Аннотация: Экзаменационный реферат по английскомц языку. Сделан мной от и до. Чем и горжусь. Тема, соответственно, - килты.
Министерство высшего и среднего
МОУ "гимназия "Аврора"
по дисциплине: английский язык
по теме: Scottish kilts
выполнил: ученица 11 класса
проверил: учитель английского языка
Белоконь А. Л.
"A man in a kilt is one and a half of a man" - the Scottish proverb tells us.
Who wears kilts nowadays? Scottish warriors and cartoon characters, famous actors and rock stars, Irish dancers and people who like Celtic culture, football fans and politicians, Russian children and dogs. So, people who like doing it!
Why I decided to explore kilts but not, for example, Shakespeare's sonnets or English idioms? It is all because I am fond of folk music. The song of my favorite group "Rowan tower" called "About Curs and Shorts" begins this way:
Scottish warriors wear no shorts under their skirts,
They are the bravest in the world, they will banish English Curs
When I heard this song at the first time, I began to think what I knew about Scottish warriors their skirts. Practically nothing, I understood. So I decided to find some information about national highland's costume and besides to write a work about it.
Components of national Scottish costume:
Plaid, thrown over the shoulder
The history of kilt, kilt itself, tartan (ornament that consists of different colored crossing vertical and horizontal lines), sporran and kilt pin are considered in this work. In applications you will see how to put a kilt on and examples of tartan, sporrans and kilt pins.
The history of kilt
The word "kilt" is from Gaelic language, it means "to belt clothes around the body". In its order, this word originates from ancient Scandinavian "kjilt"(=pleated), that came from Vikings, who worn such clothes, but without tartan.
We can not exactly answer why Scots wear kilts. It is a question like "Why Russian wear valenki?" Both of the nations just do it, and from the ancient times. It is a stone of VII century a. d. in village Nigg on which a man in kilt is drown...
The first written mention of medieval variety of kilt (great kilt; on Gaelic feilidh-mhor or breacan-feile) is dated by 1578. Bishop Lesley wrote to Rome about Scottish highlanders: "Their clothes are very practical and suits for war instead of adornment. Both nobles and common people wear cloaks of one type (nobles prefer cloaks made of different colored cloth). They (cloaks) are long and can be pleated.
In 1816 it was created Scottish Highland's Tartan Study Association. People from Association didn't only discover real tartans, but invented a lot of which have never existed before. Kilts became fashionable to that time, but nobody wanted to wear symbol of a Scottish clan. So, now only 55 tartans are authentic.
In XIX century status of kilt as the Scottish national clothes was doubted. Irish made up their mind that kilt was the part of whole Celtic culture. Irish intellectuals at once began wearing skirts, because color of kilt showed nobility of its owner: only kings and their relatives could wear blue and purple. Common people, farmers and workers, kept on wearing trousers and often laughed at their rich bosses in skirts.
In 1942 H.F. McClintock proved that kilt was the Scottish invention and for Ireland it was not typical. And when Ireland Republic got independence, kilt was forgotten. Now only professional dancers wear kilt in Ireland. It seems a bit strange, but beautiful: there are modern jacket, shirt and kilt on the dancer.
These are the most important points of kilt history. Where you can find out anything else? One of the most complete books which describe kilt history is "Irish and Highland Dress" written by H.F. McClintock. It was published at first time in 1943 in Scotland and contains extensive researches of Scottish and Irish clothes, with references to historical sources. So what do we know about Scottish clothes?
Kilt is a skirt worn by Scottish warriors. It's made of 5 or 6 yards of cloth. Modern kilt is the "rest" of Great Plaid. Originally a big woolen plaid was belted round waist and fastened with long wide belt. The rest of plaid was pleated and pinned at the left shoulder. Great Plaid was good protector against bad weather. Probably kilt is a kind of flag. Person who knows symbolic of Scottish clans seeing only the kilt of a warrior can easily define to which clan he (warrior) belongs - McDonald or McPherson, McLain or McLuhan, McGregor or McIntosh.
How to put a kilt on, see in application 1
If you want to know what clan is the warrior from, look at the tartan of his kilt.
Tartan is an ornament that consists of different colored crossing vertical and horizontal lines.
TUAR TAN in Gaelic means "color of the locality". In every district weavers made fixed design of tartan. It means that maybe members of one clan worn tartan weaved and colored in one workshop. Very long ago every fixed design was adopted by leader of the clan and his relatives and became traditional clan tartan. Varieties of cloths, special in every region, little by little involved, and it was possible to define where is a person from having a look at the color of his clothes.
Also tartan was the designation of social status. In the "Great History"( Seanachas Mor), referring to the laws of pre-Christian times, when there was no fixed tartans, it is written, that it was defined by the number of colors in tartan: one belonged to servants, two - to farmers, three - to officers, five - to commanders, six - to poets, seven - to leaders of clans. Then clans and geneses adopted their own tartans. Here we see that belonging to a clan we can define seeing colors of tartan. Traditional colors are yellow, blue, white, green, brown, red, black and violet.
