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  • Аннотация:
    Т. Н. МАЛЬЧЕВСКАЯ СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ПО ПЕРЕВОДУ ГУМАНИТАРНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ С АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА НА РУССКИЙ ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


А К АД ЕМ И Я НАУК СССР кафедра иностранных языков

ЛЕНИНГРАДСКОЕ ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ

Т. Н. МАЛЬЧЕВСКАЯ

СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ПО ПЕРЕВОДУ ГУМАНИТАРНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ

С АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА НА РУССКИЙ

ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО "НАУКА" Ленинградское отделение Ленинград 1970

420 М 216 Мальчевская Т.Н. Сборник упражнений по переводу гуманитарных текстов с английского языка на русский: Практ.пособ./Мальчевская Т.Н.; АН СССР.Каф.иностр.яз.-Л.: Наука.Ленинград.отд-ние, 1970.-214с.

ОТ СОСТАВИТЕЛЯ

   Настоящий сборник упражнений представляет собой практическое пособие для перевода научной литературы с английского языка на русский. Он предназначается для аспирантов и научных сотрудников гуманитарных специальностей, готовящихся к сдаче кандидатского экзамена. Он также может быть использован в студенческих группах гуманитарных факультетов, равно как и всеми желающими овладеть переводом научной литературы по языкознанию, литературоведению, истории, археологии, этнографии, философии и т. п.
   По общему плану и по расположению материала данный сборник аналогичен сборнику упражнений для специалистов точных наук Т. Н. Михельсон и Н. В. Успенской (Л., 1967), вполне оправдавшему себя на практике. Однако при его составлении учитывались особенности грамматической структуры и лексики гуманитарных научных текстов, что привело к необходимости расширить некоторые разделы (например, "Страдательный залог", "Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты", "Причастия и причастные обороты"), а также добавить новый раздел ("Основные трудности синтаксиса").
   В каждом разделе после кратких грамматических сведений по данному вопросу дается несколько упражнений, представляющих трудности для перевода. Для облегчения усвоения материала одно и то же грамматическое явление, как правило, демонстрируется сначала на более простом лексическом материале, затем на оригинальном тексте.
  
   В конце каждого раздела приводится сводное упражнение, содержащее значительное количество смешанных примеров. Кроме того, в конце сборника дано общее повторение всего материала, включающее смешанные упражнения на грамматические, лексические и синтаксические трудности. К отдельным упражнениям прилагается лексика, связанная с данной грамматической темой. В сносках дается перевод некоторых специальных терминов.
   Материал для упражнений взят из оригинальной английской и американской литературы по всем указанным специальностям -- из монографий, общих курсов, учебников и руководств. Всего использовано около 80 наименований книг. Лишь в упражнениях облегченного типа в небольшой степени используется бытовая лексика.
   Часть материала для упражнений по отдельным разделам грамматики была любезно предоставлена в наше распоряжение К. А. Ивановой.
   Автор глубоко признателен доц. Е. Г. Лапшиной, Т. Н. Михельсон и Н. В. Успенской, а также доц. О. В. Ковальницкой, доц. Р. О. Кац, заведующей английской секцией доц. Е. А. Зверевой и И. К.Лихачевой, просмотревшим рукопись и сделавшим ряд ценных замечаний, что позволило устранить некоторые недочеты. Автор также благодарит коллектив Ленинградского отделения Кафедры иностранных языков Академии наук СССР, принимавший участие в обсуждении сборника.
  
   СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
   1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СПОСОБЫ ПЕРЕВОДА СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА
   Если сказуемое выражено глаголом в страдательном залоге, то подлежащее не выполняет действия, а подвергается действию, выраженному этим глаголом; ср.:
  
   Действительный залог
   They asked about it. Они спросили об этом.
   Страдательный залог
   They were asked about it. Их спросили об этом (Они были спрошены об этом).
  

Формы страдательного залога

  
  
   Present
   Past
   Future
   Indefinite
   The house is built.
   The house was built.
   The house will be built.
   Continuous
   The house is being built.
   The house was being built.
  
   Perfect
   The house has been built.
   The house had been built.
   The house will have been built.
   При переводе на русский язык страдательную конструкцию можно передать следующими способами.
   Русской формой страдательного залога данного глагола в соответствующем времени, лице и числе:
   The paper was written last year.
   Статья была написана в прошлом году.
   Возвратной формой глагола на "-ся", "-сь" в соответствующем времени, лице и числе:

5


   The excavations were made on the left side of the hill. Раскопки производились на левой стороне холма.
   Неопределенно-личной формой глагола действительного залога в соответствующем времени в 3-м л. мн. ч.:
   The excavation was made with great care. Раскопку производили с большой осторожностью.
   Личной формой глагола в действительном залоге (такой перевод возможен только в том случае, если указано лицо, производящее действие, т. е. если в предложении есть дополнение с предлогом by):
   These papers were written by one and the same author. Эти работы писал один и тот же автор.
   Примечание. В некоторых случаях сочетание глагола to be с причастием II не является формой страдательного залога, а представляет собой именное сказуемое, которое в отличие от форм страдательного залога выражает состояние, а не действие; ср.:
  

Простое глагольное

сказуемое

(действие)

   This door is (usually) locked
   by the porter. Эту дверь (обычно) запирает
   швейцар.

Составное именное

сказуемое

(состояние)

   This door is locked. Эта дверь заперта.
  
   Упражнения
   1. Определите время сказуемого. Дайте все возможные варианты перевода.
      -- Only a few instances will be given here.
      -- His answer was appreciated by everybody.
      -- A new exhibition has been organized in this building.
      -- The most important documents are signed here.
      -- His lecture will be broadcast by the radio tomorrow.
      -- The new-discovered language was described and deciphered.
      -- The inscriptions have not yet been fully studied.
      -- The most important archaeological collections are housed in museums.
      -- This paper was first published in another edition, and is reprinted here with the permission of the editors.
   в
  
      -- The above problem is being investigated by one of the writers,1 and the results will be published separately.
      -- All these ancient tools have been mentioned above, and something more will be said about them in the following chapter.
   2. Подберите наилучший вариант перевода.
   1. According to one version the famous library was destroyed during the strife between Ptolemy XV and his sister Cleopatra for the throne; according to another, it was burned six centuries later.
   2. Almost all sciences except perhaps medicine suffered a relapse 2 during the Dark Ages 3 when scientific pursuits were considered antireligious. The occasional scholar who attempted such studies was often persecuted and his progress discouragingly slow.
      -- The origin of the race of men who made the Nile valley the cradle of civilization is still being sought by scholars.
      -- On the whole 4 Chekhov's plays are constructed in the same way as his stories. The differences are due to the differences of material and are imposed by the use of dialogue.
      -- These papers were in their original form read at a conference of the English Institute, 1954.
   2. ПЕРЕВОД СОЧЕТАНИЙ
   МОДАЛЬНОГО ГЛАГОЛА
   С ИНФИНИТИВОМ В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ5
  
   Модальный глагол
   Русское значение
   must ) should I + Infinitive Pas-to have (to) ] give to be (to) j
   должен, необходимо, нужно, следует
   1 writers -- здесь: авторы.
   2 a relapse -- здесь: период упадка, застоя (амер.).
   3 Dark Ages -- средние века.
   4 on the whole -- в целом.
   5 Подробнее о переводе модальных глаголов с инфинитивом см. стр. 36--43.

7


   Модальный глагол
   Русское значение
   can may
   + Infinitive Passive
   можно, может
   cannot must not
   + Infinitive Passive + Infinitive Passive
   не может не должен, нельзя
   Упражнение
   Переведите. Обратите внимание на значение и время модального глагола.
      -- The question can be decided later.
      -- The newspaper must be translated without a dictionary.
      -- The lecture is to be delivered at eleven o'clock.
      -- The teacher fell ill, so the lesson had to be postponed.
      -- A word should be said about the origin of this term.
      -- This rule cannot be applied here.
      -- These books must not be touched without permission.
      -- A word or two6 may be said as to the plan upon which the book is constructed.
      -- The letters will have to be posted in the morning.
   3. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕГО
   ПРИ СКАЗУЕМОМ
   В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ
   Подлежащее английской страдательной конструкции от целого ряда глаголов 7 следует переводить косвенным или прямым дополнением (т. е. в дательном, винительном и творительном падеже), а сказуемое (форму страдательного залога) -- неопределенно-личной формой глагола:
   I was shown the new photographs.
   Мне показали новые фотографии.
   Не was asked to wait.
   Его попросили подождать.
   6 a word, a word or two -- несколько слов. 7 Имеются в виду глаголы, принимающие два дополнения -- прямое и косвенное.
  
   При следующих глаголах,8 употребленных в страдательном залоге, подлежащее английского предложения следует переводить дательным, винительным или творительным падежом:
  
  
   В дательном падеже
   to advise -- советовать
   to order -- приказывать
   to aid -- помогать
   to permit -- позволять, разрешать
   to assist -- помогать
  
  
   to deny -- отказывать (в)
   to precede -- предшествовать
   to give -- давать, дарить
   to promise -- обещать
   to forbid -- запрещать
   to refuse -- отказывать
   to forgive -- прощать
   to send -- посылать, присылать
   to help -- помогать
  
  
   to inform -- сообщать
   to show -- показывать
   to oppose -- противиться, противостоять
   to tell -- сказать, велеть
  
  
   to threaten -- угрожать
   В винительном падеже
   to ask -- (по)просить, спрашивать
   to send -- посылать
  
  
   to see -- видеть
   to avoid -- избегать
   to teach -- учить, обучать, преподавать
   to oppose -- быть против
  
  
   В творительном падеже
   to admire -- восхищаться
   to own -- владеть, обладать
   to ignore -- пренебрегать
  
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите. Обратите внимание на то, каким падежом следует перевести подлежащее английского предложения.
      -- We were informed that he had been sent to a conference.
      -- He was sent only two copies of this book.
      -- They were asked about it yesterday.
      -- We were asked to come in.
   5. He had been taught Latin and Greek in his boyhood. . 6. We were given only three tickets instead of five.
   7. She was given a watch as a birthday present.
   8 Здесь и во всех последующих списках глаголов приводятся лишь те значения, которые данные глаголы имеют в страдательной конструкции.

9


      -- The visitors were shown many new exhibits.
      -- They were shown into a large hall.
  
      -- He has not been seen anywhere today.
      -- We were shown in 9 and asked to wait.
      -- She was advised to spend the summer in the Crimea.
      -- They were ordered to be silent.
      -- The painter was assisted by two of his disciples.
      -- We have not been offered anything yet.
      -- The boy was helped with his lessons by his elder sister.
      -- I was told that all the strangers were refused admittance to that building.
      -- To this end 10 lengthy discussion has been avoided here.
      -- He was admired not only for his technical skill, but also for his ability to attract people.
      -- This information should not be ignored.
      -- This unpleasant meeting is not to be avoided.
   2. Переведите. Обратите внимание на то, каким падежом следует перевести подлежащее английского предложения.
   1. By 1542 Negro slaves were forbidden to leave the haciendas, villages or cities after dark.
   2. The preservation of an archaic literary language is greatly helped by its being at the same time a written language.
      -- Tents were quickly dressed, and the knights were told to dismount from their horses.
      -- This work cannot be given a high place as literature,11 but it is valuable for the contemporary documents it contains.
      -- This analogical tendency is to some extent 12 aided by grammarians who prefer "regular" to "irregular" schemes.
      -- Fielding's last novel "Amelia" has been admired by some even more than "Tom Jones" 13 probably because of the beautiful character of the heroine.
   9 to show in -- провести в дом кого-л.
   10 to this end -- для этого, с этой целью.
   11 a literature -- здесь: литературное произведение. 12 to some extent -- до некоторой степени.
   13 "Амелия", "Тон Джонс" -- романы Генрн Филдинга (1707-- 1754).
   10
  
      -- For a number of years commercial relations were kept up with Spain through Mexico, and the Dutch and the English were both permitted to establish trading factories in the South.
      -- In the later history of Chinese, the use of the classifier was favoured by the increasing phonetic poverty and different classifiers served to distinguish words which were becoming homophones.
      -- Esarhaddon's14 appointment had been opposed by his brothers and some district governors who incited his father against him.
  
      -- Consequently expert seamen and ship's carpenters were sent out from St. Petersburg. On one hand the men were promised both worldly and spiritual rewards: wealth, promotions and imperial favour if by the Grace of Christ they would reach Kamchatka. On the other hand they were threatened with certain death if they delayed or slowed down their voyage.
      -- Festivals were preceded by hunting expeditions to obtain small animals, such as rats, which were smoked and strung together to be worn as necklaces.
      -- The sword in Old English times was owned (judging from finds), by only one man in twenty.
   4. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА ОТ ГЛАГОЛОВ, ПРИНИМАЮЩИХ ПРЕДЛОЖНОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ
   При употреблении в страдательном залоге ряда глаголов, требующих после себя предлога (например, смотреть на посетителей), английское подлежащее с относящимся к нему и к глаголу предлогом переводится дополнением с соответствующим предлогом, а сказуемое-- неопределенно-личной формой глагола:
   The new discovery was much spoken about.
   О новом открытии много говорили.
   The visitors were looked at with great interest.
   На посетителей смотрели с большим интересом.
   14 Esarhaddon -- Асархаддон, ассирийский царь (681 -- 668 до н. э.).

11


   Некоторым глаголам с предлогами в русском языке также соответствуют глаголы, принимающие предложное дополнение:
   to agree on (upon) -- договориться о
   to arrive at -- приходить к, прибывать в
   to attend to -- ухаживать за
   to confront with -- стоять перед
   to depart from -- отступать от, уклоняться от
   to dispense with -- обходиться без
   to delve into -- углубляться в, копаться, рыться в
   to do away with -- покончить с (прикончить кого)
   отказаться от
   to face with -- стоять перед, столкнуться с
   to give up -- отказаться от (перестать, бро-
   сить делать что-л.)
   to hit upon -- наткнуться, натолкнуться па
   (найти)
   to insist on (upon) -- настаивать на
   to laugh at -- смеяться над
   to look at -- смотреть на
   to look after -- присматривать за
   to refer to -- ссылаться на, упоминать о, от-
   носить(ся) к, отсылать к
   to rely on (upon) -- полагаться на
   to send for -- посылать за
   to speak about (of) -- говорить о
   to talk about -- говорить о
   to think of -- думать о
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите предложения, предварительно подобрав к глаголу соответствующий предлог в русском языке (см. выше список глаголов с предлогами).
      -- Не was well spoken of by all his friends.
      -- The hour of the meeting was agreed upon.
      -- This case was much spoken and written about.
      -- His data can be relied upon.
      -- The room has not been slept in for many years.
      -- The whole story was much laughed at.
   2. Переведите. Обратите внимание на место предлога в русском предложении и на перевод самого предлога.
   1. The order of words (in English) is fairly rigid: it cannot easily be departed from, and most departures alter the type, or the emphasis, or the meaning of the sentence.
   12
  
      -- Place names cannot always be relied on for guidance.
      -- For further details the reader is referred to the end of the book.
      -- It's twenty years since he went away from home with his gun, and he has never been heard of since.
      -- His poetry, which is very good, if not absolutely of the first class, may be spoken of later.
      -- In English, as in other European languages, most words can be referred with certainty to Aryan 15 roots, but others are more recent than the time when written literature began.
      -- This work should also be referred to for a detailed account of the Museum Collections.
      -- In the fashionable districts (of Bath 16) practically every dwelling had been lived in at some time by many famous people.
      -- On the whole this defective system (of writing) works quite well in literature with which the reader is well acquainted, and it is indeed surprising to the European student of the Semitic languages to discover how easily vowel signs can be dispensed with in reading.
   10. The use of soft copper was given up very soon wherever intercourse with the whites became habitual and iron became obtainable.
   Ряду глаголов, принимающих предложное дополнение, в русском языке соответствуют переходные глаголы:
   to account for -- объяснять, быть причиной
   to adhere to -- придерживаться
   to bring about -- вызывать, осуществлять(ся)
   to comment (up) on -- комментировать
   to improve (up) on -- улучшать
   to deal with -- рассматривать, разбирать, за-
   ниматься
   to listen to -- слушать
   to meet with -- встречаться
   to refer to as -- называть, именовать
   to touch (up) on -- касаться, рассматривать, затрагивать
   to wait for -- ждать
   15 Aryan -- индоевропейский.
   16 Bath -- Бат, старинный город Англии, в котором сохранились остатки бань, построенных римлянами в I в. н. э.

13


   Упражнение
   3. Переведите.
      -- The exceptions are not easily accounted for.
      -- Expressions of this kind are often met with in his poetry.
      -- These lines will be commented upon in the following paragraph.
      -- He is often referred to аs the founder of tin's school.
      -- Some urgent problems of our work have been touched upon here.
      -- We were listened to with much surprise.
      -- Tell him he is waited for.
      -- The speaker was listened to with growing interest.
      -- The details will be dealt with later.
   10. Great changes were brought about by historical factors.
   5. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА ОТ ПЕРЕХОДНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ
   При употреблении в страдательном залоге некоторых переходных глаголов подлежащее английского предложения переводится предложным дополнением:
   This language was spoken five hundred years ago. На этом языке говорили пятьсот лет назад.
   Наиболее употребительны следующие переходные глаголы, которым в русском языке соответствуют глаголы, принимающие предложное дополнение:
   to address -- обращаться к
   to affect -- влиять, воздействовать на, затрагивать что-л.
   to answer -- отвечать па
   to approach -- подходить к, рассматривать что-л.
   to attend - присутствовать на, сопровождать, сопутствовать
   to enjoy -- получать удовольствие от
   to enter -- входить, вступать в
   to follow -- следовать за, следить за, следовать чему-л., придерживаться чего-л., преследовать кого-л.
   to join - присоединяться к
   to judge -- судить о
   14
  
   to influence -- влиять, воздействовать на
   to penetrate -- вступать в, входить в, проникать в
   to speak -- говорить на (каком-л. языке)
   to succeed -- следовать за, наследовать что-л.
   to watch --- следить за, наблюдать
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите, предварительно установив, какого предлога требует глагол в русском языке.
      -- We were joined by the others only two hours later.
      -- The first question is readily answered.
      -- He was addressed by a stranger.
      -- He had been greatly influenced by Dutch painters.
      -- This dialect is spoken only in the mountaneous part of the country.
      -- Each poem of this kind is almost always followed by a short maxim,
      -- This sacred room was penetrated only by the higher priests.
      -- The problem of Greek decline may be approached from two sides.
      -- Our (English) modern consonants are little affected by surrounding vowels.
  
      -- We shall now see how the three departments of literature -- prose, poetry and the drama -- were affected by this new spirit.
      -- The pronunciation of a few English words has been affected by modern French: for example, machine and police.
   12. The authenticity of this document may be judged from several sources.
   2. Переведите. Укажите залог и время сказуемого.
      -- Everybody followed his example.
      -- His example was followed by everybody.
      -- One volume followed the other.
      -- This volume was followed by a second one.
      -- She has not followed your advice.
      -- Your advice has not been followed.
      -- Both men followed each other in silence.
      -- The introduction is followed by the list of illustrations.
      -- The majority of authors follow this simple rule.

15


      -- This simple rule is followed by the majority of grammarians.
      -- The police were following him for several hours.
      -- He understood that he was being followed by the police.
   3. Переведите предложения, учитывая разные значения глаголов to affect, to follow, to succeed.
      -- The first revolutionary wave broke in 1825, in the entirely unsupported and unsuccessful mutiny of the Decembrists. It was followed by the long reaction of the reign of Nicholas I, during which rose the second wave.
      -- Italy, within which at the dawn of history a multitude of different languages and dialects were spoken, achieved linguistic unity under the aegis of Rome.
      -- As time went on, this culture tended to become rather less purely Greek, for it was penetrated to a greater or lesser degree by oriental elements.
      -- Numerous foreign terms of civilized life appeared in old English times, and were joined in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by a crowd of others connected with the church.
      -- The method I have been describing in the text is, of course, one that is followed by all of us.
      -- This glacial period was followed by a warmer interval known as the First Interglacial Stage.
      -- Bulgarian art was in fact more closely affected by Constantinople than was the art of many of the numerous portions of the empire which never enjoyed 17 national independence.
      -- "Lady Windermere's Fan" was a success. It was followed by "A Woman of No Importance",18 produced at the Haymarket Theatre on 19 April, 1893.
      -- If the correct syntactical punctuation is followed, the texts may be translated as follows.
   10. The purpose of the present study is to examine the way in which Dickensian biography and criticism have been, affected in their development by the materials that were most easily available.
   17 to enjoy -- здесь: пользоваться.
   18 Пьесы Оскара Уайльда: "Веер леди Виндермир" и "Женщина, не стоящая внимания".
   16
  
      -- These biographies were succeeded by the standard biography of Dickens, written by his friend John Forster which still remains the best written and the most reliable.
      -- This king was succeeded by his eldest son Motokiyo, who died in 1455.
      -- The houses of this small town are funny-shaped. Most of them are entered by a staircase, as the lower part is used as a fish-cellar.
      -- In preparing this new edition the original arrangement has been followed in general outline.
      -- The new schools of dramatists were largely influenced by the French drama and French fashions.
      -- What is the main lesson of Hamlet? The question, I think, is answered in all essentials in the following passage.
      -- If one and the same language is spoken in different communities, the tendency will be not only to change, but also to differentiation.
      -- Mary I (1553--1558) died young and was succeeded by her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth I (1558--1603).
   6. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА, ВЫРАЖЕННОГО СОЧЕТАНИЕМ ГЛАГОЛА С СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫМ
   Форму страдательного залога могут принимать фразеологические сочетания глагола с существительным. Буквальный перевод этих сочетаний не всегда возможен. В русском языке им обычно соответствуют глаголы или эквивалентные сочетания глагола с существительным, например:
   to make use (of) -- использовать
   to pay attention (to) -- обращать внимание на
   Такие сочетания могут образовать два типа страдательной конструкции. В одном случае подлежащим страдательной конструкции становится существительное, входящее в сочетание, например, to make use of (обычно это прямое дополнение к глаголу):
   Use was made of the following examples.
   Были использованы следующие примеры.
   2 Т. Н. Мальчевская 17
  
   В другом -- подлежащим страдательной конструкции становится слово (существительное или местоимение), которое представляет собой предложное дополнение ко всему сочетанию; например:
   The following examples were made use of.
   Были использованы следующие примеры.
   Наиболее употребительны следующие сочетания глагола с существительным:
   to call attention to -- обращать внимание па
   to draw attention to -- привлекать внимание to give attention to -- уделять внимание
   to have regard to -- принимать во внимание,
   учитывать
   to have recourse to -- прибегать (к помощи)
   to pay attention to -- уделять, обращать внима-
   ние на
   to exercise influence (on) -- оказывать влияние to lavish care (on) -- окружать заботой
   to lose sight (of) -- терять из вида, упускать
   из вида
   to make allusion (to) -- упоминать, ссылаться, намекать
   to make attempt (s) -- делать попытку, пытаться
   to make (an) effort -- делать усилие, стараться
   to make mention (of) -- упоминать to make reference (to) -- упоминать, ссылаться to make use (of) -- использовать
   to place emphasis (on) -- подчеркивать to put an end (to) -- положить конец чему-л.
   to show preference (to) -- выказывать предпочтение to take advantage (of) -- воспользоваться to take account (of) -- учитывать, принимать
   во внимание
   to take care (of) --заботиться, учитывать, ста-
   раться to take care +
   инфинитив (или that) -- стараться, стремиться to take notice (of) -- замечать, обращать вни-
   мание на to take opportunity -- (вос)пользоваться случаем
   Упражнения
   1. Найдите в следующих предложениях сочетание глагола с существительным. Переведите предложения.
      -- Efforts were made to elucidate the problem.
      -- No special attention has been paid to this period of his life.
   18
  
      -- Care was taken not to overburden the text with too many quotations.
      -- His letter has not been taken any notice of.
      -- This opportunity should not be lost sight of.
      -- A preference is shown by the author to short dialogues.
   2. Переведите предложения, предварительно сделав перевод сочетания глагола с существительным.
      -- It is possible, however, that too much emphasis has been placed upon this factor.
      -- Lastly, mention must be made of Milton's technical skill.
      -- More careful attention was paid to grammar at that period.
      -- An effort has, in addition, been made to provide a continuous narrative, and to avoid the form of a handbook intended primarily for consultation.
      -- In ordinary communicative speech no attention is drawn to the sound of words, or to word order.
      -- The entire question cannot be here discussed, but attention should be called to the fact that many of these resemblances between ancient and modern features are more fancied than real.
      -- This system known in Japanese history as "Southern and Northern Courts" 19 was put an end to by the reunion of the two lines in the person of Go Comatsu (1392).
   7. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА БЕЗЛИЧНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ
   Наиболее употребительны следующие модели безличной страдательной конструкции.
   1. It is said that . . . Говорят, что .. . It is thought that . . . Считают (полагают), что . . . It is expected that . . . Ожидают (ожидается), что. . .
   19 "Southern and Northern Courts" -- "Северный и Южный двор" в (период правления двух враждующих династий в Японии XIV в.

2* 19


   It is known that . . .
   Известно, что . . .
   It is said by our historians that . . .
   Наши историки считают, что. . .
   It is said of this author that . . .
   Об этом авторе говорят, что. . .
   It is known about him that . . .
   О нем известно, что. . .
   It must be stressed that . . .
   Следует (нужно) подчеркнуть, что. . .
   It cannot be denied that . . .
   Нельзя отрицать (того), что. . .
   It should be remembered that . . .
   Следует помнить, что. . .
   II. It was considered possible to find these manuscripts. Считали возможным найти эти рукописи. It was thought useful to publish these data. Считали полезным опубликовать эти данные.
   III. Let it be stressed that . . . Следует подчеркнуть, что. . .
   Безличные конструкции, употребленные в качестве вводного члена предложения, возможны как с формальным it, так и без него:
   The material, it will be observed, contains many examples of this kind.
   Материал, как можно заметить, содержит много примеров такого рода.
   As is readily seen from the text. . .
   Как можно легко заметить из текста. . .
   Как видно (явствует) из текста. . .
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите предложения, учитывая особенности перевода безличных конструкций.
      -- It is known that they will arrive tomorrow.
      -- It is expected that the Conference will take place in Kiev.
      -- It is hoped that the new edition of this book will be of no less interest to the reader.
   20
  
      -- It will be noticed that these poems are of quite a different character.
      -- It has been shown in the above examples that the sense of the sentence often depends on the order of words.
      -- It is sometimes said that the Nile is longer than all the rivers in the eastern and western hemispheres.
      -- It will be seen from the following tables that the sounds do not coincide in quality.
      -- It is related of this man that he never passed a day of his life without reading.
   9. It was thought useful to apply this method here. 10. It has been estimated that the volume contained
   220 pages.
   2. Переведите. Подберите в каждом случае наиболее подходящий вариант перевода модального глагола.
      -- It must be borne in mind that all the rules may have exceptions.
      -- It must be added that the minor works are not included here.
      -- It cannot be denied that his original work is a success.
      -- It is to be remembered that these data come from different sources.
   3. Переведите предложения, стараясь подобрать наиболее точный эквивалент для выражения безличного или неопределенно-личного предложения в русском.
      -- It will be seen that the distinction between different parts of speech always depends on formal criteria.
      -- It was doubted that Shaw's plays would retain their interest when the problems treated in them -- slums, women's rights, marriage customs had ceased to be of immediate concern. 20
      -- Views as to 21 the actual date of the manuscript varied; the seventh century was the most usually favoured, but it was generally agreed that the illustrations belonged to an archetype perhaps as early as 22 the second century.
   20 to be of concern -- иметь значение.
   21 as to -- в отношении, относительно.
   22 as early as -- еще в ...

21


      -- It will be readily understood that the difficulty of arriving at the 23 meaning of such compositions is very considerable.
      -- In considering loan-words it has to be remembered that, when two languages are in contact, words which are themselves borrowed may pass from one to another.
      -- It has been said that Latin is more concise than English. The reverse is the case.24 English is briefer than Latin.
      -- It is to be remembered that it was advisable to issue the proclamation of Henry Ill's adherence to the Provisions 25 in English as well as in Latin.
      -- Speaking of the influence exerted on the African peasants by workers who lose their jobs and return to their native villages, Woddis writes: "One is inevitably reminded here of Lenin's observations regarding the influence of the Russian workers on the peasant in the period leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1905".
      -- The Eskimos of the North-west Coast, it will be remembered, use to this day harpoon-heads of this kind.
  
      -- Let it be stressed, however, that an understanding of the build and form of the land, a knowledge of the routes of communication and an idea of the character of the natural resources -- are all of them factors which should be considered at the outset 26 by every historian of art in the course of his examination of a particular area or a particular civilization.
      -- It has been thought not superfluous, however, to add a few data of this kind, without a knowledge of which it is impossible to understand the course of the literary development.
      -- "Better a live dog than a dead lion". The last example, it will be observed, contains transverse alliteration and assonance.
      -- As is readily seen, the problems and questions in regard to 27 this subject are far more numerous than the solutions.
   23 to arrive at -- здесь: разгадать (достичь понимания).
   24 the reverse is the case -- здесь: дело обстоит наоборот.
   25 The Provisions -- здесь: Великая Хартия (собственно, подтверждение Хартии).
   26 at the outset -- с самого начала.
   27 in regard to --- относительно.
   22
  
      -- People living upon lakes plentifully stocked with fish, it can be imagined, availed themselves of all means in their power for capturing them.
      -- It has been ascertained beyond doubt that two kinds of cattle were common during the stone age.
   Повторение страдательного залога
   Переведите.
      -- In Eire, the Irish Free State, Irish has been made the official language and is spoken by about three million people, practically all of whom also speak English.
      -- Few references to other works have been given in the body of the text, although the author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to all the works listed in general bibliography and the chapter bibliographies to which the student is referred to for anything beyond the outline here offered.
      -- It is recognized that equivalence in both meaning and style cannot always be retained. When, therefore, one must be abandoned for the sake of the other, the meaning must have priority over the stylistic forms.
      -- The bibliographies at the close of each chapter have again been brought up to date,28 though they have at the same time also been somewhat simplified.
      -- The formation of a common language is assisted by intercourse of any kind, so especially by military service.
      -- The Stone Age Section has been given the largest space, especially now that a special exhibition of the new acquisitions has been arranged.
      -- He began his writing in the old style, and though he could not, as an educated man brought in close contact with the younger poets, be unaffected by them, he was by no means a consistent adherent of the school.
      -- The opportunity has been taken here to publish a revised edition covering a much wider and more representative selection of London's libraries.
      -- Meanwhile, in 1704, the Kamchatkan tradesman Vasilii Kolesov had been ordered by the authorities in Yakutsk to explore the limits of Kamchatka and to investigate whether there existed islands and if so to whom they belonged.
   28 to bring up to date -- пересмотреть, привести в современный вид.

23


      -- Long after Sanscrit ceased to be spoken as anyone's native language, it remained (as classical Latin remained in Europe) the artificial medium for all writing on learned topics.
      -- These two individuals, the speaker and the hearer, and their relations to one another should never be lost sight of, if we want to understand the nature of language, and that part of language which is dealt with in grammar.
      -- The whole question of Middle English dialects is now being subjected to rigorous scrutiny by A. Mc. Infosh (Edinburgh) and some others.
      -- Thinking arises only out of sense-perception and must be preceded by it.
      -- The Reference books in the Reading Room are kept under review and, wherever necessary, new books are substituted for those which are superseded.
      -- Much of the older grammatical equipment of particles and terminations is now dispensed with (in Modern Japanese).
      -- Slaves (in America) were chattels; they were denied even the sensibilities of a brute animal. Two hundred years of legislation had sanctified and sanctioned Negro Slaves a property. And property they indeed were. Like domestic animals they were referred to as "stock".
      -- Nevertheless, it may be affirmed that there were repeated glaciations in Northern Germany, and it may safely be asserted that the maximum glaciation there coincided with the Mindel Glacial Stage in the Alpine region.
      -- The general plan, however, of this series has not been lost sight of. Important writers have been treated at comparatively greater length, to the neglect of many lesser notabilities, and an attempt has been made, in so far as 29 the state of our knowledge permits, to follow the literature and to trace the causes which determined its character at particular periods.
      -- In 1837 one ship made its way nearly to Yedo 30 in the effort to return a few castaways. She was fired upon, and returned without having landed her charges.
      -- American artists from Brockden Brown and Рое to Henry James and Eliot have suffered this fate. They have
   29 in so far as -- настолько, насколько.
   30 Yedo -- Йедо, старое название г. Токио.
   24
  
   been thought of as expatriots and they have been denied a place in the literary history of the nation because they criticized their civilization.
      -- Within a few centuries, owing to the difficulty of communications and the lack of a literary tradition, the Anglo-Saxon of England and the Frisian of the German lowlands had developed into widely divergent languages. At a much later period the coming of English-speaking immigrants to the shores of America was attended by a somewhat similar linguistic divergence.
      -- Roman Latin had become the standard, normal speech of all Italy and after the first century A. D. no reference was made to local accents or dialectal variations.
      -- People are influenced by the pronunciation and words they hear on the radio and TV or in spoken motion pictures, and our radio and- TV-picture language is imitated more and more by the people who hear it so that our language tends to become more and more uniform all the time.
      -- It is assumed by many people that a repetition of a word will make the meaning more emphatic, but this is not always the case.31
      -- Simpler forms are substituted for the older, and the vocabulary is enriched by the accession of a vast number of new words.
      -- As new things were invented, they were given names built up from Latin and Greek roots.
      -- As before noticed, the work of Mr. Wells as a true novelist must really be judged on the work of the period 1900-1909.
      -- There can be little doubt that the Angles, Saxons and Jutes were a mixture of many tribal elements; though after they had been settled a few generations in England, Angles were being addressed as Saxons, Saxons were calling themselves Angles and the whole conglomeration was being referred to as Englishmen and their language as English speech.
   31 this is (not) the case -- это (не) так
  
   ИНФИНИТИВ
   II ИНФИНИТИВНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   8. ФОРМЫ ИНФИНИТИВА И ИХ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ
   В английском языке имеется четыре формы инфинитива, которые соответствуют четырем группам времен: Infinitive Indefinite, Infinitive Continuous, Infinitive Perfect и Infinitive Perfect Continuous. Инфинитивы Indefinite и Perfect имеют, кроме того, форму страдательного залога.
  
   Indefinite
   Active
   Passive
  
  
   to read
   to be read
   Continuous
   to be reading
   --
   Perfect
   to have read
   to have been read
   Perfect Continuous
   to have been reading
  
   В научной литературе наиболее употребительны формы Indefinite и Perfect действительного и страдательного залога.
   Перевод каждой формы инфинитива в отдельности затруднителен, а иногда и просто невозможен, так как полное соответствие в русском языке имеют только формы tо read --- читать и to be read -- быть прочитанным (читаемым). Однако и эти формы не всегда могут быть переведены инфинитивом. Точные видовременные значения сложных форм инфинитива полностью выявляются лишь в контексте.
   Частица to, почти постоянно предшествующая инфинитиву, может служить удобным признаком для отыскания его в предложении, например, в тех случаях, когда инфинитив по форме совпадает с существительным или
   5
  
   прилагательным, например; experiment -- to experiment (эксперимент -- экспериментировать); fashion--to fashion (вид, форма -- придавать форму).
   В ряде случаев, однако, инфинитив употребляется без to:
      -- после модальных и вспомогательных глаголов must, can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, need, dare;
      -- в обороте "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" после глаголов чувства и восприятия (например: I heard him speak. -- Я слышал как он говорит);
      -- после сочетаний had better -- лучше бы, would rather (sooner) -- предпочел бы (например: You had better begin now. -- Начните лучше сейчас);
      -- после глаголов to let -- разрешать, позволять, давать и to make -- заставлять (например: Let me pass, please. -- Позвольте мне пройти, пожалуйста; It made him laugh. -- Это заставило его рассмеяться).
   9. ФУНКЦИИ ИНФИНИТИВА В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ
   Инфинитив в предложении может быть подлежащим, обстоятельством, определением, дополнением, а также входить как составная часть в сказуемое -- именное и глагольное. Будучи частью сложного дополнения, инфинитив образует оборот "объектный падеж с инфинитивом", а с предлогом for -- инфинитивный оборот "for-phrase". Инфинитив может входить в состав сложного сказуемого, образуя оборот "именительный падеж с инфинитивом", а также употребляться как вводный член предложения.
   Инфинитив в функции подлежащего. Инфинитив является подлежащим, если стоит в начале предложения, отвечает на вопрос "что?, что делать?", а непосредственно за подлежащим или за относящимися к нему словами следует сказуемое:
   То understand this author is not easy. Понять этого автора нелегко.
   Инфинитив в функции подлежащего переводится инфинитивом или соответствующим отглагольным существительным:
   27
  
   To accomplish this work requires great skill. Выполнение этой работы требует большого уменья.
   Примечание. Если подлежащее выражено инфинитивом, а сказуемое глаголом-связкой to be + инфинитив, то связка переводится "значит, означает":
   То help him is to help all of us.
   Помочь ему значит помочь всем нам.
   Упражнение
   1. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод инфинитива-подлежащего.
      -- То define the varieties of English prose style is the purpose of the chapters that follow.
      -- To preserve a literary tradition under these circumstances was doubly difficult, and it was not preserved.
      -- Mary Stuart was detained in various castles for almost twenty years, since to have restored her to her throne by force was impossible politically and to have handed her over to the Scots for execution unthinkable treachery.
      -- To say that mind does not exist in abstraction from body is not, however, to say that mental processes do not exist.
      -- To have overburdened the book with so many details would tire the reader.
      -- To render easy the movement of modern prose, to vary its structure so that it shall not be monotonous, to add to its natural perspicuity an exactness which shall be unequivocal, demand great care and skill from an author.
      -- The second, more serious objection still remains: the system of writing cannot adequately express the whole range of human thought; and to do so even partially will require thousands of characters.
   Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели и следствия.
   Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели отвечает на вопрос "для чего?, для какой цели?". Он расположен в начале или в конце предложения и иногда вводится союзами in order (to) -- чтобы, для того чтобы; so as (to) -- с тем чтобы:
   Не has gone to England (in order) to perfect his knowledge of English.
   28
  
   Он поехал в Англию, для того чтобы совершенствовать
   свои знания английского языка.
   Не stood up so as to see better.
   Он встал, чтобы лучше видеть.
   Если инфинитив стоит в начале предложения, то непосредственно за ним или за относящимися к нему словами должно стоять подлежащее предложения:
   То understand this author better you should read all his earlier works.
   Для того чтобы лучше понять этого писателя, вам следует прочесть все его более ранние произведения.
   Упражнение 2. Переведите.
      -- То supply the needs of the new civilization a vast increase of vocabulary became necessary.
      -- The natives cast about their shoulders a rectangular cape so as to keep off the cold or merely for the sake of 1 elegance.
      -- To think about the world we must first perceive the world.
      -- In order to grasp the full meaning of a work of art we need to know a great deal 2 more about the sources of its theme and style than can be learned by the merely aesthetic approach.
      -- To prevent the soil from being seized again by a few landowners and to allow for the growth of population, a redistribution of the fields was to take place every six years.
      -- It would seem a truism that to be a linguist (scientific or otherwise) one must first learn to speak many languages.
   Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства следствия обычно стоит в конце предложения. Характерным признаком его служат наречия (too -- слишком, enough, sufficiently -- достаточно), расположенные перед прилагательным или наречием, за которыми следует инфинитив с частицей to.
   1 for the sake of -- ради, для.
   2 a great deal -- много; здесь: значительно, намного.

