working in the garden all day.
. .
2. The children have been playing tennis. That's why they're so hot.
. .
3. Please excuse my dirty clothes. I've been cleaning out the cellar.
. . (: I've cleaned out the cellar. Now it's fit to store things in. . . , , , , . 456.)
4. Be careful! John-has been painting the door.
! . ( . . , , . : John has painted .the door. . , .)
5. We have been building a garage on to the house.
. ( , , , . , , -, : We have built a garage on to the house. .)
136
45. (Present Perfect Tense) just -- ( ), (Simple Past Tense) a moment ago, a few moments ago .. ( ). , just (have, has) ' , , a moment ago -- . (. 101 , 99.)
1. George has just gone out.
.
George went out a moment ago.
.
2. We've just finished breakfast.
.
We finished breakfast a few minutes ago.
.
3. It has just struck twelve. .
The clock struck twelve a short time ago. .
4. Mr. White has just rung up. .
Mr. White telephoned a few moments ago. .
5. The cat has just had kittens. .
The cat had kittens, not long ago. . just -- just -- , , , , :
...
You will just catch the bus if you hurry.
, .
just . 108.
45. , .
, , , ( ).
137
.
1. , since, , since (. 102, N 87).
We haven't seen George since 1950. 1950 .
I've had no news of him since he sailed for Singapore. , ..
since . I have been ( I am) here since two o'clock. .
2. for. . 102, N 87.
We haven't seen Helen for several months. . .
There has been no rain here for over three weeks. .
Have you been waiting long (for a long time)? ?
3. already-- yet -- , ().
Have the children gone to school yet?
? ( ?)
Has Torn left yet?
( )?
.
4. ever -- - never -- (). Have you ever been to Iceland? - ? I have never been down a coal-mine. .
( ever .)
5. : often -- , several times -- . . C. 100.
I've often been there.
.
I've read this book several times.
.
6. ( ) : today -- , this week (month, year . .) -- , , .
138
Have you done much work today?
?
I haven't seen Harry this week.
.
It has been raining all day.
( . ).
Torn hasn't come to school this morning.
.
(, all day, all night . . . This morning , , . : Did you get to school in time this morning? ?)
7. just -- , lately -- .
The cat has just had kittens.
.
She hasn't been well lately.
.
( recently -- , : was here quite recently. .)
8. so far -- , up to now -- , up to the present-- . .
So far we have had no trouble.
.
Up to the present, everything has been straightforward.
( , ).
46.
46. - ; - - , , (Past Perfect Tense). , , . .
1. As soon as the teacher entered the' classroom, he saw that one of the boys had drawn a sketch of him on the blackboard.
, , - .
139
2. When Brown came to the school in 1950, Green had already
been teaching there for five years.
1950 , .
, .
4. In 1950 he had been married (for) ten years.
1950 .
, .
6. On reaching the station, he found that his friends had just arrived.
, , - .
7. When Ali came to England in 1952, he had already learnt to speak English well.
1952 , -.
8. The bus driver was just about to start when he remembered that he had not filled the petrol tank.
, , .
9. We had got everything ready for them long before they arrived.
, .
10. They had been to several parties during the Christmas holidays.
.
46. , , . ago, (Past Tense), before -- , earlier -- , previously -- , , (Past Perfect Tense).
" ".
, () .
2. "They left the district a few months ago."
" ".
140
I was told that they had left the district a few months before (earlier, previously).
, .
3. "Where have you been? What have you been doing?"
" . ? ?"
, .
4. "George died two days ago."
" ".
They told me that George had died two days before.
, .
5. "I visited Naples two years ago."
" ".
Mary told me that she had visited Naples two years before.
, .
46. , (Past Tense). , , before.
opened the window before he got into bed. , .
The bus started just before I reached the bus stop. , () .
(Past Perfect Tense), , .
When he "had had his supper, he went to bed. ( ), .
: , . .
When the Queen entered-the. hall, the orchestra played the National Anthem. , .
When the Anthem had been played, the concert began. . , .
, , , : when, before, after, until, once, now that
141
as soon as. , , . .
1. a) When I reached the station, the train had already left.
, .
b) I reached the station after the train had left.
, .
c) I didn't reach the station until after the train had left
, .
d) The train (had) left before I reached the station.
() ,. .
2. a) When we got to the hall, the concert had already started. , .
b) We got to the hall after the concert had started.
, .
c) We didn't get to the hall. until after the concert had started.
, .
d) The concert (had) started before we got to the hall.
() , .
3. a) For several years after Green (had) left college, he was employed by an insurance company.
, .
b) When Green left college, he was employed for several years by an insurance company.
, .
4. a) As soon as they had finished breakfast, they ran out to play.
( ) , .
b) They ran out to play after they had finished breakfast.
, .

Id 2d , , before, (Past Tense) (Past Perfect), before .
3 3 .
142
46. when before, when after ' . , - , -- .
1. a) When the bell rang, we had finished our work. The bell rang after we had finished our work.
, , . , / .
b) When the bell rang, we had not finished our work. The bell rang before we had finished our work. , , . . , .
2. a) When I met George, he had already heard the news. I met George after he had heard the news.
, . , .
b) When I met George, he had not yet heard the news. I met George before he had heard the news. , . , .
3. a) When Tom called to see me, I had already had breakfast. Tom called to see me after I had breakfast. , . , . b)When called to see me, I had not had breakfast. Tom called to see me before I had had breakfast. , . , .
4. a) When the thief was caught, he had already disposed of the stolen goods. The thief was caught after he had disposed of the stolen goods. , . , .
b) When the thief was caught, he had not yet disposed of the stolen goods. The thief was caught before he had disposed of the stolen goods. , : , - .
5. a) When we reached the football ground, the game had already started. We reached the football ground after the game had started. . , . , .
143
b) When we reached the football ground, the game had not yet started. We reached the football ground before the game had started.
, . , .
46. hope, expect, think, intend, mean ( ), suppose, want , , , , . . .
1. We had hoped that you would be able to visit us,. , .
2. I had meant (intended) to call on you, but was prevented from doing so. () , ( ).
3. She had thought of paying us a visit but the bad weatfter made her change her plans. , .
4. I hadn't expected that. That was something I hadn't expected. . - .
5. They had wanted to, help but couldn't get here in time. , .
6. I hadn't for a minute supposed (expected) that I should get the first prize. ( ), . ( . - .)
7. We had intended to go to Wales this summer. .
(Perfect Infinitive).
(2) I meant (intended) to have called on you but... (, ) ... (7) We intended'to have gone to Wales... ...
, , .
144
47.
47. : (Future Tense) will shall . , (, , . .). V . , V.
47. , , " " ("Pure Future"). .
1. Tomorrow will be Sunday. .
2. My father will be seventy-five in May. .
3. I shall be fifty next birthday. .
4. The holidays will soon be here.
5. Next century will begin on the first of January, 2001. 1- 2001-.
6. On June the twenty-first the sun will rise at 3.42 and set at 8.18. 3 42 8 18 .
7. Will there be time to visit both the Museum and the Art Gallery? ?
8. How long will the work take? ?
47. (, . .). , . (2) (3) , , . . , , . , - , (Future Tense), , . -
145
( ) .
1. If you go out in all this rain, you'll get wet.
, .
2. If you start at once, you'll arrive by six o'clock.
, .
3. What shall we do if it rains on the day fixed for the sports meeting?
, ?
4. Unless the train is delayed by fog, we shall' arrive at three o'clock.
, .
5. I'm sure he'll come if you ask him.
, , .
6. They will be able to speak English well a year from now provided they work hard.
-, .
7. The fog won't clear .until there's a wind to blow it away.
, .
8. We shall never finish the work if we go on at this slow rate.
, .
, .
10. You'll never save any money while you're so extravagant.
, .

