Someone estimated that for levitation of an object weighing 2.2 kg over the Earth, it should have a charge of about 50 C. This is not such a huge charge "" ... this is a monstrous charge that will destroy a medium-sized city. if you collect it in a tennis ball, then its energy will be 1250 Terra joules. 300 kilotons of TNT. "
These data are presented in order to clearly visualize the potential of electrostatic repulsive forces. To what tremendous speeds they can accelerate, for example, air ions.
Principle of operation.
Imagine that CO2 molecules are slowly pumping through a pipe. This pipe is purging. But the tube is not simple, but is divided into an ionization chamber where some rays knock out free electrons from CO2 molecules and some analogue of the grounding system, remove knocked-out electrons from the ionization zone.
In this case, part of the CO2 molecules become aeroions, partial ionization of carbon dioxide occurs. Conventionally, in the first ionization chamber, the ionization or the number of free ions of one sign becomes 10%, in the second chamber the number of ions increases to 20% and in the third ionization chamber the number of ions becomes 30%.
At the same time, CO2 air ions, being of the same sign, begin to repulse very strongly, we are looking at the introduction. And in each chamber, this repulsion increases, which means that the pressure in the cavity of the ionization chamber increases. Then the gas enters the nozzle where the electrostatic explosion occurs and the air ions accelerate and create reactive thrust or force F which pushes the engine, and the whole apparatus in revenge. In this case, the output is essentially cold plasma. It is clear that% taken is purely hypothetical, the main thing is to achieve the speed of the outflow of aeroions not less than 8000-9000 m.s. In order for the outflow velocity to be at least 2 times greater than the outflow velocity of gases in chemical reactive engines. It is clear that the 2-fold advantage for the electrostatic "exhaust" is not the limit
Ionizers are glass vessels made of some ultra-strong glass, around which there are several sources of pumping with ultraviolet radiation. All this is placed in an external mirror tube, ideally capable of reflecting UV waves in an amount equal to 100%. That is, UV drop and reflection are equal. For some wavelengths, scientists have already managed to create suchmirrors.
So, the flask is filled with carbon dioxide, irradiated, and then passing through the metal grid into the next flask it loses free electrons on the metal grid, then in the next chamber the flask is also irradiated with UV waves, more ionization takes place and the gas moves to the next flask losing free electrons on the separation grid and so gradually the gas moving in a glass flask closed with mirrors is ionized and then proceeds as intended. That is, at the output we get a low-temperature plasma, consisting of CO2 aero ions in which there are no free electrons knocked out by UV rays from carbon dioxide molecules . The removal of electrons from the ionization chamber is very important because it prevents the re-absorption of free electrons by CO2 molecules. It should also be noted that in the proposed scheme, ultraviolet rays are directed perpendicularly to the gas flow, but this is conditional. In practice, they need to be fed at a certain angle to the flow, so that direct UV rays do not fall on their sources and are evenly reflected along the entire length of the pipe.
On the removal of electrons
In this carbon dioxide ionization scheme by ultraviolet lasers, the exhaust system is schematically indicated by the sign 'ground loop' or 'ground'. This will work if, for example, the system stands on Earth, for example, on a railway platform and then free electrons knocked out of carbon dioxide will easily go through grounded rails into the ground, and the entire platform will be pushed by reactive thrust resulting from the expansion of ionized carbon dioxide gas. But in space there is no grounding loop, there is no planet under the 'wheels' that will absorb any amount of free electrons, therefore, we need some kind of system for removing free electrons from the ionizing chamber, without reference to the usual grounding loop. Thus, there should be a substance on board that will absorb free electrons like a sponge, and then at least partially these free electrons must be removed from this substance so that a place appears for milking new electrons. And there is such a substance. This is water. Any ship with a person on board will carry a large amount of water with it, and now it must be used as a capacitor to remove free electrons from the ionization chamber.
So, to understand how this works, let us return to the design of the engine. Imagine a hypothetical rocket engine compartment.
In the center is a carbon dioxide ionization chamber. Ultraviolet lasers are inserted into it, the camera consists of several compartments separated by grids from electron utilizers. Further, these nets of utilizers are inserted into a flask with liquid. The ceramic flask itself is located between the inner and outer shells of the compartment, it is a huge Leiden can that will suck out free electrons knocked out by ultraviolet from ionized carbon dioxide. Yes, here this liquid must be freed from the electrons to dispose of them. For this, conclusions were drawn from the given vessel to the nozzle, to the nozzles at a certain distance. When ionized gas escapes from the nozzles, it captures part of the electrons from their surface, thus freeing the Leyden jar from excess electrons. This scheme is good in that as long as no ionized gas has flowed out of the nozzle, the removal of electrons from the 'Leiden can' is not possible. And the initial electric capacity of the vessel with water acts as a starter, it takes on the first 'idle' stream of free electrons, which occurs even before jet exhaust. After the appearance of the aeroion torch, the value of the 'Leyden jar' decreases. But not significantly.
About the benefits.
The network has enough options for similar engines. What is the advantage. Should be clarified. In this, the engines were first proposed to be used to disperse gas ions due to electrostatic repulsive forces. Or Coulomb forces causing "electrostatic explosion", and hence the acceleration of ionized unipolar gas. It is important to note that the process of obtaining aeroions described in the article occurs at low temperatures. And at the exit we get some kind of cold plasma. And we can disperse air ions to speeds that are achievable only if the gas is driven through the working zone of a nuclear reactor. That is, we get a very fast gas exhaust at low temperatures without radiation without heating to solar temperatures. In all other electrostatic engines, the much less effective Laurence force or electromotive force is used to accelerate ions.