29


   Инфинитив следствия переводится союзом "чтобы" с последующим инфинитивом. Все предложение нередко приобретает модальное значение возможности (или невозможности), которое в русском языке выражается употреблением слов "можно", "может" и т. п.:
   The finds are too few to be spoken about. Находок слишком мало, чтобы о них (можно было) говорить.
   Инфинитив следствия может также вводиться союзом as с предшествующими наречиями so или such:
   The rule has been so formulated as to be easily observed by everybody.
   Правило было сформулировано таким образом, чтобы все могли легко его соблюдать.
   Примечание. Инфинитив следствия от глаголов to form, tо give, to yield и to make переводится деепричастием:
   All these conditions combine to make the problem very complicated.
   Все эти условия сочетаются (объединяются), делая эту проблему очень сложной.
   Упражнение
   3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива. Найдите признаки инфинитива функции обстоятельства следствия,
      -- The resemblance is almost too close to be accidental.
      -- Most of the population of these islands are farmers, but they do not grow enough to feed themselves.
      -- In British Isles all the lakes are of fresh water, and all bodies of water large enough to be called lakes are connected with the sea by means of rivers.
      -- Italians, whether soldiers or 3 civilians, were too few to leave any lasting physical trace on the population of the country they invaded.
      -- Too little is as yet 4 known of the origin of the Far Eastern peoples to enable us to determine accurately all the racial connections of the Japanese.
   3 whether . , . or --- независимо от того, . . ли; будь то. . .,
   или
   4 as yet -- до сих пор, пока.
  
   Инфинитив в функции вводного члена предложения.
   Инфинитив -- вводный член предложения обычно расположен в начале или в середине предложения и отделяется запятой или другим знаком.
   Инфинитив -- вводный член предложения, как правило, переводится: деепричастием с относящимися к нему словами и инфинитивным оборотом, начинающимся с "если":
   То sum up, we can say that . . . Подводя итог, мы можем сказать, что. . . Если подвести итог, то можно сказать, что. . .
   Часто такой инфинитив представляет собой уже застывшее выражение:
   То put it another way, . . . Иными словами,. . .
   В функции вводного члена предложения наиболее употребительны следующие сочетания с инфинитивом:
   to anticipate -- забегая вперед
   to begin with -- прежде всего; начнем
   с того, что; для начала
   to enumerate -- если перечислить
   to generalize -- обобщая, если обобщить
   to judge from -- судя по, если судить по
   to make a long story short -- короче говоря to mention -- если упомянуть
   not to mention -- не упоминая
   to name -- если назвать (упомянуть)
   to put it another way -- иначе говоря, иными словами
   to put it briefly -- короче говоря
   to put it mildly -- мягко выражаясь
   to put it more exactly -- точнее говоря to put it simply -- попросту говоря
   to quote -- если привести, приведем
   to return -- возвращаясь, если воз-
   вратиться
   to say nothing of -- не говоря уже о
   needless to say -- не имеет смысла говорить,
   нет смысла
   suffice it to say -- достаточно сказать
   so to say -- так сказать
   to sum up -- подводя итог, если под-
   вести итог to tell the truth -- по правде говоря

31


   to take an example -- если привести пример,
   например
   to use -- если употребить, употребляя
   Упражнение
   4. Переведите предложения, подобрав в списке соответствующие сочетания с инфинитивом.
      -- A great household (such as Shakespeare depicts in Twelfth Night or Lear) might consist of several hundred persons -- family, dependants, expert officials -- to say nothing of the scores of guests and neighbours.
      -- To put the matter in another way, word-symbols possess the power of absorbing the meaning of the surrounding context, which can then be discarded without appreciable loss.
      -- To return to our play, it is evident that "Phedre" 5 is the ideal type of a baroque tragedy, not only by its style, but by its basic conception.
      -- To begin with, the concept of related languages was strikingly confirmed by the existence in far-off India, of a sister of the familiar languages of Europe (Sanscrit).
      -- To pass now from the outer form of words to their inner meaning, there is again so much that is common to all mankind, that we cannot be surprised to find a number of correspondencies between languages widely apart.
      -- The harbours of Nagasaki and Yokohama, to mention only two, are the most convenient.
   Инфинитив в функции определения. Инфинитив в функции определения следует за определяемым словом (обычно это существительное), имеет форму действительного или страдательного залога и отвечает на вопрос "какой?". В русском языке инфинитиву в функции определения соответствует определительное придаточное предложение, начинающееся словами "который", "кто".
   Инфинитив в функции определения чаще всего имеет модальный оттенок необходимости, возможности или приобретает значение будущего времени и переводится с добавлением слов "необходимо", "следует", "можно (нельзя)" или глаголом в будущем времени:
   5 "Phedre" -- "Федра", трагедия Расина. 32
  
   This is the main difficulty to be taken into consideration.
   Это -- основная трудность, которую нужно учитывать.
   This is a rule not to be forgotten.
   Это -- правило, которое не следует (нельзя) забывать.
   Here is the text to be read by us next time.
   Вот текст, который мы будем читать в следующий раз.
   Инфинитив в функции определения может стоять после порядкового числительного (the first, the third и т. п.), после слов типа the last, the next, the only или после сочетания подобных слов с существительным.
   В таких случаях модальный оттенок необходимости, возможности или значение будущего времени отсутствует. Время сказуемого в определительном придаточном предложении в большинстве случаев зависит от времени сказуемого в главном предложении:
   Не was the first to pay attention to this peculiarity.
   Он был первым, кто обратил внимание на эту особенность (Он первый обратил внимание на эту особенность).
   It was the first theatre to be opened in England.
   Это был первый театр, открытый (который был открыт) в Англии.
   At that period of time he was the only scientist to support this theory.
   В тот период он был единственным ученым, который поддерживал (поддерживавшим) эту теорию.
   Упражнение
   5. Переведите. Обратите внимание на наличие или отсутствие оттенка модальности. Объясните это явление.
      -- The earliest tablets to be discovered were of the native wood.
      -- These printed lists contain material not to be found elsewhere.
      -- The last problem to be considered is that dealing with the tablets.
      -- The first European (Magellan) ever to sail across the wide Pacific was curious about the hidden worlds beneath his ship.
   3 Т. Н. Мальчевская 33
  
      -- The choice of the road to be taken was not difficult. The Army was moving northwards.
      -- Kyushu was the first island to be greatly affected by intercourse with Europe in the sixteenth century.
      -- Evidently our power of making this comparison depends upon our knowledge of the things to be compared.
      -- The Globe playhouse was opened in 1599, and it has been thought probable that "Julius Caesar" was the first Shakespeare play to be presented there.
      -- It will be seen that while the idealist explanation tries to relate the phenomenon to be explained to some spiritual cause, the materialist explanation relates it to material causes.
  
      -- Did human beings always possess the power of speech? If not, when and how did they acquire it? Are human beings the only ones to have it?
      -- Moreover, it was not the classics themselves, as much as the works of Italy and France above mentioned, which had so important an influence on the poets to be presently considered, particularly on Chaucer.6
      -- Turning from the correspondences to be found in the archaic parts of the vocabulary to the structure and contents of Modern English, we find that a very great change has taken place.
      -- Only a few men in all the history of the world have had the experience of descending, alive, beyond the range of visible light (into the ocean). The first to do so were William Beeb and Otis Barton (1934).
      -- Under a strange sky, where there was none to render us aid, we tossed about over the sea.
      -- I suppose that there is more education to be had from that remark than from an hour's reading of Ovid.
      -- The first foreign language and English word count to appear based on a scientific foundation was that of Henrnon in 1924.
   Инфинитив в составном именном сказуемом. Составное именное сказуемое образуется глаголом to be, употребляемым во всех временах Indefinite и Perfect изъявительного и сослагательного наклонения в сочетании с инфинитивом с частицей to.
   6 Chaucer -- Чосер (1340--1400), английский поэт. 34
  
   to b e + t о + Infinitive Our task was to prove this hypothesis. Наша задача состояла в том, чтобы доказать это предположение.
   Глагол-связка to be переводится "состоять в том, чтобы (что)", "заключаться в том, чтобы (что)".
   В настоящем времени связка иногда не переводится:
   Our task is to prove it. Наша задача -- доказать это.
   Если подлежащее предложения выражено инфинитивом, то глагол-связка, как правило, переводится "значит, означает":
   То reproduce a phenomenon is to prove it.
   Воспроизвести явление значит (означает) доказать его.
   Упражнение
   6. При переводе обратите внимание на время глагола-связки to be.
      -- Our aim was to include all pertinent information that came to our attention up to October, 31, 1951.
      -- The first business of grammar, as of every other science, is to observe the facts and phenomena with which it has to deal; and to classify and state them methodically.
      -- A first step in stylistic analysis will be to observe such deviations as the repetitions of sounds, the inversion of word order and some others.
      -- Their method of conquest was to make military roads and to plant along them forts garrisoned by the regular troops.
      -- My concern here has been to show that a significant difference separates these two types of Comedy.
      -- The object of this little book is to explain by examples how the different parts of speech are used and to show from their uses how they should be defined.
      -- To assign all the words of English to their original sources is not to determine the mode of their entrance into English.
      -- The method of reading was, according to N., to read one row from left to right, then come hack reading the next from right to left.
      --
   9. In so far as 7 a foreign language coincides with the native tongue, to study one is to study another.
      -- The function of this staff is to maintain the service of books to readers, to assist in finding books and to give advice in problems of research or bibliography.
      -- Our task in this case would be to find the original picture.
   Инфинитив в составном модальном сказуемом. Модальное составное сказуемое образуется модальным глаголом (must, can, may, need, should, ought и др.) в сочетании с инфинитивом как с частицей to, так и без нее.
   must, can, may, should+инфинитив to have, to be, ought + to + инфинитив.
   Упражнения
   7. При переводе обратите особое внимание на модальные или близкие им по значению глаголы, а также на форму инфинитива.
      -- The conference was to take place in London.
      -- You will have to overcome many difficulties in your work.
      -- They were compelled to agree with us.
      -- Your friend may not know that we are here.
      -- You ought to know this author.
      -- Where are these books to be had?
      -- Tell him he need not be in a hurry.
      -- You must have heard of him. He is one of the best singers in France.
      -- We are obliged to let him know about it.
  
      -- He must have forgotten my address.
      -- The faults of this work are hardly to be denied.
      -- This must be the book you were telling me about.
      -- This unpleasant meeting is not to be avoided.
      -- I felt that something is bound to happen very soon.
      -- He may have forgotten about it.
      -- Nobody was to be seen at the station.
      -- He ought to have foreseen it.
      -- You should have been born a hundred years ago.
      -- He drew the plan of the building more skillfully than any one else could have done it.
   in so far as -- поскольку, насколько.
   36
  
   Употребление модальных и близких им по значению глаголов с инфинитивом
  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   Пример
   Примечание
   must
   Infinitive Indefinite
   Долженствование, необходимость
   должен, нужно, необходимо, следует
   This paper must be typed. Эта статья должна быть отпечатана на машинке.
   Иногда в значении вероятности: Не must be busy now. Он, наверное, занят сейчас.
  
  
   Infinitive Perfect
   Вероятность
   должно быть, вероятно
   Не must have missed the train. Он, должно быть, опоздал на поезд.
  
   to have (to)
   Только Infinitive Indefinite
   Долженствование, необходимость
   должен, вынужден, пришлось
   Не had to go there alone. Ему пришлось ехать туда одному.
  
  
  

IIродолжение

  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   Пример
   Примечание
   to be to
  
  
   должен, предстоит, надлежит, суждено
   Не was to go there alone. Ему надлежало ехать туда одному.
   Только во временах Present и Past Indefinite. В сочетании с инфинитивами to be found, to be seen, to be got, to be had имеет значение возможности: This magazine is to be found at any bookstall. Этот журнал можно найти в любом киоске.
   to be obliged (to)
  
  
   должен, обязан
   Не is obliged to return the book to the library. Он обязан вернуть книгу в библиотеку.
  
   Продолжение
  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   Пример
   Примечание
   to be compelled (to)
  
  
   должен, принужден, вынужден
   Не was compelled to give up his studies. Он был вынужден бросить занятия.
  
   to be bound (to)
  
  
  
  
   вынужден, обязан, неминуемо должен
   Their plan is bound to fail. Их план неминуемо должен провалиться.
  
  
   To be forced (to) to have got (to)
  
  
  
  
   вынужден, принужден
   Не was forced to sign the letter. Он был принужден подписать письмо.
  
  
   ought (to)
   Infinitive Indefinite
  
  
   нужно, следует
   You ought to know this rule better. Вам следует лучше знать это правило.
  
  
  

Продолжение

  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   Пример
   Примечание
   ought (to)
   Infinitive Perfect
  
   следовало бы
   You ought to have done it earlier. Вам следовало бы сделать это раньше.
  
   should
   Infinitive Indefinite
  
  
   нужно, следует
   You should ask him about it. Вам следует спросить его об этом.
  
  
  
  
   Infinitive Perfect
  
  
   следовало бы
   You should have asked him about it. Вам следовало бы спросить его об этом.
  
  
   need
   Infinitive Indefinite
  
  
   нужно, следует
   Не need not come so early. Ему не нужно приходить так рано.
  
  

ирооолжение

  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение

Рекомендуемый перевод

   Пример
   Примечание
   сап
   Infinitive Indefinite
   Физическая или умственная способность, уменье

может, умеет

   She can play tennis. Она умеет играть в теннис. It can be easily done. Это легко можно сделать.
  
   could
  
  
  
  

мог, умел

   She could play tennis when she was 12. Она умела играть в теннис, когда ей было 12 лет.
   Если вся ситуация относится к прошедшему времени.
  
  
  
  
  
  
   мог бы, можно было бы
   I could help you a little later. Я мог бы помочь вам немножко позже.
   Если вся ситуация относится к настоящему или будущему времени.
  
  
   Infinitive Perfect
  
  
  
  
   You could have told me about it. Вы могли бы сказать мне об этом.
  
  

Продолжение

   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   Форма инфинитива
   Передаваемое значение
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   Пример
   Примечание
   could not
  
  
   не может быть, чтобы . . ., не мог бы
   не could not have said so. He может быть, чтоб он сказал это.
  
   to be able
   (to)
   Infinitive Indefinite
  
   быть способным, быть в состоянии, мочь, уметь
   I shall be able to do it tomorrow. Я смогу сделать, это завтра.
   Форма was (were) able переводится совершенным видом глагола -- смог, сумел -- в отличие от формы could -- мог, умел: They could swim and were able to reach the bank. Они умели плавать и смогли добраться до берега.
   may
  
   Возможность, разрешение
   может, можно, разрешено
   You may take my book. Вы можете (можно) взять мою книгу.
  

Продолжение

  
   Модальный глагол и его заменители
   may
   Форма
   инфинитива
   Infinitive Perfect
   Передаваемое значение
   Возможность, вероятность
   Рекомендуемый перевод
   ВОЗМОЖНО,
   может быть + настоящее время глагола
   Пример
   Примечание
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   You may be mistaken. Вы, возможно, ошибаетесь.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   возможно, может быть + прошедшее время глагола
   Не may have noticed my absence. Возможно, он заметил мое отсутствие.
  
  
   might
   Infinitive Indefinite
   Возможность с сильным оттенком сомнения
   возможно (но вряд ли), может быть (но едва ли)
   Не might be mistaken. Возможно, он ошибается.
  
  
  
  
   Infinitive Perfect
  
  
  
  
   Не might have noticed you. Может быть, он заметил вас.
  
  
   to be allowed (to)
   to be permitted (to)
   Infinitive Indefinite
   Разрешение
   можно, разрешено
   Не is not allowed to smoke. Ему не разрешают курить
  
  
  
   8. При переводе обратите внимание на точное значение модального глагола.
      -- If, in the sixty years after 1789, England was to have a revolution on the French model, most Englishmen believed that it would begin in Manchester.
      -- The slave-owners in Puerto-Rico were obliged to render a monthly report of the number of slaves who fled to the mountains.
   3. The adventurist policy of these countries was bound to result in 8 bankruptcy.
   4. As the Suez route 9 was yet to be opened, the ship had to circumnavigate half of the globe before reaching the Pacific Ocean.
      -- These brave people were compelled to fight for every inch of soil.
      -- It is also to be noted that in the inscriptions and written documents of this period we frequently find in one country forms and words that were later to become distinctive of the other sections.
      -- Such flower as this is not to be found in this vicinity.
      -- The reader should keep in mind 10 the marked distinction between the two 11 processes.
      -- "The world is not to be comprehended as a complex of ready-made things", wrote Engels, "but as a complex of processes in which things apparently stable, go through an uninterrupted change of coming into being 12 and passing away".
  
      -- Rousseau, 13 in his Contrat Sociale and Emile (1760--1762) had first formulated those ideas which were to shake the foundations of European society.
      -- For his lord's sake 14 the retainer was bound not only to lay down his own life cheerfully, but to sacrifice the life and honour of those nearest to him.
      -- This sonnet and the one quoted above need, in fact, to be considered together.
   8 to result in -- приводить к ...
   9 The Suez route -- Суэцкий канал.
   10 to keep in mind -- учитывать, иметь в виду.
   11 the two -- оба, обе.
   12 to come into being -- возникать, появляться.
   13 Rousseau [ruso:] -- Руссо, Жан-Жак.
   14 for somebody's sake -- ради (для) кого-то.
  
      -- An unfortunate outgrowth of the general-grammar idea was the belief that the grammarian or lexicographer can ascertain the logical basis of language and prescribe how people ought to speak.
      -- The origin of this art, so far as technique is concerned, 15 is to be traced back to the tomb painting of Graeco- Roman Egypt.
      -- In 1820 Keats was compelled to seek warmer skies, and died in Rome early in the next year, at the age of twenty- five.
      -- The new text bears many affinities with treaties of the second millenium В. С.16 In this way it should further the understanding of this type of literature, which is common to the whole of Ancient Near East.
      -- Dickens died on 9 June 1870, and before the end of the year some half-dozen biographies had been published, none of which need be consulted now.
      -- Near the wall we unearthed building foundations on 12 sites, discoveries of which led to much discussion among our members. Some of us believe that the foundations uncovered may be the remains of those palaces, but this will have to be further substantiated.
      -- Henry VIII (1509--1547) was the first king since Henry V who did not have to fight a battle to win or keep his throne.
      -- A similar origin should probably be assigned to the extensive accumulations of sand, clay and fine gravel which are to be found on the coast of Alicante.
   сопоставление сочетания "to bе + инфинитив" в различных функциях
   9. Переведите предложения, предварительно определив функцию сочетания "to be + инфинитив".
   1. The opposite view is to deny any philosophic relevance to literature.
   2. A series of events took place which within a few years was to work a transformation in the island kingdom.
   l5 so far as ... is concerned -- постольку, поскольку речь идет о ...
   16 В. С. (Before Christ) -- до нашей эры.

45


      -- These tales lack the artistic beauty of expression and of imagery which are to be found everywhere in his greater poems.
      -- A second, not contradictory approach, is to study the sum of individual traits by which this system differs from comparable systems.
      -- The change which was to come over English poetry, and the new style which was to dominate that poetry for more than a century, owes its inception to this great poet.
      -- Dickens was for a time editor of the London and Westminster Review, and his purely literary efforts in the essay are not to be ignored.
      -- With the longer poems (of Shelley) went a brilliant cascade of shorter lyrical pieces. To name them is to mention some of the sweetest English lyrics.
      -- The aim of the dialectical method is to enable us logically and consistently to express the real interconnection and motion of things.
      -- The mural paintings are by no means to be found in all the caves inhabited during the Glacial Epoch.
  
      -- The great achievement in the cultural field was the creation of a department of archaeology, whose function it was to preserve the monuments of Indian art and by excavations, to discover more of them.
      -- This serious problem is not to be disposed of so lightly.
   10. При переводе обратите внимание на сочетания модального глагола с инфинитивом.
      -- The process of creating a language must have been a very slow and painful one, stretching out over thousands, perhaps millions of years.
      -- Actually tools of this kind may have served a number of purposes, like the sailor's pocket-knife.
      -- Now the cave differs little from how it must have looked in 1947 when it was first discovered.
      -- It is easy to understand that the geologic events of the Glacial Epoch should have had far-reaching effects upon the earth's surface.
      -- A few additional factors of geographical character which may also have exercised and influence on artistic developments of one sort or another may also be noted.
   46
  
      -- The dictionary shows that the number of words which may have originated in this way is very large.
      -- Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries must have been a fearsome chaos of warring tribes and kingdoms.
      -- Some finds suggest that the first edition of London bridge may have been erected in timber before the Roman Conquest. 17
   Инфинитив в составном сказуемом с глаголами, характеризующими действие. Из глаголов, характеризующих действие, наиболее употребительны следующие:
   to be going + to + инфинитив -- намереваться, собираться сделать что-л.
   I am going to speak to him.
   Я собираюсь поговорить с ним.
   This time-table is going to be changed soon.
   Это расписание скоро переменят.
   to be about+to + инфинитив -- собраться что-л. делать, начал было.
   The train was about to start. . .
   Поезд уже трогался. . .
   He was about to answer, but at that moment. . .
   Он, было, начал отвечать, но в этот момент. . .
   Он готов был ответить, но. . .
   Он собрался ответить, но. ...
   Примечание. Предлог about в сочетании с инфинитивом может употребляться в качестве определения: We were about to consider this problem. Мы собирались рассмотреть этот вопрос.
   The problem about to be considered
   Вопрос, который собираются рассматривать,
   Вопрос, который будет рассмотрен здесь, . . .
   to go, to tend + to + инфинитив -- стремиться, иметь тенденцию к осуществлению какого-л. действия: быть склонным.
   The author tends to show that. . . Автор склонен считать, что. . .
   17 The Roman Conquest -- Римское завоевание; завоевание о. Британии римскими легионами в 43 г. до н. э.
  
   Примечание. Эти глаголы чаще всего употребляются для избежания категоричности стиля изложения и в переводе могут быть опущены:
   All this goes to show that. . .
   Все это показывает, что. . .
   to come + to + инфинитив -- начать (стать) что-л. делать, а также переводится глаголом с приставками "по-", "за-".
   I have come to understand it only now. Я стал (начал) понимать это только теперь. We came to love him. Мы полюбили его.
   to manage+to+инфинитив -- суметь, смочь, ухитриться, удаваться что-л. сделать.
   Не managed to overcome this difficulty. Ему удалось (он сумел) преодолеть эту трудность, to fail + to + инфинитив -- не смочь, не суметь, не удаваться, не быть в состоянии что-л. сделать.
   The author failed to show this difference. Автору не удалось показать это различие.
   Примечание 1. Если существительное или местоимение, стоящее перед глаголом to fail, обозначает не лицо, то инфинитив смыслового глагола переводится с отрицательным значением:
   These facts, however, fail to explain the cause of the process.
   Однако эти факты не объясняют причину процесса.
   Примечание 2. Существительное failure в сочетании с инфинитивом переводится: неспособность что-л. сделать, либо существительным с отрицательной приставкой:
   Failure to realize this fact . . .
   Неспособность понять этот факт. . .
   Непонимание этого факта. . . .
   Примечание 3. Сочетание "cannot fail + инфинитив" переводится: не может не . . .; сочетание "could not fail + инфинитив" -- не мог не ... Также переводятся сочетания "cannot but, could not but + инфинитив":
   He could not fail to be influenced by this great painter.
   Он не мог не оказаться под влиянием этого великого художника.
   used+to+инфинитив -- иметь обыкновение (обычно) при прошедшем времени:
   I used to write with this pen last year.
   Я (обычно) писал этой ручкой в прошлом году.
   would + инфинитив -- иметь обыкновение (бывало) при описаниях в прошедшем времени.
   She would sit at the window for hours.
   48
  
   Она, бывало, часами сидела у окна. Она имела обыкновение. . . Она просиживала. . . .
   Для характеристики действия употребляются также и некоторые другие глаголы, например:
   to set out+to+Infinitive -- намереваться; to be wont+to+Infinitive -- иметь обыкновение; to cease+to+Infinitive -- перестать; to go on + to + Infinitive -- продолжать.
   11. Дайте точный перевод составного сказуемого. I
   1. As the Cave Four material flowed in, it became clear that its bulk was going to surpass by far anything found in the first Gave.
      -- Goethe had come to know a bookseller, Fromann by name, with whose family and friends he found it pleasant to discuss art and literature.
      -- Much to our surprise the seats for the first concert were sold out in advance. But as I was about to appear on the stage, the lights suddenly went out, leaving the audience in complete darkness.
      -- Being a typical denizen of Russia, where the slow agricultural tempo prevailed, Goncharov could not but be struck by the pace of life he found in England.
      -- Great respect was paid (in Old English times) to the art of alliterative verse, and it was a matter at least for private shame to have to leave the feast (as Cadmon at first was wont to do) before the harp was reaching you because you were unable to sing.
      -- Sinan (the ancient Arabian doctor) organized a staff of physicians who would go from place to place carrying drugs and administering relief to ailing people.
      -- However, with all his deep sympathy with suffering in any shape or form, the author has somehow failed to reproduce these feelings in his work . . .
   8. The statues which came from the quarry -- to be described later -- used to stand on a platform about a yard and a half across at the top of the parapet.
   4 Т. Н. Мальчевская 49
  
   9. Athens,18 though still a centre of philosophical study and thought, had ceased to be of any direct importance at that time.
      -- The art of picture writing later was developed to a high degree by some American Indian tribes, who would inscribe on the bark of trees complete pictorial histories of their expeditions.
      -- The force of this conclusion will be apparent in the following chapter when we come to discuss the problem of invention.
      -- Then, when that cave was explored, the party would have to move on to another, perhaps hundreds of feet above or below, and start afresh.
      -- This kind of attitude goes to show that certain quarters in the West are not interested in an early settlement of the issue.
      -- As time passed, most of the land that was reclaimed on the frontiers gradually came to be held by a few lords. As the nation grew, these reclaimed lands eventually formed the larger part of its area. Then as a reward for service or because of some special influence at court, individuals would be given estates to hand down to their descendants.
      -- Then it became clear that ten thousands of pounds were going to be required to save this fabulous library.
      -- A year later (1887), Andre Antoine, an amateur actor, founded Le Theatre Libre in Paris for the production of new plays which failed to attract the Commercial Theatre managers.
  
      -- The business of which he was a director was about tо crash.
      -- I never managed to get there, although I spent some time in one or two of neighbouring countries.
      -- The wooded hills, the infinite variety of mountain valley, of lake and harbour and sea, could not have failed tо develop in some of those people a sense of the artistic.
   II
   20. This chapter sets out to describe characteristics of English which are not included in the previous nine chapters.
   18 Athens ['"Tinz] -- Афины.
  
      -- By the middle of the nineteenth century the nation was ripe for change. Rumours of dissatisfaction and unrest were beginning to be heard. Some revolution was seemingly about to take place.
      -- This region does not consist of large, smoky industrial towns such as one finds in the West of England, but of widely scattered market towns in which the wooden industry has managed to survive.
      -- In my own country -- Sweden -- the house snake was extremely common, and only a few years ago there died a farmer of whom I know that he was wont to offer milk to the house snakes.
      -- Sergey Gorodetsky writes that Khlebnikov would give his manuscripts to anyone who wanted them.
      -- The author traces briefly the history of Japanese poetry in the Nara period, and then goes on to speak of the more recent poets.
      -- Hugh 19 sent an embassy of twenty four knights to inform the governor that he was about to arrive and repeat his demand for a suitable reception.
   12. При переводе обратите внимание на значение глагола to fail +инфинитив и существительного failure + инфинитив.
      -- The knight now attempted to unsheath the sword in his belt, but his arm failed to obey his will, and he fell to the ground.
      -- Wilde's 20 theory of life was not a deep one, and his plays are consequently a little artificial, and, as before mentioned, fail especially in character-drawing.
      -- The stone artifacts 21 fail to show any consistency pattern of fracturing and could easily have been produced by one or more natural forces.
      -- He (Dickens) sometimes failed as an artist, but the greater part of his work is sound in this respect.
      -- Failure to realize this fact has led to many extravagant claims made by some enthusiasts.
      -- These studies could not fail to throw light upon many an aspect of history and archaeology, but their im-
   19 Hugh ['hju:] -- Гуг, имя рыцаря-крестоносца.
   20 Wilde -- Оскар Уайлд.
   21 artifacts -- предметы, изделия.
  
   mediate interest lay in what they told about human speech.
      -- After his failure to relieve Nicae 22 the sultan had withdrawn eastward to gather his own force and to conclude peace and alliance with the Emir.
      -- No one, examining the evidence of Greek failure, cultural and social-political, can fail to perceive how closely the two aspects are interwoven.
   13. При переводе обратите внимание на значения глагола to use+инфинитив в зависимости от выполняемой им функции.
      -- The men used to wear nothing but a wide belt of beaten bark.
      -- The pictures which the Egyptians used to record events and to express ideas are called hyeroglyphics.
      -- The children used to like sliding down the sides of volcanoes on tobbogans.
      -- Once all ships used to come up the river to the ancient city, but now no ship whatever comes, and the tradesmen have gone away, and their wooden dwellings have been pulled down.
      -- The same tendency to use the novel as a means of instruction or admonition has been used of late years by many authors.
      -- When capitalism was still a progressive force, bourgeois thinkers used to believe that people could know more and more about the real world, and so control natural forces.
      -- The signs used to indicate the tones are the very simple ones.
   Инфинитив в функции второго дополнения. После некоторых глаголов в английском следуют два прямых дополнения; одно из них выражается существительным или местоимением, второе -- инфинитивом. Чаще всего такие конструкции переводятся придаточным дополнительным предложением с союзами "что", "чтобы".
   Два прямых дополнения обычно принимают следующие глаголы:
   to order -- приказывать
   22 Nicae -- Никея, город.
   52
  
   to make to cause to force to induce to bring to compel to get to have to lead to let
   заставлять, способствовать (тому, чтобы. . .), побуждать, делать так, чтобы. . .
   to allow -- позволять
   to enable -- давать возможность
   Примечание 1. Инфинитив после глаголов to make и to have употребляется без частицы to:
   We made Mm return.
   Мы заставили его вернуться.
   Если глагол to make употребляется в страдательном залоге, то после него инфинитив употребляется с частицей to:
   Не was made to return.
   Его заставили вернуться.
   Примечание 2. Глагол to cause + дополнение (не лицо) + инфинитив страдательного залога переводится "служить (быть) причиной того, что . . .":
   The earthquake caused these layers to be removed.
   Землетрясение послужило причиной того, что эти слои сдвинулись (сместились).
   Примечание 3. Глагол to allow + дополнение + инфинитив страдательного залога переводится "позволить (разрешить)" + русский инфинитив действительного залога+дополнение:
   The chief of the expedition allowed the tents to be set up on the slope.
   Начальник экспедиции разрешил поставить палатки на склоне.
   Глагол to enable + дополнение + инфинитив страдательного залога переводится таким же образом:
   This enabled all the corrections to be made in time.
   Это дало возможность сделать все поправки вовремя.
   Упражнение
   14. При переводе обратите внимание на глаголы, стоящие перед инфинитивом.
   I
   1. Esarhaddon, in accordance with Assyrian custom made the suppliants pay dearly for the help given them, for tribute and takes were imposed on their cities.
   53
  
      -- The American Indians, particularly the Plain Tribes, had a system of gestures or sign-language that enabled members of different tribes, speaking totally different languages, to communicate with one another, and also with the white man,
      -- His acts of violence had caused him to be bitterly hated by the natives who surrounded him.
      -- Between the Coral islands in the Tuamotu Archipelago, Magellan ordered his sounding line to be lowered.
      -- The use of the Chinese written characters, which required a different sign for each word, was made easier by introducing signs for syllables. This helped to make the written language conform more nearly to everyday speech.
      -- The alteration of the position of the accent had caused another change in pronounciation to take place, namely, the change of the vowel into [э] in the second syllable.
      -- In this part of the tool there is an irregularly made hole of a size large enough to allow a strong cord to pass through for the purpose of suspension.
      -- Some opponents of that school would have us believe that the historical studies were simply disguised theorising.
      -- The warm climate and the mild temperature of this part of the country caused man in Early Palaeolithic time, to prefer stations in the open, and so he encamped on the lower slopes of hills, or on the sandy shores of rivers.
   10. This author unites the Basque in one group with the African and the Semitic languages, making the Caucasian languages to form a second branch.
   II
   11. This porosity, added to the unbroken violence of the winds, makes all the trees planted on the island lead so hard a life; the only chance for them is huddling together.
   12. In as far as 23 this text will help to an increased understanding of the relation between king and people and of the political thought of the Assyrians, it will enable the
   23 in as far as -- поскольку, настолько 54
  
   debt owed them by succeeding civilization to be more clearly appreciated.
      -- The greatest contribution of Coleridge's Shakespearian criticism is his continual insistence that every work of art must be judged by its own organic laws. If this sometimes led him to explain away Shakespeare's faults or to ascribe them to another hand, it also led him to recognize qualities which earlier critics had missed.
      -- In this part of the land it is the universal practice to allow the land to lie fallow for at least two years after a single crop has been raised, while crops are raised from other lands.
      -- Like many other hypersensitive children, this boy could not, or would not, bring himself to ask for those books, and his conscience prevented him from reading them on the sly.24
      -- At the same time maritime importance of the Dutch caused a great many Dutch nautical terms and other Dutch words to be borrowed by English.
      -- Madness of jealousy in Othello causes its possessor to destroy the woman who represents everything in the world for him.
      -- He loved to perform such experiments as the one in which liquids of various colours are made to form different layers in a single vessel.
      -- Most specimens were either carved or impressed with characters giving the name of a place or person, leading us to believe they were produced in professional workshops.
      -- When the king heard that the awful dragon was outside his very gates, demanding food, he had his servants give the beast two sheep a day (a legend).
      -- It is said that in 1219 Bishop Richard Poore ordered an arrow to be shot from the heights of Old Sarum and where it fell ho built Salisbury Cathedral as we see it now.
   10. ИНФИНИТИВНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   Инфинитивный оборот, вводимый предлогом for (for-phrase). В этом обороте предлог for + существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в объектном падеже
   24 on the sly -- исподтишка, тайком,
   55
  
   и инфинитив с to образуют единое смысловое целое, где инфинитив выражает действие, субъектом которого является существительное или местоимение.
   for + smth/smb + to + инфинитив
   For the man to enter
   For everybody to see
   (субъект действия
   инфинитива)
   Такие обороты переводятся на русский язык придаточным предложением, подлежащим которого становится субъект действия, а сказуемым -- инфинитив. Тип придаточного предложения зависит от функции, выполняемой оборотом в предложении. Чаще всего оборот употребляется в функции обстоятельства. В таком случае придаточное предложение вводится союзом "чтобы (для того, чтобы)":
   For this material to be published this year you must have it typed as soon as possible.
   Для того чтобы этот материал был опубликован в этом году, вам нужно как можно скорее перепечатать его на машинке.
   Оборот с for выступает также в функции других членов предложения:
   There isn't enough time for the material to be published this year.
   Недостаточно времени для того, чтобы материал был опубликован в этом году (обстоятельство следствия).
   It is quite possible for this material to be published very soon.
   Вполне возможно, что этот материал будет очень
   скоро опубликован (часть составного сказуемого).
   The main problem is for this material to be published as soon as possible.
   Основная задача состоит в том, чтобы этот материал был как можно скорее опубликован (именная часть сказуемого).
   Не asked for the documents to be sent to him by post.
   Он просил, чтобы ему переслали документы почтой (прямое дополнение).
   56
  