1- will shall. I'll we'll. shan't, " ", won't, (. 110). shall you will you . 109.
47. , - , (Future Continuous). . 1--6. , , . . 7--10.
1. I wonder what he will be doing at this time tomorrow?
, .
146
2. If you don't write, everybody will be wondering what has happened to you.
, , .
3. His children will be waiting at the airport to greet him.
.
4. In a few days' time I shall be enjoying the, sunshine of West Africa, instead of shivering here in an English winter.
, () .
5. When I get home, my wife will probably be listening to the wireless.
, ., , .
6. Let's hope it won't still be raining when we have to go to school.
, , .
7. We shall be travelling all night. .
8. I shall be playing tennis all afternoon.
.
9. says he will be working late every evening next week.
, .
10. Harry will be doing his military service next year.
.
47. , , 113; .
, .
I leave for Dublin tomorrow.
.
Professor Black retires next. year.
.
We dine with the Whites on Tuesday.
() .
( ...), ( ).
.
147
We're going to Dublin next week.
.
I'm taking the children to the Zoo on Sunday.
.
What are you doing tomorrow?
( ) ?
Where are you spending your next summer holidays?
( ) ?
.
We shall be going to Dublin next week.
.
. 113, .
47. , , , , : be ( to). 113 36 ( N 68).
47. , going to + . :
I shall work harder next term.
.
I'm going to work harder next term.
() .
, . . 1126.
, , - . :
There will be rain over Southern England during the night.
.
:
It's going to rain soon. look: at' those black clouds.
. . . 116, . will--would 116.
47. , . shall will , . 110, .
148
47. Will shall , . 122. , , - (. 111). will shall , , . 109, , , .
47. , sure certain , to.
He's sure to be there.
.
They're certain to need help.
.
It's sure to rain.
.
47. to come, , , : in the years to come .
47. , .
I will pay you when (if) I have the money.
, () .
We'll go home when the rain stops,
. , .
I'll come as soon as I've finished writing this letter.
, .
, , .
If I had the money (in future, or now) I should pay you what I owe.
( ), .
48. ,
48. , - , ', (Future Perfect Tense). . (Future Tense) ", (Future Perfect Tense) .
149
, .
, , . :
1. In six months from now I shall probably be-in India.
, , .
2. By this time next year I shall have crossed three oceans and (shall) have seen four or five continents.
( , ) .
. (3) . (4) .
3. I shall finish this work before five o'clock.
.
4. I shall have finished this work by five o'clock (and shall then be able to sit back and rest).
( ).
" , , . :
5. By this time next year George will have taken his university degree.
.
6. When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for four years.
, ( , ) .
(5) , ; (6) , . .
48. *. . 116.
You will have heard the news.
, (),
________________
* . : ? (. . , ?) , (. . ) ?
150

,
49.
49. . : be in the habit of + have the habit of + :
He is in the habit (has the habit) of scratching his head when he is puzzled.
, .
Mr. Black is in the habit of staying up late at night to read.
.
Are you in the habit of reading in bed?
?
49. , (Adverbials of Frequency) (. 100).
The 2.00 train never stops at that station.
.
Mary often arrives at school late.
.
Harry gets up at seven o'clock every day.
.
You take both milk and sugar in your tea, don't you?
, ?
At what time do you (usually) have lunch?
() ?
This periodical appears once a week.
.
Why don't you shut the door quietly when you come in?
( ), ?
The child cries whenever she goes to the dentist's.
, .
We wear woollen clothes in winter.
.
49. always, continually, constantly, perpetually, for ever ; , .
151
He's always grumbling.
.
His wife is always wanting money for new clothes.
.
Her husband is continually complaining of being hard up.
.
49. , , , can ( could) .
She,can-(could) be very sarcastic (charming, etc.).
() () . . (. . () . .).
Children can be a great nuisance.
( ) .
The Bay of Biscay can be very rough.
.
The English climate can be pretty grim in winter.
. ( .)
50.
50 . - (), will to ( 1- ). , . , , .
Sometimes the machine will go wrong without any apparent cause.
- .
Af times he will work for six or seven hours without stopping.
- .
She will sit outside her garden gate for hours at a time, looking at the passing traffic.
, .
50 . will , , .
152
Accidents, will happen.
. ( , .)
Boys will be boys.
. ( , . ., , .)
51.
51 . , , ( ). (Adverbials of Frequency).
There was a cinema here before the war. .
When he lived in London he went to the theatre once a week.
, .
Whenever I went to the theatre, I sat in the cheapest seats.
, ( ).
During the summer we went swimming every day.
.
She always invited me to her dinner parties.
.
51 . used to (. 10 ).
There used to be a cinema here before the war.
.
used to play football before his marriage.
() .
People used to think (it used to be thought) that the sun travelled round the earth.
() , ' .
Life is not so easy here as it used to be.
, .
You used to smoke a pipe, use(d)n't you? ( didnt you?)
, , , ?
That's where I used to live when I was a boy.
, .
51 . be in the habit of + have the habit of + (. 42).
153
He was in the habit (had the habit) of scratching his head when he was puzzled.
, - ( )..
51. always . (. 49).
was always grumbling.
.
She was for ever asking her husband for money with which to buy new clothes.
.
51. , ( ), would to.
would cycle to school on .fine days and would take the bus only when the weather was bad.
, .
She would often come home tired out.
.
Sometimes the boys would play tricks on their elder brother.
.
52. ,
52. , , , ' , , , . . ( ), 42.
They usually have breakfast at eight o'clock, but. this week, because Mr. Brown has to walk to the office instead of going by car, they're having breakfast at half past seven.
, , - , , , .
They usually have ( ) , they're having ( ) , .
They're having breakfast now , .
154
was taking his children out much oftener in those days. . ( . took (used to take) his childeren to the park every Sunday , , .) We're having very cold weather at present. . : We usually have cold weather in January. . We've, been having a lot of rain lately.
(. . ).
We've had a 1ot of rain. ( ).

53. , , . -- see, hear, smell, taste, feel. -- notice, observe, recognize .
, , , , , - , .
54. see hear look at listen to. , , . (seeing) (hearing) -- , " . see look, hear listen :
I saw a man go past, but I didn't look at him.
, - , .
They heard the teacher saying something, but didn't listen to him.
, - , .
see hear can (could), . look see, listen hear :
155
I looked out of the window, but it was dark and I saw (could see) nothing.
, , ( ).
We listened carefully, but heard (could hear) nothing.
, ( ).*
see hear , can (could).
Do you see that green bird near the stream?
?
Can you see Mary anywhere in the audience?
- ?
Do you see what they are doing? , ?
Can you see what 1 have written on the blackboard?
, ?
Did you see Harry yesterday?
?
you hear what the speaker is saying?
, ?
Do you hear someone moving, about in the next room?
, - ?
Did you hear a strange noise?
. - ?
look listen ( , ).
was looking at some old photographs.
.
Are you listening to the wireless? (If not, please switch it off.)
? ( , .)
see , , ; , , , : see somebody off (up, down, out) -- - ( , , , ), see to -(something) -- (-). see . see .
I'm seeing my dentist this afternoon.
.
______________
* can (cannot) see " ", () - , . .
156
is seeing a lot of Mary these days. ( ) .
When you saw me at the airport this morning I was seeing a friend off. , .
I was just seeing a visitor out. ( ) .
Who is seeing to the arrangement for the-next meeting? ?
hear , . , :
Which judge is hearing the case? () ?
Hear . . My brother was hearing my recitation. , .
55. smell -. , can smell. Do you smell something burning? , ? The horses smelt the" water a mile off. . We could smell the dinner cooking in the next room. ( ) , .
, can smell *.
Can you smell an escape of gas?
?
smell , .
It smells sweet (sour, nice, disgusting, etc.),
(, , . .).
She smells of garlic.
.
smell , , . . , , , .
The dog was smelling the lamp-post.
.
________
* . 54.
157
She was smelling the fish to find out whether it was fit to eat.
, , .
56. taste, smell, -.
The milk tastes sour.
.
Can you taste the ginger in this cake?
?
She was tasting the sauce to find out whether it was salt or sugar she had put into it.
, , .
57. feel:
These sheets feel damp.
.
This feels like silk.
.
I feel cold (warm, comfortable, ill, etc.).
(, , . .).
The doctor was feeling the boy's arm to see whether the bone was broken.
, , . ( .)

58. see , . see , . . .
I can see the force of your argument.
() .
I see what you mean.
(), .
see , . , : % I am seeing what you mean.
59. , see, . , , , know -- , understand --, like-- , dislike -- . , -- , , , , , -
158
; (, like. dislike, know, understand) (Non-Conclusive Verbs). , , , , . , , . , : I am learning French , , . : I know French I understand French, , , , ( ). , , know understand . .
60. ( ):
1. , : agree, disagree, believe, disbelieve, differ, doubt, find, foresee, forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recall, recognize, recollect, remember, suppose, think (that) ( ), trust, distrust, understand.
2. , : desire, detest, feel (that), forgive, hate, hope, like, dislike, love, mind ( ), please, displease, prefer, want, wish.
3. :- appear ( ), belong (to), consist (of), contain, depend, deserve, equal, find, matter, possess, resemble, result, seem, suffice.
, , .
I differ from you on that point.
( ) -.
is always differing with his fellow-teachers.
-.
( always . 49.)
I doubt whether he will come.
, .
Do you doubt my word?
?
He's always doubting my word.
. ( always . . 49.)
159
I foresee no difficulty.
.
was always foreseeing difficulties that never occurred.
, .
I find that I was mistaken. (, ), .
You're continually finding fault with me. . (. 49.)
I'm finding that this problem is more complicated than I had expected. (), , .
We're finding out what really happened. (), .
I forget his name.
, .
I forget the French word for 'ankle'.
He , ' - "".
He's forgetting his French.
. ( , , .
.)
Dear me, I'm forgetting my umbrella!
Ax, ! ( .)
I'm forgetting ( , I almost forgot) that I, promised to visit Smith this evening.
, .
, ? ( , , .)
I don't imagine that taxes will be reduced this year.
( , ), , .
He's always imagining dangers that do not exist.
, . (. 49.)
She was imagining all sorts of terrible things that might happen to her if she were left in the house alone.
, , .
160
I think it's going to rain.
, .
We're thinking of going to Scotland for our holidays.
. () .
I distrust that man.
.
He's always distrusting his own judgement.
. (. 49.)
I feel that you are right.
(, ), .
She's feeling better today. She feels better today.
. ( .)
Do you like fish?
? ( , .)
How are you liking your new job?
? ( , , , , .)
Do you mind if I open the window?
?
Mr. White is minding (looking after) the baby while his wife is out shopping.
, .
It depends upon circumstances.
, ( .)
I depend upon you. I am depending upon you. ( .)
.
You deserve to succeed.
.
is deserving ( = worthy) of praise.
. ( deserving , , .)
Torn wants to be a doctor.
- .
What's, he wanting this time, I wonder?
, ? ( , , , .)
161
That woman is wanting (deficient) in tact.
( ) . ( wanting, is .)
There are two pages wanting from this book.
.