Dyes for colored tartans were made from different plants. Black was gotten from alder's crust, blue - from berries of blackberry. Different plants - dying substances - grew in different regions, and even water could contain different chemical elements. So, "tuar tan" is the exact definition of kilt ornament.
First time tartan was mentioned by Romans, who were impressed by Celts' skills in weaving and dying cloths. Caesar wrote: "Celts take their clothes off before a battle, but they can identify each other by tattoos ore pictures on their bodies, which are corresponding to their native region". Were these tartans such as modern? This is the question!
Never the less, the first mention about highland's tartan after roman mention was document dated 1538, when King Jacob V ordered highland's costume. Among many other things it is signified "Heland tertane". And in 1549 John Alder wrote long detailed report to English king Henry YIII. He did not mentioned tartan production, but he told the king about bare legs of Scottish warriors!
We have not any authentic documents of earlier times. The reason is simple: Gaelic was not written language until XIV-XV centuries.
It was some types of tartan, for example Clan or Hunting. It was to wear each of them in special situations, defining to the names of tartans. There were some rules of wearing tartan. If member of a clan had belonged to a branch of it, he was to wear tartan of the main branch, but if his branch had had its own tartan, he was to wear it. If a member of clan had rights to wear District and Clan tartan, he could wear plaid of the first one and kilt of the second one.
Types of tartan
CLAN tartans are used by clan members. Sometimes they are named "ancient". That is not right, because such tartans are more withered, "like olden times", as if it is colored with dyes.
CHIEF tartans are personal. They were worn and they are worn by clan leaders and their close relatives only.
DRESS tartans were always worn by women of clans. It is made on light background.
MOURNING tartansare worn if Scottish warrior is in mourning. Usually it is dyed in white or black colors.
HUNTING tartan is used for sports, hunting, etc. dominating colors are brown, black, dark blue and grey; it make clothes less soiling.
DISRICT tartan is, probably, the oldest type of tartan, from which envolved clan tartans. Nowadays such tartans are worn by people who live ore originate from any district and who can't wear clan tartans. Scotts say that district tartans are created for every village, hill and rock
REGIMENTALtartans are used in army and belong to different military subdivision.
Ancient and modern tartans do not have different design, they are only different tones of the same color design. Ancient is lighter, modern is darker. Lighter tones are caused by traditional natural dyes, used until middle of XIX century, then synthetic aniline dyes were invented, and the same colors became brighter.
Last time tartans with domination of brown and grey tones were created. They are called Weathered, Reproduction or Muted. They are made "like in olden times".
Examples of tartans see in application 2
Sporran is a belt wallet, which is worn on kilts, most often made of leather with fur trimming.
Nowadays it is decorative part of highland's national costume, but earlier it was a very practical thing. It was used as the protection against arrow hits, as it was resoled with wood and metal.
Sporran is made of leather or fur of wild animals, such as badger, otter, deer, lynx, etc and decorated with metal (traditionally silver) ornament. It is put on with a chain and leather belt, which embraces waist.
As it is no pockets in traditional kilt, sporran is used as a purse and a wallet for different necessary things. Sporran usually is at the distance of three fingers below the belt badge. Ornaments on the sporran and the badge coincide. Drummers during beating their drums must put sporrans at sides, but then they must return it to the former place.
Examples of sporrans see in application 3
Kilt pins fasten cloth of kilt. Scientists from English History Association suppose that kilt pins appeared in XVI century, simultaneously with modern tartans, but exact history of kilt pin's appearance is not known.
Kilt pins are usually made in a shape of a sword, which is unique for every clan. These are the exact copies of clan leaders' weapon. There are some pins which do not belong to any clan or district: everybody can wear it.
Kilt pins are made of silver and other light metals.
Examples of kilt pins see in application 4
How to put a kilt on
You should find enough place to spread out the cloth in front of you. Don't try to spread out kilt on the whole length, try to spread out the cloth in its' width to be able to form pleats.
Count distance from thigh's bone to thigh's bone and carry it over on the cloth. This would be one of two pieces which are not pleated..
Beginning from the end of this piece(apron), accurately form and smooth pleats in the center of the cloth.
Width of pleats depends of you. But it is easier to make wide pleats.
Continuer till you will form all the pleats. Leave enough material to make the second apron.
Now you must lay belt under the cloth in such way that it would be on your waist's level when you would lay on the cloth. To do it count distance from floor to the belt and carry it over on the cloth. Lay the belt on the place you marked. Belt badge must be in right.
Fold aprons and cast it down along your kilt in such way that your knees were on one line with the end of cloth
Belt aprons around your thighs - first of all right, then left.
Cloth above the belt must hang down the waste free, if it is possible, till ankles. It depends of width of cloth and how tall are you.
The you can fix the belt and think what to do with the rest of cloth.
Now you have two ways. You can either wear kilt belted ends around your neck(if you have enough material) or regulate it in such way that that the end would cross your chest and hang down the back.