   The only conclusion for him to draw was the following.
   Единственный вывод, который он мог сделать, был следующий (определение).
   For his thesis to be published this year is out of the question.
   He может быть и речи о том, чтобы его диссертация была опубликована в этом году (подлежащее).
   Если оборот выступает как часть составного модального сказуемого, то в русском переводе добавляются слова "должен", "следует":
   This is for the reader to judge. Об этом должен судить читатель.
   Упражнение
   1. Обратите внимание на перевод оборота "for+существительное + инфинитив".
      -- It is possible for a word to consist of only one sound, as when you say "a" in "a house".
      -- Arrangements were also made for large numbers of books to be made available in that reading-room.
      -- He examined the problem and decided that the only solution was for him to return to the order of his old life.
      -- When the Heathen king of Kent Ethelbert, heard of Augustin's landing with some forty companions he sent orders for them not to move off Thanet.
      -- Suddenly the painter appeared at the door of the studio, and made signs for the visitors to come in.
      -- It is less easy for a common language to make its way in a country like Germany which for centuries was politically subdivided and which had no capital.
      -- Here, it seems to me, is another very obvious and vital point 25 for a specialist to explain.
      -- It is well known, for example, that with people who have often discussed some subject together a few words are enough for them mutually to understand some very complex point, which it would take many words for them to explain to an outsider.
      -- It must be almost unheard of for a play to be performed at separate places under completely different titles.
   point -- здесь: вопрос.
   57
  
      -- For tattooing to be perfect when the subject26 reached adulthood, it had to be started early, generally at the age of eight.
      -- The really important conclusion for us to reach is that chance has played an extraordinary part in the survival of the written and graphic evidence of the period under investigation.27
      -- The normal way in which culture continues is for one generation of a society to transmit its culture to the next generation.
      -- I also believe that the general system and terminology indicated briefly in chapter I has enabled to state many grammatical facts more clearly than has hitherto been possible. But of this is for others to judge.
      -- Though in natural circumstances each race retains its own language, it is possible for a people to abandon its own tongue and to take another, and it is also possible for foreigners to be absorbed in large numbers without any perceptible effect upon the speech.
      -- But the exceptions here are too numerous for any rule to be stated.
      -- Even in the second century trade was not sufficiently organized for the rural hamlets to be supplied with raw iron from centralized foundries.
      -- It is impossible for an author, and it would be impossible for the whole body of writers, to alter at will the prevalent type of sentence-articulation.
      -- However, for any empirical data to contribute much to an understanding of a complex phenomenon like the learning of a second language, they need to be related to a fairly comprehensive formulation of theory.
   Оборот "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" (инфинитив в сложном дополнении - Complex Object). Оборот "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" употребляется после определенных глаголов и представляет собой сложное дополнение, состоящее из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива. Инфинитив обозначает действие, а существительное или местоимение -- субъект этого действия:
   26 subject -- человек, член племени.
   27 under investigation -- исследуемый.
   58
  
   I wish my sister to help me.
   Я хочу, чтобы моя сестра помогла мне.
   I saw him get off the bus.
   Я видел, как он вышел из автобуса.
   Оборот "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами "что", "чтобы", "как". При переводе существительное или местоимение становится подлежащим, а инфинитив -- сказуемым русского придаточного предложения.
   При переводе следует обращать внимание на форму предшествующего глагола и на форму самого инфинитива.
   Infinitive Indefinite переводится глаголом в настоящем или прошедшем времени, Infinitive Perfect -- прошедшем временем глагола.
   После глаголов to expect, to hope инфинитив в большинстве случаев переводится будущим временем:
   We expect this book to appear on sale very soon. Мы ожидаем, что эта книга очень скоро появится в продаже.
   С оборотом "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" употребляются следующие глаголы:
  
   to desire
   --- желать, хотеть
   to expect
   -- ожидать, предполагать
   to hate
   -- очень не хотеть
   to hold
   -- считать
   to intend
   -- предполагать
   to imagine
   -- воображать, представлять себе
   to like
   -- нравиться, любить
   to judge
   -- считать
   to mean
   -- полагать
   to know
   -- знать
   should (would) like
   -- хотел бы
   to prove
   -- доказывать, показывать
   to want
   -- хотеть
   to reckon
   -- считать
   to wish
   -- желать, хотеть
   to suppose
   -- предполагать
   to assume
   -- считать, полагать
   to show
   -- показывать
   to believe
   -- полагать
   to think
   -- думать, полагать
   to consider
   -- считать
  
  
   to estimate
   -- считать
  
  
   После следующих глаголов инфинитив в обороте употребляется без частицы tо:
   to feel ----- чувствовать
   to hear -- слышать
  
   to notice -- замечать to observe -- наблюдать to perceive -- ощущать to see -- видеть
   to watch -- наблюдать
   Упражнение
   2. Обратите внимание на перевод оборота объектный падеж с инфинитивом".
   1. Historians suppose the name "London" to come from two Celtic words.
      -- We sincerely wish good relations to be established between our two countries, -- said one of the delegates.
      -- In Middle Ages people believed the earth to be the centre of the Universe.
      -- We know Australia to be the only continent situated in the southern hemisphere.
      -- First we thought the small island to be uninhabited.
      -- Presently we saw him emerge from the station, cross the street and disappear into the building.
      -- At the Central Station, from behind a convenient pile of luggage the men watched the train come in.
      -- The whole problem is so important that I would like you to go over the facts once more.
   II
   9. It was explained that, although several authorities had included the Melanesian languages in the Malay-Polynesian family, Leenhardt thought them to be a separate family.
      -- All other indications showed death to have taken place slightly later than the approximate time put in the report.
      -- It is a carefully prepared essay which proves its author to be a man of cultivation, taste, imagination, education and refinement.
      -- We often hear people complain that the materialists seek to reduce everything in the world, including life and mind, to a system of soulless mechanisms. This refers to mechanistic materialism.
   60
  
   13. Ever since I was a child I have watched and helped the men of my clan make their weapons.
      -- That language (German) which in Goethe and his contemporaries had achieved the highest excellence of precision of flexibility, we have seen in our time under the nazis reach the very depths to which a language can possibly descend.
      -- Supposing this conjecture to be well-founded, these objects acquire a peculiar interest as representing in a certain degree the actual work of the inhabitants.
      -- In short, an examination of the sources of the Modern English vocabulary shows beyond the possibility of contradiction the once prevalent notion that all modern European words were derived from roots equally old, and could be traced back to a single ancestral tongue, to be a mistake induced by a superficial uniformity presented by languages to their speakers.
   Оборот "именительный падеж с инфинитивом" (инфинитив в составном глагольном сказуемом - Complex Subject). Оборот "именительный падеж с инфинитивом" образуется из подлежащего (существительного или местоимения) и сложного сказуемого, состоящего из глагола в личной форме и инфинитива.
  
   Подлежащее
   a) You б) The book
   Сказуемое
   seem to know German. is said to be very interesting.
   Особенность оборота состоит в том, что действие, выражаемое инфинитивом, относится к подлежащему, а стоящий перед ним глагол указывает на отношение к этому действию со стороны говорящего или вообще неуказанного лица.
   При переводе на русский язык английское подлежащее переводится подлежащим, инфинитив -- сказуемым, а глагол в личной форме -- неопределенно-личным предложением:
   а) Вы, кажется, знаете немецкий язык.
   б) Говорят, что книга очень интересная (Книга, как говорят, очень интересная).

61


   Как и в предыдущем случае, этот оборот употребляется лишь после определенных глаголов. Число глаголов, после которых употребляется оборот, ограничено, и их можно разделить на три группы.
   ]. Глаголы, употребляемые в действительном залоге;
  
   to seem
   -- казаться
   to appear
   -- казаться, ло-
   to prove to turn out to come out to happen to chance
   видимому > -- оказываться
   | -- случаться, > случайно
  
   J оказаться,
  
   доводиться
   11. Глаголы, употребляемые в страдательном залоге
   to believe -- полагать, считать
   to say -- говорить
   to suppose -- предполагать, полагать
   to show - показывать
   to think -- считать, полагать
   to report -- сообщать
   to consider
   to hold >-- считать
   to take
   to announce -- объявлять
   to assume -- допускать, предполагать
   to state -- утверждать, констатировать
   to know -- знать (известно)
   to claim - утверждать, считать
   to intend -- иметь в виду, предполагать
   to hold -- считать
   to mean -- полагать, считать
   to suffer -- терпеть, допускать (чтобы)
   to expect -- ожидать, полагать, предполагать
   to pronounce -- объявлять, провозглашать
   to estimate -- подсчитывать
   to find обнаруживать, оказываться
   to prove 28 -- Доказывать
   to see -- видеть
  
   to observe -- наблюдать
  
   to feel -- чувствовать, ощущать
  
   III. Составные глаголы:
   to be likely -- вероятно, может быть
   28 Значение глагола to prove в обороте зависит от употребления его в действительном или страдательном залоге; ср.:
   Не proved to be right. -- Оказалось, что он прав.
   Не was proved to be right. -- Доказали (было доказано), что on прав.
  
   62
   to be not likely -- маловероятно,
   не может быть
   to be unlikely -- вряд ли, едва ли to be sure -- конечно, несомненно
   to be certain -- наверное, обязательно
   При переводе необходимо учитывать время глагола, стоящего перед инфинитивом; ср.:
   Не is considered to be . . . Считают, что он. . . Не was considered to be. . . Считали, что он. . ., --
   а также форму инфинитива. Infinitive Indefinite и Continuous переводится сказуемым в настоящем времени, a Infinitive Perfect и Perfect Continuous -- сказуемым в прошедшем времени; ср.:
   Не is said to go to Moscow. Говорят, что он едет в Москву. Не is said to have gone to Moscow. Говорят, что он уехал в Москву.
   Примечание. После глагола to expect (to be likely) инфинитив обычно переводится будущим временем: Не is expected to come tomorrow. Ожидают, что он приедет завтра.
   Упражнение
   5. Переведите, обращая внимание на время глагола и форму инфинитива.
      -- Engle, Saxon and Jute are considered to belong to the same Low German branch of the Teutonic family.
      -- Historians appear to know but little of his life.
      -- In Tacitus chronicles the Germans are reported to be people ploughing their fields.
      -- "The Jumping Frog" by Mark Twain is said to have pleased its author best of all he wrote in that style.
      -- Such places were held to be frequented by evil spirits .
      -- The religion of the English is stated to be the same as that of the whole German family.

63


      -- The bulk of the people is said to have dwelt along the middle Elbe and on the Weser.
      -- The name of Jutes happens to be still preserved in their district of Jutland.
      -- A number of German tribes appears to have drawn together into the people of Saxons. These are known to have made the land between the Elba and the Ems their homeland.
  
      -- The Island of Britain is known, to have been revealed to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year 55 В. С.
      -- The peoples of all ancient civilizations are known to have made maps.
      -- Tiw, the dark God, to meet whom was death, is supposed to have lent his name to Tuesday.
      -- Great changes are expected to take place in the economies of these small countries in the near future.
      -- Coal has been known to exist in India since 1772, and is said to have been worked as far back as 1775.
      -- In 1611 Shakespeare appears to have retired to Stratford for good.29
      -- Latin was supposed to be the only language worthy of study, and it was studied for a practical end.30
   Оборот "именительный падеж с инфинитивом" с модальным глаголом. Модальный глагол в этой конструкции обычно переводится неопределенно-личным предложением:
   Our story may be said to begin here.
   Можно сказать, что наш рассказ начинается здесь.
   Can be said -- Можно сказать, что. . .
   Cannot be said -- Нельзя сказать, что. . .
   Упражнения
   4. Переведите, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и отрицания.
      -- As regards 31 the sound of words, we may almost be said to speak one language and to write another.
      -- There is one important class of words to which our analysis does not seem to be applicable: proper nouns.
   29 for good -- навсегда, совсем.
   30 for. . . end -- c. . . целью.
   31 as regards --- что касается (в начале предложения).
   64
  
      -- These plays cannot be said to represent an unqualified advance.
      -- Neither of the parties 32 can be said to have inified or planned their actions.
   5. Four departments of the British Museum might justly be considered to constitute the British National Library.
      -- The individuality which characterises any tongue may be said to consist of those general features, which distinguish it from other tongues.
      -- In this broad sense of the term all the literature of the early nineteenth century may be said to be a product of Romanticism.
      -- If this can be shown to be true, it would greatly improve our understanding of the original code.
   Оборот "именительный с инфини-тивом" в о п р e д е л и т е л ь н о м придаточном пре д л о ж е н и и. Если оборот стоит в определительном придаточном предложении (которые начинаются словами which, that, who, а также бывают бессоюзными), то инфинитив переводится как сказуемое соответствующего русского определительного придаточного, а глагол в личной форме, стоящий перед инфинитивом, -- как вводное безличное предложение типа: "как известно", "как полагают" и т. тт.:
   Then conies a group of ballads which are known to date
   from the 14th century.
   Затем идет ряд баллад, которые, как известно, восходят к XIV столетию.
   Оборот "причастие II от глаголов типа to think + инфинитив" и оборот "прилагательное likely+инфинитив". Иногда определительное придаточное предложение отсутствует и инфинитив стоит после причастия II от глаголов указанного типа или слова likely, выполняющих функцию определения. Перевод в этом случае не отличается от перевода определительного придаточного, причем слово likely переводится как вводное "вероятно", а инфинитив после него -- чаще всего сказуемым в будущем времени:
   Now let us turn to the words likely to have taken their origin in Latin.
   32 parties -- здесь: (враждующие) стороны.
   5 Т.Н. Мальчевская 65
  
   Теперь обратимся к словам, которые, вероятно, произошли из латинского (языка).
   Now we shall describe some objects thought to belong to this class.
   Теперь опишем некоторые предметы, которые, как полагают, относятся к этому классу.
   Упражнения
   5. Переведите. I
   1. The place of discovery was a hall which appears to have been the king's throne-room.
      -- In the fifth century A. D. the one country that is known to have borne the name Angeln or England lay in the district now called Sleswick.
      -- By far 33 the greatest of this school of dramatists is Marlow who may well 84 be said to have prepared the way for Shakespeare.
      -- All the mental functions and activities which are said to be products of mind as distinct from 35 matter, are products of matter.
      -- If details remain in which we disagree, they hardly can affect the general picture of this art that our different works will be found to contain.
      -- Such ideas are, however, unscientific. Why? Because they assert that the processes they are supposed to be investigating take place without any cause.
   II
   7. This is one of the oldest roads in England, believed indeed to be prehistoric.
      -- Cult-objects may also be identified by the peculiar form, known from other sources to belong exclusively to some group of cultic equipment.
      -- Japan had the drama, said in its very beginning to have been associated with its religion.
   33 by far -- несомненно.
   34 well после may, might -- вполне.
   35 as distinct from -- в отличие от.
   66
  
   10. The Classical Scholar will appreciate that the civilization, reputed to have furnished Greece with many myths, was very ancient and very real.
   Повторение оборота "именительный с инфинитивом"
   Переведите предложения с учетом всех особенностей оборота.
      -- Human beings seem to have had the power of speech as far back as history can trace them; and animals, while they can make certain limited sounds and at times give them certain limited meanings, cannot be said to possess speech in the same sense that humans possess it.
      -- When a book is greatly admired and often read, the language in which it is written is likely to be imitated to some extent by those who read it.
      -- Practically, all of this material turns out under careful scrutiny to have not only value in itself, but some relevance to the subject in hand.36
      -- This reference to Greece must not however, be taken to mean the Greek civilization of historic times, which belonged to a much later period.
      -- Very often, even many English-born speakers may be heard to say that they pronounce letters, not sounds.
      -- Later, Armenian and Albanese, and a few ancient languages known to us only from scant written records, proved also to belong to the Indo-European family.
      -- The date of the original composition of the play cannot be determined. But it is proved to have been acted at Dresden in 1626, and is commonly supposed to date back much further.
      -- No modern writer would be likely to write the following.
      -- The relative conciseness of Latin has been thought to be shown by the fact that there are fewer words in a Latin sentence than in a normal English translation of it.
   10. In order to explain, or rather better to understand the sudden and glorious rise of Elisabethan 37 literature,
   36 in hand (at, on hand) - рассматриваемой (амер.). 37 Elisabethan -- периода правления Елизаветы Тюдор (1533 -- 1603).

5* 67


   it is necessary to take a glance at the historical events which preceded it, and which may be said to have done much to make it possible.
   11. The Chinese word for "mother", for instance, is "ma", even though Chinese is not supposed to have any connection with the languages of the West
      -- Further investigations along the same lines 33 are likely to produce not only interesting information about the development of Byzantine painting, but also about the history of the whole European theatre.
      -- Edward refused to admit baronial claims which were not attested in writing or could not be shown to have operated since the coronation of Richard I in 1190.
      -- The Guildhall at Exeter, said to be the oldest municipal building in the country, is well worth a visit.
      -- These fragments proved to be parts of a few large tablets.
      -- Articles of this description appear to occur in Germany, and a number of specimens derived from the Island of Ru:gen, and thought to belong to this class, were presented for inspection by Mr. R.
      -- Books of more lasting interest demand fuller treatment, 39 and the presence of bibliographies, tables and illustrations should be indicated on cards likely to be consulted by research workers.
      -- The lake-dwellers of the stone age possessed a species of domestic dog of middle size, which they seem to have much valued, if the fact that it was not used as food, unless in cases of extreme need, warrants such a conclusion.
      -- From 1580--1596 appeared the plays which may be said to represent the second stage of the Drama.
      -- It is very probable that other deposits of the same nature will be found in the neighbouring territory close to the same ancient lake. This seems to be indicated by the remains of fossil animals recently discovered near Ambrona.
      -- The French Revolution, which may be said to have begun with the Fall of the Bastille in 1789, was the outcome of centuries of oppression in France; and the ideas of reform were in the air long before its actual outbreak.
   38 along . . . the lines -- в направлении, в области
   39 treatment -- обработка в библиотеке.
   68
  
   в
   Повторение инфинитива
   Переведите. Определите функции инфинитива
   предложении.
  
      -- These conditions are sufficiently homogenious to be grouped together.
      -- Sanscrit, the earliest of the Indo-European tongues to make its appearance in written form, definitely displays the pitch-accent 40 pattern.
      -- There is a distinction to be made between these classes of words.
      -- He was the first English painter to portray his native countryside so sincerely.
      -- The second book, to be published shortly, will deal with the history of the national-liberation movement,
      -- These writers were no pedants. They were practical men who were accustomed to use their pens for practical purposes, and who wrote to make themselves understood, not to display their cleverness or learning.
      -- To begin with, dialectal varieties are as numerous in Tuscany as anywhere else in the peninsula.
      -- But the exceptions are too numerous here for any rule to be stated.
      -- A name, to be a complete word, must, as the logicians put it, possess both denotation and connotation.
  
      -- It is significant, however, that over most of England and the Lowlands of Scotland the language which came to predominate was English.
      -- This ornament is to be found later in the group of Shibe in the Altai.
      -- To consider in turn each of the predecessors of Byzantine culture, which did or could affect its development, and to give a general outline of the character of the contribution of each is the aim of this chapter.
      -- In 1542, nearly fifty years after Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, the Portuguese reached Japan, the first Europeans to view its shores.
      -- A few additional factors of a geographical character which may have exercised an influence on artistic developments of one sort or another may also be noted.
   40 pitch-accent -- музыкальное ударение,

69


      -- More curious is the mixture of "literary" and "colloquial" styles, of "high" and "low", to use the eighteenth- century terms.
      -- This work was compiled by a learned monk named Dionysios of Fourna, who appears to have lived at the end of the fourteenth century.
      -- The vital problem is to examine the premises on which he based his conclusions.
      -- Even at the beginning of the seventeenth century the Confucian scholars used to shave their heads like Buddhist priests.
      -- It remains, however, for much of this material to be published in an easily accessible form.
      -- To his sovereign or lord a man was bound to be faithful, to his parents dutiful, and to his elder brother respectful.
      -- The tomb of Shakespeare is in the chancel. A flat stone marks the spot where the bard is buried. There are four lines inscribed on it, said to have been written by himself.
      -- The population was divided into a number of different classes: serfs were to be found, and slavery existed.
      -- To prepare civil officials, schools were established in the capital and provinces.
      -- The only remaining traces of these tribes are pit dwellings and shell mounds, and they must have been in the most primitive stages of culture.
      -- The people of this period are supposed to have lived in huts of skins, leaving no traces behind them.
      -- In olden days the swordsmen 41 used to travel all over Japan in order to perfect themselves in this art.
      -- The essential fault of this work is to be found in the very plan.
      -- The captain managed to secure his sextant, but when he went back for his chronometers, the chart-room was too deep in water for him to be able to reach them.
      -- A distinction which one might be tempted to make from our material is that between literary and everyday language.
      -- The country was torn to pieces, as it were, politically and socially. All over Japan the feudal lords were at war with one another, The masses must have suffered very much.
   41 swordsman -- фехтовальщик.
   70
  
   31. Turning now from prose to poetry, we have to inquire, what are the characteristics of Modern English verse which the nature of the language has permitted or compelled to acquire?
   32. The occasions when a Japanese samurai was bound to commit suicide were innumerable.
      -- In addition to the local and unimportant peculiarities to be found in the British Isles, many different dialects must be springing up in other parts of the world.
      -- My chief object in writing this chapter has been to make the reader realize that language is not exactly what a one-sided occupation with dictionaries and the usual grammars might lead us to think, but a set of habits, of actions, and that each word and each sentence spoken is a complex action on the part of the speaker.
      -- Much of the material a biographer ought to consult, moreover, is widely dispersed or difficult of access.
      -- As a rule, the poet is believed to be governed by language more than he governs it.
      -- To assign all the words of English to their original sources is not to determine the mode of their entrance into English.
      -- The dictionary shows that the number of words which may have originated in this way is very large.
      -- The attempt is sometimes made to fix laws or rules for correct English in disregard 42 of the fact that the language changes, and that the standard or correct expression cannot be made to depend entirely on the use of an earlier time.
      -- All the principal species of animal now raised for food seem to have been domesticated already in the Near East and Europe by societies still in the neolithic stage.
      -- The polished stone celt 43 used to be regarded by archaeologists systernatists as the type fossil of the neolithic phase. And it was of course used by most but all,44 neolithic societies, for carpentry, as in mesolithic times.
      -- The student may well 45 feel a little disappointed that, after listing as a topic "a survey of the languages of the world", linguistic science turns out to be able to give so little information about so many of them.
   42 in disregard -- несмотря на, не принимая во внимание.
   43 celt -- каменное или бронзовое долото (археол.).
   44 most but all -- здесь: едва ли не все. 45 may well -- вполне может.
  
   ПРИЧАСТИЕ И ПРИЧАСТНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   11. ФОРМЫ ПРИЧАСТИЯ И ИХ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ
   В английском языке существуют три основные формы причастия.
   Причастие I (неопределенное), имеющее от переходных глаголов и глаголов, принимающих предложное дополнение, формы действительного и страдательного залога, а от непереходных глаголов -- только форму действительного залога.
   Причастие II (неопределенное), имеющее от переходных и принимающих предложное дополнение глаголов лишь форму страдательного залога, а от непереходных глаголов -- непереводимую форму, употребляемую только в сложных временах.
   Перфектное причастие, имеющее от переходных глаголов формы действительного и страдательного залога, а от непереходных глаголов -- только форму действительного залога.
   Система причастий от переходного глагола
  
   Форма причастия
   Действительный залог
   Страдательный залог
   Неопределенное причастие I (Present Participle)
   asking
   being asked
   Неопределенное причастие II (Past Participle)
  
   asked
   Перфектное причастие (Perfect Participle)
   having asked
   having been asked
   В зависимости от функции, выполняемой причастием в предложении (в качестве определения или обстоятель-
   72
  
   ства), оно может быть переведено причастием (или определительным причастным оборотом) или деепричастием.
   Так, причастие I действительного залога употребляется в обеих функциях; причастие I страдательного залога -- чаще в функции обстоятельства; причастие II -- чаще в функции определения, а перфектное причастие -- почти исключительно в функции обстоятельства.
   Причастия не имеют самостоятельного значения времени. Так, например, причастие I, поскольку оно выражает действие, одновременное со сказуемым, в русском языке может соответствовать причастию настоящего или прошедшего времени в зависимости от времени сказуемого:
   The man waiting for you has come from Moscow. Человек, ожидающий вас, приехал из Москвы. The man waiting for you asked for your telephone number. Человек, ждавший вас, спрашивал ваш номер телефона.
   Причастие II от переходных глаголов имеет значение одновременного действия и соответствует русскому страдательному причастию настоящего или прошедшего времени:
   The books ordered here are usually sent by post. Книги, заказываемые (которые заказывают) здесь, обычно пересылаются по почте.
   The books ordered last month have not arrived yet. Книги, заказанные в прошлом месяце, еще не пришли.
   Примечание. В английском языке нет соответствующей формы причастия действительного залога: Человек, заказавший книги. The man who ordered the books,
   Перфектное причастие выражает действие, предшествующее действию сказуемого, и переводится на русский язык деепричастием совершенного вида:
   Having ordered the books we went home. Заказав книги, мы отправились домой.
   Перфектное причастие страдательного залога чаще всего переводится на русский язык придаточным обстоятельственным предложением причины или времени:

73


  

Способы перевода английских причастий на русский язык

  
   Форма причастия
   Залог
   Пример
   Перевод
  
  
  
  
  
  
   определение
   обстоятельство
   Неопределенное причастие I
   действительный страдательный
   reading (переходн.) coming (непереходн.) being read
   читающий, читавший идущий, шедший читаемый, читавшийся
   читая, прочитав идя, подойдя
   будучи читаем, будучи прочтен, придаточным предложением
   Неопределенное причастие II
   страдательный
   read come
   читаемый, читанный, прочтённый
   непереводимая форма, употребляемая в сложных временах
   будучи читаем, прочитан, придаточным предложением
   Перфектное причастие
   действительный страдательный
   having read
   having come having been read
   --
   прочитав, прочтя, придаточным предложением придя, придаточным предложением будучи (ранее) прочтен, придаточным предложением
  
   Having been sent only yesterday, the letter could not have been received by him today.
   Так как письмо было послано только вчера, оно не могло быть получено им сегодня.
   Having been kept in the reading-room for ten days, the books were then returned to the funds.
   После того как книги хранились в течение десяти дней в читальном зале, их затем вернули в фонд.
   12. ПРИЧАСТИЕ И ПРИЧАСТНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ В ФУНКЦИИ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ
   Причастие, употребляемое в функции определения, может стоять перед определяемым словом или после него. Оно переводится на русский язык соответствующим причастием и ставится перед определяемым словом независимо от его положения в английском предложении:
   The conclusions being drawn are based on recent finds. Выводимые заключения основываются на последних находках.
   Latin was the ancestor of all the languages mentioned. Латынь была предком всех упомянутых языков.
   Причастие с зависящими от него словами образует причастный оборот. Причастный оборот в функции определения стоит после определяемого слова (существительного или местоимения) и переводится причастным оборотом с соответствующей формой причастия или определительным придаточным предложением:
   The study was dimly lit by a candle burning in the adjoining room.
   Кабинет был слабо освещен свечой, горевшей (которая горела) в соседней комнате.
   Определительный причастный оборот типа "as given",1 состоящий из союза as+причастие II, стоит после определяемого существительного и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением, начинающимся со слов
   1 Аналогичное сочетание союза as и причастия II может образовать и обстоятельственный оборот, например: as stated above -- как указано выше (см. стр. 86).

75


   "в том виде, как", "так, как", или причастием в функции определения:
   The author's general conclusions as given in his latest work, are of great practical value.
   Общие выводы автора в том виде, как они даны (приводятся) в его последней работе, имеют большое практическое значение.
   Общие выводы автора, приводимые (которые приводятся). . .
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите, определив форму причастия. Обратите внимание на место причастия в английском и русском предложениях.
      -- Of the three instances cited, only the last possesses a verbal suffix which is regularly found in other words.
      -- The results obtained are consistent and may be summed up in one simple rule.
      -- A proper noun is a name given to one particular person or thing.
      -- The information gained throws a flood of light upon the mode of action of the human vocal apparatus.
      -- The language processes apply not only to English, but to all languages. In all of them you will find words dying out, and words being born, words being created and old words being put together to form new words, words being taken from other languages and words changing their use and meanings.
      -- Formal excavations began in 1961. From work already completed we have established that the ancient capital was correctly described in the "Outline of Historical Geography".
      -- The following figures,2 partly covering the territory investigated, illustrate the extent of losses caused by the fire.
      -- The new poetry differed from the old in other respects than in the technical form of its verse. There was also a change in the subjects treated, and in the manner of treating them.
   2 figures -- цифровые данные. 76
  
   2. Переведите предложения с оборотом "as+npu-частие II".
      -- The conclusion appears reasonable that Italian as spoken and written by the multitude of correct, nondialectal speakers and writers, is a compromise language, continuing the traditions of various dialects.
      -- The evidence seems to show that urban life, as understood by the Romans, disappeared; the decay of the towns now became complete.
      -- Broadly speaking, the subject of this literature had been man and his passions as influenced by his environment and by nature.
      -- The English language as written at this time has several peculiarities which deserve to be noted.
      -- This, however, does not seem to me to invalidate the general truth of the theory as here explained.
      -- The first stage towards modern administrative "expertise" was in the establishment of specialized branches of the court. The first 01 these departments was the Exchequer 3 as organized by Henry I.
   Особенности перевода определительных оборотов с причастием II, образованным от глаголов, не имеющих в русском языке страдательной формы причастия. Английское причастие II страдательного залога от целого ряда глаголов, 4 которые в русском языке принимают предложное дополнение, не имеет соответствующей формы страдательного причастия. Такое причастие с относящимися к нему словами переводится определительным придаточным предложением, а предлог, относящийся к русскому глаголу, ставится перед словом "который":
   It is known that the language spoken by these tribes was Germanic.
   Известно, что язык, на котором говорили эти племена, был германским.
   3 The Exchequer [iks'tSeke] -- казначейство.
   4 Список глаголов, не образующих в русском языке соответствующей формы страдательного причастия (на "-нный", "-мый"), приводится в разделе "Страдательный залог" (см. стр. 12, 14).

77


   The Congress attended by scientists from several countries was held at Copenhagen.
   Конгресс, на котором присутствовали ученые из многих стран, состоялся в Копенгагене.
   Упражнение
   3. При переводе обратите внимание на причастие в функции определения.
   1. The man addressed by us turned out to be a teacher.
      -- All the questions answered by him concerned his work.
      -- The meeting attended by us was held in a big hall.
      -- The group joined by them consisted of 12 people.
      -- The book referred to here was published last year.
      -- The man allowed to enter the first was very old and weak.
      -- At last we saw the picture so much heard about.
      -- There is only one group of words influenced by this phonetic change.
      -- The language spoken in this small country is of a mixed origin.
   10. The two men referred to were highly-placed officials.
   II
   11. A ceremony attended by famous men of letters was held at the Bolshoi Theatre.
      -- A new program agreed upon by the two countries envisaged an interesting form of cultural cooperation.
      -- The review is divided into three parts followed by a brief comment.
      -- These manuscripts are somewhat newer than those referred to in the preceding paragraph.
      -- The system followed in indicating the source whence a passage has been taken will, I think, be found sufficiently exact.
   78
  
      -- The ruling elite (in old Japan), amounting with its families to about one sixteenth of the population, was a hereditary class of fighters, forbidden to pursue any other vocation.
      -- Of what origin were the tongues spoken by the earliest men? -- is the question still pondered by those who devote themselves to this branch of study.
      -- In the nineteenth century steam navigation and the railway were making it possible to transport goods in quantities hitherto undreamed of.
      -- The number of words borrowed from foreign languages now surpasses the number of native words, and in place of complicated system of inflexions possessed by Old English, Modern English has very few inflexions.
      -- Flaubert5 like Dickens was a great writer faced with the problem of giving a true picture of a society.
      -- The museum, beautiful and well cared for, has one of the best collections of Islamic manuscripts in the world.
      -- The long Civil Wars, followed by the reorganization of the Roman Empire under Augustus and Tiberius, gave the distant Island (Britain) a hundred years of respite.
      -- It must be stressed that within this period the changes referred to were not peculiar to one section of Romania, but appeared universally in all the future Romance countries.
      -- Edward II was not much of a king. He was a weakling, influenced by vicious favourites, who practically controlled the government.
   13. ПРИЧАСТИЯ И ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫЕ, СОВПАДАЮЩИЕ ПО ФОРМЕ
   Слово, оканчивающееся на -ed и на -ing, употребленное в качестве определения, может оказаться не причастием, а прилагательным, совпадающим с ним по форме. Оно в этом случае не обозначает действия, а показывает качество или состояние предмета. В отличие от причастия такое прилагательное всегда стоит перед определяемым существительным. Значение его отличается от значения причастия.
   5 Flaubert [flo'baer] -- Флобер Гюстав (1821--1880).

79


   Причастие
   The theory advanced in the early 19th -- теория, выдвинутая в начале XIX столетия.
   The work accomplished in 1947 -- работа, законченная
   в 1947 г.
   The clock striking midnight -- часы, бьющие полночь.
   An experiment convincing everybody -- эксперимент, убеждающий всех.
   The changes involved in this process -- изменения, связанные с этим процессом; a story involved in mystery -- история, окутанная тайной.
   The language spoken in this country -- язык, на котором говорят в этой стране.
   The letter written by my sister -- письмо, написанное моей сестрой.
   A line marked with dots -- линия, помеченная точками.
   The tradition continued from generation to generation -- традиция, продолжаемая из поколения в поколение.
   Прилагательное
   An advanced theory -- передовая теория; advanced ideas -- передовые идеи.
   An accomplished artist -- превосходный художник; accomplished manners -- изысканные манеры.
   A striking example -- удивительный пример; a striking resemblance -- поразительное
   сходство.
   A convincing argument --- убедительный довод.
   An involved sentence -- сложное (трудное) предложение; an involved style -- сложный (запутанный) стиль.
   A spoken language -- разговорный язык.
   A written language -- письменный язык.
   A marked difference -- заметное отличие; A man of marked ability -- человек замечательных способностей.
   A continued tradition -- непрерывная традиция.
  
   Примечание. Причастие II от глагола to involve, стоящее после определяемого им существительного и не сопровождаемое предлогом, переводится: "данный, рассматриваемый, о котором идет речь":
   The changes involved took place in the 4th century.
   Данные изменения произошли в IV столетии.
   Аналогичным образом переводится причастие concerned в таком же положении (после определяемого существительного).
   The area concerned was divided into a number of small political units.
   Область, о которой идет речь, была разделена на ряд мелких политических единиц.
   80
  
   Упражнения
   Сопоставление причастий и прилагательных
   7. При переводе определите, чем является форма на -ed, -ing -- причастием или прилагательным.
      -- The peoples of the given area divide themselves into the following groups.
      -- It is my hope that this book may prove useful to the serious student both through the great number of examples given and through the new theories advanced here and there, more particularly in chapters IV, X, XII and XV.
      -- Now we proceed to the more advanced and highly specialized culture of Polynesia.
      -- But as civilization increased, and it became necessary to use single languages over wide areas, an immense number of languages spoken only by small and obscure communities became extinct.
      -- The relation of the written to the spoken language in English has long attracted the attention of scholars.
      -- If we analyse many famous poems admired for their philosophy, we frequently discover mere commonplaces concerning man's mortality or the uncertainty of fate.
      -- Another admired example of harakiri is that of a governor of Nagasaki who in 1808 committed a suicide in the approved manner because he was unable to detain and to destroy a British man-of-war 6 which had defied his authority.
      -- Speech is a human activity, the product of long continued social usage.
      -- Samuel Rogers, one of the few poets undisturbed by the ideas of the French Revolution, belonged more to the eighteenth century than to the new age.
  