61. Inchoative Verbs , , . get, become, grow..
The old man is getting weaker.
( ).
Green has become the richest man in the town.
() .
It is growing dark.
. ( :)
come, go, turn, fall, run, wear.
Will her dream come true?
?
Everything has gone wrong.
( , ).
The leaves are turning brown.
(: ).
soon fell asleep.
.
Our supplies are running low.
.
The carpet is wearing thin.
.
wax -- , . , , to wax eloquent -- .
62. 22 (. N 56) 25 (. N 65). (grow fat -- ), (become a lawyer -- ), . (fall to pieces -- ), to (come to believe that ... -- , ...).
162
. (, come true --, fall asleep--). , : grow (get, become) dark -- (). .
63. Get . . ( ) , . Get .
It's getting dark.
.
Eggs are getting scarcer.
.
It's getting near tea-time.
.
often gets (becomes) quarrelsome when he's been drinking.
, .
We're all getting (growing) older.
( ).
Do you know any get-rich-quick methods?
- ?
get ( to) become. get , : got to know -- . (. 366, N 65.)
The children didn't like living in the country when they first moved from London, but they're getting to like it (becoming fond of it).
, , , .
He's getting to be (is becoming) quite a good pianist. () .
They got to be (*became) friends. () .
got to be (*became) my best friend. () .
soon got to know (learnt) the wisdom of being patient. (), .
They got to words and then to blows. , .
Does she often get (*fall) ill? ?
163
get rid of, get clear of, get out of (doing something) -- , , (-).
64. become, get, .
How did they become (get) acquainted?
-?
She became (grew) suspicious.
() .
You will soon become (get) accustomed to the climate.
.
Our work is becoming more interesting.
.
The child became (*grew) pale and thin.
.
When it became (* grew, fell) dark ...
,...
When these sums (payments, bills) become (*fall) due,...
,...
His mind is becoming unhinged.
.
The leaves become (*turn) red in autumn.
.
become ( get) .
On leaving school he became a bank clerk.
.
Green soon became the richest man in the town.
.
Mr, A. became a Director of the Company in 1942.
. 1942 .
became Chairman of the Board of Directors in 1950.
1950 .
Director Chairman. , , , .
Are you likely ever to become a headmaster? - ?
When Arnold became Headmaster of Rugby,... ,...
164
When Churchill became Prime Minister,... -,...
Become . come of age -- , become of age; get out of order -- , become out of order.
Become .
65. Grow , .
Time is growing (getting) short.
- .
The air had suddenly grown (*turned) cold.
.
She trembled and grew faint.
.
If's growing (getting, becoming) dark.
.
The child is growing thinner.
.
The sea is growing calmer.
.
Grow ( - to be ). (" 366, N 65.)
She's growing (getting) to be more and more like her mother. .
She's growing to like him better. . .
grew to believe that... , ...
: came to believe that... , ... Grow .
66. Come , un-, .
Her dreams have come true. , .
The hinge has come loose. .
Everything will, come right in the end. .
When his first week's wages came (*fell) due,... ,..
165
My shoe laces have come undone.
.
The knot came untied.
.
The seam came .unstitched (unsewn).
().
The door came unhinged.
.
Come : come of age -- , come to pieces -- , come to grief -- .
Come . (. 366, N 65.)
How did you come to hear the news?
?
When the news came to be known,...
,... ,
She came to believe, that...
, ...
When I came to know them better, ...
,...
In some towns the streets have come to be used as parking places for motor-cars.
, .
67. Go , , ( ) . (: go wrung come right.)
She went (*turned) pale at the news.
, .
The milk went (*turned) sour.
.
.
,
His hair has gone (*turned) white.
.
He's going bald.,
.
.
Fruit quickly goes rotten in hot weather.
() .
.
166
Her cheeks went (*turned) a very pretty pink.
.
Go
. . went to sleep. .
She went to pieces in the second set.
( ).
68. Turn .
The weather has turned (become) much colder.
.
The apples are turning (becoming) red.
.
This ink turns black when it dries.
, .
The milk has turned sour.
.
Turn ; .
I hope you'll never turn thief (become a thief).
, ( ) .
Is it wise for a great general to turn politician?
?
When her servant left to have a baby Mrs. Green had to turn cook.
, (. . ).
Turn .
When it freezes water turns to ice.
, .
The snow turned to rain.
.
The snow turned to (into) slush.
.
69. Wear , , .
The stone steps have worn smooth.
(, ).
167
The material is wearing thin.
. wear into holes () .
70. Run dry, low short, .
The well has run dry.
.
The cows are running dry.
( ).
Supplies are running short (low).
.
71. Fall ( , "" ).
fell ill (sick).
.
It fell (became, grew) dark.
.
When do the rates (taxes) fall due?
?
The post of headmaster fell (became) vacant.
.
soon fell asleep.
.
At the President's entry everyone fell (*became) silent.
, .
Fall , . . begin . on; .
fell to speculating on the probable reasons for her refusal to marry him,
( ) .
She fell a-sobbing ().
.
Fall " : fall out of favour -- - , fall behind the times -- , fall to, pieces -- () .

III
,
72. , I, , , , . , , , , , .

73. , (Noun), . (Adjectives) , . . , , (. 74), (larger, largest) (very good, too heavy). , (, , , ), , (, ), , (Adjective Equivalents) 87--94.
(Determinatives) , , , , . . (. 86).

74. . , :
a large box, red hair, tall boys, green ones.
169
: the Princess Royal -- . ( ) (: The boy is tall. . The pencil is red. .).
, , (), ( : We painted the door green. . What made him angry? ? Leave him alone. . They found the prisoner guilty. ).
, . (, afraid, asleep, awake, well) .. ( .) -en, , , .
(DETERMINATIVES)
75. ( ), , . , , . , "".
: a (an), all, another, any, both, certain, each, enough, every, few, half, last, least, less, little, many, more, most, much, next, no, other, myown (his own . .), same, several, some, such, that (those), the, this (these), whole.
.
(NOUN PATTERNS)
76. , , . ( ) .
1. + to (: in his anxiety to help -- ).
170
2. + , . (: her anxiety for news -- ).
3. + , that (: the fact that you speak French well -- . -).
4. + + () + (, his knowledge of how to do it -- , ; his knowledge of how Green had done it-- , ).

1
+
77. , , , . :
1. Another attempt to climb the mountain will be made next year.
.
(: They will attempt to climb the mountain again next year. .)
2. The Prime Minister's decision to resign was welcomed by the Opposition.
- .
(: The Prime-Minister decided to resign. - .)
3. Anne's desire to please her mother-in-law was clear to all of us.
.
(: Anne clearly desired to please her mother-in- law.
.)
4. She expressed a wish to earn her own living.
.
(: She wished to earn her own living. .)
5. The managing director announced his intention to retire.
.
(: said that he intended to retire. , .)
171
6. You have not kept your promise-to write to me more frequently.
, .
(: You promised to write to me more .frequently. . .)
7. You have need'to worry. (: .) .
(: You need not worry. You don't need to worry. (, ) .)
8. An agreement to differ is better than a noisy quarrel. ( ) .
(: We agreed to differ. . , .)
9. His refusal to help was a disappointment. :
(: refused to help. .)
(: Do you plan to live abroad? ?)
77. , , , to (. 82, 1),
1. His anxiety to go was obvious.
.
(: was obviously anxious to go. .)
2. She was dying with curiosity to know where we had been. , , .
(: She was very curious to know where... , ...)
3. was filled with ambition to become famous.
.
(: was ambitious to become famous. .)
4. I feel doubtful about his ability to do the work..
, .
(: Is he able to do the work, I wonder? , .)
77. , , , . . . , ( next last), -
172
. :
1. has a large family to support (=that he must support).
, . ( .)
2. Is this the way to do it (=in which it should be done)?
?
3. This is the best book on the subject to appear (=that has appeared) this year.
, .
4. The Government has announced new measures to deal with (=that are designed to deal with) inflation.
.
5. We have no garden to speak of (=that is worth speaking of).
.
6. There are many difficulties to overcome (=to be overcome, that will have to be overcome).
. ( .)
7. is not a man to trifle with (= to be trifled with, who can b.e trifled with).
, . ( , , .).
8. You have given me much to think about (== to be thought about, that I shall think about).
. . .
9. It's time to start (==time we, you, they, etc., started). (, , . .) .
10. The next man to come (=who came) was Grey. .
11. He was the first (man) to arrive (=that arrived) and the last to leave (=thal left). .
12. This is the fifth case of smallpox to occur (=that has occurred) in the town this year. . 13. There are still fifty runs to make (=to be made) and only one wicket to fall. 50 ( ).
14. She dwelt among the untrodden ways.
Beside the springs of Dove,
A maid whom there were none to praise,
And very few to love.
(Wordsworth)
173
,
,

.
(. . . )
15. You have no occasion (= cause) to feel alarmed. () .
16. If you ever have an opportunity to come and see me... ...
17. I am not going to be the one to bell the cat. (" ").
77. for , , , . .
Your plan to'start early is praiseworthy. .
Your plan for me to start early does hot appeal to me. , , . for:
1. There are several letters for the manager to sign.
, ( ).
2. Here is a new book for you to read.
, , . ( .)
3. Is there any need for you to hurry?
?
4. I'm in no hurry for him to start work.
, .
5. gave orders for the visitors to be shown in.
, .
6. The decree for the army to mobilize may be issued any day now.
.
7. It is time for the children to go to school.
.
8. Your plan for Mr. Brown to succeed Mr. Green seems excellent.
, .
174
9. I will post the books in plenty of time for them to reach you before you sail for South America. , .
10. There may be an opportunity for you to see the manager this afternoon.
, .

N 53 ( 33), for it.
It is an outrage for them to behave in that way.
.
for , that (. 79), :
(5) gave orders that the visitors should be shown in.
, .
(7) It is time the children went to school. ( time that, .)
.
2
+ ( )
78. , , . :
Dr. Brown specializes in chest diseases.
.
Dr. Brown is a specialist in chest diseases.
.
We were anxious for news of your safe arrival.
.
Our anxiety for news of your safe arrival is deep.
.
175
, . -: the girl with blue eyes -- , the girl in the corner -- , the girl by the window -- , a walk by the river -- , a walk in the moonlight -- . (. 93.)
2 , : a specialist in (chest diseases, lung surgery, etc.) -- ( , . .); the reason for (his absence, her late arrival, etc.) -- ( , : .); an attempt at (composition, etc.) -- ( . .); time for (breakfast, etc.) -- ( . .); dissatisfaction with (something) -- (-)*.
, . (, ' ), , . .
1. There is no need for anxiety.
.

(: You need not be anxious. . need to.)
2. Have you any use for this?
. - ?
(: Can you use this? . ? use .)
3. expressed dissatisfaction with my work.
.
(: was dissatisfied with my work.
.
dissatisfy , dissatisfaction with.)
4. Harry takes (a) great delight in teasing his little sister.
, .
(: Harry delights in teasing... , ... .)
5. There has been an attempt on the President's life.
.

( : to attempt somebody's life -- - . attempt .)
___________
* , , . -- , ..
176
6. This was his first attempt at English composition.
.
(: to attempt impossibilities -- .)
7. She has no idea of the value of money.
.
8. What's the reason for his absence?
?
9. We had a useful discussion cm the question of how to raise money for the new playing fields.
, .
(: We discussed the question of ... ...)
10. They have decided to hold an inquiry into the question.
.
(: to inquire into a question -- .)
11. Have they made any inquiries after me?
() ?
(: to inquire after someone -- , -.)
12. There was a quarrel about the division of the stolen goods.
- .
(: The thieves quarrelled about the division ... - ...)
13. We must make allowances for his youth and inexperience.
, .
(: We must allow for... ...)
14. She feels an aversion to the man.
.
(: She would probably be averse to marrying him. , , .)
15. I have not the least interest in his plans.
.
(: I am not at all interested in his plans. .)
16. In conformity with your instructions,.. ...
(: to conform with an order -- .)

. , (9) discussion on ( -- of, about), discuss , . . . 1.
177
, , . % We discussed about the question for over an hour : We discussed the question for over an hour. discussion discuss , , , : a discussion (with somebody, between X and Y) on (about) a problem -- - ( - -) - ( - );
to discuss a problem with somebody-- -.
, : an attempt on (against) somebody's life -- no - ; an attempt at English composition -- -. : to have a concern (= interest) in a business -- - , to feel concern (= anxiety) at something (for somebody's health) -- - ( - ).
, , . / , , , .
, for, . 77.

3
+
79. :
The news of her son's death was a great shock to her.
.
The news that her son had been killed was a great shock to her.
, , .
, that, news.
:
he-news that you brought was a great shock to her.
, , .
178
, that, (The news you brought her...). that which. The news that her son had been killed ... that . , that, , , it. :
There can be no doubt (about it) that he is the best man for the position.
He , .
There can be no doubt (about 'it) that he is the best man for the position.
He , .
3 .
1. The thought that she would be separated (the thought of being separated) from her husband during his long and dangerous journey saddened Mrs. Brown.
. , , .
2. The fact that her husband had (the fact of her husband having) a life assurance policy for ? 10,000 was a consolation to Mrs. Brown.
To, 10 000 ; .
3. expressed a hope that you would soon be well again (a hope for your quick recovery).
, ( ).
4. There can be no doubt that he is (no doubt of his being) intelligent. He , ().
5. I think there is little probability that they will succeed (little probability of their succeeding) in the attempt.
, . ( , .)
6. Is there any evidence that the accused men were (any evidence of the accused men being) in the village (on) the day the crime was committed?
- , ?
7. Is there any likelyhood (possibility) that the. Government will be (any likelyhood, possibility of the Government being) defeated?
( ), ? ( - , ?)
179
8. Rumours that an outbreak of rioting was likely (rumours of probable rioting) caused a panic among the shopkeepers.
( , ) .
9. Is there any certainty that they will carry out (any certainty of their carrying out) their undertakings?
- , ?
10. There were unmistakable proofs that Jimmy had been eating (proofs of Jimmy's having eaten) jam.
, () , .

, ,. that, . , that ( ). - : in spite of the fact that -- ; in view of the fact that -- ; on condition that -- , ; on the supposition that -- , ; on the giound(s) that -- , ; on the understanding that -- , ; with the exception that -- , .
N 52 ( 33), , that, , it:
It is a pity (that) you can't come.
, .
( ) . , (5) little probability of their succeeding; (10) proofs of Jimmy's having eaten.
; . , , , , . , : % the accused men's being in the village (6), % the Government's being defeated (7), Jimmy having eaten , Jimmy's having eaten (10).
180

4
(+ ) + +
80. :
Few people know how to do it. , .
Few people know how it should be done. , .
The knowledge of how to do it was not very common. , , .
The knowledge of how it should be done was not common. , , .
know 13 15. knowledge 4.
, that, . , , , . , , ; , , question, , - whether. about concerning as to.
. , , .
1. You can have no.idea (of) how anxious we have been (no idea of the anxiety we have suffered).
, .
2. I have no idea why she left (no idea of her reasons for leaving) so suddenly.
, .
3. I have no information about (as to, concerning) where she has gone, what she is doing, or when she is likely to be back.
, , .
4. I have not the least interest in what you propose to do.
, .
5. was in considerable doubt about (as to) whether he should accept the post (in doubt about the advisability of accepting the post).
, .
181
6. I'm in doubt (about, as to) whether I should go or not.
, .
7. I'm in doubt (about, as to) whether to go or not.
, .
8. There has been no news about when the lecturer will arrive (no news about the date of the lecturer's arrival).
He ( ), .
9. So far we have had no news as to which route the expedition has taken (no news -about the route ta,ken by the expedition).
, .
10. Take care how you cross these busy streets.
, ( ) . (: Take care f yourself. .)
11. His account of how he rescued the cat from the bottom of the well was quite dramatic.
, ( ) , .
12. Can you give me any information about (as to) when the committee will meet?
- ( ), ?
13. The problem f how to get the grand piano through the doorway baffled the workmen.
, , .
14. The question (of) whether to go to Wales or to Scotland for the holidays is still being discussed.
, , .
15. We must consider the question whether we can afford such huge sums for armaments.
, .
16. I sometimes ask myself the question whether it was worth the effort.
, - .
17. The question sometimes comes to my mind whether it was worth the effort () The question whether it was worth it sometimes comes to my mind.
, - .
182

:
(16) I sometimes ask myself the question, "Was it worth the effort?"
: " - ?"
(17) The question sometimes comes to my mind, "Was it worth the effort?"
: " - ?"
(16 ) (17)*.