      -- The latter part of this period, coinciding with the second half of the sixteenth century, was a very disturbed time in Japan.
      -- Among the latter (literary language) we find a decided preference for the tone II in words with unaspirated occlusives.
   6 man-of-war (pl. men-of-war) -- военный корабль
   6 Т.Н.Мальчевская 81
  
   2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значения involved и concerned.
      -- The influence of the Latin style is seen in the occasional use of long sentences and involved constructions.
      -- Let me say for the benefit of those not versed in Semitic philology that the phonetic changes involved in this formula are well established.
      -- Each of the parties concerned became interested in the matter.
      -- Future investigations may throw more light on this subject, at present involved in doubt and mystery.
      -- The task involved in the foregoing classification has been accomplished by intermittent labours extending through more than twenty years of time.
      -- Every known plant or animal is given a Latin scientific name to be used throughout the world regardless of the language of the country concerned.
      -- Direct links were being established between Soviet and Indian Institutes concerned with questions of microbiology and epidemiology.
      -- In chapter VII we recur to the consequences involved by this fact.
      -- His (Coleridge's) prose style, often ornate and brilliant, is sometimes, like his thought, rather involved and difficult to follow.
   10. After we have defined our terms we may next proceed to a discussion of the processes involved.
   3. При переводе обратите внимание на функцию и значение причастия от глагола to follow.
      -- Cannon entered Harvard University and in 1896 received his bachelor's degree 7 followed soon by a master's degree.7
      -- Famine following a bad harvest in those inhospitable climes, sometimes drove whole settlements to seek new lands.
      -- Here are portraits of Van Dyck's Flemish period, still following the tradition of the sixteenth-century Netherlandish Portraits.
   7 a bachelor's degree -- степень бакалавра; master's degree -- степень магистра
   82
  
   4. This method is one followed in preparing my book "Intonation Curves" to which readers are referred to for further information.
      -- Dickens's next work was Oliver Twist (1838), followed in the next year by Nickolas Nickleby.
      -- Byzantine icons belonging to the 11th--12th centuries, the period immediately following the iconoclast movement, are very rare. The Hermitage owns some very good ones.
   14. ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ В ФУНКЦИИ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВА
   Обстоятельственные причастные обороты характеризуют сказуемое и отвечают на вопросы: когда?, как?, по какой причине?, при каком условии? и т. п. В функции обстоятельства употребляются все формы причастий.
   Причастие I переводится деепричастием несовершенного вида или обстоятельственным придаточным предложением, время действия которого определяется по времени действия сказуемого:
   Demonstrating his finds the archaeologist usually gives a detailed description of the excavation site.
   Демонстрируя (когда демонстрирует, при демонстрации) свои находки, археолог всегда дает подробное описание места раскопок.
   Demonstrating his new finds the archaeologist gave a detailed description of the excavation site.
   Демонстрируя (когда демонстрировал) свои новые находки, археолог дал подробное описание места раскопок.
   Being demonstrated at the Institute the new finds produced an impression.
   Когда их демонстрировали (будучи показаны, при демонстрации) в институте, новые находки произвели впечатление.
   Примечание 1. Причастие I от некоторых глаголов движения и чувственного восприятия имеет значение предшествующего действия и переводится деепричастием совершенного вида:
   Arriving at the gallery he paid his shilling and entered.
   Приехав на выставку, он заплатил шиллинг и вошел.
   Причастие II в функции обстоятельства переводится соответствующим придаточным предложением:

6* 83


   The drama, considered as literature, for almost a century, was dead in England.
   Драма, если ее рассматривать как род литературы, почти в течение столетия не существовала в Англии.
   П р и м е ч а н и е 2. Причастие II от глаголов to give и to grant -- given и granted -- переводится: "если дано", "если имеется", "при", "в том случае если имеется":
   Given certain conditions, such work can be done by anybody.
   Если имеются определенные условия, каждый может выполнить такую работу.
   Сочетания given that, granted that переводятся: "в том случае если".
   Примечание 3. Причастие I following в функции обстоятельства в некоторых случаях переводится: "вслед за", "следом за".
   Причастие II followed в этой же функции можно переводить "в сопровождении":
   I rushed to the bushes following Peter. Я бросился в кусты вслед за Питером. She entered the hall followed by her pet-dog. Она вошла в холл в сопровождении собачки.
   Упражнение
   Переведите предложения, определив форму причастия и тип обстоятельства.
      -- Не painted in black and white not being fond of colours.
      -- Many of these questions are fundamental to the problem of the collapse of ancient civilization, yet, having raised them, the author left them unanswered.
      -- Most people, asked if they can think without speech, would probably answer, "Yes, but it is not easy for us to do so".
      -- Blows fell thick and fast until one group, having lost some of its warriors, fled from the field.
      -- Deprived of their leaders, the English became disorganized.
      -- This letter, having been addressed to the wrong house, never reached my friend.
      -- William's 8 ship was in the van, 9 and, being less heavily laden than the transports, outdistanced them du-
   8 William -- Вильгельм Оранский (Завоеватель), вторгшийся на о. Британию в 1066 г.
   9 to be in the van -- быть впереди, в авангарде (ср. a vanguard).
   84
  
   ring the night and appeared alone at dawn off the English coast.
      -- Again he asked if the enemy were defeated; and being told that they were, observed: "It is a great satisfaction to me to know that we have beaten the French".
      -- Given certain conditions, such work could be done by everybody.
  
      -- His prose essays were written at various times, being as a rule prefixed to his poems and dramas.
      -- Being brought to his lodging, the surgeons examined his wound but there was no hope; that very evening he died.
      -- Granted different historical conditions, it is quite possible that the official language of Italy today might be a polished Sicilian, or Umbriari, or Bolognese, instead of a polished Tuscan.
      -- Taken in this ordinary literary sense this phrase refers only to time, but colloquially it is often used to mean "at any circumstances".
      -- These poets developed their particular style so far that they drove from poetry all signs of natural feeling. Thus, following nature without art came art without nature, and following that, a fairly good combination of the two.
      -- A cloud of suspicion had gathered about him, and he found it best to flee the country for England, closely followed by eighteen chests of books.
      -- Given a minimal nonredundant valuation, as above, we can define a phoneme as a set of segments with identical values.
      -- The rains in Egypt begin to fall in March, and being supplemented by the melting of the mountain snows in the following months, occasion a perceptible rise in the river about the end of June.
      -- This is an extreme example of a periodic style. It demands close attention; read cursorily, it is hard to understand.
      -- Given to the world in 1938 this work was translated into English only twenty years later.
      -- Abandoning the study of law, Oliver Holmes graduated in medicine, finishing his course with a two years study in Paris.
      -- This hospital was created by Harun-al-Rashid at the beginning of the ninth century, following the Persian model, as its name indicates.

85


   22. Given any specific vocabulary of speech signals, we can calculate the relative importance of each feature for distinguishing the alternative signals and so devise a weighting factor for each channel.
   15. ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВЕННЫЕ
   ПРИЧАСТНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   С ПРЕДШЕСТВУЮЩИМИ СОЮЗАМИ
   Причастный оборот в функции обстоятельства может вводиться союзами:
   when --- в тех случаях когда, когда;
   while -- хотя, несмотря на, в то время как, между тем
   как, тогда как; if -- если;
   unless -- если не, если только; until -- до тех пор пока (не); as -- как, когда.
   Союз + причастие I действительного залога
   Такой причастный оборот переводится на русский язык:
   деепричастным оборотом с соответствующей формой причастия (без союза);
   отлагольным существительным с предлогом "при";
   придаточным обстоятельственным предложением, подлежащее которого совпадает с подлежащим главного предложения (оно повторяется или вместо него ставится местоимение), а сказуемое (личная форма глагола) образуется из английского причастия; союз в этом случае сохраняется:
   When showing his finds the archaeologist gave a detailed description of the site.
   Показывая свои находки, археолог давал подробное описание места раскопок.
   При показе (демонстрации) . . .
   Когда археолог показывал свои находки, он давал подробное описание места раскопок.
   86
  
   Союз + причастие II страдательного залога
   При переводе таких оборотов необходимо помнить, что причастие II -- это причастие страдательного залога и что подлежащее главного предложения (также совпадающее с субъектом действия оборота) не действует, а подвергается действию, выраженному причастием:
   If taken separately these words mean the following. . . Если их взять отдельно, эти слова означают следующее. . .
   Наибольшую трудность для перевода составляют обороты с причастием II от глаголов, принимающих два дополнения.10 Оборот с предшествующим союзом, например when shown, может быть переведен: "когда, что-то показали" и "когда кому-то показали"; ср.:
   When shown to the experts the manuscript aroused great interest.
   Когда рукопись показали специалистам, она вызвала большой интерес.
   Рукопись, когда ее показали. . .
   When shown that manuscript the scholars became very much interested in it.
   Когда ученым показали эту рукопись, они очень заинтересовались ею.
   При переводе необходимо найти подлежащее главного предложения (которое совпадает с субъектом действия оборота) и начинать перевод с него: "рукопись, когда ее показали. . .", "ученые, когда им показали. . .".
   Упражнения
   1. Определите формы причастия в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.
   1. If translated into European languages this historical work may prove helpful both to historians and ethnographers.
   10 Список этих глаголов приведен в разделе "Страдательный залог" (стр. 9).

87


      -- When asked why he had done so he smiled but did not say a word.
      -- When sent to the North he took part in the exploration of the tundra.
      -- If taken separately the sentence may be rendered in quite a different sense.
      -- If sent two copies of this book could you give me one?
      -- When reading books we often come across different expressions denoting one and the same notion.
      -- This photograph would be missed at once if taken from her.
      -- If asked for this book can be found easily.
      -- When asked to give an account of your search do not forget to say a few words about your latest find.
   10. The conclusion would be hazardous unless supported by further evidence.
   2, Переведите предложения, учитывая значение союзов и форму причастия.
      -- Не paints the North as he feels it, and I am sure the English Academy-goer 11 would declare, when looking at his pictures, that no such scenes as those represented could be found under the sun.
      -- When cleaned and dried, this canoe weighed sixty pounds, and could be transported with the greatest facility by a single individual.
      -- In the 18th century when seeking for gold and silver many Europeans went to the newly discovered continent of America.
      -- When unaccented all the English vowels tend to become the neutral sound.
      -- Any dead fish soon acquires an exceedingly unpleasant smell if left exposed for only a few hours, but the odour of a dead herring becomes twice noticeable.
      -- The shells themselves, while showing traces of approaching disintegration, are still in a sound condition, excepting, however, those near the substratum.12
      -- Books are reserved for readers for two days and if not applied for are returned to the shelves on the morning of the third day.
   11 Academy-goer -- академист.
   12 substratum -- нижний слой.
  
      -- In those days in Japan, the tea was so much a favourite pastime with the feudal lords that they could not do without 13 it even while occupied with military affairs.
      -- When struck with a flint, iron pyrites 14 gives a spark, just as steel does. So upper palaeolithic Europeans had discovered the method of fire production.
  
      -- Al-Kindi's principal work on geometrical and physical optics, based on the "Optics" of Euclid, was widely used in both East and West until superseded by the greater work of ibn-al-Haythana.15
      -- John Cabbot or Giovanni Caboto was a professional navigator and came to England when hired by Henry VII to explore the Atlantic routes.
      -- As practised by a master, punctuation has grace.
   16. ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ В ФУНКЦИИ ВВОДНОГО ЧЛЕНА ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
   Причастный оборот в качестве вводного члена предложения обычно выражает собственное мнение или высказывание автора. Такой оборот переводится соответствующим русским вводным предложением с союзом "если" или деепричастием. Оборот всегда выделяется запятыми:
   Put another way, the conclusion is quite obvious.
   Говоря иначе, вывод совершенно очевиден.
   Strictly speaking, the author is not right here.
   Строго говоря, автор здесь неправ,
   Упражнение
   Переведите.
      -- Turning now to other sources, we come upon groups of words of very various kind.
      -- Speaking somewhat inexactly, it may be said, that a language is the product of the thought of a nation, and reflects its corporate character.
      -- Rightly understood, it follows that all attempts to connect particular types of linguistic morphology
   13 to do without -- обходиться без.
   14 iron pyrites -- железный колчедан, минерал.
   15 al-Kindi [al'kindi] и ibn-al-Haythana [eelhaitene] --арабские ученые Х в.

89


   with certain correlated stages of culture development are vain.
      -- Coming back to general usage, there is a form of slang which consists of cutting down and abbreviating long words, or using their initials, as when one says "maths" for "mathematics".
      -- Broadly considered, words may be divided, according to use, into two great classes.
      -- As already observed, the work under consideration 16 is not primarily linguistic in nature and does not introduce new linguistic data.
   17. ОБОРОТЫ "ПРИЧАСТИЕ I + AS IT DOES (DO, DID)" И "ПРИЧАСТИЕ II + AS IT IS (ARE, WAS, WERE)"
   Такой обстоятельственный причастный оборот отделяется запятыми и переводится: "поскольку", "так как", "хоть и. . . (как ни. . .)":
   These finds, dealing as they do with the applied art, will be described in detail in the next chapter.
   Эти находки, поскольку (так как) они относятся к прикладному искусству, будут подробно описаны в следующей главе.
   Упражнение
   Переведите предложения, предварительно выделив составные части оборота.
      -- Pushkin's heroine, Tatiana, belonging as she did to a provincial family, had no English, though she quite certainly had had a French governess just before the curtain of the romance gently rose.
      -- Even Herodotus and Plato, far removed as they are from us in point of time, are immeasurably nearer to Modern Englishmen in all their ideas, sentiments, and moral standards, than the Japanese of fifty years ago.
      -- The figure of the heroine herself is decidedly original, differing as it does from all former dramatic conceptions of the "Maid of Orleans".17
   16 under consideration -- рассматриваемый, который рассматривается.
   l7 "The Maid of Orleans" -- "Орлеанская Дева", пьеса Бернарда Шоу.
   90
  
      -- But as a matter of fact, the impression produced by these linked verses is delightful in the extreme, passing as they do before the reader like a series of dissolving views, vague, graceful, and suggestive.
      -- This monument is not well placed. Standing as it does in the bend of Broadway, where the tide of traffic surges about it, and having for a background a jagged range of sky-scrapers, the monument does not show to advantage from any point of view.
      -- The tragical History of Dr. Faustus is his masterpiece, containing as it does, passages of poetry which even Shakespeare has not excelled.18
      -- This work was published in 1884, and it must have made an instant appeal to Oscar Wilde. The strange character of the hero, founded as it was upon the living original of Count Robert de Montesquieu, must have seemed to the young Englishman the incarnation of his own ideas.
      -- As the hot July morning advanced the Crusaders 19 began to doubt whether they could hold out against the ceaseless rain of missiles. But, surrounded as they were, flight was impossible and surrender would mean captivity and slavery.
   18. НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ (АБСОЛЮТНАЯ КОНСТРУКЦИЯ)
   В то время как в обычном (зависимом) причастном обороте субъект действия, выраженного причастием, совпадает с подлежащим предложения, независимый причастный оборот имеет собственный субъект действия, который не совпадает с подлежащим предложения; ср.:
  
   Зависимый причастный оборот
   Независимый причастный оборот
   Being tired he decided to go to bed. Будучи усталым (так как он устал), он решил лечь спать.
   Не being tired, I decided not to disturb him. Так как он устал, я решил не тревожить его.
   18 Речь идет о "Фаусте" К. Марло (1546--1593). 19 Crusaders -- крестоносцы.

91


   Независимый причастный оборот может выполнять в предложении функции обстоятельства времени, причины и условия. Он всегда отделяется от главного предложения запятой.
   В функции обстоятельства времени и причины оборот переводится придаточным предложением с союзами "так как", "когда", "после того как"; например:
   The conference being over, the participants went on an excursion.
   Когда (после того как) конференция закончилась, участники поехали на экскурсию.
   Their work completed, the secretaries left.
   Когда их работа была закончена, секретари ушли.
   В функции обстоятельства сопутствующих условий такой оборот обычно ставится после главного предложения и переводится самостоятельным предложением с союзами "причем", "а", "и", "тогда как"; например:
   The figure represents an animal, its total length being two and a half inches.
   Фигура изображает животное, причем ее общая длина составляет 2.5 дюйма.
   Примечание 1. Перед субъектом действия независимого причастного оборота иногда ставится предлог with. Функции таких оборотов и перевод их на русский язык не отличаются от функций и перевода оборотов основного типа. Предлог with не переводится:
   The territory extends for about 150 miles, with a breadth varying from 50 to 100 miles.
   Территория простирается на 150 миль, причем ширина ее изменяется от 50 до 100 миль.
   Примечание 2. В независимом причастном обороте, начинающемся с There being. . . субъект действия оборота стоит после причастия:
   There being nobody in the room, he decided to wait.
   Так как в комнате никого не было, он решил подождать.
   Упражнения
   1. Найдите независимые причастные обороты в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения.
   1. These tribes supported themselves by hunting, elk being obviously the most valuable game: it provided meat, skin, bones,
   92
  
      -- A University was established at Constantinople in 425, teaching being conducted both in Latin and Greek.
      -- Hunting being forbidden there, these little islands are a paradise for geese, ducks and snipe,
      -- In such conflicts prisoners are never made, the conquerors preferring the heads of their victims to any ransom that could be offered.
      -- In the Celtic regions the population is dispersed, each family living separately with the greater part of its fields around it.
      -- The deposits in this place are two in number, the larger being situated on the northern side of the creek.
      -- The matter of definitions settled, we may begin our consideration of cultural influences.
      -- Three quarters of England was last night blanketed by fog and conditions were among the worst of the winter, with ice adding to driver's difficulties.
      -- A French warship arriving almost immediately afterwards, the Japanese explained that the man had been killed by a fall from his horse.
  
      -- China was then divided into several kingdoms, each trying to gain the upperhand.20
      -- With the Romans gone, Britain became a prey to invasion from all sides.
      -- Lesser authors have been treated in due proportion, care having been taken not to crowd the book with names, dates, or unimportant details.
      -- The works from which to take the samples having been selected, the second question to decide was that of the quality and quantity of the sample, that is, its composition and size.
      -- At that time Latin was the language of professional intercourse in Western Europe, the vernaculars being regarded as only fit for the baser purposes of life, and for the conversation of the unlearned.
      -- The new instrument (the plough) being usually made entirely of wood till the Iron Age, its history can only be inferred from occasional pictures, or more rarely from ancient field boundaries.
   20 to gain the upperhand -- одержать верх,

93


   2. Найдите субъект действия причастия и определите, чем он выражен. Переведите предложения.
      -- My station was in that part of the house which was appropriated for the reception of books, it being my duty to perform the functions of librarian as well as secretary.
      -- Salmon, deer, roots and berries are the principal food of natives, these being dried for storage.
      -- In general outline the central tumulus may be regarded as quadrangular, if we disregard a slight angle to the south. That taken into account, its form is pentagonal.
      -- There being no other choice, they decided to break through.
      -- The Normans became the aristocracy in England of that time, and the Saxons the degraded and servile class, the former speaking a dialect of the French language, and the latter holding obstinately by their own expressive tongue.
      -- According to this view pottery is an invention made early in man's history at some definite time and place and from that centre of origin all known cases of the use of pottery have been derived, it being unthinkable, according to this view, that such invention could ever have been made twice.
      -- Many more of the most precious pictures having had to be moved from the East part of the Museum to the air-conditioned rooms on the West wing, it has been possible to bring up again into the rooms adjoining the dome a considerable number of Italian Renaissance pictures.
      -- She 21 is best in her short stories, for in the longer ones she is at times very unequal, there being surprising differences in the worth of both dialogue and character at different places in the same work.
      -- The primary purposes for which language is employed being to think clearly and to make oneself understood, most changes made by the general will and collective intelligence are in the direction to secure these ends.22
   10. In comparative lexicology we constantly see how the things to be represented by words are grouped differently according to the whims of different languages, what is fused together in one being separated in another.
   21 Речь идет о Марии Эджворт, ирландской писательнице.
   22 ends -- здесь: цели.
  
      -- The crops being watered by rain and not by irrigation, the plots soon became exhausted. Thereupon the land seeming unlimited, they were (the people) allowed to return to bush, and fresh plots cleared, till eventually, all the easily accessible land having been thus used up, the whole village was shifted to a new site at the centre of a fresh tract of virgin soil.
      -- In the development of the Chinese language, there being nothing equivalent to the affixes with which other languages build abstract words, the want was supplied by compound phrases.
      -- The Chinese language will undoubtedly be of inestimable importance in the study of comparative linguistics in the future, it being exceptional in very many respects.
   3. Определите тип причастного оборота (зависимый или независимый) и его функцию в предложении. Переведите предложения.
      -- There were various novels among them, many being English translations of Italian novels.
      -- The other two bronze pieces have been a part of the open work used as antlers,23 probably in the middle section. They are certainly incomplete, with the upper end missing.
  
      -- Many of the new compounds have come to Chinese by way of Japanese, the Japanese having set themselves earlier than the Chinese to assimilate the teachings of European science.
      -- All the city (Madras) to the north of the old fort contains the native quarters, and the business offices of the white men, but the latter live to the south of the fort, their houses standing in large gardens.
      -- The origin of several of the names in "Hamlet" having been explained in this section, we may as well note here some of the others.
      -- The monkey is regarded by the natives with superstitious reverence, the power of walking erect and talking being ascribed to it, and is esteemed a clever physician.
      -- By the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries fur had become Russia's most important single item 24 in foreign and domestic commerce, Russian furs being prominent in the markets of both Europe and China.
   23 antlers -- оленьи рога или украшение в виде рогов.
   24 single item -- статья (дохода).

95


   19. ОБОРОТ "ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ
   С ПРИЧАСТИЕМ" (ПРИЧАСТИЕ В СЛОЖНОМ
   ДОПОЛНЕНИИ)
   Подобно обороту "объектный падеж с инфинитивом" оборот "объектный падеж с причастием" представляет собой сложное дополнение, которое в данном случае состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и причастия. В этой конструкции действие обозначается причастием, а субъектом его является существительное или местоимение. Такой оборот в функции дополнения следует после ряда определенных глаголов, употребленных в качестве сказуемого главного предложения, а именно: глаголов чувственного восприятия (например, to see, feel, hear), глаголов to find, expect, show и близких им по значению, а также глаголов принуждения (to make, to cause).
   Оборот "объектный падеж с причастием" переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами "как", "что".
   В том случае, если оборот образован с причастием I, сказуемое дополнительного придаточного предложения следует переводить глаголом несовершенного вида:
   I happened to look back and saw the men getting in and the car starting.
   Я случайно обернулся и увидел, как люди входили в машину и как машина отъезжала.
   В случае оборота с причастием II время сказуемого в дополнительном придаточном предложении согласуется с временем сказуемого в главном предложении; ср.:
   I often hear his book discussed.
   Я часто слышу, как обсуждают его книгу.
   I heard my work discussed.
   Я слышал, как обсуждали мою работу.
   Примечание. Оборот "объектный падеж с причастием" может включать в себя союз as, который ставится перед причастием. Помимо указанного выше способа, такой оборот можно переводить причастием соответствующей формы, опуская или сохраняя при переводе союз:
   Не considered these finds as belonging to the 2d millennium.
   Он считал, что эти находки относятся ко второму тысячелетию (Он рассматривал эти находки как относящиеся ко второму тысячелетию).
   96
  
   Упражнение
   Найдите в следующих предложениях оборот "объектный падеж с причастием". Переведите предложения.
      -- We see this complex process of interaction of language and thought actually taking place under our eyes.
      -- The sets of ivory panels illustrated the men of Iran bringing in their vassal tribute to the king of Assyria.
      -- Sometimes we find the simple present and simple past used instead of future and other compound tenses.
      -- Later we find Shakespeare using this style in prose dialogue, sometimes merely in caricature, but at other times quite seriously.
      -- The first plays from his hand (Shakespeare's) show him mainly concerned with perfecting his mastery of the instruments of his craft.
      -- As far back as 25 the fourth century В. С. we find Hippocrates discussing the influence of climate and concluding that every climate had its inevitable effects on man's life.
      -- As men saw the old ideas passing away, the most thoughtful began to formulate and put into writing new principles of social life.
      -- He had felt his own interest rising considerably as the train brought him into the West country.
      -- We sometimes find a new word formed with a stem, or suffix, or prefix which has no parallel in other words.
   20. ОБОРОТ "ИМЕНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ
   С ПРИЧАСТИЕМ" (ПРИЧАСТИЕ В СОСТАВНОМ
   ГЛАГОЛЬНОМ СКАЗУЕМОМ)
   Рассматриваемый оборот, подобно обороту "именительный с инфинитивом", образуется из подлежащего (существительного или местоимения) и сложного сказуемого, состоящего из глагола типа to consider -- считать, to find -- находить, to show -- показывать в страдательном залоге и причастия I или II:
   Не was seen descending the staircase. Видели, как он спускался с лестницы.
   25 as far back as -- еще (уже).
   7 Т. Н. Мальчевская 97
  
   21. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА ОБОРОТА "ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ С ПРИЧАСТИЕМ II" ПРИ ГЛАГОЛАХ ТО HAVE И ТО GET
  
   Подлежащее
   Сказуемое
   Дополнение
   Существительное или местоимение.
   Личная форма глагола to have или to get.
   Существительное или местоимение в объектном падеже + причастие II.
   Употребление глаголов to have и to get с оборотом "объектный падеж+причастие II" означает, что действие производится не подлежащим предложения, а для него или по его распоряжению (приказанию). В одних случаях такой оборот совершенно аналогичен страдательной конструкции, в других -- более четко выступает каузативное значение:
   Не had his head shaved so as to appear a genuine monk. Ему побрили голову, чтобы он выглядел настоящим монахом.
   Он велел побрить себе голову. . . У него была побрита голова. . .
   Примечание. В отличие от его употребления в группе перфектных времен глагол to have в этом обороте сохраняет самостоятельное значение времени, т. е I have it done переводится настоящим временем: "мне это делают", в то время как I have done it -- прошедшим временем: "Я это сделал".
   Упражнение
   Найдите оборот "объектный падеж с причастием II". Переведите предложения.
      -- The caliph did not like his new palace: he had the building pulled down and rebuilt.
      -- I had all my things stolen in the South of France one year,
      -- When I described the stone knives found in China, I had not had yet my attention drawn to the earliest typo of this instrument.
      --
   7*
   99
  
   При переводе глагол в форме страдательного залога выносится вперед в виде неопределенно-личного предложения. За ним следует дополнительное придаточное предложение с союзом "что" (или "как"), сказуемое которого соответствует английскому причастию, а подлежащее -- английскому подлежащему.
   В этом обороте причастию может предшествовать союз.
   В таком случае помимо указанного перевода возможен и буквальный перевод:
   The find was identified as belonging to the 4th century. Было установлено, что находка относится к IV в.
   (Находка была определена как относящаяся к IVв.).
   Упражнение
   Найдите обороты "объектный падеж с причастием" и "именительный падеж с причастием". Переведите предложения.
      -- The Chartist movement is generally recognized as occupying an important place not only in Britain but also in international history.
      -- We identifyed these ruins as belonging to the Chin Dynasty.
      -- The author mentioned Ngoru as having in his time been inundated, though it is now eight miles from the water.
      -- It is evident that Greeks peopled untamed nature, the mountains and the forests, with various daemons which were thought of as having half-animal, half-human shape.
      -- However one must not consider this distinction as holding good 26 absolutely.
      -- The wholesale deforestation of the country by the natives must be reckoned as having had a detrimental effect on the rain-supply.
      -- However, he viewed the glottal stop as being one type of vowel onset or release.
   26 to hold good (true) -- иметь силу, действовать, оставаться справедливым
   98
  
      -- Voice is that form of the verb which shows whether what is named by the subject does something or has something done to it.
      -- The chief of the tribe had had a large oven dug, which was lit on the morning of the day the feast was to take place.
      -- It is well known that some savages fear to have their pictures taken. The portrait is considered as a part of the individual, so that damage to the former will surely involve the latter in misfortune.
      -- "I'll have this dog poisoned", he said as he fled from the room.
      -- He did his best to have the entire collection transferred to the Bibliotheque du Roi in Paris, but after fruitless negotiation with the canons, the plan was dropped.
      -- The gluttonous (in the pictures of hell) were having their tongues and middles burned.
  
      -- She bought the picture and had it hung in her bedchamber in Paris.
      -- The only way of overcoming this difficulty was to have the answer brought to us by a special messenger.
      -- When King Alfred 27 wrote and got his assistants to write his translations from Latin, he was writing a literary language which in many respects differed from the specially West-Saxon spoken language.
      -- Shaftsbury had been plotting to have Monmouth acknowledged as heir to the throne.
      -- After the volumes were thus refurbished, he had them encased in a special binding of wooden covers with a leather back.
      -- Thou wouldest 28 fancy that the whole nation are physicians, for the first question they ask me is, how I do. I have this question put me above a hundred times a day.
      -- Philip 29 had the Pope's bulls or letters publicly burnt and finally, in September 1303, he had the Pope seized and imprisoned.
   27 King Alfred -- Альфред (849--901), король Англии, известный своими сочинениями и просветительской деятельностью.
   28 Thou wouldest -- местоимение 2-го л. ед. ч., вышедшее из употребления, и согласованная с ним форма 2-го л. ед. ч. от глагола, тоже устаревшая.
   29 Philip --- Филипп IV Красивый (1268--1314) король Франции.
   100
  
   22. НЕСООТНЕСЕННЫЙ С ПОДЛЕЖАЩИМ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ
   Это -- причастный оборот, по внешнему виду совпадающий с зависимым обстоятельственным оборотом и отделяемый от главного предложения запятой, но имеющий собственный субъект действия, который не совпадает с подлежащим главного предложения. Субъект действия такого оборота определяется из предварительного контекста или из притяжательного местоимения, входящего в состав главного предложения как определение к подлежащему. Переводится такой оборот самостоятельным предложением, в котором субъект действия является подлежащим, а причастие -- сказуемым или обстоятельственным придаточным:
   Dying at the age of 86 in 1930, his work is varied and impressive.
   Он умер в 1930 г. в возрасте 86 лет, и его творчество разнообразно и выразительно.
   Упражнение
   Повторение причастий и причастных оборотов
   Переведите.
      -- Most of the tongues spoken today are very young indeed, having appeared within the last two thousand years. Many of them, however, were probably spoken long before, but simply did not get into the written form.
      -- Forbidden by his father to take part in the fight, he was discontented, and mixing with the crowd of spectators, had followed after. Though a child, he was a born soldier, and when he saw his father slain he too fell fighting on the same battlefield, leaving a name behind.
      -- There were occasions when the Dutch were permitted to cross the bridge, but they were guarded closely and remained effectively isolated, being allowed to do little more than thank the Japanese for their many favours.
      -- As printed, each sentence is divided into a number of words, and it is a general belief that a spoken sentence consists of a number of separate sounds.

101


      -- Performances given in our country by actors from different countries have testified to the great cultural advances being made by the countries concerned.
      -- "You and he came here a week before me", -- Here you refers to the person spoken to; he refers to some person spoken of, whose name has been mentioned in a previous sentence; me refers to the person speaking without naming him. So all these words are pronouns.
      -- He accepted it as established that the Melanesian languages were legitimate members of the Austronesian family.
      -- Across Tolland Sand we had our first view of Polperro, one of the quaintest and picturesque villages I have ever seen. Built on a rocky and steep valley, its houses push each other down along narrow streets to the sea with its boats and fishermen and screaming gulls.
      -- In Finland until modern times the only literary language known was the foreign language, Swedish, used by the upper classes, the Finnish language spoken by the mass of the people being looked down.
  
      -- The heroine's rough peasant speech, is, for instance, perfectly in keeping with 80 her character as presented at the beginning of the play.
      -- Speaking somewhat inexactly, it may be said that language is the product of the thought of a nation.
      -- The cultural layers and relics such as bricks, coins and other remains found in the vicinity, enabled us to identify the draining system as having been constructed at the latest during the Chin Dynasty.
      -- Semantic criteria can obviously be stated for all the functions along the lines already followed for negation, conjunction and alteration.
      -- He (Robert Southey) was also a good prose writer, the best known of his prose works being "The Life of Nelson".
      -- Arnold Zweig had scarcely any vision left and must have everything read to him.
      -- New words are best learned in an inductive way, i. e. when found applied, when seen in their proper surroundings.
      -- Some modern scholars think of the Anglo-Saxons as being substantially one people, while others adhere to the distinction drawn between the Angles and the Saxons.
   30 in keeping with -- в соответствии с . 102
  
      -- She heard him coming up the stairs slowly, as if he were carrying something heavy.
      -- Asked what changes had taken place in the life in the country he replied that a comparison between the last two years would suffice to throw light on this question.
      -- Charing Gross is an open space to the South of Trafalgar Square; here until removed by Parliament during the Civil War (1647) stood Eleanor' Cross, a Gothic monument, erected in 1291 by Edward I, the Bloody Conqueror and oppressor of Wales and Scotland.
      -- The basic masculine garment was a chiton, of which there were two distinct styles, the Doric and the Ionic, each of these being subject to 31 sundry variations.
      -- The medieval school libraries in London have been neglected to a considerable extent. In many cases, there has been no librarian, except, perhaps, a honorary one, he being a member of the teaching staff, and the books have been dealt with in a fashion not deemed likely to make the collection as valuable to staff or students as it might be.
      -- Neither title is good enough for this play -- the first having a slightly academic tang about it, and the second seems reminiscent of a non-very-important second- feature film.
  
      -- The coffee drunk in the famous coffee-houses of that period was imported by the East India Company.
      -- In several African languages the words meaning "tomorrow" and "yesterday" are often identical, the particular meaning required being decided upon by the "Tense" of the verb used in the context.
      -- Geographically, the term "West Africa" covers an area of about three million square miles, extending as it does to include the coastal lands from Senegal to the Cameroons.
  
      -- As already observed, the work under consideration32 is not primarily linguistic in nature and does not introduce new linguistic data.
      -- The position of this man being one of great responsibility and honour, he naturally became the subject of observation to all the numerous members of this great household.
   31 to be subject to -- подвергаться, быть подверженным чему-то. 32 under consideration -- рассматриваемый

103


      -- The port referred to was also used as an arsenal and as a convict settlement.
      -- The ancient inhabitants of the British Islands spoke a language similar to Welsh, and only a few of their words, and these chiefly geographical, remain in the language now spoken by the English people.
      -- Laws of every Southern State were framed so as to make provisions for this "legal relationship" between master and slave which was inherently fallacious in that it defied the very essence of Christianity accepting as it did the fact that there were two types of human being -- the master type and the slave type.
      -- "The vision of Don Roderick" is a poem on Spain when invaded by the Moors, when at her greatest in the sixteenth century, and during the Peninsular War.
      -- In each case he (the white man) is regarded as clothed in white cloth or paint, as having arrived from the East and as having a beard.
      -- Music and maps are consulted in the two reading rooms, rare and valuable items being reserved for consultation in the North library.
      -- The people of France, threatened in their national independence, have rallied in a common front to maintain their liberties and to make their country free, strong and happy.
      -- But as civilization increased, and it became necessary to use single languages over wide areas, an immense number of languages spoken only by small and obscure communitees became extinct -- a process which we can observe going on still.
      -- Although it is sometimes said that speakers of two different English dialects cannot understand each other, it is doubtful whether such a statement is ever really true, given intelligence, patience and cooperation in both speaker and hearer.
      -- The northern end of the great sand-dune, spoken of as lying between the cape and the town, has in its progress inland buried from view several hundred feet of deposit near its southeastern limits.
      -- Confined to a narrow strip of coast and isolated from the Mediterranean by its position outside of the strait of Gibraltar, it was natural that Portugal should turn its attention to the navigation at the Atlantic.
   104
  
      -- The heavy blocks of pyramids and temples in civilized Egypt had been dragged in the place up to specially constructed ramps by brute human labour-power unaided by any mechanical devices.
      -- Faced with conflicting dialect forms for the same words, Caxton 33 admitted that he was disturbed. He disapproved of such variety, attributing it naively to the variable English temperament.
      -- Burns brought to perfection the poetry of song and ballad which Allan Ramsey had begun, and which was continued in Scotland throughout the eighteenth century, being especially capably handled by Robert Fergusson whom Burns acknowledged as his master.
      -- The novel is written partly in stage dialogue, with the name of the speaker preceding the words in the way a play is printed, and partly in narrative.
      -- Bernard Shaw was brought up in an atmosphere of musical culture, his mother being intensely fond of music.
      -- The bow and the stern (of the boat) were both pointed, and not unlike in their general outlines, the latter being more blunt than the former.
      -- To the East Constantinople is closely linked with the coastal fringe of Asia Minor, the city being in reality as much a part of Asia as of Europe.
      -- When writing about some strange South Sea culture, there is the persistent difficulty of translating strange native ideas into English.
      -- The paragraph given below, it will be noticed, is one sentence. Observe the minute care given to the punctuation, the aptness of the epithet, and the rhythm, which in several places is so regular that the matter can be scanned like poetry.
      -- Given this marked ethnographic similarity between Palaeolithic man and primitive peoples of the present -- it appears very possible that various funeral customs were practised during the late Paleolithic in the same region and by the same people.
      -- The carving was evidently intended to represent a fish, with some peculiar ideas of the artist added and several important characters left out.
   Caxton -- Кэкстон (1492), первый английский книгопечатник
  
   ГЕРУНДИЙ
   И ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   23. ГЕРУНДИЙ, ЕГО ФОРМЫ
   И ОТЛИЧИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРИЗНАКИ
   Герундий -- неличная форма глагола, обозначающая действие и сочетающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного. По форме герундий совпадает с причастием I и перфектным причастием.