81. . (; ) .
1. + (, anxious to go -- ).
2. + (, anxious for news-- ).
3. (+ ) + (, glad that you succeeded -- , ; anxious about how they got on -- , ).
1
+
82. You were unwise to accept his offer , Your acceptance of his offer was unwise, : ,, . Mary was cruel to refuse , Mary's refusal was cruel: , .
1 :
______________
* (16) question, . , , , , . , , . , .
183
() + + + (+...).
( 1) be, seem appear. , . .
(1) It was unwise of you to accept his offer.
, . .
(2) How unwise of you to accept his offer!
!
(. 33, N 50, . 22) it. , it, , . how, it is (was) *.
How unwise (it is) of you to accept his offer!
.
How unwise of you (it was) to go there alone!
!
1 .
1. You are very kind to say so. It's kind of you to say so. How kind of you to say so!
.
2. She was stupid to make such a mistake. It was stupid of her to make such a mistake. How stupid (it was) of her to make such a mistake!
, .
3. Mr. White was foolish to agree to the proposal. It was stupid of Mr. White to agree to the proposal. How stupid of Mr. White to agree to the proposal!
, .
4. Mr. Green was unwise to lend money to Mr. Black. It was unwise of Mr. Green to lend money to Mr. Black. How unvise of Mr. Green to lend money to Mr. Black! , .
______________
* - , , .
184
5. Mary was naughty to pull the kitten's tail.
It was naughty of Mary to pull the kitten's tail.
How naughty of Mary to pull the kitten's tail!
, .,
6. The boys were clever to see the solution of the problem so quickly.
It was clever of the boys to see...
How clever of the boys to see...
, .
7. Yon were wrong to contradict the professor.
It was wrong of you to contradict the professor.
How wrong of you to contradict the professor!
, . .
8. It was careless of you to leave your umbrella in the train.
, .
9. How ill-natured of her to say such things about you!
!
10. Wasn't it polite of Harry to offer his seat in the crowded bus to that old woman!
, , !
11. How considerate it was of Miss Brown not to worry you when you had so many things to do!
, , !
12. How impudent of them ta suppose that they would be invited to the party!
, !
13. How brave of'you to go into the burning building to save the cat!
, , !
14. It was good of Mrs. White to offer to help.
, .
15. It's wicked of them to say such things.
, . ( ) . it that.
Mr. X.: I've left my umbrella in the train.
Mrs. X.: That was very careless of you.
X -- .
X -- .
185
1 : absurd, bold, brave, careful, careless, civil, clever, considerate, inconsiderate, courageous, cruel, decent, foolish, good, grateful, ungrateful, honest, ill-natured, impudent, kind, unkind, naughty, nice, polite, impolite, rash, right, rude, saucy, silly, spiteful, stupid, thoughtful, thoughtless, wicked, wise, unwise, wrong.
82. , , N 1, , -. , . We were glad to see you . we see ().
( 15) , . regret , rejoice , grieve , (. 36, N 66, 25).
1. We were sorry not to see you at the meeting.
, . .
2. Everybody was anxious to know what had happened.
, .
3. The children were impatient to start.
.
4. I shall be happy to accept your kind invitation.
.
5. She's quite content to live at home with her parents.
.
6. You're not afraid to go alone, are you?
, ?
7. Anne was eager to please her parents.
.
8. I'm glad to know you were successful.
, ().
9. They were all wild (mad) to own bicycles like those of the neighbours' children.
, ( ) .
10. No one could be happier to learn of your success than I am.
, .
amazed, delighted, pleased, gratified, grieved, disappointed, shocked, surprised, horrified, thrilled, excited ( ).
186
11. We were delighted to hear of your success.
. ( ), .
12. We were grieved to learn of your husband's death.
. , ,
.
14. She was thrilled to learn that she had won a prize.
, , .
15. was mortified to learn that he had not been elected.
, , .
16. She is disappointed to know that you won't be able to come to her birthday party.
, . .

, , - (. 11--16), it ( 1).
It amazed (delighted, grieved, etc.) me (him, them, etc.) to hear (learn, etc.) that...
(, . .) (, . .) , ...
glad, sorry . . (. 84).
. ( .)
I shall be glad to come.
. ( .)
. ( .)
, , , .
I'm glad (that) I came. (I came here and I am glad now.)
, .
I was glad (that) I came. (I came and I was glad then.)
, .
, .
187
82. , ,- , . . , , for . .
1. Harry's parents are anxious for him to receive a good edacation.
, .
2. Mr. and Mrs. Green are not keen for their only daughter to marry a poor school teacher.
, .
3. I should be sorry for you to think I don't value your advice.
, , .
4. I'm quite willing for your brother to come with you.
- , .
5. Everyone is anxious for you to accept the position.
, , .
6. The children were impatient for the bus to start.
.
7. Anne was eager for her parents to meet the young man who had asked her to marry him.
, , .

- , that - if. should.
1. Harry's parents are anxious that he should receive a good education.
, .
3. I should be sorry if you should think I don't value your advice.
, , .
5. Everyone is anxious that you should accept the position.
, , .
188
for N 53 ( 33), it, :
It was hard for him to live on his small .pension. .
.
 ( ) For him to live on his small pension was hard. Everyone is anxious for you to accept the offer.
82. ( 1 ) .
1. You are certain to need (=will certainly, need) help. .
3. The weather is'sure to be (=will certainly be) wet. .
4. The old man is unfit to work (= unfit for work). ( ).
5. Is the house fit to live in (=fit for living in)? , , ( )?
6. is slow to sympathize (=slow in sympathizing) with others. ( ) .
7. was prompt to act (= prompt in acting). .
8. Was he willing to listen (= ready to listen willingly) to your arguments? ( ) ?
9. was quick to realize (= quickly realized) his advantage. ( ).
10. Our team'is bound to win (==.will win without a doubt). .
11. Which team is likely to win (=will probably win)? ?
189
12. You were lucky to escape being hurt (= lucky in not being hurt).
, . ( , ).
13. I. am unable to go (=cannot go) today.
( ) .
14. She is fortunate to have (= fortunate in having) such a kind husband.
, .
15. Who was the first (second, -next, last) to arrive? (Who arrived first, second, next, last?)
(, , )?
16. Cast iron is apt to break (=has a tendency to break).
.
17. We are liable to be (=run the risk of being) overheard here.
.
82. , too enough, so ( as).
1. Will you be kind enough to, help me with this heavy box?
, ( , ) .
2. Will you be so kind as to lend me your. pen?
He , ( ) ?
3. This book is too large to go in my pocket.
, ( , ) .
4. This book is small enough to go in my pocket.
, ( , ) .
5. I've been too busy to write. , , .
6. They were too tired to go any farther. , ( , ).
7. We were near enough to see everything. , ( , ).
8. We were too far away to see anything. , - ( , ).
9. You are old enough to know better. .
10. The child is too young to go to school. , .
190
82. , too enough, for, , , , for ( ).
1. The box is too heavy for you to lift.
, . .
2. They were standing near enough for us to overhear their conversation.
, ( , ) .
3. This town is far too wicked for a young and innocent girt tike you to live alone in.
, , , .
4. was then a tiny boy; now he is too. big for it to be desirable that I should mention his name.
; , .
it. : for any mention of his name by me to be desirable.
82. , , , Copies of this book are not easily found , 1, . . , : Copies of this book are not easy to find. 22 (. 33, . N 50), it, : It is not easy to find copies of this. book.
. 956.
1. This room is difficult to heat. (It is difficult to heat this room.) .
2. The paths were easy to find. (It was easy to find the paths.) . .
3. Has he been easy to get along with? (Has it been easy to get along with him?) ?
4. The story of their sufferings was painful to listen to. (It was painful to listen to the story of their sufferings.) .
191
5. Such extreme poverty must be hard to bear. (It must be hard to bear such extreme poverty.) , , .
6. She says her husband is hard to please. (She says it is hard to please her husband.) , .
7. The river is dangerous to bathe in. (It is dangerous to bathe in.the river.) .
9. Will the examination be hard to pass? (Will it be hard to pass the examination?) ?
(. . ). , . :
, -- . .
10. This nut is hard to crack. This is a hard nut. to crack. (It is hard to crack this nut.)
.
11. This room is pleasant to work in. This is a pleasant room to work in. (It is pleasant to work in this room.)
.
12. That question is hard to answer. That is. a hard question to answer. (It is hard to answer that question.)
.
13. That man is impossible to work with. He is an impossible man to work with. (It is impossible to work with that man.)
..
14. She's pleasant to talk to. She's a pleasant woman to talk to. (It's pleasant to talk to her.)
.

it , .
N 8 : Your question is impossible in respect of finding an answer. , , : % Your football team is impossible to win. -
192
it, : % It is impossible to win your team. : Your team cannot win , : It is impossible for your team to win, . . : Your team is likely (certain) to win , (), , , it, : It is likely (certain) that your team will. win.
2
+
83. , . . , , 2, . . , ., , , what. ( . 84.) , , , -ed. . ..
, -- , : angry at something -- -, angry with someone -- -, thankful to somebody for something -- - -, responsible to someone for something -- - -, anxious for news-- , anxious about one's future -- .
. , anxious 1 (anxious to know) 2 (anxious for news, anxious about his health). Amazed delighted (. 82) 1 (amazed, delighted to learn that...) 2 (amazed, delighted at the news).
, , . , .
( 2).
1. Are you afraid of the dog (of being bitten by the dog, of what people will think if you run away from the dog)?
( ; , , )?
193
2. Aren't you ashamed of your behaviour (of having behaved so badly, of what you did) ?
He (, ; , )?
3. The doctors say that milk is good for you (good for your health).
, ( ).
4. The doctor told me that smoking is bad for me (bad for my health).
, ( ).
5. I'm quite ignorant of their plans (of what they intend to do).
( , ).
6. was angry with her for having broken her promise.
, .
7. The supply is not adequate to the demand.
.
8. Be more accurate in your work.
.
9. Inaccuracy is productive of error.
.
10. was not aware of having done wrong.
().
83. , , , , 1. 2, . - .
1. You are forgetful of the fact that... (: You forget that...)
, ...
2. I am ignorant of (: I do not know) what they intend to do.
, .
3. Inaccuracy is productive of (: produces) error.
.
4. Your work is deserving of (: deserves) praise.
,
5. Do not be envious of (: envy) your neighbours.
He ().
6. is desirous of obtaining (: desires (wishes) to obtain) a good situation in the civil service.
.
194
7. The old man is dependent upon ( depends on) the earnings of his children.
.
83. for , , for. , that if.
I am anxious for you and my sister to become- acquainted (= anxious that you and my sister should become acquainted).
, , . .
I shall be delighted for your sister to come, too (=delighted if your sister will come, too).
, . ( 2) , for , it, :
It's impossible for anyone to be angry with her.
. (. N 53, 33.)
3
(+ ) +
84. , , , , what, , that. , . :
(1) She was not aware of the facts.
.
(2) She was not aware that her husband earned ? 10 a week.
, 10 .
(3) She was not aware (of) how much her husband earned.
, .
(1) of ; (2) of ; (3) of , .
.
195
(2) Be careful (that) you don't drop it.
, .
(3) Be careful how you hold it.
, () .
, . .
She doesn't care for that man. ( 24 A)
.
She doesn't care who marries him. ( 24 )
, . .
boasted of his success. ( 24 )
.
boasted of having won- the first prize. ( 24 A)
, .
boasted that he had won the first prize. ( 24 )
, .
84. , , , , , that.
1. Are you aware that you are sitting on my hat?
, ?
2. Are you sure (certain, confident) (that) he's honest?
(, ) ( ), ?
3. She is glad (delighted, surprised) (that) you are not going abroad.
( , ), . .
4. I'm sorry (that) you can't come.
, .
5. They were disappointed that you were unable to come.
, .
6. I'm afraid I don't know...
, ...
7. We were all anxious that you should return.
, .

(6) afraid that .' ( 3) afraid " , .
I'm afraid (I regret) I shall have to leave now.
. , .
afraid 1 2, :
196
is afraid he may fail. ( 3)
, .
The boy was afraid to go to bed in the dark. ( 1).
, .
Are you afraid of the dog? ( 2)
?
(7) anxious - that for; , , .
We were all anxious that you should return. We were all anxious for you to return. We were all anxious for your return.
: , .
:
.
84. that , (, I was glad to come I was glad I came), . 82.
, , , ; , -- .
, .
84. 3 ( N 52, 33), , that, , it. :
It was unfortunate that the weather was so wet.
, , :
We were unfortunate in having wet weather for the holidays.
, .
84. , .
1. I'm not certain (about) where this ought to be put.
, .
2. They were uncertain whether they ought to start (whether to start or not).
, ( ) .

197
3. is doubtful (about) whether he can afford it. , .
4. Is your father aware (of) how you've been behaving during his absence? * , ?
5. We felt curious (as to) how he would receive the suggestion. , .
6. I am ignorant (of) whom I have the honour to address. , .
7. I'm not sure why he wants it.
, . .
8. We were worried about where you had got to. . , .
9. Be careful how you cross the street. , .
10. He's very fussy (about) how his meals are cooked. (, ) .
11. I'm not quite sure how to do it (how it is done). ( ), ( ).

(5) about as to conlcernirig, .
(7) () sure .
I'm not quite sure of that. .
I'm not quite sure whether he's still here. , .
85. glad, sorry, sure, anxious, .careful . :
 1 I shall be glad to have your help. . 2 I shall be glad of your help. . 3 I'm glad (that) you can help me. , .

198
 1 I'm sorry to hear (that) your brother failed in his exams. , . 2 I'm sorry about your brother's failure in his exams. ( ), . 2 I'm sorry for your brother. ( ) . 3 I'm sorry (that) your brother failed in his exams. ( ), . 1 He's sure to come. . 2 Are you sure about ( of) that? ? 3 I'm not sure (about) where this ought to go. ( ), . 1 Harry is anxious to start early. . 1 We're anxious for Harry to start early. , . 2 They will be anxious for news of your arrival. . 2 They're anxious about their daughter's health. . 3 I'm anxious that he should come. , . 1 Be careful not to let that vase fall. , . 2 Be careful with that vase. . 3 Be careful (that) you don't drop that vase. , .

(DETERMINATIVES)
86. (. 75) . .
. " (Proper Nouns, , London, John) (Common Nouns, , town, boy), (Material Nouns, , wood, bread), (Abstract Nouns, , truth, beauty, goodness), (Collective Nouns, , crowd, flock). -
199
, , . : (, books, pens, apples) (, bread, traffic, nonsense, knowledge).
, . . , -- . , How many times have you been absent this term? ? time , --- . How much time did you spend-on your homework? , . ? , . . . .
much many, how too, , . : a lot (of), a large number (of), a large amount (of), a (large) quantity (of), plenty (of).
N 70
.
 There are Someno several a few two or three many (more) We have a lot lots plenty more books in the next room. plenty of a lot of a large number enough of
( ) () , , , , , , , , , , , (- ), ( ).
200
N 71
( of).
 some several a few these two or three those I should like many a lot (more) of these small apples those red apples lots your best apples plenty a few
, , -,, , () (, ...) .
N 72
.
 some no (more) (not) much a great deal There is We have a good deal a lot lots more tea bread in the storeroom plenty sugar a lot of a large quantity of plenty of (not) enough
( ) , , , , , () , , .
201
N 73
of .
 some no this a little that I should like a good deal more of the brown flour much your white flour a lot plenty
. , , , ( ) (, , ).

, , , some any. some .
Aren't there some more books in the next room? (Yes, there are.)
? (, .)
: Are there any more books in the next room? - ?
( , .)
many a good a great, , a good many books , a great many birds .
N 74
of . (, ).
 None Both Several Two or threeFew A few Some Many A large number A lot Lots All them these those were broken of the these those my (your, etc.)John's eggs
202
, ... ( ) . , , , , .... . (, , , ... ) .
() . - (...) .
N 75
. of . (, .)
 All It    This    that Some None Much A great dealA good deal LittleA littleA lotLots of this that theourMr. Green's farm land is fertile
() . () . (, , , , ) .
N 74 N 75 much many how, very not. few very; a few all -- not. .
ALL, BOTH, EACH
86. All both . All .
Both the girls are clever. .
Both these boys are stupid. .
Both John's sisters play the piano. .
Is all this money yours? ?
Are all these books yours? ?
All the books are new. .
All Mr. Green's children go to school. .
All six boys passed the examination. .
203
All, both each of ,. .
All of us want to go. - .
Both of them came. .
The headmaster shook hands with each of the prizewinners. ( ) .
all, both .each , . , , . N 82 N83 ( 100, ), .
N 76
 1 We both think so. 2 We all want to go. 3 They both play well. 4 , and each made different suggestions.
1. () .
2. .
3. .
4. , .
N 77
 1 They can both play well. 2 They were both absent. 3 Tney have all gone. 4 You will both be late. 5 You may all go now. 6 , and have each made different suggestions.
1. () .
2. () .
3. - .
4. . () .
5. .
6. , ,. .
204
, all, both, each , .
I asked both of them to come and they both did come.
() , () .
I asked all of them to come and they all did come.
, .
: They both did come ( did) They have both come ( have).
all .
Your face is all covered with dust. () .
Their faces were all covered with dust. .
The soldiers were all covered with dust. ( ).
each .
He gave the boys a shilling each. .
gave each of the boys a shilling. .

87. , , . " " :
1. (, a flower bed -- ).
2. (, the coming months -- , a 'swimming race -- ).
3. (, the above statement -- ).
4. ; , -'s; of (, John's hat -- ; a twenty minutes ' walk -- ; that bad temper of yours -- ).
205
5. (, the boy in the corner -- ).
6. .
(1)
88. . ,, . -. , . , , , . . . , , a 'head 'master ( , ), a 'head-'master ( , , ) a 'head'master ( , , ). , , . , head: 'headache -- , 'head'quarters -- , 'headphone -- , 'headlights-- , 'head 'winds -- () .
: the parish church -- , cannon balls -- , brick wall -- , the evening paper -- , a garden flower -- (. . ), a flower garden -- (, ), your family name -- , a school dictionary -- , a silver spoon -- , a return ticket -- , dining-room furniture -- ( , ), a cricket match -- , a lunatic asylum -- . (: a lunatic proposal -- () , lunatic .)
(, milkman -- , steamship -- ) (, bicycle-pump -- , steam-power -- ), , ; .
88. (, silk -- , silken -- , silky -- ). , , , , . wood wooden: a wooden box -- -
206
, a wooden leg -- -- , ; a wood fire ( % a wooden fire) -- , . wooden ( -- , ); : a wooden box, % This box is wooden. ( : This box is made of wood.)
, , -en, -, : silk, silky, silken; wool, woolly, woollen; stone, stony; gold, golden; brass, brassy, brazen; glass, glassy; lead, leaden.
: silk stockings -- , a stone wall -- ; a gold watch -- , a brass bowl -- , wool prices -- , cotton cloth -- , a lace collar -- , a glass roof-- , lead pipes -- .
, , , , a wooden box -- , woollen stockings -- , leaden roofs -- .
, , -, -en : the Golden Age -- , golden opportunity -- , leaden skies -- , brazen impudence -- , a silver voice -- , a stony heart -- , a stony road -- ( stony -- ).