Формы герундия

  
   Indefinite
   Active
   Passive
  
  
   writing
   being written
   Perfect
   having written
   having been written
   В отличие от причастия перед герундием в тексте стоит предлог, существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже или притяжательное местоимение:
   The author has succeeded in basing his study on sound principles.
   Автору удалось основать свое исследование на здравых принципах.
   In spite of his being tired we had to disturb him.
   Несмотря на то, что он устал, нам пришлось побеспокоить его.
   I have been told of your friend's coming soon.
   Мне сказали, что ваш друг скоро приедет.
   В отличие от причастия, употребляемого главным образом в функции определения и обстоятельства, герундий может употребляться в функциях подлежащего и дополнения:
   106
  
   Collecting rare books was his favourite occupation.
   Коллекционирование редких книг было его любимым занятием (Собирать редкие книги было его любимым делом).
   Не likes reading aloud. Он любит читать вслух,
   В том случае если герундий употребляется в функции определения и обстоятельства, перед ним стоит предлог (который никогда не ставится перед причастием):
   In studying the inscriptions they applied a new method of deciphering.
   При изучении (изучая) надписей они применили новый метод расшифровки.
   Герундий, совпадая по форме с отглагольным существительным на -ing, отличается от последнего следующими признаками.
   1) Имеет залоговые различия; ср.:
   Не likes showing (Act.) his photographs. Он любит (ему нравится) показывать свои фотографии. The child likes being shown (Pass.) pictures. Ребенку нравится, когда ему показывают картинки (Ребенок любит, чтобы ему показывали картинки).
   2) Формы герундия, не имея, как и причастие, самостоятельного значения времени, могут выражать действие, одновременное или предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым.
   Герундий Indefinite обычно обозначает действие, одновременное действию, выраженному сказуемым (или будущее по отношению к нему):
   I know about his returning from Moscow. Я знаю о том, что он возвращается из Москвы (Я знаю о его возвращении из Москвы).
   Герундий Perfect обозначает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым:
   I know about his having returned from Moscow. Я знаю о том, что он возвратился из Москвы (Я знаю о его возвращении).
   Примечание. После глаголов to excuse, to forgive, to thank, to remember и предлогов on (upon), after герундий Indefi-

107


   nite может иметь значение предшествующего действия по отношению к действию, выраженному сказуемым:
   I remember seeing him there.
   Я помню, что видел его там.
   3) Герундий от переходных глаголов может принимать прямое дополнение (в то время как отглагольное существительное принимает предложное дополнение); ср.:
   Writing (Ger.) comedies took all his time. Писание комедий занимало все его время. The writing (Verb, n.) of his work occupied seventeen years.
   Написание его труда заняло семнадцать лет.
   4) В отличие от отглагольного существительного герундий не принимает форму множественного числа, не употребляется с артиклем и определяется наречием, а не прилагательным (как отглагольное существительное).
   Герундий можно переводить следующим образом.
   1) Р1нфинитивом:
   She stopped answering my letters.
   Она перестала отвечать на мои письма.
   2) Отглагольным существительным:
   After finishing school he went on an expedition. После окончания школы он поехал в экспедицию.
   3) Деепричастием:
   In examining the manuscript the historian discovered a curious detail.
   Рассматривая рукопись, ученый обнаружил один любопытный факт (подробность).
   4) Личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзом "что (чтобы)" с предшествующим ему соотнесенным местоимением "то" в соответствующем падеже (тем, что: в том, что. . . и т. п.):
   This volume differs from the previous in embracing a wider range of subjects.
   Этот том отличается от предыдущего тем, что охватывает более широкий круг вопросов.
   108
  
   24. ФУНКЦИИ ГЕРУНДИЯ В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ
   Герундий в функции подлежащего. Going on expeditions is his favourite occupation. Поездка в экспедицию -- его любимое дело (Ездить в экспедицию -- его любимое занятие).
   His going on an expedition surprised everybody. To, что он поехал (едет) в экспедицию, удивило всех.
   Герундий в функции прямого дополнения.
   Не likes going on expeditions.
   Он любит ездить в экспедицию.
   Не hates being asked about it.
   Он очень не любит, когда его об этом спрашивают.
   I can't find my book: I remember having put it on the table.
   Я не могу найти мою книгу: я помню, что положил ее на стол.
   В функции прямого дополнения герундий чаще всего употребляется после следующих глаголов:
  
   }-
   - кончать, оканчи-
   вать
   - прекращать, перестать
   извинять, прощать
   to avoid -- избегать
   to like to hate to begin
   to start to continue
   to stop \ to cease to excuse
   to keep to finish
   любить, нравиться
   (очень) не любить
   начинать
   продолжать
   to prefer to regret to want to enjoy
   to mind to feel like
   to go on to keep on to give up
  
  -- предпочитать
  -- сожалеть о
  -- нуждаться в
  -- получать удо-
   вольствие от, нравиться
   - быть против, воз-
   ражать
   - быть склонным,
   испытывать желание
  -- продолжать
  -- прекращать, бросать, отказаться от
  --
   и после следующих сочетаний
  
   cannot help it is no use it is no good it is useless
   -- не мочь не
   бесполезно, нет смысла
  
  
  
   it is worth (while)
   to be worth } - стоит (того, чтобы), стоит
   109
  
   Упражнение
   1. Переведите.
      -- We all like listening to his lectures.
      -- They started working two days ago.
      -- His coming so late seemed strange to everybody.
      -- Do you mind closing the door?
      -- Do you mind my closing the door?
      -- Examining the manuscript through a lense gave interesting results.
      -- Excuse my being so late.
      -- We regretted our having missed the opening lecture.
   9. We regret his not being sent to the conference. 10. There is hardly any person who likes being criticized, 11. Stop asking me about it.
      -- It is worth while remembering this rule.
      -- These words are worth remembering.
      -- I can't help laughing when I think of it.
      -- I don't feel like telling them all about our plans.
      -- He hates being interrupted.
      -- It's no use arguing now.
      -- He gave up smoking last year.
      -- Your watch wants repairing.
      -- It was no good asking him.
      -- I prefer speaking to him myself.
   Герундий в функции косвенного дополнения.
   The archaeologists succeeded in excavating several new sites.
   Археологам удалось раскопать несколько новых участков.
   В функции косвенного дополнения герундий употребляется после следующих глаголов с предлогом:
   to aim at -- стремиться к, ставить целью
   to fall to -- начинать, приниматься
   to turn to -- обращаться к
   to insist on (upon) -- настаивать на
   to keep from -- удержать от, помешать
   to prevent from -- мешать, препятствовать
   to succeed in -- удаваться
   to complain of -- жаловаться на
   to think of (about) -- думать о
   to accuse of -- обвинять в
   to suspect of -- подозревать в
   to object to -- возражать, быть против
   110
  
   to credit with -- приписывать (кому. . что)
   to be fond of -- очень любить
   to provide for -- предусматривать
   to be capable of -- быть способным на (к)
   to be furious at -- очень рассердиться, прийти
   в ярость to be on the point of -- собираться Сделать что-то
   (чуть не. . .) to be in the habit of -- иметь обыкновение
   после сочетаний существительного с предлогом:
   for fear of -- из опасения, из страха
   in terror of -- боясь, что . . .
   in the hope -- в надежде
   with the object of -- с целью, с тем чтобы
   on a charge of -- по обвинению в
   после сложных предлогов:
   far from -- далеко от того, чтобы; далеко не instead of -- вместо того, чтобы
   Упражнения
   2. Переведите следующие предложения, стараясь в русском переводе, еде возможно, использовать придаточные предложения.
      -- Не insisted on taking part in the conference.
      -- He insisted on your taking part in the conference.
      -- He insisted on being taken to the concert.
      -- I object to your discussing this problem now.
      -- We hear of his being appointed secretary.
      -- She insisted on a telegram being sent to his mother.
      -- I never thought of going there without you.
      -- They never complained of the conditions of their work being too hard.
      -- We spoke about including her in the list.
  
      -- We spoke about her having been included in the list.
      -- Nothing can prevent him from taking this step.
      -- I have no objection to your smoking downstairs, but. please refrain from doing so on this floor.
      -- I cannot accuse him of being lazy, but still he is rather poor at his English.
      -- She took a taxi for fear of missing her train.
      -- He is in the habit of getting up very early and waking all his family.
   111
  
   3. Переведите предложения. Определите функцию герундия (подлежащее, прямое или косвенное дополнение).
   1. Не was always fond of visiting new scenes and observing strange characters and manners.
      -- He was educated at Oxford, and devoted himself to the study of medicine, but his weak health prevented him from becoming a physician by profession.
      -- Travelling around the above-mentioned African countries I could not help comparing their development with that of Tajikistan.
      -- This book aims at acquainting advanced students of English with the language as used by the best masters of contemporary English literature.
      -- It is worth noting in this connection that there are at least two kinds of analysis practised by science.
      -- In the United States after the October Revolution the volumes of Mrs. Garnett's translations of Chechov kept on appearing, and his influence grew.
      -- The Puritans were far from being the earliest among the English colonists of North America.
      -- Since then I have thought seriously of writing an article for your magazine myself.
      -- Anthropologists have been in the habit of studying man under three rubrics of race, language and culture.
   10. They proceeded very cautiously for fear of being caught.
      -- All these communities relied mainly on hunting, fowling and fishing.
      -- Then as now, sweet potatoes were the staple food. Eyrau l complains in one of his letters of having to eat them all day long.
      -- The author regrets that the scope of this work precludes him from giving in a popular manner the results that they have obtained.
      -- With one or two rare exceptions the novelists of the 19th century never succeeded in drawing convincing men and women of the working class.
      -- One of the conclusions is that without language there is no understanding among people, and without under-
   1 Eyrau -- Эйро, имя путешественника. 112
  
   standing there is no chance of their being able to work together.
      -- From these examples it is easy to see that climate by itself, is capable of influencing culture.
      -- Elizabeth 2 hindered France from giving effective aid to Mary Stuart 2 by threats of an alliance with Spain.
      -- Some old inscriptions are found in which the writing instead of always beginning either at the right or the left, runs back and forth.
      -- This novel took Goncharov some twenty years to write, during which process he repeatedly kept changing or even eliminating certain portions.
   II
   20. It is also worth remembering that translating is necessitated not only by differences in the national language of speakers or writers, but also by distance in space and time within a single language.
      -- In the early spring of 1959, a field team from the Shensy Institute of Archaeology set out to locate the ancient capital with the object of obtaining a more systematic understanding of the social structure and culture of these times.
      -- These strange-looking marks on bricks and tablets of clay or cut on rocks were known to Europeans for many years before anyone succeeded in finding out what they meant.
      -- This book hardly explains why three thousand ordinary soldiers, representatives of peasantry, marched into Senate Square in St.-Petersburg on December 14, in an effort to keep Nicholas I from being crowned tsar.
      -- In his youth he travelled extensively throughout the Congo area, and he is credited with having brought the art of weaving to the Bushongo from the West.
      -- Classical tradition was against mixing prose and verse, or comedy and tragedy in the same play.
      -- I did not feel like tramping and there borrowed a boat.
   2 Elizabeth -- Елизавета, королева Англии; Mary Stuart -- Мария Стюарт, королева Шотландии
   8 Т. Н. Мальчевская ИЗ
  
      -- The author was furious at being so cruelly ridiculed in the magazine and they were afraid he would leave them for another publisher.
      -- Meanwhile a sudden gale sprung up, and in spite of all our efforts we fell gradually to leeward, and were in danger of being sent to the bottom.
      -- Long before the development of structural doctrines, scholars like Henry Sweet, Paul Passy, and Otto Yespersen 3 had seen that the fact that people speak in order to communicate, cannot help influencing the nature and evolution of speech sounds.
   Герундий в функции определения. Обычно употребляется при существительных отвлеченного значения с предлогами of (for, in, on):
   His intention of getting this book .
   Его намерение (какое?) достать эту книгу .
   The proposal for reducing the working week .
   Предложение (какое?) об уменьшении рабочей недели.
   Герундий в функции определения переводится инфинитивом, существительным с предшествующим предлогом или придаточным предложением, начинающимся словами: "о том, чтобы", "того, чтобы", "к тому, чтобы" и т. п.
   Упражнение
   4. Переведите.
      -- Samuel Johnson 4 was born in 1709. As his father was a bookseller, he had early opportunity of becoming well acquainted with books.
      -- But there are some other reasons for questioning this theory.
      -- It is one of the purposes of this book to try to show some of the difficulties of the novelist in portraying the soul of man.
      -- It has been said that the two oldest and greatest inventions of man were the wheel and the art of controlling fire.
   3 Генри Свит, Поль Пасси, Отто Есперсен -- известные лингвисты конца XIX--начала XX в.
   4 Samuel Johnson -- Самюэль Джонсон (1709--1784), известный английский критик и историк литературы, составитель первого значительного словаря английского языка
   114
  
   5. Lima, the city founded by Pizarro, б has the reputation of being the handsomest city in South America.
   6. Pictographic writing is a true writing, since it is a means of recording language, not just an alternative way of expressing the concepts which language expresses.
   7. A considerable number of pictographic writing systems have been developed at different times in different
   parts of the world quite independently of one another, so that we have no ground for talking about the "evolution" by man of the art of writing.
   8. One almost inevitably arrives at the idea of having a series of signs representing syllables in which each consonant of the language is paired with each vowel.
   9. The "Brut" 6 is important because it made known many of the Celtic myths dealing with the history of the land, and also because it showed the possibility of using the Norman-French legends in the English literature.
   10. The Pre-Raphaelites 7 also had the advantage of being more fully acquainted with medieval literature, art and thought.
   Герундий в функции обстоятельства. Перед герундием в функции обстоятельства всегда стоит предлог, употребление которого не связано с предшествующим глаголом или существительным. Такой предлог в сочетании с герундием образует обстоятельство времени, причины, цели, образа действия и сопутствующих условий.
   Предлоги, в сочетании с герундием образующие обстоятельство

времени

   (сочетание "предлог + герундий" отвечает на вопрос "когда?")
  

Предлог

   Возможные варианты перевода
   Пример

in/while:

   при + существительное; деепричастие несовершенного вида; когда + придаточное предложение
   in considering --при рассмотрении; рассматривая; когда мы (он, они) рассматриваем
   5 Pizarro -- Пизарро, испанский завоеватель Перу в 1532 г.
   6 "Brut" -- "Брут", поэма Лайамона, написанная в 1205 г.
   7 Pre-Raphaelites -- английская школа художников 50-х годов XIX в
  
  

Продолжение

  
   Предлог
   Возможные варианты перевода
   Пример
   on (upon)
   по + существительное; деепричастие совершенного вида; после того как + придаточное предложение
   on finishing -- по окончании; окончив; после того как (он) окончил
   before
   до, перед + существительное; до того как + придаточное предложение; перед тем как + придаточное предложение; прежде чем+ инфинитив
   before answering -- до того как (он) ответил, прежде чем ответить
   after
   после + существительное; деепричастие совершенного вида; после того как + придаточное предложение
   after reading -- после прочтения; прочитав, прочтя; после того как (он) прочитал
   Предлоги, в сочетании с герундием образующие обстоятельства образа действия и сопутствующих условий
   (сочетание "предлог + герундий" отвечает на вопрос "как, каким образом?")
  
   Предлог
   Возможные варианты
   перевода
   Пример
   by
   путем + существительное; с помощью; посредством + существительное; посредством того, что; тем что + придаточное предложение; деепричастие; существительное в творительном падеже
   by comparing -- путем (посредством) сравнения; сравнивая by building -- тем, что строили; постройкой
   without
   без + существительное; не + деепричастие; Без того чтобы + инфинитив
   without reading -- не читая
  
   Предлоги, в сочетании с герундием образующие обстоятельства цели и причины
   (сочетание "предлог + герундий" отвечает на вопросы "для чего?", "почему?")
  
   Предлог
   Возможные варианты перевода
   Пример
   for
   для + существительное; для того чтобы + инфинитив
   for making vessels -- для изготовления сосудов; для того чтобы изготовлять сосуды
   through
   owing to
  
   благодаря тому, что; из-за того, что; тем что
   through being closely connected -- благодаря тому, что были тесно связаны
   Упражнение
   5. Переведите.
   1. We shall close this chapter by considering one more type of assimilation.
      -- The author shows how a language varies in passing from one social group to another.
      -- Upon returning to Reykjavik we had a very interesting interview with Mr Bjarnason.
      -- She tore the letter into small pieces without reading it.
      -- In discussing the problem they touched upon some very interesting items.
      -- He liked to do things without disturbing anyone or being disturbed.
      -- In digging into the mounds, the explorers discovered in many of them hearths which furnished a great number of relics.
      -- Addison 8 (1672) proceeded to Oxford, and later, on receiving a travelling scholarship, passed four years on the Continent.
   Addison -- Аддисон (1672---1719), английский публицист.
   117
  
   9. In selecting this spot as the site for an encampment, the Indians displayed a keen appreciation of its unsurpassed natural advantages.
   10. The only safe method is to trace step by step the actual changes that a word has undergone , by examining its existing forms till the earliest is reached.
   11. In 1872 Courbet 9 sent two paintings to the Salon, which were rejected on political grounds, without being looked at.
      -- The first problem in reviewing the world's languages is to decide what to count a language.
      -- The mollusks had evidently been opened by placing them on fire.
      -- Henry Mayhew was a journalist and comic dramatist born in 1812 who turned to journalism after running away to sea as a boy and later serving as a clerk in his father's law office.
      -- As a result a new school of literature arose, which, without being in sharp contrast with the old, contained some distinctly new elements.
   II
   16. Mayhew's work contains valuable facts and statistics that could be gathered only by interviewing hundreds of people and by making elaborate investigations.
      -- Thus, in considering the causes of the Second Macedonian War, it is necessary to examine not only the agressive activities of Philip 10 but also the current state of political feeling at Rome.
      -- Without going further into detail than the scope of this book permits, it is impossible to exhibit the relationship that the structure of Old English bears to the structure of Latin and Greek.
      -- Historical grammar tries to explain the phenomena of a language by tracing them back to their earlier stages in the language.
      -- Just as the Romance languages -- Italian, Spanish, French etc. -- are cognate to one another through being
   8 Courbet -- Курбе (1819--1877), французский художник-натуралист, коммунар
   10 Philip -- Филипп II, царь Македонии (382 г, до н. э.)
   118
  
   independent developments of their parent language Latin, so also English is cognate with Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, and the other Germanic languages.
      -- On taking a few spadefuls of earth, or on examining the walls of the new houses generally built with turf taken from these spots, -- one everywhere finds the earth and grass-roots mixed with the bones of animals which the Greenlanders hunt.
      -- In presenting the second part of this history of English literature, I should like to give some explanation of a very obvious shortcoming in the first part, viz.,11 the omission of the last chapter dealing with the poetry.
      -- The language develops slowly through a number of epochs, by modifying its vocabulary and grammar. It develops without undergoing sudden and revolutionary changes.
      -- The writers of the school of Flaubert and Goncourt complain of the difficulties the artist encounters in trying to reproduce what he sees.
      -- A remarkably intelligent lad, who on being spoken to, at once consented to give all the information in his power, told me the following story of his life.
   25. ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ
   Наибольшую трудность для перевода может представить герундий с группой зависящих от него слов, образующих герундиальный оборот. Существует два типа герундиальных оборотов.

предлог+герундий

   I insist on writing the letter immediately.
   Я настаиваю на том, чтобы написать письмо сразу.
   Субъект действия герундия не указан и может совпадать с подлежащим.
   This reference-book differs from the previous in including a greater number of names.
   Этот справочник отличается от предыдущего тем, что (он) включает большее количество имен.
   11 viz. -- читается: namely -- а именно

119


   В этих случаях перевод делается по способу, указанному выше (см. стр. 115).
   предлог + притяжательное + герундий местоимение или существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже
   I insist on his writing the letter immediately.
   Я настаиваю на том, чтобы он написал письмо сразу.
   Субъект действия герундия не совпадает с подлежащим предложения и выражен притяжательным местоимением (или существительным в притяжательном падеже).
   Герундий в таких оборотах переводится личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзом "что (чтобы)" с предшествующим ему соотнесенным местоимением "то" в соответствующем падеже (тем, что; в том, что и т. п.), а субъект действия герундия -- подлежащим этого придаточного предложения.
   Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в притяжательном падеже, то он обычно обозначает лицо:
   I hear about your brother's going abroad. Я слышал, что ваш брат едет за границу.
   Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в общем падеже, то герундий имеет форму страдательного залога, так как субъект действия обозначает не лицо и подвергается действию, выраженному герундием:
   I insist on the letter being sent immediately.
   Я настаиваю на том, чтобы письмо было отослано немедленно.
   Герундиальные обороты выполняют в предложении те же функции, что и герундий.
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите. Найдите герундиальные обороти. Определите, совпадает ли субъект действия герундия с подлежащим предложения.
   1. A good speaker, besides choosing appropriate terms from a wide vocabulary, and besides being able to utter
   120
  
   his thoughts with fluency, uses correct sounds and employs proper intonation.
      -- The volume differs from the previous in embracing a wider range of subjects and in making considerably greater demands on the intelligence and knowledge of the young scholar.
      -- In addition to being both creative writer and critic he is also a scholar.
      -- Our eighth chapter is devoted to seeing the way in which this classification corresponds to the geologic divisions of Pleistocene time.
      -- His output of dramatic work has been great, but it shows every sign of having been thoughtfully and conscientiously carried out.
   6. Prosper Merimee realised -- as many authors following his example have done since -- that prose tales gain in tragic force by not being told with obvious sympathy in the exuberant manner of other Romantics.
      -- According to the ancient story, Tantalus was punished for a crime by being made to suffer from thirst and hunger, while water and fruit were seemingly within his reach.
      -- Arnold Bennet is interested not in philosophy, but in giving a realistic account of the lives of ordinary people.
   2. Переведите. Найдите герундиальные обороты. Определите, чем выражен субъект действия герундия.
      -- Even those who by 1905 had recognized Shaw as the outstanding British dramatist of his generation continued for many years to question the likelihood of his taking a permanent place in literature.
      -- The question of the transition period is not principally a question of the adoption of a new material -- bone instead of stone, but of the population going over to a new trade.
      -- There are many new terms, some of which are in everybody's mouth, and are used by the man in the street without any suspicion crossing his mind of their learned origin.
      -- We see that this word is an adjective from its having no ending.
      -- This fact is due not so much to the mammoth and rhinoceros becoming gradually scarcer as to the change in the method of hunting.

121


      -- The "Importance of Being Earnest" (1895) 12 is brilliant, but the same fault lies here again in the character- drawing. Any speech in the play might almost be directly transferred from one character to another without the change being noticed.
      -- The most important cause of a language splitting into dialects is not purely physical, but want of communication for whatever reason.
      -- The fact that stone and silex had been abandoned, is, however, not a sign of technical skill having fallen off.
      -- The high quality of style has proved sufficient to give this work a high rank amongst the Japanese classics, and has insured its being handed down to our day as a most esteemed model for the composition in the native Japanese style.
  
      -- Without language there is no understanding among people, and without understanding there is no chance of their being able to work together.
      -- Conditions of the time (end of the 18th century) led to the need for quicker communication between the towns, and this naturally led also to the literature being spread more quickly than would have been possible before.
      -- This is the main contradiction of capitalism which impedes productive development, and even leads to productive powers being used to destroy nations in warfare, instead of for lightening the labour and increasing the material prosperity of mankind.
      -- In view of this practice being frequent among primitive people of the present (end of the 19th century), the above mentioned "Package of bones" from the Grotte de Covillon gains immensely in interest.
      -- The distinguished German linguist H. Shuchardt, has in recent years strongly insisted that similarities between different languages need not always depend on the languages being related to one another as French is related to Italian, but in some cases may be due to some element common to mankind; in other words, some phenomena, instead of being historically related may be primordially related.
   12 The "Importance of Being Earnest" -- "Как важно быть серьезным", пьеса Оскара Уайльда
   122
  
   Повторение герундия
   Переведите.
      -- In some cases I contented myself with giving the bare references without printing the sentences in full.
      -- Scientific discoveries affected intellectual life by overthrowing many of the old ideas respecting the world and nature.
      -- The historian, according to the critics, sinned against the past by giving it an order and a symmetry which it did not possess. Instead of reliving history, he recreated it.
      -- In estimating these poems we should make ourselves aware of the literary situation wherein they were written.
      -- The investigation aims at establishing historical results regarding settlement and economic and social life.
   6. I am told that he has never wanted to learn Chinese as a language, that he does not speak it and has little interest in hearing it spoken.
      -- At the beginning of the period, the poets follow the teaching of Dryden 13 in attending more to the method of expressing their ideal than to the ideas themselves.
      -- The exhibition of any genuine passion or of any imagination would have seemed to the cultured gallants of that age a sign of vulgarity. The only quality worth possessing was considered to be "the plain good sense".
      -- The novelist can similarly tell a story without laying claim to having witnessed or participated in what he narrates.
  
      -- In presenting the above facts I have had in mind letting the non-assyrologist know what a change the discovery of a few tablets in the Amorita land has brought about.
      -- Those who find no intellectual pleasure in reading foreign languages, or perhaps even in trying to read them, must admit that some ability to do so is of practical value.
      -- Comparative grammar compares grammatical phenomena of a language with those of the cognate languages, that is, languages which are related to it through having arisen from a common parent language.
      -- The very nobles who helped Henry 14 to overcome Richard,14 because they hoped that by so doing they would
   13 Dryden -- Джон Драйден (1631--1700), английский поэт.
   14 Henry, Richard -- Генрих IV и Ричард II, английские короли

123


   further their own advancement, rose against him when he tried to assert his authority over them.
      -- He held office of the most important judge in England for four years, and might have held it longer, but that 15 he was accused of taking bribes.
      -- These inventions, far from being used for the benefit of mankind, were employed by the priests of Egypt to simulate miracles, and so, by facilitating a pious fraud on the faithful, to assist in the secular struggle of superstition against reason.
      -- Primarily synonyms should be studied for the sake of enabling a speaker or a writer to say exactly what he needs.
      -- In endeavouring to repeat the blow he (the knight) used such force that his left stirrup-leather broke, and he was on the point of falling from his horse.
   18. One can readily understand that for natives the tribute became insufferable and they sought recourse and revenge in waylaying and killing their oppressors.
      -- He started by night to escape being seen by anyone.
      -- The American School (of linguistics) is like the Prague School in not having a fully elaborated approach to the description of grammatical phenomena.
      -- The island is unique in having a sandy shore and is surrounded by an amphitheatre of low hills.
      -- Of late years some geologists have declared themselves in favour of admitting the existence of the glacial stages, basing their theory on weighty arguments.
      -- On leaving the College H. Wells again took up teaching, but in 1893 ill-health compelled him to leave the profession and turn to literature.
      -- We aim at laying down in very rough outlines the principles for a phonemic decipherment of a written text.
      -- As Somerset Maugham is difficult to classify either by the literary forms he uses or by the kind of reader he engages, it may be worth while trying another approach.
      -- Alfred then took steps to prevent the Danes from ever becoming dangerous again.
      -- The Stoics began by asserting the equality of slaves and free men, but they never drew the obvious conclusion that slavery should therefore be abolished.
   15 but that -- если бы не 124
  
      -- The step from pictographic to syllabic writing is an easy, logical and, it might seem, self-evident one; yet there have been several nations which developed the first without ever proceeding to the second.
      -- As will be clear by now, true alphabetic writing consists in having a sign for each sound (technically each phoneme) of the language rather than one for each word or one for each syllable.
      -- Man alone has succeeded in impressing his stamp on nature, not only by shifting the plant and animal world from one place to another, but also by so altering the aspect and climate of his dwelling place, and even the plants and animals themselves, that the consequences of his activity can disappear only with the general extinction of the terrestrial globe.
      -- About 1814 Scott largely gave up writing poetry and save for short pieces mainly in the novels, wrote no more in verse.
      -- For the modern linguist the achievement of his ultimate objective would consist in being able to answer all questions that could be asked about language as a general concept, or about any particular concept.
      -- Exeter, the ancient capital of Devonshire, is a lovely city, proud of being the only English town that has been lived in continuously since the time of the Romans.
      -- One can only wish that progressive literary criticism in Britain will follow even more bravely the teachings of Lenin about there being two nations in every nation and two cultures in every culture.
      -- Still, enough evidence is at hand to support a surmise that the South American Indian languages are of a structure similar to that of the North American ones, and that there is a possibility of some day proving all of them to be related.
      -- Northern Chinese having lost all its final stops and converted -m everywhere into -n, obscures this phenomenon to a great extent.
      -- Prince Regent married his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick, simply because it offered a prospect of his debts being paid.
      -- One of Shaw's earliest plays, "Widowers' Houses" (1892) is in reality a strong attack upon those people who

125


   live quietly and comfortably upon unearned income without troubling to inquire how the money is procured.
      -- Dunstan had a reputation of being the greatest manager of state affairs of all who lived before the Norman Conquest.
      -- If a word refers to some person or thing without giving a name to the person or thing referred to, the word is a pronoun.
      -- But when a nation thus speaking a variety of dialects attains a high degree of civilization, that unity and centralization which results in one town becoming the capital, results also in one definite dialect -- generally, of course, that of the capital itself -- being used as the general means of communication through the whole territory, especially, as is generally the case, the dialects have already diverged so much from each other that some at least of them are mutually unintelligible.
      -- Wayland Smith was a personage known as intimately to our Anglo-Saxon forebears as, say, Robin Hood is known to us. The mention of his name was enough to call up to them stories attached to it without their ever needing to be told.
      --
   СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ, УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ И УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ГЛАГОЛОВ SHOULD, WOULD, MAY, MIGHT И COULD
   26. ФОРМЫ СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОГО НАКЛОНЕНИЯ
   В отличие от изъявительного наклонения сослагательное наклонение выражает действие, рассматриваемое говорящим не как реальное, а как предполагаемое или желательное. Сослагательное наклонение может быть выражено простыми формами сослагательного наклонения, формами глагола во временах Past Indefinite и Past Perfect изъявительного наклонения, а также с помощью глаголов should, would, may (might) в сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола без частицы to и глаголом could + инфинитив в значении сослагательного наклонения (мог бы, можно было бы).
   Форма сослагательного наклонения в настоящем времени совпадает с формой инфинитива без частицы to и употребляется во всех лицах. Она не имеет эквивалента в русском и не всегда может быть переведена.
   I, he, she, it }
   We, you, they ) be, go, take и т.д.
   If this be so, no further investigation is required. Если это так (в чем я сомневаюсь), то никакого дальнейшего исследования не требуется.
   Форма сослагательного наклонения в прошедшем времени образуется только от глагола to be для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа
   I he, she, it ) We, you, they / were If I were in his place . . . Если бы я был на его месте. . .
   The document looks as if it were written by two persons. Документ выглядит так, как будто он (был) написан двумя лицами,

127


   Форма сослагательного наклонения от всех глаголов, кроме to be, совпадает по внешнему виду с формами Past Indefinite и Past Perfect:
   I wish I went with you!
   Хотел бы я пойти с вами!
   If I had found that book yesterday . . .
   Если бы я нашел вчера эту книгу. . .
   Форма сослагательного наклонения может быть выражена сочетанием вспомогательных глаголов should, would, might, could с инфинитивом смыслового глагола. Время сослагательного наклонения зависит от формы инфинитива и времени вспомогательного глагола:
   I should help you if I were not so busy myself.
   Я бы помог вам, если бы не был сам так занят.
   It would be a mistake to think so.
   Было бы ошибкой думать так.
   See to it that glass may not be broken.
   Присмотрите за тем, чтобы стекло не сломалось.
   This rule might be applied here.
   Это правило можно было бы применить здесь.
   This could be proved only by facts.
   Это можно было бы доказать только фактами.
   27. ОСНОВНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ФОРМ СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОГО НАКЛОНЕНИЯ
   1) В простых предложениях, в главных предложениях и в различных придаточных употребляются следующие формы сослагательного наклонения.
   Изменяющиеся по лицам глаголы should и would + инфинитив (Indefinite и Perfect) смыслового глагола.
   Такие формы сослагательного наклонения переводятся на русский язык прошедшим временем смыслового глагола с частицей "бы".
   I should offer another explanation to this phenomenon. Я бы предложил иное объяснение этому явлению. Не would have acted differently in these circumstances. Он поступил бы по-другому в этих обстоятельствах.
   Примечание. Выбор формы инфинитива зависит от того, как мыслится действие: как предполагаемое или относящееся к будущему (Indefinite), или как относящееся к прошлому (Perfect).
   128
  
   Глаголы might, could+инфинитив без частицы в собственном модальном значении "мог бы, можно было бы" (примеры см. выше).
   2) В дополнительных придаточных предложениях после союза that, в том случае если главное предложение содержит глагол или существительное, выражающие приказ, просьбу, совет, требование, употребляются простые формы сослагательного наклонения настоящего времени и вспомогательный глагол should, неизменяющийся по лицам + инфинитив:
   The workers demanded that the law be put into effect. Рабочие потребовали, чтобы закон был приведен в действие.
   Не advised that we should start at once.
   Он посоветовал, чтобы мы отправлялись сразу.
   В таких случаях английское дополнительное придаточное предложение, содержащее форму сослагательного наклонения, переводится русским дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзом "чтобы".
   Употребление сослагательного наклонения наблюдается после следующих глаголов, выражающих приказ, просьбу, совет, требование:
   to advise -- советовать
   to arrange -- уславливаться, договариваться
   to ask -- просить
   to decree -- отдавать распоряжение
   to demand -- требовать
   to desire -- желать
   to insist -- настаивать
   to order -- приказывать, велеть
   to propose -- предлагать
   to request -- требовать (вежливо), просить, запрашивать, предлагать
   to require -- приказывать, требовать
   to see to it -- позаботиться, присмотреть
   to suggest -- предлагать, советовать
   to urge -- побуждать, понуждать, настаивать
   3) В придаточных предложениях цели после союзов in order that -- для того чтобы,
   that -- чтобы,
   so that -- чтобы, с тем чтобы,
   so as to -- чтобы,
   lest -- чтобы ... не
   9 Т. Н. Мальчевская 129
  
   употребляются:
   простые формы сослагательного наклонения настоящего времени;
   глагол should+инфинитив для всех лиц;
   глагол may, might с ослабленным собственным значением.
   Во всех указанных случаях английское придаточное предложение переводится на русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным предложением цели:
   Не purposedly left town in the evening in order that it might be night when he reached his dwelling.
   Он намеренно ушел из города вечером, чтобы была (уже) ночь, когда он доберется до своего жилья.
   Take the book from the child lest it should spoil it.
   Возьмите книгу у ребенка, чтобы он ее не испортил.
   A teacher must speak clearly so that his students may understand well.
   Преподаватель должен говорить ясно, чтобы студенты понимали (его) хорошо.
   4) В придаточных дополнительных предложениях с союзом that после безличного главного предложения типа
   it is necessary that. . .
   it is important that. . .
   it is strange that. . .
   употребляются:
   простые формы сослагательного наклонения настоящего времени;
   глагол should+инфинитив для всех лиц.
   Придаточное предложение в русском языке может начинаться со слов "что" и "чтобы":
   It is desirable that everyone be present. Желательно, чтобы все присутствовали. It was very strange that they should have met in such a place.
   Было очень странно, что они встретились в таком месте.
   5) В уступительных придаточных предложениях 1 употребляются:
   простые формы сослагательного наклонения настоящего времени;
   1 Об уступительных придаточных предложениях см. в разделе "Эмфатические конструкции" (стр. 166).
   130
  
   глаголы may, might (с ослабленным значением)+инфинитив;
   should+инфинитив (очень редко).
   Whoever the author may have been, his work is of a highest quality.
   Кто бы ни был автор, его произведение -- самого высокого качества.
   Excellent though it be from the point of style, the work is devoid of historical value.
   Как ни прекрасно произведение с точки зрения стиля, оно (не имеет) лишено исторической ценности.
   6) В придаточных сравнительных предложениях после союзов than -- чем, нежели, as if, as though -- как будто бы, как если бы -- употребляются:
   формы сослагательного наклонения прошедшего времени от глагола to be (were, were+причастие II; were+ причастие I);
   формы сослагательного наклонения, совпадающие с формами Past Indefinite и Past Perfect.
   This conjunction is sometimes used as if it were a relative pronoun.
   Этот союз иногда употребляется так, как будто бы он является относительным местоимением.
   7) В определительных придаточных предложениях употребляются:
   would + инфинитив;
   might + инфинитив в собственном значении "мог бы", "можно было бы";
   could + инфинитив в собственном значении "мог бы", "можно было бы".
   We must come to an agreement that would put an end to all nuclear tests.
   Мы должны прийти к соглашению, которое положило бы конец всем ядерным испытаниям.
   There are some suggestions that might help in our work.
   Имеются некоторые предложения, которые могли бы помочь в нашей работе.
   8) В составе именного сказуемого как связочный глагол употребляется would+инфинитив (Indefinite и Perfect):
   This fact would have been enough in our case.

9* 131


   Этого факта было бы достаточно в нашем случае. То define these features would require a lot of time. Определение этих признаков потребовало бы очень много времени.
   Упражнение
   Переведите. Определите форму сослагательного наклонения, и тип предложения, в котором оно употреблено.
      -- I should agree with him.
      -- Anyone would agree with him.
      -- He proposed that we should go fishing in the evening.
      -- We insist that the problem be dealt with by the Security Council in its full composition.
      -- Without your help the work would have had much more mistakes.
      -- In the entrance exams he missed some questions which a schoolboy could have answered.
      -- It is not surprising, therefore, that Rome should begin to take a greater interest in the affairs of Greece.
      -- The load finally became unbearable. The people refused to pay taxes and asked that all debts be cancelled.
      -- It was inevitable that William the Conqueror 2 should feudalize England.
  
      -- This custom would have seemed strange to us.
      -- He arranged that they should be relieved of their work for that time.
      -- Milton 3 demanded three things of poetry: that it be simple, sensuous and expressive.
      -- I hope that I can indicate methods that might be developed further.
      -- Regrettable as that may be in view of the antiquity of our texts, the material is certainly too ambiguous.
      -- They demand that their trusts and monopolies be given free access to these countries.
   2 William the Conqueror ['Wiljam 9e'konkere] -- Вильгельм Завоеватель.
   3 Milton -- Джон Мильтон (1608--1674), великий английский поэт.
   132
  
      -- Pound (a poet) is a master of rhythmic invention in verse; there is probably no one who would want to deny this.
      -- But being a Frenchman he had pushed his researches further than any Englishman at this period would have dared to.
      -- The bailiff had to keep his eye on the unwilling workmen lest they should sit down for half-an-hour at a time at the end of every furrow.
      -- They dared not come out in the day-time lest they should be noticed.
      -- It was entirely undesirable that this information should be given away.
      -- As a conclusion to this section, however, it is therefore, entirely proper that we quote one of his chapter headings.
      -- The title of the first story is taken from the name of the hero. It is the best known of the series, and has been published separately, as if it were the entire work.
      -- In that age of reason it was necessary that clearness of expression should be joined to precision of thought.
      -- This is a hypothesis which could be proved only by the actual discovery of remains of this race.
      -- It is remarkable that the common plural should be formed from the feminine singular.
      -- Under whatever economic system a people may live, their language serves alike the activity of consolidating and defending that economic system, and also of changing it and replacing it by another.
      -- Burns' 4 poetry is really more universal than this distinction would imply.
      -- There are three other passages where a similar cure might well be applied.
      -- A main theme in Chartist history was the attempt to create a sense of class unity which would bind together these three groups.
      -- Lest it should be thought that we are making an unwarranted postulate, we may cite examples in languages other than English.
   4 Burns -- Роберт Берне (1759--1796), знаменитый шотландский поэт.