89. , ( ): Green, the bookseller -- , ; at Green ('s), the bookseller's -- , ; we English -- ; my friend m -- ; Mr. Brown, my brother-in-law -- , .
(2)
90. . , , , .
Can't you find me a more interesting book?
He ?
207
This book is not very interesting.
.
That is the most amusing story I have ever heard.
, - .
Mary is more charming.than her sister.
, ( ).
How charming she is!
()!
, , , , , , , Participial Adjectives, . . .
, , . .
, , -- .
, : running water -- () , a sleeping child -- , a burning building -- , a dying soldier -- ,smiling women -- , the coming months -- () , the following chapter-- , growing children -- , flying fish -- .
: walking-stick -- , boiling-point -- , swimming race -- , blotting-paper -- , eating apples -- (. . , ), cooking apples -- (, . .), laughing-stock -- , dining-room -- ., growing pains-- , dancing-master -- .
, . , .
. :
'growing 'children 'growing ,pains
('growing 'children) . 'growing ,pains
208
, . : 'dancing 'doll -- , , 'dancing-,master -- , , master.
, , , - .
90. . : .
He is the most distinguished scientist in the country.
.
( ) .
. un-; an unexpected meeting -- , unsettled weather -- , unarmed troops -- , undeserved punishment -- .
90. , , . : cloven hoof -- , . . , , cleft palate -- ( cleave), swollen lips -- , swelled head -- ( swell), shrunk cloth -- , shrunken limbs -- ( shrink). ill-gotten gains -- , ( get); got ( gotten).
(3)
91. : the above statement -- , , the then government -- , in after years -- , the up train -- , the down train-- , the up platform-- , , , the down stroke -- (, ), an inside passenger "" ( , ).
209
: the half-past-seven train -- , () (); a pen-and-ink drawing -- , ( ); an up-to-date dictionary --, ; an out-and-out failure -- .
, . . : the above statement -- , % the below statement, : the statement below -- .
(4)
92. , , have -- , belong -- , own -- , possess -- ;
owner -- , , possession -- , .
They have a large garden.
.
What a lot of books you've got!
!
Who does this land belong to? ( : whom does this land belong?)
?
owns (possesses) two motorcars.
( ) .
Who is the owner of this land?
?
Before leaving the country you must be in possession of a valid passport (must have a valid passport).
, .
92. : my, mine; our, ours; his; her, hers; its; your/yours; their, theirs.
That book is mine. .
That is my book. .
.
That hat is John's. .
That is John's hat. .
92. , , of: at the top of the page-- .^ the foot of the mountain -- . , : the legs of the table the table legs -- ; the City of New York New York City-- -.
, of, -
210
, .
92. -'s (Tom's hat, a woman's hat, the boy's father) . , -s (men's shoes, women's hats, children's books). , -s, (the boys' books, the girls' dolls).
, [s, z, S, ], -'s, [iz], . . :
St James's, Park, Mr. Jones's children, a witch's broomstick, the judge's wi,g, Alice's blue eyes, the prince's nurse. : Jesus' ( % Jesus's,) ,Xerxes', Socrates', Achilles' (Achilles'tendon -- ).
: for goodness' sake -- , for conscience' sake-- , for old acquaintance' sake -- ( ).
92. one, someone, anyone,. one, somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody , , : one's, someone's, anyone's, no one's, somebody's, anybody's, nobody's, everybody's. else, -'s else:
This.must be somebody else's hat; it certainly isn't mine.
, , - ; .
92. , , , -'s .
We visited Peak and Pike's typewriter factory last week.
. ( ).
, .
My wife's and my daughter's birthdays both come in May.
.
: the Prince of Wales's birthday -- , my son-in- law's employer -- , , the Commander-in-Chief's visit -- .
211
The son of Pharaoh's daughter is the daughter of Pharaoh's son , Pharaoh, -- the daughter of Pharaoh. : The son of Pharaoh's daughter is the son of the daughter of Pharaoh -- .
92. (boys, boy's boys' [boiz], doctor's doctors' ), ; of.
What's the doctor's opinion?
?
What's the opinion of the doctors?
?
, . , : the teachers' common room -- , . . , . your parents' wishes -- , parent ( , mother father: your father's wishes).
92. , , , , of, : the back of his head -- , the middle of the blackboard -- , the cap of a milk bottle -- ; the glass door of my bookcase -- , the front door of the house -- .
, , , : London's long and proud history -- , the ocean's roar-- , setting out on life's journey -- .
( , ): England's team for the next test match -- .
212
, : out of harm's way -- , to her (his) heart's content -- , , at his wit's ( wits') end -- , only a stone's throw away -- , , have something at one's fingers' ends -- , .
, . ship -- , , , . the ship's doctor --. .
92. , _ of " : a friend of mine -- ( ), any friends of hers -- , some friends of my brother's .-- . ( : A friend of my brother, : ^ a friend of me.)
my brother's friend, , (, ). a friend of my brother's ( - ). your book, ; a book of yours , , , . the Prime Minister's speech , , a speech of the Prime Minister (-o) -, .
. : % one my old friends; % this Jim's old friend. : an old friend of mine -- , this old friend of Jim's-- .
( of + ).
That remark of Green's was impertinent.
. What business is that of yours? ?
We're getting tired of .that bad temper of yours. .
Keep that big head of yours out of my light. He .
. , , -
213
92. : that rascal of a landlord -- ( ), my angel of a wife -- -, her brute of a husband -- , in a devil of a hurry -- .
92. , (, , ), : less than a boat's length from the ship -- ( ) ; ; a seven hours' journey -- ; a three hours' walk -- ; a fortnight's holiday -- .;
three months' rent-- ; without a moment's rest -- ; a hair's breadth.-- ( ); after three hours' delay-- . . of, : walk of three hours; a delay of several hours.
- , , , : a twerity-minute talk -- , a five-mile walk - , there's a three-mile row across the lake -- , .
, : today's (tomorrow's) newspaper -- () , last week's "Spectator" -- "" , tomorrow's meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations-- .
92. , , , . shop, workshop, house .
She has gone to the butcher's (baker's, grocer's). ( , ).
There's a tobacconist's in the next street. .
I'm just going to the carpenter's (blacksmith's). ().
I met her at my uncle's. (. . ).
214
, -'s.
I bought it at Smith('s), the grocer's. , ( ).
. . , ( ) , .
I bought it at Selfridge's (at Harrod's). ( ).
, , , , -, . . .
is vicar of St. Andrew's.
( . ).
He's a Fellow of St. John's.
- ( ) *.
(5)
93. , . , : men of honour (= honourable men) -- , a walk in the evening (= an evening walk) -- ( ), a swim in the moonlight (= a moonlight swim) -- , towns by the sea (= seaside towns) -- .
93. , : the man (who is) near the door -- ( ) ; the chair (that is) by the window-- ( ) ; the book (that is) on the table -- ( ) ; the shop (that is) opposite the post office -- ( ) ; the girl (who is) between Anne and
____________
* , () . -, , . ( )..
215
Jane -- ( ) ; the boy (who is) in the corner-- ( ) ; the day (that is) after tomorrow -- (, ) ;a wind (that is, that comes) from the west -- ( ) .
: six yearsof age -- ( six years old), a child of six (years) (= a six-year-old child) -- .
of :
Be of good cheer! (=Be cheerful!) !
93. , , for, , . , (): machines for harvesting (= harvesting machines) -- ( ), expenses for travelling (= travelling expenses) -- , paper for writing (notes) on (= writing paper, notepaper) -- ( ), money for small (out-of-pocket) expenses -- . : pocket money -- .
93. , with , . , . . - , : a girl with curly hair (= a curly-haired girl) -- ( ), the man. with a long nose (= the long-nosed man) -- ( ), a baby with fat fingers (= a fat-fingered baby) -- , the boy with (= wearing) glasses -- ( ), the man with a white jacket -- , a workman with a ladder -- , the woman with a baby in her arms -- .
with , , , , .
People with (= having, getting) small pensions often find it difficult to make ends meet nowadays.
(, ) .
216
93. , without: a rumour without foudation (: an unfounded rumour) -- , ( ), a boy without intelligence (who is unintelligent) -- , a man without money (: a penniless man) -- , -, no rule without exceptions -- .
(6)
94. who, whose, what, which, that where, when, why.
Whom -- who -- -- .
94. , . . , .
This is the boy who broke the window.
, .
This is the window that he broke,
, .
. . .
This boy. who lives in the next street, broke a window in the school yesterday.
, , .
This window, which was broken by a boy yesterday, will have to be repaired.
, - .
94. . , .
This boy (who lives in the next street) broke a window in the school yesterday. This window -- which was broken by a boy yesterday -- will have to be repaired.
-
217
, .
:
My brother-in-law, who is a mining engineer, is in Canada at present.
, , .
My brother-in-law is a mining engineer. He's in Canada now.
. () .
94. , ( ') .
Do you know the man who wrote this book?
, ? ( , .)
Can you tell me who wrote this book?
He , ? ( -- .)
This is the place where the three roads meet.
, . ( , .)
His house stands where three roads meet.
, . ( .)
Sunday is a holiday, when people do not go to work.
, . ( , .)
When I woke up, it was raining hard.
, . ( .)
( ) . , .
94. that, , . which. , who, -people those.
The boy who (that) broke the window is called John Grey.
, , .
218
The girl who (that) lives opposite has won a scholarship to the University.
, , .
People who live in glass houses should hot throw stones.
, , ().
Will those who are in favour please hold up their hands?
, ().
jests at scars that never felt a wound (that he) ().
, .
The house that (which) used to stand at this. corner was destroyed during the bombing In 1940.
, , 1940 .
The windows that were broken by those naughty boys have now been repaired.
0., , .
Anyone who wants to leave early may do so. ( anyone who, that.)
, .
It is you who are to blame.
.
This is one of the few really good books that have been published on this subject.
( ) ,
, . that books, , one. -- have been published.
94. that . . , which. , whom, .
The people you met at my house yesterday are Moslems (: people that you met; : people whom you met). , , .
The books I lent you belong to my brother (: the books which I lent you).
, , .
The lawyer I consulted gave me some useful advice.
, , .

219
The apple trees we planted three years ago are covered with blossom this year.
, , .
, , . .
This is the book I bought yesterday.
() , .
bought that ( : This is the book I bought it yesterday.)
This is the man I met yesterday.
() , .
met that. ( : % This is the man I met him yesterday.)
94. that , . -. whom which .
This is the book I was telling you about. ( : about which I was telling you .)
, .
The man you lent. your dictionary to seldom returns the books he borrows.
, , ,
.
Who is the woman you were talking to when I saw you this morning? ( : the woman to whom* you were talking...)
, , ?
These photographs you've been looking at were taken by my sister. ( : These photographs at which you've been looking...).
, , .
Is this the pan you make your omelettes in (the pan in which you make ...; : Is this your omelette pan?)?
?
220
way, which, , :
That's not the way I do it (=the way in which I do it. : That's not my way of doing it.)
, ( ).
It isn't what he says that annoys me but the way he says it (=the way in which he says it. : his way of saying it.).
, , , .
That's the way the money goes! (: That's how the money goes!)
!
94. , , , , , , . The book he was reading , the book that (which) he was reading; the book I was talking to you about -- the book about which I was talking to you.
94. ( ) , there is (there was), it is (it was) who is (who was).
There's somebody at the door wants to see you ( somebody who wants to see you).
- .
There was a man called to see you this morning (: a man who called ..).
- .
It's an ill wind blows nobody good. ( that .)
() , - ? (.. .)
Who was that called a few minutes ago? ( : who was that who called .... : who was that that called ...)
?
That . , there is.
This is the only one there is. (: This is the only one that exists.)
.
These are the, only good books there are on this subject. (: These are the only good books that have been written on this subject.)
.
221
94. whose, . , ' which of. ( .)
All those boys whose parents are living abroad wilt spend the summer holidays with friends.
, , .
That's the man whose daughter John is going to marry.
, .
is a novelist whose reputation has grown fast.
, . ( ).
The boy .whose work I showed you is the cleverest boy in the school.
, , .
The sick man for whose sake you are doing all this work ought to be very grateful to you.
, , .
The only words in this paragraph whose spelling may cause trouble are...
, , ...
:
The only words in this paragraph the spelling of which... .. .of which the spelling ...
The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied.
, , .
:
The house of which the windows are broken ... ... the windows of which are broken ...
, , :
The house with the broken windows is unoccupied.
.
94. ; :
 The office in which he works. } , , () . The office he works in. The office where he works.
222
 The restaurant at which I had lunch. The restaurant I had lunch at. The restaurant where I had lunch. } , () .

 The place at which we stopped to rest. The place where we stopped to rest. } , () ; .

 The days on which you don't go to school. The days when you don't go to school. } , () .

 Sunday is the day on which people take their rest. Sunday is the day when people take their rest. } -- , () .

 The years during which he was in the army. The years when he was in the army. } , ( ) .
.
The baby was taken ill the day (that) we were to have sailed for New York.
, -.
The boys. ran off the moment they saw the owner of the orchard.
, .
The sea was, unfortunately, very rough the day we crossed the Channel.
, , . , .
why , . :
 The reason for which he comes here is... } ... The reason why he comes here is.... The reason he comes here is ...
why . , , :
II is reason for coming here is...
223
reason , , . :
Tell me the reason why you did it.
(), .
Tell me why you did it. ( 16)
, .
:
 There is every reason why you should be displeased. } ( , ) . There is every reason for your, being displeased. You have every reason to be displeased.
94. , be -ibie, -able, .
The only person (who was) visible was a policeman.
, .
The decoration of the house has been done in the best style (that was) possible.
( ).
The explorers were confronted with gorges (that were) almost impassable and rivers (that were) often unfordable.
, , .
.
The man (who was) driving the lorry was drunk.
, ( ) , .
The woman (who is) holding a baby in her arms is waiting to see the doctor.
, () , .
The boy (who is) sitting in the corner is my nephew.
( ), , .
The girl (who was) holding up an umbrella was afraid the rain might spoil her new hat.
( ), , , .
224
Anyone having (=who has) difficulty in assembling the machine may have the advice of our experts.
, ( ) , .
Anyone wishing (who wishes) to leave early may do so.
( ) , .
(Past Participle).
The goods (=that were) ordered last month have not arrived yet.
, ( ) , .
The speech (=that was) made by the Prime Minister yesterday delighted his supporters.
., ( ) -, .
Have you seen the film (=that is) described in this newspaper?
, ?
dropped to the ground like a man shot (like a man who had just been shot).
.
94. that . , which; -- who whom.
. . - .
Mr. Green, who gives me piano lessons, has been ill recently.
, , .
Mr. Green, whom you met at my home last month, is my music teacher.
, ( ), .
Mr. Green, from whom I have piano lessons, is a good teacher.
, , .
Mr. Green, whose wife teaches singing; is himself a teacher of the, piano.
, , .
225
, - .
:
Tom's brother, who lives in Birmingham, is an engineer.
, , . ( , . , . :
Tom's brother is an engineer. He lives in Birmingham.
. .)
Tom's brother who lives in Birmingham is an engineer.
, , . ( , . , :
Tom has a brother living in Birmingham. His brother is an engineer.
, .)
94. , , which; of which , whose.
This fountain-pen, which cost me thirty shillings, leaks badly.
, , .
This fountain-pen, which I bought two months ago, leaks badly.
, , .
This fountain-pen, for which I paid thirty shillings, was a bad. bargain.
, , .
This encyclopedia, of which the second volume (the second volume of which) is missing, is out of date.
, ( ), .
; , , , - ( ).
94. .
226
Stratford-on-Avon, where Shakespeare was born, is visited by thousands of tourists.
--, , .
Boxing Day, December 26, when Christmas boxes used to be given to servants, is one of the English bank holidays.
26 , , ( ).
94. , . , .
Mr. Green was elected by a large majority, which (=and this) is what most people had expected.
, , ( ).
has to work on Sundays, which (=and this) he does not like.
, ( ).
Torn won a sholarship to the university which (=and this fact) made his headmaster very proud of him.
, , ( ...).
The floods destroyed several bridges, which made it impossible to reach the village by road.
, .
94. which what . ( ) .
They stayed with me three weeks, during which time they drank all the wine I had (... and during this time...).
, ( ) , .
I was told to go not by train but by bus, which advice I followed (... and I followed this advice).
, , ( ).
They robbed him of what little money he had (... the small sum of money he had).
, , ( ).
227

95. , something, anything, nothing, somebody (someone), anybody (anyone), nobody (no one), .
Show me something new. - .
I don't think anything much will happen. , - .
That's nothing unusual. .
She won't marry until she finds somebody rich and handsome. , - .
We met nobody new at the party. . () .
95. , .
I want something to eat. - .
Haven't you anything to do? ?
Can't you find something useful to do? - ?
Isn't there anything more interesting to look at? , ?
Let's find something to sit on. , .
I have nothing to read. .
had nothing new to say on the problem., .
She wants somebody to talk to. - .
Haven't you anyone to helpyou with all this work? , ?
No, we have no one to help us. , , .
There's nothing to be done about it. .
95. for.
Haven't you anything for me to do? - ?
I must find somebody for you to play tennis with. -, . . .
There's nothing suitable for children to read in this library. .