133


      -- It would be a mistake to think that they are unaware of the fact.
      -- Feeling less, Hamlet would have less inclination to act; thinking less, he would have more power to act.
   28. УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
   Условное предложение состоит из главного и придаточного предложения. Придаточное предложение выражает условие, а главное -- следствие этого условия. Условные предложения вводятся следующими союзами и союзными словами:
  
   if -- если
   even if -- даже если if only -- если только in ... not -- если ... не unless -- если ... не
   in case (that) -- в том случае если; если even though -- даже если
   provided (that) I при условии, что;
   providing (that) j если^ suppose (that) ) __ предполагая, что; granted (that) / если granting (that) i _ в том случае; given (that) J если on condition that -- при условии что; если
  
   Существуют три типа условных предложений.
   I тип условного предложения -- реальное условие. Сказуемое главного и придаточного условного предложения может стоять в любом времени изъявительного наклонения. Чаще всего в главном предложении употребляется Present или Future Indefinite, а в придаточном Present Indefinite:
   If you listen carefully you will understand.
   Если вы будете слушать внимательно, вы поймете.
   If she promised me to be here, she will certainly come.
   Если она обещала мне быть здесь, то она. конечно, придет.
   If I had spare time, I spent it on reading.
   Если у меня было (бывало) свободное время, я тратил его на чтение.
   В условных придаточных 1 типа могут употребляться собственные формы сослагательного наклонения настоящего времени (be, have, give -- для всех лиц) или should+ инфинитив.
   134
  
   В первом случае настоящее время сослагательного не имеет эквивалента в русском переводе и все предложение переводится настоящим временем:
   If my information be correct, he has declined the proposal.
   Если я правильно осведомлен, он отклонил предложение.
   В случае употребления should+Infinitive Indefinite все предложение приобретает оттенок малой вероятности реализации условия, однако переводится на русский язык глаголом в изъявительном наклонении:
   If he should ask you, don't tell him anything. Если (на тот случай если) он спросит вас, не говорите ему ничего.
   II тип -- нереальное условие. Сказуемое главного предложения стоит в сослагательном наклонении (сочетание should, would с Infinitive Indefinite), сказуемое придаточного условного предложения стоит в форме сослагательного наклонения, совпадающей с Past Indefinite. Сказуемое в главном и придаточном предложениях переводится сослагательным наклонением:
   If you listened carefully, you would understand. Если бы вы слушали внимательно, вы бы поняли. If she were asked to come, she would certainly come. Если бы ее попросили прийти, она бы, конечно, пришла.
   Если подчеркивается малая вероятность выполнения условия, то в условном придаточном употребляются формы should+Infinitive Indefinite (для всех лиц) или were to+Infinitive Indefinite:
   If he should see you here, he would be surprized. Если бы он увидел вас здесь, он бы удивился. If I were to choose one of these books, I should take the first.
   Если бы я выбирал одну из этих книг, я бы взял первую.
   III тип -- нереальное условие, относящееся к прошлому. Сказуемое главного предложения выражено формой сослагательного наклонения should или would+ Infinitive Perfect. Сказуемое условного придаточного стоит в форме сослагательного наклонения, совпадающей

135


   с Past Perfect. Оба предложения переводятся на русский язык сослагательным наклонением (так же, как условные предложения II типа):
   If you had listened attentively, you would have understood.
   Если бы вы слушали внимательно, вы бы поняли (но вы не слушали).
   If you had not told me, I should never have known the facts.
   Если бы вы мне не сказали, я бы никогда не знал об этом (а вы мне сказали).
   Примечание 1. В русском языке условные предложения II и III типа грамматически не различаются.
   Примечание 2. В условных предложениях II и III типа вместо should и would в главном предложении могут употребляться модальные глаголы might и could в их собственных значениях "мог бы, могли бы, можно было бы" и т. п. В условном придаточном глаголы could и might тоже могут употребляться в значении "если бы мог, если бы можно было" и т. п.
   Упражнение
   1. Определите тип условного предложения на основании форм глагола в главном и придаточном предложениях. Переведите.
      -- If they had not been barbarians, they would not have destroyed Roman civilization.
      -- Provided the Committee continued along this path, it would succeed in carrying out its task.
      -- If this naval battle about which Herodotus says nothing is not a fiction we must assume that ships from Miletus and other Ionian cities were present.
      -- If the whole of Hamlet were written in verse of this kind, the effect, obviously, would be intolerably monotonous.
      -- If some grammatical category is absent in a given language, its meaning may be translated into this language by lexical means.
      -- We'd have gone on to the University, if we could have got scholarships.
      -- If almost any two Oriental and European works of art be set side by side, one feels at once the gulf between them.
   136
  
      -- If he had lived, he would have been celebrating his sixtieth birthday.
      -- If the question were less important it would not be worth labouring in a review.
  
      -- If the scheme had been fully carried out, there would have been more than a hundred tales, but as a matter of fact, Chaucer has only given us twenty four tales.
      -- So closely are the book and the writer bound together that unless the biography be fully written no real account of the growth of the book can be given.
      -- But if that were all that could be said about those painters the affair would be simple.
      -- For long campaigns he needed soldiers who were prepared to go anywhere -- provided they were paid.
      -- If our alphabet were more perfect than it is, we should have one separate symbol to express each separate sound.
      -- We are obliged to state that no one can understand the word "cheese" unless he has an acquaintance with the meaning assigned to this word in the lexical code of English.
      -- It seems that the earliest inhabitants of the island were a race called "cave men". Their very existence is questioned. If they were a real people, the only remaining traces of them are pit dwellings and shell mounds, and they must have been in the most primitive stages of culture.
      -- If you look throughout the world, you shall find all men full of opinions, but knowledge only in a few.
      -- Yet, if anything went wrong,5 the Francs at once suspected the Greek guides of treachery.
      -- Unless he works hard and in earnest, he will be certainly plucked.
      -- Any Negro threatening a Spaniard with any kind of weapon, even if no harm was inflicted, was to receive one hundred lashes. If the slave repeated the act, the hand bearing the weapon was nailed.
      -- It would leave a false impression if nothing were to be said in this chapter about baroque sculpture and painting in Catholic Europe.
      -- Provided there be only one accented syllable, there may be more syllables in any foot.
   ї to go wrong -- не ладиться, не получаться.

137


   23. Tancred 6 declared that unless the Emperor's great tent was given to him filled to the brim with gold, as well as an amount equal to all the gold given to the other princes, he would swear nothing.
   Бессоюзные условные предложения. При отсутствии союза в придаточном условном предложении происходит инверсия и сказуемое (или его первая часть) ставится перед подлежащим:
   Were she here, she would call at your Institute.
   Если бы она была здесь, она зашла бы к вам в институт. (ср. русское: была бы она здесь. . .).
   Had you listened carefully, you would have understood (If you had listened. . .)
   Если бы вы слушали внимательно, вы бы поняли. . .
   Should she see you, she would be surprized (If she should see you. . .).
   Если бы она увидела вас, она бы удивилась. . .
   What would become of the earth, did she cease to revolve! (If she ceased. . .).
   Что стало бы с землей, если бы она перестала вращаться?
   Примечание 1. Последний случай инверсии с появлением вспомогательного did встречается очень редко.
   Примечание 2. Бессоюзные условные предложения I типа могут начинаться только с глагола should; II типа -- с should, could, were; III типа -- с had+причастие II.
   В условных предложениях употребляются сочетания в значении "если бы не":
   if it were not for (II тип),
   if it had not been for (III тип).
   Такие сочетания часто употребляются в бессоюзных предложениях с инверсией:
   were it not for,
   had it not been for.
   Were it not for his arrival, we should go to the theatre. Если бы не его приезд, мы бы пошли в театр.
   Сочетание "but for" тоже имеет значение "если бы не": But for your help, I should not have finished my work.
   6 Tancred -- Танкред, имя военачальника-крестоносца.
   138
  
   Если бы не ваша помощь, я бы не окончил работу. (Здесь вместо условного придаточного стоит сочетание "but for+существительное или местоимение").
   Упражнение
   2. Переведите.
      -- Should the train be late, don't wait at the station.
      -- All this, were it to happen to me now, would seem perfectly natural and normal.
      -- Had these facts been fully appreciated by the Allied Generals at the time the war would have taken a different course.
      -- But for the labours taken by the compilers of this voluminous work, we could have no idea of the scope and extent of these law books of ancient Iran.
      -- It is possible that had Keats lived longer he might have been a greater poet than Shelley, for his poems show a great progress from the earlier to the later.
      -- Had the author concentrated upon a single aspect of his subject, his study would have proved easier to read.
      -- This information would have been highly satisfactory, had it not been for that hitch about the time.
   29. УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ И ПЕРЕВОД ГЛАГОЛА SHOULD
   Should с 1-м л. ед. и мн. числа и инфинитивом Indefinite употребляется как вспомогательный глагол относительного будущего (Future in the Past). В дополнительных придаточных предложениях после прошедшего времени в главном предложении сочетание "should+ инфинитив" переводится будущим временем:
   I promised them that I should come on Monday. Я обещал им, что приду в понедельник.
   Should с инфинитивами Indefinite и Perfect употребляется в 1-м л. ед. и мн. ч. в качестве вспомогательного глагола сложной формы сослагательного наклонения. Переводится сослагательным наклонением (прошедшее время+частица "бы"):
   I should do it tomorrow. Я бы сделал это завтра.

139


   Should с инфинитивами Indefinite и Perfect употребляется во всех лицах как вспомогательный глагол сложной формы сослагательного наклонения. В таком случае should самостоятельного значения не имеет и в сочетании с инфинитивом переводится русской формой сослагательного наклонения:
   Не demanded that the letter should be posted immediately. Он потребовал, чтобы письмо было отослано немедленно.
   Should с инфинитивами Indefinite и Perfect употребляется как модальный глагол со значением долженствования и переводится "следует, должен" (если после него стоит Infinitive Indefinite) и "следовало бы, должен был бы" (если за ним идет Infinitive Perfect):
   Не should be more attentive.
   Ему следует быть более внимательным.
   Не should have been more attentive.
   Ему следовало бы быть более внимательным.
   Сочетание "should like+инфинитив" переводится "хотел бы", "хотелось бы":
   I should like to speak to him.
   Мне бы хотелось поговорить с ним.
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите. Определите функцию глагола should.
      -- We did not know that we should be asked to take part in the Conference.
      -- One should be conscious of one's faults.
      -- Should she ask you for my address, give it to her.
      -- I know I should have done it long ago.
      -- Why should you stay here all day long?
      -- We are of an opinion that he should leave Leningrad for good.
      -- You shouldn't have said so!
      -- I told him that I should let him know the date of the examination.
      -- If I were you, I shouldn't speak about it at all.
   140
  
      -- You should have come earlier, the lesson is over now.
      -- It's a lucky coincidence that she should come here today.
      -- Is it absolutely necessary that you should stay here so late?
      -- One should think before one speaks.
      -- We hoped that we should come in time.
   2. Переведите. Определите функцию глагола should.
      -- Since these two sounds differ only in the fact that one employs voice while the other is merely a whispered or breathed sound, it does not seem very strange that they should have been thus represented by the same character.
      -- His irritable demand that he should be left alone was quite characteristic of him.
  
      -- Room had however been found for him, should he want it.
      -- In considering some of the problems peculiar to the portraiture, it should be remembered that the idea of resemblance is not always the same for the artist and for the layman.
      -- All community and labour organizations should support the teachers in their effort to obtain their rights.
      -- It is natural that words of Scandinavian origin should be plentiful in the areas covered by the Danelaw,7 and such words are most common in the North and the East Midlands.
      -- Yet, amid these many references to the classical tongues, it should not be forgotten that the language under discussion is English, and that English is spoken by about two hundred and twenty five million people, of whom only fifty million live in Britain.
      -- The student of Japanese history, in any of its branches, should note well the two dates which stand at the head of this chapter.
      -- There is a certain difficulty in deciding whether many Greek words should be described as coming directly, or through Latin.
   7 Danelaw ['delnlo:] -- области о-ва Британия, завоеванные датчанами в IX--X вв., и законы, установленные в них.

14J


   10. Should a case arise which cannot be settled by village authorities, the aggrieved person may petition the Wali for permission to sue.
   30. УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ И ПЕРЕВОД ГЛАГОЛА WOULD
   Would со 2-м и 3-м л. ед. и мн. ч. употребляется как вспомогательный глагол относительного будущего (Future in the Past) в дополнительных придаточных предложениях после прошедшего времени в главном предложении. Сочетание "would+инфинитив" в этом случае переводится будущим временем:
   Не promised us that he would come soon. Он обещал, что он скоро придет.

Would с инфинитивами Indefinite и Perfect употребляется во 2-м и 3-м л. ед. и мн. ч. в качестве вспомогательного глагола сложной формы сослагательного наклонения. Переводится сослагательным наклонением (прошедшее время+частица "бы"):

   It would be very convenient for us. Это было бы очень удобно для нас.
   Would со всеми лицами употребляется как модальный глагол со значением желания, или (с отрицанием) нежелания совершить действие:
   I wanted to send for a doctor, but he wouldn't hear of it.
   Я хотел послать за доктором, но он об этом и слышать не хотел.
   Would со всеми лицами употребляется для выражения обычного или повторного действия в прошлом: They would leave the camp at dawn. Они обычно уходили из лагеря на рассвете.
   Would+инфинитив со 2-м л. употребляется при вежливом обращении:
   Would you tell me the time?
   He скажете ли вы мне, который час?
   Сочетание "would like" переводится "хотел бы":
   They would like to see you. Они хотели бы повидать вас.
   142
  
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите.
      -- Would you mind if I shut the window?
      -- I did not know who would be my neighbour.
      -- Would you like to have one of these pictures?
      -- She was in a hurry and would not hear of staying with us a little longer.
      -- He told me he would be glad to help us.
      -- Would you lend me your pen for a minute?
      -- They would have gone there, too, if they had had tickets.
      -- The man would be sitting there all day long, probably dreaming.
      -- It would be better to read this book in the original.
  
      -- He would be sorry if you did not let him know.
      -- Why do we have dialects? Wouldn't it be simpler if everyone spoke alike?
   2. Переведите. Определите функцию глагола would.
      -- There was no one who would not be sorry to hear of what had happened.
      -- If a complete list were prepared of the dates at which words were created or borrowed, a picture of the slow and unceasing development of our civilization would be unrolled.
      -- It would be splendid for an archaeologist to work there, in a town so fantastically rich in antiquities and prehistoric culture.
      -- There was, however, little understanding of land warfare among the nation at large; 8 most people thought that one battle would decide the issue.
      -- She would not listen to his enthusiastic accounts of his experiences in Italy.
      -- Few people nowadays would deny these well-established facts.
      -- If Leonardo's life were not so completely documented, I have no doubt that theorists would have attempted to prove that he was not one person but two, and that the
   8 at large -- здесь: в целом,

143


   hand that painted the Gioconda was not the same that wrote the Note-books.
      -- On the morning, following the bride's transfer to her new home the boy's family would send gifts of ceremonial food to the home of the girl.
      -- It was intended that the actual responsibility of leading the troops to the east would fall on two military commanders, Lupinius and Sintula.
  
      -- The mother asked her son not to go swimming alone, but he would not listen to her.
      -- He would take no money in exchange for his hospitality, and he bade me come to him should I ever be in those places again.
      -- For many years it appeared as though the English language would be superseded by the language of the conquerors.
      -- If one were to take the trouble to count up all the words in the dictionaries, one would reach a total running into six figures -- the hundreds of thousands.
   31. УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ И ПЕРЕВОД ГЛАГОЛОВ MAY, MIGHT, COULD
   Глаголы may и might в качестве модальных были рассмотрены выше, в разделе "Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты" (см. стр. 40--43).
   В случае употребления may и might в качестве вспомогательных глаголов сложной формы сослагательного наклонения они обычно не переводятся.
   В уступительных придаточных предложениях:
   However difficult this book may be from the point of view of the language, you are to read it.
   Как ни трудна эта книга с точки зрения языка, вы должны читать ее.
   Don't contradict him, whatever he may say.
   He противоречьте ему, чтобы он ни сказал.
   В придаточных предложениях цели:
   Try to speak clearly, so that you may be understood better.
   Старайтесь говорить ясно, чтобы вас лучше поняли.
   144
  
   Глаголы might, could в сослагательном наклонении в значении возможности употребляются:
   в простых предложениях
   This rule might be applied here.
   Это правило можно было бы применить здесь.
   в определительных придаточных предложениях
   I can give you some materials that might be helpful in your work.
   Я могу дать вам некоторые материалы, которые могли бы быть полезны в вашей работе.
   Упражнения
   1. Переведите.
      -- Не could do this, if he tried.
      -- The letter said that the materials might be used by us.
      -- There was no rope whereby the boat might be tied to the river's bank.
      -- He spoke so rapidly that we could not clearly understand him.
      -- He drew the plan of the building more skillfully than any one else could have done it.
      -- Could I but see that thing myself, I would believe in its existence.
      -- He had come here that he might help me to finish the task.
      -- Whatever may happen, we must accomplish this task in time.
      -- You may have noticed it before.
  
      -- The work could not have been done during such a short period.
      -- The book may have been left here by some of our students.
      -- I have some documents here that might be of some interest to you.
      -- He tried to behave as if nothing had happened, so that nobody might notice the change.
      -- I couldn't have been seen at the Institute on that day for the simple reason that I wasn't there.
   10 Т. Н. Мальчевская 145
  
      -- There were too many details in his work which he couldn't have foreseen.
      -- He may have been the author of this play.
   2. Переведите.
      -- The cave deposits contain two standardized tools in enormous quantities. Both could be used as knives and scrapers.
      -- Later, when writing came into more extensive use, some material was needed on which writing could be done easily and conveniently.
      -- Lest the sound of the filming mechanism might be heard, he had simulated a little refreshment and had sung during the critical period.
      -- Japan's large population could not have been self- supporting for so long had soil and climate not been favourable.
      -- One of the greatest merits of Bacon's prose is his short sentences, in which respect he may have been influenced by his study of Montaigne.
      -- Language enters all human activities and few, if any, of them could be carried on without language.
      -- This authoritative knowledge of Hittite (language) could not have come about if the deciphering scholars had not been linguists who had slowly and carefully ascertained by scholarly methods, with profound respect for the text as a text, the exact words and grammar, conceiving this as their paramount duty.
      -- This author, Koj'iina by name, may have utilized materials collected in the manner just described.
      -- Alfred the Great himself, when over forty years of age, learned the Latin tongue in order that he might translate into English works which he thought would be of benefit to his people.
  
      -- A man isolated from childhood in a confined space, for instance, might have as good a brain as anyone else, but he would have very little to think about, and his ideas and the range of his ideas would be very limited.
      -- Especially if the period of separate development (of languages) is long, many of the features which were introduced during the earlier stage may have ceased to be reflected in the modern languages.
   146
  
   Повторение сослагательного наклонения
   Переведите.
      -- It is a pleasant task to thank the many grammarians and friends without whose help my book would have been even less perfect than it is.
      -- The record of events can be established, be it one day or one century later.
      -- The sheets of papyrus which were thus made were somewhat rough, and even after they had been rubbed to make them as smooth as possible, they would have seemed to us poor material on which to write.
      -- It is not surprising, therefore, that we should find a sharp contrast in style and outlook between Maugham's early and late works.
      -- To define those forces and to indicate the directions in which they operate would require an exhaustive comparison between Oriental and Occidental states of mind, religious and social structures, that would be out of place in this book.
      -- He set out on his journey, well knowing that the law allowed no pardon for a second offence of this kind, and whatever he might plead in his defence he would not be released.
      -- The same day Peter the Great decreed that Demby 9 be instructed in Russian and, having learned Russian, be assigned several young people to teach them both spoken and written Japanese.
      -- As I heard the waves rushing along the sides of the ship and roaring in my very ear, it seemed as if Death were raging round this floating prison seeking for his prey.
      -- Chinese word order demands that the defining word precede the defined, and as the former conveys the more specific meaning, this principle may lie behind the rule of stress on the former part of the compounds.
  
      -- I wish it were possible to invent a method of embalming persons in such a manner, that they may be recalled to life at any period.
      -- In the 17th century few English writers would have quarrelled with a materialist view of life, though their
   9 Demby -- имя потерпевшего кораблекрушение японца, попавшего в Россию.

10* 147


   view of materialism would not have been the same as that of Marx and Engels.
      -- Be this as it may, the author here combined the serfdom period with the characters of an epoch which had not only discarded serfdom, but was busy introducing all sorts of other reforms too.
      -- The reader is invited to see the novelist's picture of life as though it were actually happening in the real world.
      -- There is also a difficulty to be experienced when special collections (of books in a library) must be kept together. Donors sometimes stipulate that collections may not be broken up, and if these are included in the general catalogue, they can be made available to a wide circle of readers.
      -- Two embassies from feudal lords were sent to Rome, and for a time it seemed as though Japan were about to become a Christian country.
      -- You can recognize a hand-axe by its form alone, whether it be made in flint, quartzite, basault or shale.
      -- Why should poets have invented a shape called the sonnet? Why should the ear have to be tickled with an elaborate system of rhymes?
      -- The chief promptly ordered that a gift of food should be made to every crusading soldier.
      -- The further progress demands that these idealistic theories should be shown up, refuted, discredited.
      -- Etiquette (among the natives) demanded that the guests should take their places on stones round the oven.
   Повторение условных предложений
   Переведите, учитывая все особенности условных предложений.
   1. The intervention might have had some chance of success had it been aimed at some isolated groups unsupported by the nation.
   2. The author here would in all probability have been more successful if he had put his stories into the form of the novel.
   148
  
      -- If we were to tie ourselves down to only those words that the Anglo-Saxons used, our vocabulary would be poor indeed.
      -- The scientists who know better than anyone else what biological weapons will do should they be used in war must resolutely demand their prohibition.
      -- There were no voluminous writers. It was not the custom to publish the poems of individual authors separately. Had it been so, very thin volumes would have been the result.
      -- Would things have been very different in the end, or very much worse, if the Scandinavians had extended their power up to the borders of Cornwall and Wales in the ninth century, as they did in the eleventh under Canute?
      -- The Censor would never have allowed the play to be produced had it not been for the revolution of 1830.
      -- Bernard Shaw is often regarded as a disciple of Ibsen whose work would have been altogether different in character, or might not have existed at all, if Ibsen had not led the way.
      -- If it were not for this particular complexity, I should not have considered it necessary to preface a history of art with a philosophy of art.
  
      -- Had Livius tried to deny Nero his share in the triumph, Nero's supporters would have tilted the balance against Livius.
      -- His poems show great promise; and had he not died at the age of eighteen, it has been thought that he would have been the founder of the new Romantic school of poetry which Coleridge introduced some years later.
      -- If a complete list were prepared of the dates at which words were created or borrowed, a picture of the slow and increasing development of our civilization would be unrolled.
      -- But these two elements alone could never have produced the Coptic style had not the realist Syrian element also exercised its influence.
      -- It may be that Goethe would have left the novel unfinished if he had not conceived an entirely new idea that might give his novel a depth and importance which his original plan had not allowed.

149


   II
   15. In these circumstances, if the city were to be closely besieged, there was an excellent chance that the peace party would gain the upperhand and surrender the city to the Romans, especially if they could be led to believe that Scipio and the Romans would spare Carthage 10 once they had it completely at their mercy.
      -- The necessity of thus illustrating Burns' writings was always becoming more and more pressing, as the time of their composition was receding; and it cannot be doubted that in a few more years, when this necessity would become extreme, the possibility of executing the task in a satisfactory manner would have been decided in the negative.
      -- The movement would have remained ineffective had it not found an army in the recently developed class of industrial workmen.
      -- If you could come back to life two hundred years from now, you would find not only the world and its activities transformed, but also its languages. Among them would be an English language that you would be able to recognize and understand in part, but many of whose words and expressions would be completely strange and mysterious to you until they were explained just as television would be strange to Shakespeare if he were to come back to life today.
      -- Had intercourse with Europeans been once fairly established, it were a reasonable presumption that we should have found at least a glass bead, or an instrument of some sort indicative of the fact, especially when we bear in mind that it would be just in such places, where the savages collected around their fires to cook and eat, that such objects might be expected to be broken or lost.
      -- Should you deliberately set about trying to "make" the language? I would hardly advise it. People who try too hard often set themselves apart from others and get laughed at. On the other hand, if you should happen to come out with something that other people seem to like, don't be too ashamed of it.
      -- The preceding examples, especially the extensions that have had to be given to the "object", should be enough
   10 Carthage [ka:reidg] -- Карфаген. 150
  
   to convince the most hardened sceptic, even if there were no other idioms, that it is impossible to explain the structure of English on principles derived from other languages.
      -- Sometimes the girl would accept her suitor only on condition that they live with her parents.
      -- It has already been pointed out that parallel to the growth in the number and variety of the meanings which many words possess, and that, were it not for this economical device, the vocabulary of Modern English, enormous as it is, would be several times as great. If we were to consider the changes of meaning that have occurred along with the introduction of new terms, the imperfect picture which the mere growth of vocabulary presents would be coloured and shadowed, so that a complete representation of the development of English thought would be provided.
      --
   ЭМФАТИЧЕСКИЕ КОНСТРУКЦИИ
   32. ВЫДЕЛЕНИЕ ЧЛЕНОВ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ПРИ ПРЯМОМ ПОРЯДКЕ СЛОВ
   Выделение сказуемого (эмфатическое "do").
   Для усиления утверждения, выражаемого сказуемым во временах Present и Past Indefinite, употребляется вспомогательный глагол to do, который в соответствующем времени, лице и числе ставится непосредственно перед смысловым глаголом, употребляемым в форме инфинитива без частицы to. Усиление передается на русский язык словами "действительно", "все-таки", "на самом деле":
   Не said he would come and he did come.
   Он сказал, что придет, и действительно пришел.
   Now I see that she does know the subject well.
   Теперь я вижу, что она действительно знает предмет хорошо.
   We do not know very much of this author. But we do know that all the three poems were written by him.
   Мы не очень много знаем об этом писателе. Но мы все-таки знаем, что все три стихотворения были написаны им.
   Примечание. Ударение в предложении падает в таких случаях на глагол to do. В сложных временах подобного рода усиление осуществляется интонацией -- перенесением ударения на вспомогательный глагол:
   Не has written this work.
   Он же написал эту работу (Он действительно написал эту работу).
   Упражнение
   1. Переведите, как можно точнее передавая значение усилительного "do".
   1. Materialism does not deny the reality of mind. What materialism does deny is that a thing called "the mind" exists separate from the body.
   152
  
      -- Certainly a great deal of new English poetry does meet with indifference because it seems private and incomprehensible.
      -- While we have no language Academy for English, we do have something that partly serves the purpose, and that something is the dictionary.
      -- The one thing, though, which must be set to her credit, is that she did initiate. She followed no one, but introduced what was actually a new type of novel.1
      -- These old manuscripts are not so easy to read as our modern books, for the reason that there are no spaces between words. The later manuscripts however, do sometimes have spaces between the words just as we have.
      -- He (Maugham) does, however, belong of right to that small and select company of contemporary writers whose best work, we may reasonably assume, will survive beyond their lifetime.
      -- What possibilities and potentialities in politics, arts, sciences, vanished among the shell holes and barbed wire, we shall never know. But consequences of this war we do know, and we cannot ignore them.
      -- It is perhaps necessary to remind the reader that there is a nucleus of fact hidden among all this fictitious embroidery. Kublai Khan did send a large fleet against Japan about the time stated, which met with a fate similar to that of Spanish Armade.
   Двойное отрицание. Отрицание not, употребляемое перед прилагательным или наречием с отрицательными приставками un-, in- (il-, im-, ir-) dis-, имеет усилительное значение, и все сочетание обычно соответствует русскому "вполне, весьма, довольно + прилагательное (наречие)"; например:
   not uncommon -- довольно обычный,
   not infrequently -- довольно часто,
   not impossible -- весьма возможно.
   В некоторых случаях возможен также и перевод "не. . . не" ("не кажется неизбежным").
   Подобное же значение имеет сочетание "not + without + существительное":
   1 Речь идет о Шарлотте Бронте (1816--1855), английской писательнице, авторе "Джен Эйр".

153


   It is not without significance that . . . Также весьма важно, что. . .
   Отрицание not может сочетаться с прилагательным (причастием или наречием) отрицательного значения, не имеющим отрицательной приставки. Переводится так же, как в первом случае:
   Humour is not missing in his work. Юмора вполне достаточно в его произведении (Его произведение [написано] не без юмора).
   Сочетание "by no means + отрицательная приставка + прилагательное (наречие)" в целом имеет значение "вовсе не. . . совсем не. . .", но в каждом случае переводится в зависимости от общего стиля предложения:
   It is by no means unreasonable to compare these data. Вполне разумно сопоставить эти данные.
   Упражнение
   2. Прочтите предложения. Переведите отрицательную форму прилагательного (наречия, причастия) без отрицания. Найдите наиболее подходящий способ перевода.
      -- The total number of German words in English is not inconsiderable.
      -- To find a poet who is also a literary critic is not unusual nowadays.
      -- Not infrequently the primary meaning (of a word) dies away and the derivative meaning remains.
      -- To group these artists into schools is a little pedantic. . Yet it is not unreasonable to group together the painters who worked chiefly in Florence.
      -- The changes of sound here are not irregular.
      -- Not dissimilar effects are found in painting.
      -- It is not without significance, also, that this work was utilized as a basis for the libretto of a popular opera.
      -- These scholars then carried the New Learning (The Renaissance) to all parts of Europe, and the learned men of England were by no means unrepresented among them.
      -- These two volumes were savagely, but not unfairly, criticized.
   154
  
      -- None of the long poems are uninteresting, and very few are insignificant or unsuccessful.
      -- Kitchener 2 whose arrogance was not dissimilar to Curson's 3 was not prepared to tolerate a situation in which his proposals were criticized from the military point of view by the military member of Council.
      -- The scenes and characters themselves are depicted most graphically, often even dramatically, and humour is not wanting where it is suitable.
      -- If in historical times people were relatively safe from the assaults of enemies and from robbery, they feared dangers of other kinds which threatened them and their houses. Belief in magic and witchcraft is primeval and was not lacking even in the classical age of Greece.
   Выделение подлежащего, прямого и косвенного дополнений и обстоятельств (эмфатическая конструкция "it is ... that, which, who, whom"). Сочетание "it is ... that" употребляется для выделения одного из членов предложения. Выделяемый член предложения ставится между двумя частями конструкции, которая по форме представляет собой сложноподчиненное предложение. Конструкция "it is ... that" на русский язык не переводится, она лишь указывает границы выделяемой части предложения. В русском языке таким предложениям соответствует простое предложение, в котором перед выделяемым членом добавляются усилительные слова "именно", "как раз", "только" (чаще при выделении обстоятельства времени), "лишь"; в предложениях с отрицанием -- "вовсе не", "совсем не":
   It is language that enables us to communicate with each other.
   Именно язык дает нам возможность общаться друг с другом. (Выделение подлежащего).
   It was then that the London Bridge began to be rebuilt.
   Именно тогда начали перестраивать Лондонский мост. (Выделение обстоятельства времени).
   It is Greek that she wants to study.
  -- Kitchener -- Китченер, главнокомандующий британскими войсками в Индии (1904).
  -- Curson -- Керзон, вице-король Индии.
   155
  
   Она хочет изучать именно греческий (язык). (Выделение прямого дополнения).
   But it is not the Doctor who is the central figure of the play.
   Вовсе (совсем) не доктор является центральным действующим лицом в пьесе. (Конструкция с отрицательной формой глагола).
   It is when men begin to use tools for social production that they also begin to speak.
   Именно тогда, когда люди начинают применять орудия для общественного производства, они также начинают говорить. (Выделение придаточного обстоятельственного предложения).
   Примечание. В том случае если после эмфатического it is ... стоит слово only или другое усилительное слово, то оно употребляется вместо "именно" при переводе всего предложения:
   It was only with the help of a small lantern that we managed to find the box.
   Только с помощью фонарика нам удалось отыскать ящик.
   Упражнение
   3. Найдите выделяемый член предложения. Переведите предложения, подбирая наиболее подходящие усилительные слова.
      -- Of the countries of Western Europe, it is France that has the greatest number of human fossils.
      -- It is no doubt to this quality that the great popularity of this collection is due.
      -- It was only through treachery that the Turks had taken Antioch in 1085.
      -- It was during the reign of the same Emperor that the Bulgars, who in later days played so important a part in Byzantine history, first established themselves in the Balkans.
      -- Schools flourished in monasteries connected with York, Yarrow and Whitby, and it is to these that the literature about to be described owes its origin.
      -- But, after all, it is not by means of any tricks or devices that, the remarkable effect of Milton's verse is produced: that surely is due to the genius of the author whose mind and soul were full of music and harmony.
   156
  
      -- All the extensions of human control over external nature have been due to improvement in tools. For it is mainly with the aid of tools that men can act upon and alter the material world around them.
      -- In 1681 John Dryden wrote his four celebrated Satyres, which brought him into still greater prominence in society and at Court. It is largely on these that his fame as a poet now rests.
      -- It was only with the beginning of that literary movement which we call Romanticism that men of letters, artists and scholars began to turn their attention seriously to the investigation of regional dialects.
  
      -- However it is with Leonardo the painter and sculptor that this book is concerned, and though from his paintings one can guess at a massive intellect one could hardly deduce the empirical scientist and inventor.
      -- It was to Lyme Regis, the delightful little seaport and bathing beach, where we made a brief stop on our way to Exeter, that Charles II came after the battle of Worcester when he planned to escape from England.
   Выделение обстоятельств и обстоятельственных временных придаточных предложений (эмфатическая конструкция "it is not until . . . that"). Подобно конструкции "it is. . . that" сочетание "it is not until (till) . . . that" лишь показывает границы выделяемого обстоятельства, но не переводится на русский язык. Все предложение переводится с добавлением усилительных слов.
   В том случае, когда until представляет собой предлог и относится к обстоятельству, добавляются усилительные слова "лишь", "только":
   It was not until midnight that the vessel started. Судно отправилось только в полночь.
   В том случае, когда слово until является союзом и между двумя частями конструкции заключено целое придаточное предложение, добавляются слова "только тогда, когда":
   It was not until his book was published for the second time that it became more widely known.
   Только тогда, когда его книга была издана во второй раз, она стала более широко известна.

157


   Упражнение
   4. Переведите предложения, предварительно определив, в каких случаях слово until представляет собой предлог, а в каких -- союз.
      -- Actually, however, it is not until the other person begins to speak that you can form a very definite idea of his personality and his character.
      -- It was not until 1846, when "Vanity Fair" 4 began to appear, that Thackeray attained any eminence.
      -- It was not until the end of the seventeenth century that France began to produce an art that, instead of echoing the faded glamour of Italy, reflected the lively if equally artificial life of Versailles.
      -- It was not till impressionism turned its attention to the nature of light and especially to the colour of shadow that painters evolved a new way of seeing.
      -- Although it is impossible to be quite certain of the changes that English words are now undergoing -- for in general it is not until a change is an accomplished fact that it becomes perceptible -- changes which have occured in the past throw a strong light upon changes which must be now taking place.
   6. It was not till a century and a half had passed after the Claudian conquest that the Emperor Severus marked the final limit of the northern frontier by renovating (210 A. D.) the wall that Hadrian had erected'(123 A. D.).5 7. It was not until seven years had passed since the manuscripts had come into these scientists' hands that they published them with the introduction translated into English.
   Эмфатическое сочетание "not . . . till (until)". Сочетание not, входящего в состав сказуемого, и слова till (until), стоящего перед обстоятельством времени, переводится сказуемым в утвердительной форме и словами "только", "лишь" перед обстоятельством:
  -- "Vanity Fair" -- "Ярмарка тщеславия", известный роман Тэккерея.
  -- Claudian. Severus, Hadrian -- римские императоры Клавдий, Север, Адриан. Император Адриан в период завоевания о-ва Британии построил стену в 80 миль между Шотландией и Англией.
   158
  
   The work was not finished till 8 o'clock. Работа была закончена только в 8 часов.
   Сочетание " not + until (till) + after" переводится -- "только после":
   His work was not published until after the October Revolution.
   Его работа была опубликована только после Октябрьской революции.
   Упражнение.
   5. Переведите.
   1. The first part of this work did not come out until 1940.
      -- Cotton was not introduced (to Japan) from China until later and wool was unknown.
      -- "Utopia" 6 was written in Latin about 1516, and it was not translated till 1551, some years after More's death.
      -- Tennyson's last work, "Death of Oenone", was not published until after his death on October 6th 1892.
      -- In England ancient fields indicate that no plough was used till late in the local bronze age, about 800 В. С., and then at first only in the south.
      -- Silver and lead were known in Hither Asia before 3000 В. С., but neither was used in Britain till after 500, though Britain is well supplied with lead ores.
   33. ВЫДЕЛЕНИЕ ЧЛЕНОВ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ПРИ ОБРАТНОМ ПОРЯДКЕ СЛОВ
   Выделение членов предложения с помощью усилительных, ограничительных и отрицательных слов.
   При усилении и подчеркивании значения второстепенного члена предложения (обычно обстоятельства) выделяемый член предложения вместе с предшествующим ему усилительным словом выносится вперед и ставится перед подлежащим, что влечет за собой инверсию сказуемого:
   They will realize the importance of his work only in the course of time.
   "Utopia" -- "Утопия" -- сочинение Томаса Мора (1480--1535).

159


   Здесь обычный порядок слов: подлежащее, сказуемое дополнение, обстоятельство.
   Но:
   Only in the course of time will they realize the importance of his work.
   Здесь инверсия: усилительное слово, обстоятельство, 1-я часть сказуемого, подлежащее, 2-я часть сказуемого, дополнение.
   Только со временем они поймут важность его работы.
   Основные усилительные и ограничительные слова, могущие вызывать инверсию сказуемого:
   only -- только;
   not only . . . but also -- не только. . ., но также и;
   so. . . that -- так. . . что;
   hardly (scarcely). . . when -- едва . . . как;
   no sooner . . . than 7 -- как только
   Отрицательные слова, могущие вызвать инверсию сказуемого:
  
   never -
   - никогда;
   (in, at, on, of и др.) по -
   - никакой, ни один (в соответствующих падежах; например: in no country -- ни в одной стране);
   nowhere
   - нигде;
   nobody
   - никто;
   not until
   - только, только тогда, когда;
   nor
   - а также. . . не, и. . . не;
   neither
   - ни один; а также. . . не;
   neither. . . nor
   - ни. . . ни ...
   В следующих примерах сказуемое состоит из двух или трех частей, причем первая часть сказуемого стоит перед подлежащим, а вторая -- после него.
   Only in two cases can we find a similar construction. Только в двух случаях мы находим подобную конструкцию.
   7 no sooner . . . than и hardly . . . when могут употребляться и при сохранении прямого порядка слов.
   160
  
   Only from this point of view is it possible to approach the problem.
   Только с этой точки зрения возможно подойти к этой проблеме.
   Only tomorrow will they receive our telegram.
   Только завтра они получат нашу телеграмму.
   В том случае если сказуемое выражено одним смысловым глаголом (т. е. если этот глагол стоит в Present или Past Indefinite), а выделение обстоятельства требует инверсии сказуемого, то на место первой части сказуемого (перед подлежащим) ставится вспомогательный глагол to do в соответствующем времени, лице и числе; ср., например:
   We find a slight difference between the two forms only in one case.
   Мы находим небольшое различие между обеими формами только в одном случае.
   Но:
   Only in one case do we find a slight difference between the two forms.
   Вспомогательное "do", употребляемое при инверсии сказуемого, не переводится на русский язык:
   Only in one paper did we find confirmation of our theory.
   Только в одной работе мы нашли подтверждение нашей теории.
   Примечание. Если таким способом выделяется целое придаточное обстоятельственное предложение, то инверсия наблюдается в главном предложении:
   Only after the proofs had been corrected did he leave the publishing-house .
   Только после того как корректура была исправлена, он ушел из издательства.
   Перевод предложений с эмфатическим "so" и "nor". Кроме инверсии здесь может происходить полная или частичная замена сказуемого заместителем глагола. So в таких случаях переводится "тоже, также", nor -- "а также . . . не". Функцию заместителя выполняют вспомогательные глаголы to do, to be и др. (см. также стр. 178).
   Не is very busy now, and so are both his friends. Он очень занят сейчас, и оба его друга тоже.
   1/2 11 Т. Н. Мальчевская 161
  
   He knows three foreign languages, and so does his sister.
   Он знает три иностранных языка, и его сестра также.
   Упражнение
   1. Переведите предложения, предварительно отыскав обе части сказуемого, перемещенные из-за инверсии.
      -- In architectural unity Chekhov surpasses all Russian writers of the Realistic age. Only in Pushkin and Lermontov do we find an equal or superior gift of design.
      -- Not only has this custom many parallels in modern times, but it can be demonstrated that it has survived in Greece since antiquity.
      -- In no department of literature was so great an advance made during this period as in prose.
      -- News about Japan reached Russia relatively late. Not until the seventeenth century do we find mention of Japan in Russian sources.
      -- Not only did they edit and print textbooks on Confucianism, but they compiled books for popular education.
      -- Only in 1733 did justice triumph when a new investigation was launched and both villains were hanged.
   7. Nor can the author resist the temptation of bestowing on the reader tedious displays of his erudition, or of introducing foreign or obsolete words.
      -- Prosper Merimee may at first sight seem to be completely outside the Romantic movement, for neither as a man AOL as a writer does he share any of its obvious and flamboyant characteristics.
      -- Naturally, Hamlet is bitter against such a trimmer as Polonius. Nor could there, apart from reasons for direct resentment, be any community of feeling between the types so antagonistic.
  
      -- The "forts" were not works of defence either strategic or social. Nor were they sacrificed places: they were something special. They were economic units, enclosed villages.
      -- Hardly had the Turks taken possession of Tarsus (a city), when three thousand Normans arrived before the city, having come from the main army to reinforce Tancred.
   162
  
      -- The king of Dahomei himself was subject to 8 the prohibition of beholding the sea, and so were the kings of Loango and Great Ardra in Guinea.
      -- Only after 1500 В. С. do bronze sickles begin to figure in Egyptian pictures or European hords.
      -- In no part of the world, perhaps, are the inhabitants better fishermen.
      -- Only occasionally do human bones found in these tumuli indicate the action of fire.
      -- The dust had hardly settled over the battlefields of the world, when newspapers began to carry reports of a sensational new discovery in the field of biblical 9 archaeology.
      -- No sooner, however, had his mother discovered that her son had found through imaginative play a method of stimulating his mind, than she put an end to the fairy tales.
      -- The negotiations had barely been resumed, when sudden disaster overtook both sides. In the forenoon of December 23, an earthquake shook the area and a great tidal wave deluged the coast.
      -- Agricultural tasks succeed each other in due order because they are bound up with the seasons, and so also do the rites and ceremonies which are connected with the tasks of sowing, reaping, threshing, gardening, and fruit gathering.
      -- The two words are not enough alike in sound to cause their confusion, nor do their written symbols look alike enough.
      -- Not only have her inland position and her relation to the Asiatic mainland influenced Japan greatly, but the characteristics of the land itself have been important.
      -- Other examples of sound language not based on speech are the Army bugle calls, each one of which has a different meaning which the soldiers must learn. Nor should we forget our conventional way of indicating approval by clapping the hands and disapproval by hissing.
   8 to be subject to -- быть подверженным; здесь: подлежать запрету (табу).
   • Здесь имеются в виду находки Кумранских рукописей (II в. до н. э.--I в. н. э.), так называемые находки у Мертвого моря

163


   Вынесение причастия из состава сказуемого на первое место в предложении. При повествовательном стиле речи, в случае особого подчеркивания обстоятельств совершения действия, причастие (или прилагательное), входящее в состав сказуемого, выносится на первое место в предложении. Перевод в таких случаях следует начинать с обстоятельства (или дополнения), которое стоит после причастия, затем переводится сказуемое и, наконец, подлежащее; ср.:
   Обычная конструкция Эмфатическая конструкция
   В составе сказуемого -- причастие во времени Past Continuous Active
   A small ring was lying inside Lying inside the box was a small
   the box. ring.
   Маленькое кольцо лежало Внутри коробки лежало ма-
   внутри коробки. ленькое кольцо.
   В составе сказуемого -- причастие во времени Present Indefinite Passive
   Some other types of changes Connected with this phenomenon
   are also connected with this are also some other types
   phenomenon. of changes.
   Некоторые другие типы изме- С этим явлением связаны также
   нений также связаны с этим и некоторые другие типы
   явлением. изменений.
   Упражнение
   2. Переведите предложения, предварительно отыскав обе части сказуемого.
      -- Standing on the threshold and smiling was Ann, safe and sound.
      -- Connected with these ballads is still a larger group of miscellaneous romances of adventure.
      -- Left behind are two small islands, treeless bits of volcanic soil.
      -- Developing alongside these schools was a third group, the monastic, which owed less to the spirit of the Renaissance, and more to the old art of the East.
      -- An equally interesting hunting scene is that painted in the neighbouring cave. The two stags are pictured here in full flight. Running at the top speed after the two animals is their pursuer -- a hunter armed with his bow.
   164
  
      -- Less general than these principles, but yet closely connected with universal modes of thought, are the various functions of words, which we call the parts of speech.
      -- This is the most important problem since linked with it is the question of the relations between language and thought.
      -- Allied to these classes is a group of words which have been shortened owing to misapprehension, whereas the foregoing have been shortened for the sake of brevity.
   Причастия (и прилагательные) в составе сказуемого, вынесенные на первое место, и причастия в функции определения, обстоятельства и вводного члена предложения
   Переведите, предварительно определив функцию причастия.
      -- Cut in the rock on the face of a great cliff in the eastern part of Persia, there was an inscription in three languages.
      -- Look closely at the bare branches of a tree, on which not the palest gleam of green can be discerned. Yet, spaced along each branch are the leaf buds, safely preserved under the insulating layers.
      -- Lying in the open Atlantic between Brazil and Africa, St. Paul's Rocks are an obstruction thrust up from the floor of the ocean into the midst of the Equatorial Current.
      -- These animals could have been portrayed only when they were still living during the Glacial Epoch. Confirming this is the fact that representations of these animals have been found embedded in the hearth ashes and detritus associated with skeletal remains of animals of the same species.
      -- Viewed in the right way, it is evident that the local "Stone Age" lasted in Central Russia up to the first millenium В. С.
      -- Intermingled with these shells are found the bones of various animals.
      -- In the midst of the most extraordinary abundance, here are men, women and children dying of starvation; and running alongside a splendid chariot are poor, forlorn, almost naked wretches.
      -- Viewed from the standpoint of palaeonthology all this evidence is untenable.
   12 Т. Н. Мальчевская 165
  
   9. Close to the famous Cave is the railway-station of Shell-Mound so called for an uncommonly large deposits of shells.
      -- Simultaneous with this outburst of rhetoric was the school of Venetian painters, artists who delighted the rich travellers by producing views of Venetian life.
      -- Meanwhile, nourished on the soil of Umbria to the south, another group of painters was maturing.
   34. ЭМФАТИЧЕСКИЕ УСТУПИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
   Уступительные предложения с именной частью сказуемого, вынесенной вперед. В уступительном предложении этого типа на первом месте стоит именная часть сказуемого, выраженная прилагательным, причастием или наречием, за которой следует союз as или though. Все сочетание переводится "как (бы) ни. . . + именная часть сказуемого", "какой. . .ни", "хоть и . . .":
   Important as this work is, it does not cover the problem on the whole.
   Как ни важна эта работа, она не охватывает проблему в целом.
   Harmful though it is for his health, he is not able to give up smoking.
   Хоть это и вредно для его здоровья, он не может бросить курить.
   Примечание. Глагол may (might), входящий иногда в состав сказуемого уступительных предложений, обычно не переводится:
   Strange though it may seem, I did not think about it.
   Как ни странно это покажется (может показаться), я не думал об этом.
   Упражнение
   1. Переведите следующие уступительные предложения.
   1. Important as fishing was for the Eastern Islanders,10 it was never as vital to them as to the Tahitians.10
   10 Жители о-вов Пасхи и Таити 166
  
      -- The following translations, inadequate as they are, may help to give some idea of the character of this poetry.
      -- Strangely as it seems to us, the play is devoid of real action, for the above events are not shown on the stage.
      -- But, great as have been the triumphs of these new methods, it should not be forgotten that everything is not said when the facts of a language are interpreted in the terms of linguistic history.
      -- Inexperienced though they were in navigation, the two men safely reached that island in a small boat.
      -- Excellent though it be from a literary standpoint, this book is yet a paradox; for it gives a most unexciting (but far from boring) account of a most exciting experience.
   7. Little as he (Galsworthy) indulged in dialect, he occasionally admitted a certain satisfaction in this fact, and lived much of his working life in this country, and made it the scene of some narratives.
   Уступительные предложения, начинающиеся с союзов. Если в начале уступительного предложения стоит союз however, после которого идет именная часть сказуемого, выраженная прилагательным, причастием или наречием, то перевод таких предложений следует начинать со слов "как ни. . .", "как бы ни. . .", "хоть и . . .":
   However complicated the problem is, we are to solve it. Как ни сложна эта задача, мы должны решить ее.
   Уступительные предложения также могут начинаться следующими союзами:
  
   however
   -- как (бы) ни; хоть и;
   whoever
   -- кто (бы) ни; всякий, кто...;
   whatever |
   -- что (бы) ни; всё, что...; -- какой (бы) ни; всякий, который...;
   wherever I
   -- где (бы) ни; всюду, где...; -- куда (бы) ни; всюду, куда...;
   whenever
   -- когда (бы) ни; всякий раз, когда...

12* 167


   Упражнение
   2. Переведите следующие уступительные предложения.
      -- Science teaches us inseparability of matter and motion. However static some things may seem to be, there is in them continual motion.
      -- Whatever value may be attached to the work as history -- it is probably biassed as regards the character of Richard -- it is the work of a master of English prose.
      -- According to idealism, however closely the mind may be connected with the body, it is nevertheless distinct and separable from the body.
      -- Whatever the reason, there are few panels of early date in existence today which show really first-class work.
      -- Most of this volume is taken up with dissertations on the principles of government, which, however necessary for a comprehension of the motives and ideas of Japanese statesmen of the old regime, are not very interesting to the European reader.
      -- Whoever the authors may have been, their primary object was the promotion of piety.
      -- This work, however valuable it may be for research into mythology, the manners, the language, and the legends of early Japan, is a very poor production, whether we consider it as a literature or as a record of facts.
   Повторение эмфатических конструкций
   Переведите.
   i. In reciting a passage of a light and humorous character it is by no means unusual for a man with an average voice to have a range of intonation of over two octaves.
   2. It is this very silence of the poet that makes the verse all the more eloquent.
      -- Only in this last work does the author show what he might have done, had he used his genius rightly.
      -- These plays were not high either in their humour or in literary worth, but they did represent a distinct advance towards regular drama.
      -- It was not the classics themselves as much as the works of Italy and France above mentioned, which had so
   168
  
   important an influence on the poets to be presently considered, particularly on Chaucer.
      -- Fragmentary though our knowledge is of the total achievement of the Greek sculptors, we need have no doubt that from what does remain we can estimate quite accurately the full strength and weakness of Hellenistic sculpture at any point between its origins and its final decay.
      -- The basis of man's social activity is labour. It is in and through labour that man first of all enlarges his perceptions and first of all begins to use his brain to think -- to form ideas and to communicate them, to develop thought and language.
      -- In no wise 11 inferior in importance to the art stations of Southern France are those of Northern. Here, near Santillana del Mar is the cave of Altamira, which has been not unaptly termed "The Chapel of Palaeolithic Art".
      -- However much the Emperor and the Crusader princes might quarrel over their ultimate rights and the distribution of conquests to come, there could be no dissension about the opening stages of the campaign against the infidel.
  
      -- These novels are by no means forgotten at the present day, and might not improbably have a return of their popularity, which was at one time great.
      -- It is as our perceptions increase with increased activity and social contacts that our ideas develop.
      -- It is not merely in particular places that we find a beautiful effect; it is rather the continuous charm of his poetry, the sense of harmony that runs throughout that makes us feel his greatness.
      -- Hunting by means of surprise in the case of sleeping or exhausted animals would also be practised -- a means in common use with the Bushmen, who have brought it to the height of perfection. Neither is it impossible that the use of lasso, throwing-stick and snare was known.
      -- It also not infrequently happened that the people of this period chose the suitable pieces of broken clay vessels and ground them into knives.
      -- However hard they may work and however much they may scrape and save, the non-possessors will remain
   in no wise -- ни коим образом.

169


   poor, while the possessors grow rich on the fruits of their labour.
      -- It was during the time when Latin was still spoken, however, that the first modifications had to be made in the alphabet.
      -- And indeed, from these first beginnings, it has always been through their advancing Mastery over nature that succeeding generations of men have come to know more and more of the properties of natural objects: each stage of advance has meant enlarged perceptions, new discoveries, wider horizons.
      --
   ОСНОВНЫЕ ТРУДНОСТИ СИНТАКСИСА
   35. ПЕРЕВОД ПРИДАТОЧНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ В ФУНКЦИИ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ЧЛЕНОВ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
   Предложения-подлежащие. Придаточные предложения-подлежащие вводятся следующими союзными словами:
   изъяснительными союзами that, whether, if;
   местоимениями who, what, which (whoever, whatever, whichever);
   местоименными наречиями where, when, why, how.
   При переводе предложений-подлежащих в русском предложении перед соответствующим союзным словом необходимо ставить соотносительное слово "то (тот, та, те)". Перевод следует начинать со сказуемого; например:
   That the author shares this view is quite obvious,
   подлежащее сказуемое
   To, что автор разделяет эту точку зрения, -- вполне очевидно.
   Примечание 1. Если предложение начинается со слов if, whether, то перевод следует начинать со сказуемого внутри предложения-подлежащего с добавлением к нему частицы "ли":
   Whether the author shares this view is not quite clear.
   Разделяет ли автор эту точку зрения -- не вполне ясно.
   Союзные слова, употребляемые в предложении-подлежащем, переводятся следующим образом:
   that -- то, что;
   1 Здесь и далее рассматриваются только те типы предложений, которые представляют трудности для перевода,

171


   what -- то, что;
   if, whether-- как частица "ли" после сказуемого в предложении-подлежащем; who -- кто; тот, кто;
   which -- кто из; который из. . .; whatever -- все, что; что бы ни. . .; where -- то, где; вопрос о том, где. . .;
   when -- то, когда; вопрос о том, когда. . .;
   why -- то, почему; вопрос о том, почему. . .;
   how -- то, как; вопрос о том, как. . .;
   how + прилагательное -- насколько + прилагательное; например:
   How difficult it was to accomplish this work is seen from his diary.
   Насколько трудно было выполнить эту работу, видно из его дневника.
   Примечание 2. Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено формой страдательного залога рт глагола, принимающего предложное дополнение в русском языке, то перед придаточным подлежащим ставится предлог:
   That these tribes knew how to use fire is shown by a few surviving pictures.
   На то, что эти племена знали, как пользоваться огнем, указывают несколько сохранившихся рисунков
   Упражнение.
   1. Найдите сказуемое в главном предложении. Переведите предложения.
      -- That ancient Egyptian history can be written with even its present approach of accuracy is one of the wonders of scholarship.
      -- That this development was a comparatively late one in Cantonese dialect is shown by several facts.
      -- How this occured can be seen from the following example.
      -- But what seems to us today to be a hackneyed truth was by no means trivial and commonplace four centuries ago.
   172
  
      -- What interests primitive man is not nature in itself but nature so far as 2 it intervenes in human life and forms a necessary and obvious basis for it.
      -- That this environment should and does affect man in a great variety of ways seems so obvious as hardly to admit of discussion.
      -- What Marx and Engels considered to be true of historical changes they also considered to be true of aesthetic creation.
      -- That the Inca had made important advances in literary form is suggested by a few surviving fragments.
      -- There is a great deal of difference between languages in respect to 3 the word classes that are used to express certain ideas, for so often what is a noun in Greek must be rendered as a verb in other languages, and what is a pronoun in Greek, or Hebrew frequently must become a noun in another language.
  
      -- That there are communities in Europe whose language places them quite apart is, of course, everyday knowledge. As I have said, the Basques are such a people, the Hungarians and Finns are others.
      -- What is significant in this philosophy, and what made it wield a great influence in some oriental countries, is its view of history.
      -- The essence of a compound word is that it shall symbolyze a single thing or idea. Whether it is spelt as one Word, or hyphened, or spelt as two words, makes no difference.
   Предложения-сказуемые. Предложения в функции именной части сказуемого могут вводиться теми же союзными словами и местоимениями, что и предложения-подлежащие. При переводе особое внимание следует обращать на правильный перевод глагола-связки to be.
   Рекомендуются следующие способы перевода глагола-связки to be в подобных конструкциях:
   состоит в том, что . . .;
   представляет собой то, что . . .;
   является тем, что . . .;
   это то, что . . .
   so far as -- постольку, поскольку, in respect to -- в отношении.

173


   Упражнение
   2. Переведите.
      -- My book was what is often referred to as an autobiographical novel.
      -- What seemed most strange in the Battle of Plassey was that the Navab's immense army should have been defeated by so small a force, and that the victory of the English side should have been so decisive.
      -- What I mean here is that every one of these factors is liable to mislead.
      -- For the last two hundred years Yedo 4 has been to Japan for 5 literature what London is to the United Kingdom or Paris to Europe,
   Предложения -дополнения. Придаточные предложения-дополнения вводятся теми же союзными словами и местоимениями, что и предложения-подлежащие (см. выше, стр. 171); например
   предложение -- прямое дополнение
   Не confirmed what we already knew.
   Он подтвердил то, что мы уже знали.
   предложение -- предложное дополнение
   Archeological excavations give us a better idea of how the people of those days lived.
   Археологические раскопки дают нам более правильное представление о том, как жили люди в те времена.
   Упражнение
   3. Переведите.
      -- These distinctive features of labour explain why labour necessarily gives rise to speech and thought and cannot develop without the aid of speech and thought.
      -- Those who have studied the way of life and the language of wild tribes have often pointed out to what an incredible degree these are split up. This holds6 especially of the hotter countries.
  
  -- Yedo -- старое название Токио,
  -- for -- здесь: в отношении.
   6 this holds , . . of -- это справедливо в отношении
   174
  
      -- Aristotle took over much that had been expressed by Plato and indeed is so dependent upon his teacher that some historians still dispute how far he departed from his doctrines.
      -- The syllables contain consonants and vowels bearing certain qualitative and quantitative relations to one another; and also differ in that some are accented, and some are not, the accents themselves being of various degrees of strength.
      -- The semantic difficulties of our topic are troublesome, and no ready relief seems possible beyond constant vigilant attention to how terms are used in their contexts, especially to their polar oppositions.
      -- In the Middle Ages Rhetoric corresponded roughly to what we understand by the study of Latin literature.
      -- We discovered in a cave turtle-shell ornaments that confirmed what we had been told about them.
      -- From what you have read in this book, you have become acquainted with the state in which the Saxons were living, when the Normans arrived.
      -- It is perhaps idle now to speculate on who or what this man was: though such speculations have always teased people's imagination.
  
      -- The story of who the modern English originally were can be conveniently divided into three parts.
      -- It is evident from a couple of references in "Beowulf" that our forebears knew the story of how the giants had attacked the gods and how they had been repaid for their temerity by being overwhelmed in a universal flood.
   12. We cannot tell whether the Emperor Michael knew of the Pope's intention and whether he would have welcomed it.
   Предложения-обстоятельства. Придаточное предложение-обстоятельство (места и времени) вводится союзами where, when и отвечает на вопросы "когда?", "в каких случаях?", "где?". Слово where в таком случае (и в отличие от where в предложении-подлежащем) переводится "там, где. . .", "в тех случаях, когда . . .":
   Where the sentences are separated by a comma . . .
   (Там где) В тех случаях, когда предложения разделяются запятой. . .
   Придаточные предложения-обстоятельства могут также вводиться союзами whenever, wherever.

175


   Упражнение
   4. Переведите.
      -- Where the related languages do not agree, some or all of them must have made some change.
      -- Where scholars diverge seriously in the views it is usually unsafe to follow any one interpretation.
      -- Where there are not enough letters for an adequate representation of phoneme facts, the language has recourse to other devices.
      -- Where it is known that a number of languages have all descended from a common ancestor, it is of course much preferable to group them according to the families they form.
   Предложения-определения. Придаточные предложения-определения вводятся словами why и that, которые стоят после определяемого существительного:
   The reason why he has not come is not clear to me. Причина (какая?) того, почему он не пришел, --
   не ясна для меня.
   36. СЛОВА-ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛИ
   Заместители существительного. Заместители существительного употребляются в предложении во избежание повторения уже названного существительного. Они согласуются в числе с существительным, которое заменяют, и могут иметь перед собой предлог. Местоимение that, those употребляется без артикля, местоимение one, ones может иметь перед собой определенный артикль. При переводе на русский язык существительное повторяется:
   His handwriting resembles that of his father.
   Его почерк похож на почерк его отца.
   В том случае если после слова-заместителя идет определительное придаточное предложение, возможен перевод "тот, который":
   This system of writing is quite different from the one described in the book.
   Эта система письма совсем иная, чем та, которая (система, которая) описана в книге.
   176
  
   Упражнение
   1. Найдите слова-заместители существительного. Переведите предложения.
      -- In reading Shakespeare's works, one finds many common everyday words that are used with meanings quite different from those they have today.
      -- The phonology of Korean is similar to that of both Japanese and Chinese, perhaps slightly favouring the latter.
      -- Amber finds from North-Russian neolithic sites, in addition to those already mentioned in literature, are known at any rate from the dwelling places on the lake of Rostov.
      -- I have pointed out that the language used by the child is determined far more by that of its playfellows than by that of its parents.
      -- Aymara 7 is generally termed the "older" language, that is, that of wider extent in pre-Inca days, and one that has yielded ground to the Quecchua.7
      -- The Ainus 8 live in conditions somewhat similar to those of the Indians of the United States in certain areas of the Japanese islands, and are evidently the remnant of the people who inhabited the island empire before the Japanese came.
      -- Hebrew has apparently successfully revived in Israel though Israeli Hebrew, too, is something quite different from that spoken in ancient times.
   |8. This sonnet and the one quoted above need, in fact, to be considered together.
   9. Of course, the hieroglyphic writing had a stock of thousands of characters, and might well have included the ones we are looking for in texts which have disappeared or not yet been discovered.
      -- Like that of Aztec, the bibliography of Quecchua is very large both early and recent. The best grammar seems to be that of Middendorf.
      -- The later culture layer is poorer in forms and is more monotonous than the older one: many of the older types of harpoons and arrows are missing.
   7 Aymara, Quecchua -- названия индейских наречий.
   8 Ainus -- небольшая часть населения Японии, неродственная японцам.

177


   12. The skeletons were found in the trunk of a great tree. That of King Arthur was of a very large man, and Queen Guinevere was shrouded by her long golden hair.
   Заместители прилагательного. Повторяющееся прилагательное может заменяться словом so. При переводе на русский язык прилагательное следует повторять, либо не переводить слово so:
   The first chapter was very difficult, the second one less so.
   Первая глава была очень трудная, вторая -- менее (трудная).
   Упражнение
   2. Найдите прилагательные, которые заменяются словом so. Переведите предложения.
      -- This list was criticized on various grounds, some quite legitimate, others less so.
      -- The style of this novel is not more ornate than that, let us say, of Robinson Crusoe, and incomparably less so than that of many Japanese books of later date.
      -- Of the criticism which appeared in the eighteen major reviews in England, nine were favourable, some very much so, three were lukewarm, but more favourable than hostile.
   Заместители глагола. Для того чтобы избежать повторения, смысловой глагол может заменяться глаголом to do в соответствующем времени, лице и числе. Перед заместителем глагола могут стоять слова as -- как -- или than -- чем, нежели, -- а также nor -- а также . . . не -- или so -- также, такой же, -- требующие эмфатической инверсии сказуемого.
   При переводе глагола to do на русский язык необходимо учитывать следующее.
   Если время смыслового глагола и глагола-заместителя совпадает, то последний можно не переводить:
   Не stayed there much longer than he usually did. Он оставался там значительно дольше, чем обычно (чем он обычно это делал).
   Если время смыслового глагола и глагола-заместителя не совпадает, то глагол-заместитель следует переводить
   178
  
   на русский язык смысловым глаголом в том времени, в котором он употреблен:
   Не stayed there much longer than he usually does. Он оставался там значительно дольше, чем остается обычно (чем он обычно это делает).
   Во избежание повторения сложной формы смыслового глагола обычно повторяется лишь первая часть всей формы и тем самым служит ее заместителем:
   Today he is reading better than he was yesterday. Сегодня он читает лучше чем (он читал) вчера.
   Упражнение.
   3. Переведите.
      -- "The eagle sees much further than man, but the human eye sees considerably more in things than does the eye of the eagle", wrote Engels.
      -- We know much more about Giovanni Pisano 9 than we do about his anonymous contemporaries who were at work on the Gothic cathedrals in France.
      -- The typological classification of languages is not necessarily preferable to the genetic classification, nor does it supplant the genetic (as the latter does geographic).
      -- There is a super-refined Oxford accent which produces as artificial an effect, in its own way, as does the pronunciation of some of the American stage stars.
      -- Jones' surmise that the Germanic languages were related to Latin, Greek and Sanscrit, at once proved true, as did later his surmise about Celtic.
      -- The Chinese cannot properly be said to have an alphabet, since the characters used in writing do not represent sounds as do the letters of the alphabets that have been described.
      -- The Roman baths (Bath) are the only hot springs in England. The Rump Room was ruined by the blitz during the war as were the Assembly Rooms.
   8 Pisano -- Джованни Пизано (1240--1328), скульптор и архитектор.

179


   37. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА НЕКОТОРЫХ СОЮЗОВ И ПРЕДЛОГОВ
   Which в значении "что". Относительное местоимение which может относиться не к одному существительному в предшествующем предложении, а ко всему предложению в целом. В таком случае предложение, начинающееся с which, отделяется запятой. Само местоимение which переводится словом "что"; например:
   The trees round the house are very tall, which makes the room dark.
   Деревья вокруг дома очень высокие, что затемняет комнату.
   Упражнение
   1. Определите значение which в каждом случае. Переведите предложения.
      -- Later Robert, Earl of Leichester married the countess of Essex, which he also kept secret.
      -- The words in Japanese are regularly more than one syllable, and the roots appear to be modified by affixes which, however, are treated as separate words, yet are not really independent.
      -- Lydgate is a really complete portrait of a man, which seems to us high praise.
      -- The fish, he thinks, were eaten raw, which, to some extent, still is the custom of the Aleuts.
   Двойные союзы the . . . the. Перевод двойных союзов the. . . the -- чем . . . тем -- может представлять трудность потому, что по внешнему виду они совпадают с определенным артиклем the и могут довольно далеко отстоять один от другого. Отличительный признак конструкции в том, что за союзами следуют прилагательные или наречия в сравнительной степени, причем обе части предложения разделяются запятой.
   The more we read, the better we know the language. Чем больше мы читаем, тем лучше мы знаем язык.
   Иногда во второй части конструкции употребляется инверсия сказуемого:
   180
  
   The longer I looked at the picture the more did it appeal to me.
   Чем дольше я смотрел на картину, тем больше она привлекала меня.
   Возможно также отсутствие сказуемого в обеих частях конструкции или во второй ее части:.
   The nearer the winter the shorter the days. Чем ближе зима, тем короче дни.
   Упражнение
   2. Найдите двойные союзы the . . . the и относящиеся к ним прилагательные в сравнительной степени. Переведите предложения.
      -- The less frequently a word is used, the smaller the need for reducing its length.
      -- The more we read Shakespeare the more do we desire to read him, and the more do we unconsciously regard his work as the standard of all poetry.
      -- Engels wrote: ". . . The further men become removed from the animals, however, the more their effect on nature assumes the character of a premeditated, planned action, directed towards definite ends known in advance . .".
      -- The more precise we wish the analysis of frequency to be, the longer must be the duration of the tone to enable it to be determined.
      -- The further we go back into the earlier stages of Chinese, the easier it is to gather instances of interchange of function between these two parts of speech.
   Употребление двух разных предлогов к одному существительному одновременно. В том случае если два разных предлога одновременно относятся к одному существительному, части предложения, содержащие предлоги, разделяются запятой. (Эти части предложения всегда представляют собой однородные члены предложения). Кроме того, предлог отделяется запятой от существительного, к которому относится. Такая необычная пунктуация затрудняет перевод подобных конструкций. Например:
   After a second journey to, and stay in, France he returned to England once again in 1793.

181


   При переводе следует каждый предлог присоединять к существительному порознь, так что иногда существительное может быть повторено (или вместо него употреблено местоимение или наречие):
   После второй поездки во Францию и пребывания там (во Франции) он снова вернулся в Англию в 1793 году.
   Упражнение
   3. Переведите.
      -- The prose of the 19th century is, apart from fiction, mainly concerned with, and achieved its greatest success in, history and criticism.
      -- Soviet literature is at once a chronicler of, and an active participant in, life. The 1917 Revolution wrought great changes in the minds and hearts of Russian men of letters.
      -- The consciousness of their (Anglo-Saxons') origin •from and their strong links with the North-West Europeans
   (Germanic tribes) continued long in the new land.
   4. His style is good, resembling that of More; his constructions are occasionally cumbrous, and he sometimes overdoes the references to, and illustrations from, Latin and Greek history.
   Повторение трудностей синтаксиса Переведите.
      -- What the author really meant, and what he showed in his own work, was something quite different from what he actually stated.
      -- The number of possible sounds (in a language) runs into the hundreds, and probably, the thousands. No one language uses more than a small fraction of all these possible sounds, usually -- no fewer than twenty and no more than sixty. Even where two languages use what seems to be the same sound, there are almost always small differences that a trained ear can catch.
      -- Whatever subject comedy dealt with, its purpose was to expose and ridicule the follies and vices of what Johnson 10 called real men. That this was the end 11 of Johnson's comedies is made very clear throughout his work.
   10 Johnson -- Бен Джонсон (1574--1637), английский писатель и драматург, современник Шекспира, 11 end -- здесь: цель.
   182
  
      -- The vegetation of Japan is luxurious and as much of the land as is tillable responds splendidly to the efforts of the farmers.
      -- As interesting as Inge's l2 ideas and comments were, what he was as a human being was even more fascinating.
      -- We investigate where interest compels us to search, in the near decades of our youth, or among the inscrutable stone images of vanished races. The subject and the epoch of our labour are subjective choices, and all we shall find is how they appear to us.
      -- That translation as an interpretive art is a self- evident truth. Yet it is a paradox peculiar to the translator that he is the only interpretive artist working in a medium which is both identical with, and different from, that of the original he sets out to render in his own terms.
      -- What Greece and Rome have been to Europe, China has been to the nations of the Far East.
      -- Whether they were direct ancestors or not, the Australopithecine and other fossils at least show us that manlike animals could make and use tools before they reached the brain capacity of Modern Man.
  
      -- What we are interested in is whether there is a linkage, in the sense of selective affinity, between vowels and consonants, between vowels and vowels, and consonants and consonants.
      -- Where the text of the poems in this book differs from that of earlier printed versions, the change has been made at the author's request.
      -- In some continental European countries, there are language academies which practically legislate the language. . . Not that the Academies really want to halt the process of language change. They only want to turn it into what they consider desirable channels. But the Academy's view of what is a desirable channel and the view of the great body of speakers aren't always quite the same.
      -- Having defined what we mean by a culture area we may now return to the question of how far and in what way these areas are correlated with environment.
      -- In "Alice in Wonderland" (1865) Lewis Carrol reached the highest point of what may be called the "nonsense"
   Inge -- Инге, герой произведения.

183


   story, in which the most absurd things seem to be given for the moment almost the semblance of truth.
      -- Why the noble example set by Chaucer should not have been ably followed up or even developed in other directions it is difficult to tell.
      -- Human language is in some ways similar to, but in other ways vastly different from, other kinds of animal communications.
      -- Man lives in society, and acts together with his fellow-men. His whole mode of life is social. Therefore just as it is in his social activity that he enlarges his perceptions, so it is in his social activity that, starting from these perceptions, he begins to form ideas, to think and to develop his ideas.
      -- In comparative lexicology we constantly see how the things to be represented by words are grouped differently according to the whims of different languages, what is fused together in one being separated in another.
      -- Between 1400 and 1500 the final "e" which characterised so many Middle English words ceased to be pronounced. Where it occurred after a consonant preceded by a short vowel it was generally dropped; where it succeeded a consonant preceded by a long vowel, it was retained as a sign of vowel-length.
      -- The victory was rewarded with the honour of a full triumph:13 Marcellus was denied a triumph on the technical grounds that he was unable to withdraw his army from Sicily, and had to be content with an ovation.13 That Marcellus and his supporters felt that he had been unjustly treated is indicated by his celebration of an official triumph on the Alban hill.
   21. Older books (in the library) should receive fuller treatment, and in many libraries, the greater the age of the book, the more detail included on the appropriate catalogue entries.
      -- That many words which are separated in spelling are in reality compounds is also proved by the fact that they are grammatically treated as if they were single words.
      -- Material of significance belongs to two categories. The former must be studied by the philologists before it
   13 Триумф и овация -- виды празднования победы в Древнем
   Риме.
   184
  
   can be utilized by the historian; the latter must similarly pass through the hands of field archaeologists.
      -- On the forested plains of Northern Europe the hunters and fishers seem to have been still largely nomadic in Pre'Boreal times, to have shifted annually from summer to winter camps during the Boreal phase, but to have settled down in permanent encampments beside good fishing- grounds or oyster-beds in the Atlantic, at the same time improving their technique.
      -- The history of nature reflected bourgeois social relations no less than the theories it replaced had reflected feudal social relations. But just as the new bourgeois social relations broke the feudal fetters and enabled a great new development of the forces of production to begin, so the corresponding bourgeois theory of nature broke down the barriers which feudal ideas had placed in the way of scientific research and enabled a great new development of scientific research to begin.
   13 Т. Н. Мальчевская
  

СВОДНЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ПО ОСНОВНЫМ РАЗДЕЛАМ ГРАММАТИКИ

   Повторение страдательного залога и неличных форм глагола
   1. As before noticed, the work of Mr. Wells 1 as a true novelist must really be judged on the work of the period 1900--1909.
      -- A knowledge of literature is fostered in the United Kingdom by the schools, colleges and universities of the country, in all of which English literature is taught either as part of a general course or as a special subject.
      -- John, king of France, was taken prisoner in battle by Edward, the Black Prince, and brought to England. After remaining there in captivity four years, he was allowed to return to his own country.
      -- This tendency to stress nuances of meaning has presumably influenced and been influenced by, the tendency to revolt from a too "logical" conception of language, as mentioned at the beginning of Chapter 5.
      -- The principle laid down in the last few paragraphs is not unfrequently sinned against in grammatical literature.
      -- The author's imagination, steeped in the realms of medieval chivalry, is perfectly matched by his style, which is simple and effective.
      -- It would be absurd for people who can buy iron to continue the manufacture of implements of soft copper. As a matter of fact, its use was given up very soon, wherever intercourse with the whites became habitual.
      -- The great forces and objects of nature were given godlike qualities and the spirits of ancestors were worshipped,2
   1 Mr. Wells -- Герберт Уэлс (1866--1946).
   2 Речь идет о древнем периоде истории Японии.
   186
  
   especially those of the imperial house: religion came to be, in fact, very largely, the spirit and backbone of the royal power.
   9. It must of course be borne in mind that from around the end of the third century В. С. these cities had formed a part of the Roman Empire, and they had become to some degree affected by the intrusion of Roman elements in art and culture.
      -- The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to all the works listed in general bibliography and the chapter bibliographies, to which the student is referred for anything beyond the outline here offered.
      -- Another group that has usually been excluded is that of verbs compounded with prepositions of adverbial force. To have given these even a moderate representation would have increased far beyond the extent contemplated a book that does not aim at being a dictionary.
      -- Khlebnikov's friends were convinced that he should not be allowed to do his own proof-reading because he did not know how to read proofs.
      -- Modern English poets have been compelled to resort to imperfect forms of rhymes. In this they have been aided by the fact that spelling and pronounciation do not correspond, so that many words which do not rhyme look as if they rhymed.
      -- Judging from their primitive form these implements would seem to have served many various purposes, and in most cases to have been grasped in the hand, although it is very possible that some of them may have been fastened to a haft of wood or bark.
      -- To pass now from the outer form of words to their inner meaning, there is again so much that is common to all mankind, that we cannot be surprised to find a number of correspondencies between languages widely apart.
      -- In the view of this school then, pottery, which may be classed as a simple invention, may well3 have been invented several times in several places quite independently, and the wide distribution of the trait is to be accounted for, not as a result of diffusion from a single point of origin, but as due to spread from various independent centres.
   8 may well -- вполне возможно

13" 187


      -- In addition to the local and unimportant peculiarities to be found in the British Isles, many different dialects must be springing up in other parts of the world.
      -- The two centuries (1392--1603) that followed were not destined to be peaceful. The habit of disorder had become too firmly fixed during the years of civil strife to be quickly overcome.
      -- The Classical Scholar will appreciate that the civilization, reputed to have furnished Greece with many myths, was very ancient and very real.
      -- In this way the conception of nature is dominated by the conception of the machine. This domination of the machine over the people who make it, who thereby fail to understand the nature of their own handiwork, has long been manifest in bourgeois science.
      -- Burns is one of the world's greatest lyrical poets, and his work in other directions is very little inferior to his lyrical efforts. He began as a love poet, and to a certain extent always remained so, but mankind and nature seem to have interested him greatly, and caused him to write many beautiful poems.
      -- Richard the Hunchback was a bad character. It is claimed that he not only murdered Henry VI while he was a captive, but had his own brother, Clarence, who was imprisoned by Edward IV for conspiracy and died mysteriously, drowned in a butt of malmsey.
      -- In case it should be wondered what purpose is served by such an analysis, it may be mentioned that the two investigations just mentioned result in a vindication of the law of frequency first propounded by J. B. Estorp in 1916, but nowadays more usually known as Zipf's law, which is of fundamental importance when the detailed construction of machine dictionaries is considered.
      -- The central shelf of a special kind of cupboard was used for service and the top displayed silver or pewter likely to be used during the meal.
      -- The Sultana, the daughter of the Emir Shake was received with royal honours at Constantinople, where she was to remain till a message should come from her husband stating where he wished her to join him.
      -- In the case of this novel, dealing as it does with events of an age already long past, the writer may have felt that a certain archaism was not inappropriate.
   188
  
      -- There are a number of words found in the most ancient texts which have been claimed as loans from other languages, and these are of peculiar interest, affecting as they do the most fundamental part of the vocabulary and not likely to be again disused with a change of the interests of the people.
      -- These Arabs believed Aristotle's works to have represented a complete codification of Greek philosophical lore, as Galen's * represented Greek medical lore.
      -- And it is quite certain that when, in the first and fifth acts, Shakespeare makes trumpet-blasts and the firing of cannon accompany the healths which are drunk, he must have known that this was a specially Danish custom, and have tried to give his play local colour by introducing it.
      -- The first business of grammar as of every other science, is to observe the facts and phenomena with which it has to deal; and to classify and state them methodically.
      -- But some credit, too, must be given to the Byzantines 5 that accompanied the expedition whose experience in fighting the Turks enabled them to give good advice, and without whose guidance the route across Asia Minor could never have been traced.
      -- The interest taken in the past is shown also by the publication of James Macpherson's 6 Ossian which was supposed to be a translation of some Gaelic epic poems, the manuscripts of which the writer alleged he had found.
      -- Therefore, once the Roman conquerors had glutted their first rage for plunder, their main effort was to induce their Western subjects to assimilate Latin life in all its aspects.
      -- The object of this little book is to explain by examples how the different parts of speech are used and to show from their uses how they should be defined.
      -- Finally, we must refer to the assistance to be derived from the study of the oldest poetry. All Chinese poetry is rhymed, blank verse being quite unknown in the language.
      -- To begin with, dialectal varieties are as numerous in Tuscany as anywhere else in the Peninsula,7 and while
   4 Galen -- Гален (131--200 н. э.), знаменитый римский врач. 5 Byzantines -- византийцы.
   6 Macpherson -- Джеймс Макферсон (1736--1796), шотландский поэт.
   7 Peninsula -- имеется в виду Аппенинский полуостров.

189


   the divergence between any one of these (Florentine, Luccan, and so forth) and the standard language is less noticeable than is the case with the dialects of most other regions, nevertheless the literary tongue cannot be said to coincide precisely with any one of the Tuscan varieties.
      -- This, however, does not seem to me to invalidate the general truth of the theory as here explained.
      -- The system followed in indicating the source whence a passage has been taken will, I think, be found sufficiently exact without taking much space.
      -- The attempt is sometimes made to fix laws or rules for correct English in disregard of the fact that language changes, and that the standard of correct expression cannot be made to depend entirely on the use of an earlier time.
      -- Of all European nations only the Dutch were allowed to continue to send ships to Japan. They were more interested in the profits to be made from the trade than in the spread of their Protestant faith.
      -- All the principal species of animals now raised for food seem to have been domesticated already in the Near East and Europe by societies still in the neolithic stage.
      -- It is natural, therefore, that the spread of the English language to distant parts of the world should have been accompanied by linguistic changes resulting in the development of new dialects.
      -- The principle laid down in the last few paragraphs is not unfrequently sinned against in grammatical literature.
      -- These migrations are known to us from linguistic evidence, not historical, but -- except in details -- they are not less certain for that. They are arrived at by the simple but yet perfectly sound process of plotting the present location of languages, proved to be descended from Indo- European, and then surmising what migrations and what point of origin could best account for the present distribution of the languages of the Indo-European family.
      -- The description of Kaingang phonemes is to be published in a separate paper. Only a few details of the phonemic structure which are particularly relevant to the discussion of syllable structure are dealt with here.
      -- From the various indications it may be gathered that this industry was distributed throughout the deposit
   190
  
   of sand -- not uniformly, however, but in several strata, separated from each other by sterile layers. The same seems to have been the case with the fauna, which consists of stag, wild ox, and horse.
      -- As will bo clear by now, true alphabetic writing consists in having a sign for each sound (technically each phoneme) of the language rather than one for each word or for each syllable.
      -- In the three years or so, eleven of Shaw's plays had been given a total of 701 performances. Among them was the first of his masterpieces, "Man and Superman", the third act of which contains the earliest statement of what he afterwards came to call his religion of Creative Evolution, the main theme of his life-work.
      -- Care must be taken, when studying British statistics to note whether they refer to England as defined above, to England and Wales (considered together for many administrative and other purposes), to Great Britain, which comprises England, Wales and Scotland, or the United Kingdom as a whole.
      -- The letter "u" in French is given a sound that does not quite correspond to any sound we use in English words.
      -- A word to be yours must be learnt by you, and possessing it means reproducing it.
   52. When a book is greatly admired and often read, the language in which it is written is likely to be imitated to some extent by those who read it.
      -- Later we find Shakespeare using this style in prose dialogue.
      -- Taken in their literal sense these terms are either meaningless or at best apply to nothing.
      -- The Ainus 8 are spoken of as living in primitive conditions, but "primitive" here may mean merely that, dwelling in remote and unfrequented districts, they preserve ancient customs and social organization quite different from those familiar to us.
      -- This, however, does not seem to me to invalidate the general truth of the theory as here explained.
   57. It may not be out of place if I give some account of corresponding productions of the former inhabitants of
   8 Ainus -- айны, неродственная японцам народность, населяющая некоторые острова Японии.

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   this country, who seem, however, to have preferred in similar imitations the plastic to the graphic mode of execution, all specimens to which I can refer being either pipes, or simply representations in stone or shell, or clay vessels of a fish-form.
      -- This specimen appears to be very old, its surface being much corroded and bleached by exposure.
      -- In 1956 an Anglo-Saxon site at Yeavering, Northumberland on being excavated revealed a township with four halls each nearly a hundred feet long, two of them having a porch at both ends. Another building appears to have been a pagan temple.
      -- Between 4000 and 3000 В. С. some society or societies in Hither Asia made the further discovery that copper is fusible: it becomes liquid when heated and can then be made to assume any desired shape, but on cooling it recovers all the desirable properties of a superior stone. Metallurgy may be said to begin with this discovery.
      -- The poem was to have consisted of twelve books, each telling of the adventures of a knight, who should represent a certain virtue.
      -- There being neither a stream, nor a river, he had to keep the vegetable beds moist and prevent the sun from burning up the crops.
      -- Thirty of the sixty thin volumes of which this work consists are assigned to Japanese stories, the remainder containing tales of Chinese or Indian origin.
      -- There has hitherto been no such thing as a real English Grammar. We shall, however, no longer wonder at this circumstance, when we recollect that the Latin grammar was regularly taught in schools several centuries before any attempt was made to introduce the study of the mother tongue: and that even since some attention has been paid to this latter, the study of learned languages still having precedence, our first notions of grammar are necessarily derived from them.
      -- In printed form, catalogues or lists can be circulated to the staff and those interested, while in those libraries where discarding is rarely, if ever, resorted to, they frequently indicate the whereabouts of rare material.
      -- In this play a priest appears, and informs the audience that he is about to consecrate a new bell for his temple, the former having been long ago removed.
      --
      -- In the Scottish capital Burns was enthusiastically received, this reception perhaps giving him hopes which were later to be disappointed.
      -- The cultural layers and relics such as bricks, coins and other remains found in the vicinity, enabled us to identify the drainage system as having been constructed at the latest during the Chin Dynasty.9
      -- What I mean is that every one of the factors is liable to mislead; exceptions have been noted to every conclusion. I don't want to go into purely technical details, but I may say that this case is similar to most in that the results arrived at are at a compromise of slightly conflicting factors.
      -- Latin studied in the schools in the 16 and 17 centuries exerted a powerful influence. Later, however, the emphasis came to be misplaced. Latin came to be understood as an end in itself, its real value was lost sight of.
      -- There is no extant relic of this original tongue, which is generally called Aryan.10 It is no more than a theoretic conception. But, having been reached, the conception is useful; for it enables English to be regarded as a speech which has had an uninterrupted history from a time when it was one with Greek and Latin and Celtic and Slavonic and Sanskrit. Growing by slow degrees less and less like them, and receiving in later ages fresh influences from them, it has become so different from them that the similarities are now hard to detect.
      -- That morning we had a first view of Polperro, one of the quaintest and picturesque villages I have ever seen. Built on a rocky and steep valley, its houses push each. other down along narrow streets to the sea with its boats and fishermen and screaming gulls.
      -- The evidence, such as it is, seems to show that urban life, as understood by the Romans, disappeared; in other words, the decay of the towns, which had begun long before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons, now became complete.
   74. Generally speaking, the medieval school libraries in London have been neglected to a considerable extent.
   9 Chin Dynasty -- династия Цин, китайская династия, царствовавшая с 1664 по 1842 г.
   10 Aryan -- индоевропейский праязык.

193


   In many cases, there has been no librarian, except perhaps an honorary one, he being a member of the teaching staff, and the books have been dealt with in a fashion not deemed likely to make the collection as valuable to staff or students as it might be.
      -- There are, indeed, many concrete instances of culture contacts between Byzantium and Persia: there was a very active trade between the two empires, and so far as art was concerned there seems to have been an almost uninterrupted give and take 11 between them, Byzantine influence in Persia being well-nigh as important as Persian influence in Byzantium.
      -- The number of words borrowed from foreign languages now surpasses the number of native words, and in place of the complicated system of inflexions possessed by Old English, Modern English has very few inflexions, the relations of words to one another in the sentence being indicated by other means.
      -- If a word refers to some person or thing without giving a name to the person or thing referred to, the word is a pronoun.
      -- Conditions of the time led to the need for quicker communication between the towns, and this naturally led also to the literature being spread more quickly than would have been possible before.
      -- Exeter, the ancient capital of Devonshire, is a lovely city, proud of being the only English town that has been lived in continuously since the time of the Romans.
      -- Our eighth chapter is devoted to seeing the way in which classification corresponds to the geologic divisions of Pleistocene time.
      -- The reaction against the monotony, the baseness of life in capitalist society of the nineteenth century prevented the novelist from understanding and mastering some of the most interesting aspects of human life in the century.
      -- Aided by his two famous lieutenants, he succeeded in bringing most of this tribe into subjection, and even deposed the Shogun,12 although he was prevented by his descent from assuming this title himself.
   11 give and take -- здесь: обмен.
   l2 Shogun -- Шогун (Тайкун), титул первого королевского вассала во времена японского феодализма.
   194
  
      -- We cannot keep dividing matter without reaching the stage when further subdivision is impossible.
      -- The defects of pronunciation come, without any doubt, from a faulty imitation of the speech of the people around them, partly under the influence of the foreign languages spoken by their parents which through them has affected their children. That this is the case is seen by the fact that the young generation, even where there is no mixture of races succeeds in imitating the language of the country without being affected in the least by their parents' speech.
      -- Unfortunately, however, the changed plan has entailed some small inconsistencies and obliged me to include in this volume some material that would have been better placed elsewhere, and I have thus been precluded from showing my own system to the best advantage.
      -- To apply their discovery (the technique of making pottery) to the production of vessels these neolithic societies had also to learn the delicate and laborious processes of preparing the clay, building up the vessels slowly by hand, drying them, and finally firing them. Soviet experts have recently examined the finger-prints left by neolithic potters on their vessels; all belonged to women. Hence we may infer that pot-making in the Stone Age was a female craft.
      -- Man alone has succeeded in impressing his stamp on nature, not only by shifting the plant and animal world from one place to another, but also by so altering the aspect and climate of his dwelling place, and even plants and animals themselves, that the consequences of his activity can disappear only with the general extinction of the terrestrial globe.
      -- The book presents an enormous amount of painstaking work; one cannot but feel regret that shortcomings in material available and in theory applied prevented the work from becoming a successful enterprise.
      -- In presenting the above facts I have had in mind letting the non-assyrologist know what a change the discovery of a few tablets in the Amorite land13 has brought about.
   13 Amorite land -- страна Аморетов.

195


      -- Tools of this kind are generally called hand-axes- rather unhappily, since they are ill-adapted for chopping. Indeed, no one knows precisely what they were used for; they might serve for cutting, scrapping, digging, or even throwing. Actually they may have served a number of purposes, like the sailor's pocket-knife. Hence they were not specialized tools.
      -- When in 1640 the Portuguese tried to resume trading (with Japan), their messengers were beheaded. To make certain that no disturbing influences would invade the empire, all Japanese were forbidden to leave the country and any one who succeeded in doing so was to be executed on his return.
      -- That great adventurer-pirate, admiral, call him what you will -- Sir John Hawkins, kept up the Elizabethan tradition by raiding the Guinea Coast, robbing the Portuguese ships of their slaves, and then trading them in the Spanish possessions in the New World in 1562--1563. For this episode, and similar ones, he gained the approval of the Queen, having the doubtful honour of a coat of arms 14 being granted which featured a chained Negro as his crest.
      -- Spanish alone (in Spain and America) is spoken by a far larger number of people than Latin was when the Roman Empire ruled the world, and the same is the case both with French and Italian. There is indeed -- at any rate over great parts of the globe -- an enormous tendency towards one and the same language being spoken by a far larger population than at any earlier time in the world's history.
      -- In fine, why did the ancient society, having reached a certain point, stop short in its tracks, and then begin to decay instead of advancing towards a fuller democracy based on an increasing mastery over the forces of nature?
      -- In the hope of averting these disasters and saving his people, the reigning king had his son taken away and shut up in a cave.
   96. Historical and comparative grammar content themselves with tracing the phenomena of a language -- or of a group or family of cognate languages -- as far back as possible, without attempting to explain the origin of the oldest forms thus arrived at.
   14 coat of arms -- герб. 196
  
      -- Of late years some geologists have declared themselves in favour of admitting the existence of three glacial stages, basing their theory on weighty arguments, inasmuch as an equipment of the Gunz Glacial Stage would seem to be lacking in Northern Germany.
      -- Pleistocene was short, as geological periods go, and it was also peculiar in having great changes in climate.
      -- The use of the Chinese written characters which required a different sign for each word, was made easier by introducing signs for syllables. This reduced the total number of characters to be learned and helped to make the written language conform more nearly to everyday speech than it had in its purely Chinese dress.
  
      -- The wooded hills, the infinite variety of mountain valley, of lake and harbour and sea, could not have failed to develop in some of these people a sense of the artistic.
      -- To prevent the soil from being seized again by a few land-owners and to allow for the growth of population, a redistribution of the fields was to take place every six years.
      -- The end of the Roman Empire in Britain, as elsewhere, was accompanied by catastrophe and followed by darkness, but the collapse of classical civilization was more like the slow sinking of the soil before the advance of the sea than sudden calamity through fire or earthquake.
      -- For the modern linguist, therefore, the achievement of his ultimate objective would consist in being able to answer all questions that could be asked about language as general concept, or about any particular concept.
      -- The rites (in ancient Greece) consisted not in acts performed by the mistae, as modern scholars would have us believe, but in the seeing by mystae of something that was shown to them.
      -- A difference of function will frequently cause a difference of sound to develop, and a difference of meaning sometimes has the same effect.
      -- No one who has read any play of his (Shakespeare's) can fail to be impressed with the beauty of his expression, or the musical harmony of his verse.
      -- The individuality which characterises any tongue may be said to consist of those general features which distinguish it from other tongues and those contradictions of its own general rules which we call anomalous forms.

197


      -- Like Heine in the German Romantic movement, Musset may be said to represent the final phase of the French Romantic movement.
      -- Some scholars like Henry Sweet and Otto Jespersen had seen that the fact that people speak in order to communicate, cannot help influencing the nature and evolution of speech sounds.
      -- As there are so many references in this chapter to Latin, and as the paramount importance of studying Latin has been and is so strenuously asserted by its partisans and denied by its opponents, it may be worth while to summarize here the effects that the study of Latin may reasonably be expected to have upon English.
      -- It has been found impossible, in practice, to grant admission to these collections indiscriminately. Situated as it is in the centre of London and attached to a world-famous collection of antiquities the danger of being completely overrun by chance inquiries of a trivial nature is so great that admission has had to be restricted to those who need to consult books not elsewhere available.
      -- The excavation thus produced reached about eight feet downward, and the mass was found to consist throughout that depth of shells, sand and pebble.
      -- The standards of the theatre throughout the nineteenth century had caused the word "theatrical" to be applied to behaviour and surroundings bearing no resemblance to ordinary people's experience of life. In the plays produced during the Court Theatre season a determined and successful effort was made to close the gap between life and the theatre; and although the example then set has often since been ignored, the British stage has never sunk back entirely into former artificial ways.

Повторение страдательного залога, неличных форм глагола, сослагательного наклонения и условных предложений

   114. Still enough evidence is at hand to support a surmise that the South American languages are of a structure similar to that of the North American ones, and that there is a possibility of some day proving all of them to be related.
   115. Over most of England the average peasant had to stay where he was, do what he was told, and work for
   198
  
   others as well as for himself, since otherwise the feudal contract could not be fulfilled by his social superiors. The dependency was, in a real sense, mutual. If the social system were not to break down, someone, or rather, some one class, had to provide the labour from which the fighting man could be maintained.
      -- His (Defoe's) purpose was to tell a story in a practical manner, clearly, simply, so that every character and every incident should appear perfectly natural.
      -- It is somewhat fortunate that the word had been left untranslated by all except in the instances referred to, for if it had been construed as belonging to the root mentioned, it doubtless would have been listed as a Babylonian word.
      -- Monistic, holistic, and relativistic views of reality appeal to philosophers and some scientists, but they are badly handicapped in appealing to the "common sense" of the Western average man -- not because nature herself refutes them (if she did, philosophers could have discovered this much), but because they must be talked about in what amounts to a new language.
      -- Should a reader wish to have books reserved for a longer period than this (2 days), permission must be obtained from the Superintendent of the Reading Room, but it is unusual for permission to be withheld.
      -- The fact that the principal poets, Read being one, of a single generation (Yeats only in respect of the year of his birth belonging to a previous generation) should write so much criticism in proportion to their poetry raises a problem whose solution would go far to an understanding of the generation in question, as well as of the poets of that age.
   121. This method was admirably adapted to the principles of the Moscow Art Theatre, which aimed at creating a cast where there would be no stars but all the actors would be equally excellent.
      -- It seems likely that but for a certain lucky linguistic accident, man would never have discovered the alphabetic principle of writing. Had that been the case, the history of mankind would certainly have been very, very different.
      -- My chief object in writing this chapter has been to make the reader realize that language is not exactly

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   what one-sided occupation with dictionaries and the usual grammars might lead us to think, but a set of habits, of habitual actions, and that each word and each sentence spoken is a complex action on the part of the speaker.
      -- Anyone who seeks to learn the fundamental principles of language should master at least one of this type (Finno-Ugric or Altaic).
      -- Some upper palaeolithic tools seem already intended for wood-working. Without these new tools the improved hunting and fishing tackle described on p. 45 and the snug houses to be mentioned on p. 45 would have been inconceivable.
      -- Goethe describes in "Dichtung und Wahrheit" 15 how in his youth he would wake up in the middle of the night, jump out of bed and without sitting down at his desk scribble across a piece of paper a poem that had just come into his head, having had the experience that even a little delay might obliterate it from the excited "tablets of his mind".
      -- If a translator finds himself forced to omit something, he may be excused if he offers something else in its place, as if he were a merchant who, having promised to deliver a specified weight of a commodity, has failed to do so and must make amends by the gift of an unexpected bonus.
      -- The author here would in all probability have been more successful if he had put his stories into the form of the novel.
      -- It was remarkable, and must have seemed ironical to himself (to Oscar Wilde), that a man, so much talked of should have found no reward for his gifts except a succession of invitations to dinner.
      -- In the shadowy beginnings of human life on earth, primitive men here and there must have had knowledge of the sinking of an island or a peninsula well within the time one man could observe. The witnesses of such a happening would have described it to their neighbours and children, and so the legend of a sinking continent might have been born.
      -- Although it was natural, it was none the less disastrous that the earliest writers of textbooks of English
   15 "Dichtung und Wahrheit" -- "Поэзия и правда", автобиографическое произведение Гёте
   200
  
   grammar should take as their models the grammars of the Latin tongue.
      -- Nobody in the world knows that desolate area like those people, and it is certain that if it had not been for them the Dead Sea Scrolls would still have remained undiscovered.
      -- Since my activity, throughout my scholarly life, has been largely devoted to the rapproachment of these two disciplines, I may be forgiven if I preface my remarks with an autobiographic sketch of my first academic experience.
      -- In this connection attention may again be called to the statements of Roman grammarians and writers. The inference to be drawn from their testimony would seem to be that Roman Latin had become the standard, normal speech of all Italy and that after the first century A. D. no reference was made to local accents or dialectal variations because none perceptibly continued to exist.

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   135. It was during the reign of Theodosios I, the Great, 379--395, that the Olympic games were held at Constantinople (393), a number of antique monuments being brought to adorn the capital in honour of the occasion.
      -- It was during the time when Latin was spoken, however, that the first modifications had to be made in the alphabet.
      -- Opponents of the Censorship complained that plays in which serious problems were seriously discussed were refused a licence by the Censor, whereas frivolous plays received official approval, however debasing they might be to public taste and morality.
      -- There is a strong probability that it was the ancient Egyptians who first hit on the alphabetic principle; but we cannot prove it for we cannot show that all or even a majority of the characters which ultimately became the alphabet we know were used in Egyptian texts of any period.
      -- A little reflection will show that to the theory, thus boldly stated, there are many objections. No account
   14 Т. Н Мальчевская 201
  
   is taken of imagination, which must necessarily play an important part in the highest forms of poetry; nor again is there any place for the subjective element -- the innermost feelings of the individual poet which must find expression in all real poetry.
      -- We know that Egypt established shrines to Amen in Palestine, and that they disappeared without leaving a trace. It is not impossible that the Babylonians may have attempted to do a similar thing.
      -- Engels points out that labour, even of the most primitive kind, as in the fashioning and use of hunting and fishing implements, makes men perceive things with a new interest, enlarges their perceptions, "widens their horizon", makes them aware through their practical activity and from their perceptions of ever more properties of natural objects. And indeed, from these first beginnings, it has always been through their advancing mastery over nature that succeeding generations of men have come to know more and more of the properties of natural objects: each stage of advance has meant enlarged perceptions, new discoveries, wider horizons.
      -- The discovery that words are arbitrary or conventional signs was an important discovery in science, obvious as it may seem. For it used often to be believed -- and some people still believe it today -- that a particular word is in some mysterious way "the right word" for a particular thing.
      -- The modern novel, whatever its quality and degree of success, certainly accepts a naturalistic point of view, at least as a starting-point. The reader is invited to see the novelist's picture of life as though it were actually happening in the real world.
      -- It has been argued, indeed, that Shakespeare must himself have been in Italy and Scotland, that he painted from the life, from personal observation and memory. Probably, however, he was never out of England, nor need we assume other resources than his all-embracing sympathy and imagination which enabled him to realize and harmonize into a vivid whole the miscellaneous information that could be derived from books and association with travellers.
      -- If the Egyptians did indeed fail, after three thousand years, to discover the principle of alphabetic writing,
   202
  
   it is striking evidence that man might never have had this art except for the lucky accident which we shall now proceed to describe.
      -- The long awaited revenge did not indeed take place until sixty years after the event, when not only were the treaties themselves destroyed, but also sets of ivory panels which must once have adorned the king's throne and illustrated the men of Iran bringing in their vassal tribute to the king of Assyria.
      -- Throughout the long period from the fourth to the fourteenth century mosaics were the things of primary importance, and it is to them that the highest place must be assigned in a study of Byzantine art, just as it is to sculpture in ancient Greece and to panel painting in Renaissance Italy that the student turns when in search of the characteristic and most accomplished art.
      -- This book is not and could not possibly be a thorough coverage of the whole field -- often volumes of information are available on topics treated only briefly here -- but it does give a quick survey of general principles relating to nearly all aspects of the subject.
      -- Interesting as is the matter of the History and Essays, it is the style in which they are written that gives them so high a place in literature.
      -- Important as this chapter was, it nevertheless describes a different kind of institution, and is not strictly comparable with the others.
      -- Karlgren made the assumption that those two characters had at the time of their invention the same, or nearly the same, sound, however much they may have come to differ in any modern dialect.
      -- In studying the works of the early Renaissance sculptors it is important to remember that they at least had before their eyes tangible examples of the very work they admired, whereas the painters anxious though they were to link themselves with the Greecoroman past, had no models of Greek or Roman painting to refer to.
      -- To the south, however, the inhabitants of the Guinea Coast, protected as they were by dense forests to the north, and by the Atlantic Ocean to the South and West, had not been affected by the contact with the outer world for hundreds -- perhaps thousands -- of years, until discovered by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century.

14* 203


      -- The German language, for instance, is supposed to be not unlike English, and word for word there are many resemblances.
      -- "The Tatler" was superseded in 1711 by "The Spectator",16 and it is in the articles published in this periodical that Addison's work shows at its best.
      -- The language develops slowly through a number of epochs, by modifying its vocabulary and grammar. It develops without undergoing sudden and revolutionary changes. The views expressed in language, on the other hand do undergo fundamental changes.
      -- The facts do tell us this: here is a man whose birth and upbringing took place on a farm. Thus his childhood was passed in a way of life that even then was no longer representative of most childhoods. Read, in being reared in the remote countryside is one of the diminishing few who came to know a traditional England that has now died.
      -- We have no other way of finding out about the world -- that is of gaining knowledge -- than through the exercise of our senses. Nor can our senses be so constituted as always or even usually to deceive us. If they were, we would not be able to live at all.
      -- Another earthenware jug, shaped like an egg, was 54 cm high, had a capacity of 150 kg, but was only 13 cm in diameter at the mouth, which made it easy to seal. It could have been in such a container that, as records have it, the emperor sent wine when feasting soldiers after a victorious expedition.
      -- Whatever the results of thought which are to be expressed, and whatever language they are expressed in, they must satisfy the basic requirements of the reflection of reality in thought.
      -- It is not improbable that at one time Borneo was inhabited by people of the negrito race, small remnants of which are still to be found in islands adjacent to all the coasts of Borneo as well as in Malay Peninsula.
      -- Vast as the continent of Asia is, it is not nearly as congested linguistically as Europe or Africa (or even the Caucasus), for large stretches are sparsely populated.
   16 "The Tatler", "The Spectator" -- название еженедельных журналов, издаваемых Аддисоном (1672--1719).
   204
  
   163. This study shares a fault not uncommon in recent Italian scholarly publication, of blowing up an article or monograph into a book ranging far afield from the central theme.
      -- Included in the "Plays Pleasant" 17 was what is probably the authors's greatest literary success. This is the play "Candida" which reaches a high level in technique and character-drawing, and is also very direct in the lesson it is meant to teach.
      -- Whether this was the same combat between winter and summer which is found later in European folklore, as some scholars think, I dare not say. But it may not be useless to observe that two of the highest achievements of the Greek spirit, the drama and bucolic poetry, have their origin in simple rural customs.
      -- Remains of bouses of the half-underground type, afterwards so universal, appear only in the middle stratum, showing that not until then had the population so multiplied and mutual confidence sufficiently matured, for the more ancient, temporary, above-ground houses to begin to be supplanted by more substantial and comfortable structures.
      -- His character (Carlyle's) 18 was not an amiable one; he was intensely egotistic, often selfish and petty; and these qualities could not fail to affect his work. To them must be ascribed his occasional lapse from fairness in criticism, his peculiarly distorted views on certain subjects, his whims and fads, and his offensive way of speaking to those whom he considered narrow-minded.
      -- The painters seem to have constituted a school, working under the direction of a single master. The differences of style in the models that were followed also had a role to play, and it is for that reason that each of the eight painters does not seem to show complete uniformity in his work.
      -- With the decline of classical Latin of literature and the increasingly greater vulgarization of the popular standardized Latin of the lower classes of the Empire there was also the beginning of the normal process of division
   17 "Plays Pleasant" -- сборник пьес Бернарда Шоу (1856-- 1950).
   18 Carlyle -- Томас Карлейль (1795--1881), английский философ и историк.

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   brought about by more difficult communications, decline of trade, and the increasing tendency for each community to become economically self-sufficient. This process can, and normally does, continue ad iufinitum 19 until each village develops its own local peculiarities of speech; and this condition is well exemplified in Italy, where the standardized Latin of Imperial times gave rise to a multitude of local speeches.
      -- In the first month of the following year, reminded of the previous spring by the flowering of the plum-trees before his house, he went to the Western Pavilion, and stood there gazing. But gaze as he might, there was to his mind no resemblance to the scene of the year before.
      -- Here we find a condition that causes a considerable waste and which could have been avoided by a better selection of words.
      -- It might be thought that this second set of principles is as general as the first. Such is not the case, e.g. the ideas of singular and plural as exhaustive categories are not common to all languages: Greek and Gothic have three numbers: Singular, Dual and Plural.
      -- However important the role of Rome may have been in developing the use of vault, arch and dome in imperial days, the initiative had passed from Italy by the fifth century, and it was in Asia Minor and Constantinople that the vaulted basilics and the domed structures saw their full development as Christian buildings.

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      -- Chaucer's outlook on life was certainly narrower than Shakespeare's; he would have been unable to realize, much less to describe, the awful tragedy of the life of Lear or Othello. But what he has seen he describes perfectly and vividly.
      -- In the past few decades much serious and effective work has been done by American linguists in order to produce scientific descriptions of the still-spoken Amerindian languages (as they are sometimes called). This work is
   19 ad infinitum -- бесконечно, постоянно. 206
  
   the more important since some of the communities in question appear to face extinction in the near future.
      -- That such a vast area should have bread many different peoples each with its own language, customs and religious observances is only natural.
      -- Once an abstract idea is formed and embodied in words, then the possibility arises that these words will be taken to refer to special kinds of objects which exist apart from the objects of material world which are reflected in sense-perceptions. And this possibility is the more apt to be realized, the more the handling of abstract ideas becomes a special social activity separated from material labour.
      -- And it is precisely here that the comedies of Johnson and Shakespeare differ most profoundly; for whatever labels we apply to them, whatever the general nature of their materials, whatever their connections with classical or Renaissance concepts of comedy, these plays differ most significantly in that they dramatize two different responses to the human situation.
      -- As interesting as Inge's ideas and comments were, what he was as a human being was even more fascinating.
      -- Whether this conviction was independently reached by him we do not know. We do know that some time during 1924 there came to his attention a book which could have buttressed his beliefs, and which at any rate drew him closer to linguistics.
      -- But exactly how much this influence was exerted and how important was its role will only be disclosed when further first-hand researches have been concluded in Asia Minor.
      -- The semantic difficulties of our topic are troublesome, and no ready relief seems possible beyond constant attention to how terms are used in their contexts, especially to their polar oppositions.
      -- In some continental European countries, there are language Academies which practically legislate the language. Not that the Academies really want to halt the process of language change. They only want to turn it into what they consider desirable channels. But the Academy's view of what is a desirable channel and the view of the great body of speakers aren't always quite the same.

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      -- From etymology we learn that the Gauls whom Caesar fought wore clan tartans, as do their modern descendants.
      -- After 1500 В. С. presumably as the result of the development of mining, metal became commoner everywhere. Even barbarians could now afford to provide carpenters and smiths with bronze tools. In the civilized Orient bronze hoe-blades and sickles became commoner. Even so, bronze never replaced stone in the way iron did.
      -- It should be remembered, too, that it was a Dane, King Knut, who achieved what every English ruler had failed to achieve, the union of the whole of England into one peaceful realm.
      -- Much of the material the biographer ought to consult, moreover, is widely dispersed or difficult to access. As the result of this, for a long while the amount of reputable criticism was small.
   Примеры, содержащие лексические трудности
   188. So far as biblical or ecclesiastical books were concerned, bound books were far more common, and as often as not the more important ones were elaborately illustrated.
      -- This Mr. B. was of much assistance to me. A very interesting, all-round man I found him. I should say his like was not easily to be found in any country.
      -- From time to time one reads, in the correspondence columns of newspapers and magazines, letters which lay objections against words containing parts derived from different languages.
      -- This does not imply that hunting by means of traps and pitfalls fell into disuse.
      -- The Greeks took it for granted that back of language was a universal, uncontaminated essence of reason, shared by all men, at least by all thinkers. Words, they believed, were but the medium in which this deeper effulgence found expression.
      -- It must be pointed out that no one belongs exclusively to his family. Every single member of the circle also comes in contact with many people outside it. This
   208
  
   is especially the case when life is as varied and as many-sided as it is today.
      -- That similarity all but passed unnoticed, even though it deserves detailed attention.
      -- Unlike the surface waters (of the ocean), which know day and night, and change as the seasons change, the deep waters are a place where change comes slowly, if at all.
      -- The only psychological term I know of that expresses connection between ideas is "association", but this has quite a definite meaning and one that will not do for the meaning that I have in mind.
      -- There is little point in providing a classified catalogue unless it conforms with the scheme in use for the books.
      -- The chapter-end references include the more comprehensive publications dealing with the subject matter of the chapter in question and are carefully selected for supplementary reading.
      -- Crabbe's 20 poems mainly had to do with the lives of the poor; their joys, their sorrows, and their crimes.
      -- As for the authors, their name is legion. Among them, however, two poets stand out with some degree of eminence -- viz., Hitomare and Akahito. The former flourished at the end of the seventh century, the latter in the reign of Shomu (724--756). Little is known of either further than they were officials of the Mikado's court.
      -- The modern science of etymology has shown what is and what is not possible, has established many a relationship and destroyed many an ancient illusion.
      -- Of lesser imaginary beings, the most unique are the thunderbird and the plumed or horned serpent. The former is widely distributed in the United States, the latter is found from Chile to Lake Superior.
      -- Of much longer duration was the activity of those volcanoes which gave rise to the numerous craters and masses of basaltic rock.
      -- Unlike the language in which they are expressed, the views of society are products of a particular system of production relations, of particular classes.
   20 Crabbe George -- Джордж Крэб (1754--1832), английский поэт-романтик.

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      -- In the present case I have criticized the theories of others because I believed it to be demonstrable that they were false, and because, although some of them have been proclaimed loudly and with a certain intolerance, there has hardly been a voice raised to call them in question and to present the other side.
      -- Aristotle, for all his mastery in the sphere of scientific observational method, remained politically identified with an obsolescent environment.
      -- A purely literary and aesthetic use of stylistics limits it to the study of a work of art or a group of works which are to be described in terms of their aesthetic function and meaning. Only if this aesthetic interest is central will stylistics be a part of literary scholarship.
      -- Views as to the actual date of the manuscript varied; the seventh century was the most usually favoured, but it was generally agreed that the illustrations must have followed an archetype perhaps as early as the 2d century.
      -- So great was the practical value of Latin that it continued in use as a literary language until medieval times, a language well able to meet all the demands made upon it.
      -- Traces of tamed hog are almost entirely wanting in the old settlements of the Stone Age.
      -- For all the differences between the modes and conditions of life of the shepherds and peasants in the interior, the miners in the South-West, and the clerks, workers and students in Cagliary, all Sardinians are equally concerned for Sardinia's plight.
      -- The whole piece rarely occupies more than six or seven pages of print, and it usually takes less than an hour to perform. Within this narrow compass it might be expected that the unities of time, place and action would have been observed. This is far from bei