Zalesski Vladimir Vladimirovich: другие произведения.

The Monologue about the hope of comrade Karakhan about Support

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    Монолог о расчёте товарища Карахана на поддержку The Monologue about the hope of comrade Karakhan about Support

  The Monologue about the hope of comrade Karakhan about Support
  During the break, the readers of the Gorky cafe-library gathered nearby the tables to drink a cup of coffee.
  Someone asked the Readeress:
  - What else did you read in the book by I. Ermashov?
  The Readeress smiled:
  - The book is quite big. It is impractical to retell it in detail. I can tell you about my personal impressions of reading the next pages.
  - We are waiting! - readers café-library encouraged her.
  - The monarchy in China was overthrown. National armed forces were created. But, firstly, these armed forces and officers did not have, perhaps, sufficient traditions.
  Secondly, the national independence implied development of China according to a some political strategic line. And armed forces and officers without traditions someone could perceive as the groups of people with selfish interests and a habit to violence.
  For comparison I will remind couple of phrases from the book by D.M. Krelenko "Francisco Franco: Way to the power", published in Russian, if to trust the electronic copy of the book, - in Saratov, in 2002, copies with a circulation of 150 (!):
  "... The elite of the country ... was a bearer of special traditions. A basis of the vital principles of noble hidalgos was the worship for military valor which has taken root into public consciousness ... And quality this, among other things, means a negligence to material values, ... which are hardly worthy accumulation, in view of possible vicissitudes of life of the soldier who is everyday risking life."
  What does tell this fragment from the book by D.M. Krelenko about? Perhaps, that the self-interest was not the most important feature of that elite, those officers about whom D.M. Krelenko wrote?
  And so, at the beginning of the 20th century in China the modern national army, modern social group of officers has begun to be formed. Not everything turned out at once. Here's a specific example: "The army consisted of guandunets and many guansiyets - the former soldiers Lu Yun-Tin who have got used to plunder the population and to take away from him a property."
  Both time and intense activity for formation of the new army, new officers, new China were necessary.
  The western politicians were people practical. To the questions: "why to help formation of new army?, new officers?, "new" China?" - clear and definite answers weren't. Who could give answers to these questions?
  Also, what is the "new" China?
  Even Sun Yat-sen himself reflected over this subject, he wrote works on this subjects, he developed the views.
  Sun Yat-sen gradually became the practical politician. He, for example, not only traveled the globe, trying to direct the Chinese people to the coordinated action. He, also, after the overthrow of the monarchy, directly led some armed groups, when attempts were made to solve certain political problems by armed means.
  The practical politician Sun Yat-sen and his colleagues were looking at the practical politicians (the Western)...
  The news came from Russia.
  "Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] learned about the historical document, which expressed the principles of the peace policy of the Socialist Soviet Republic: the Decree on peace, adopted by the Second Congress of Soviets on November 8, 1917. This document proclaimed that the Soviet government offers all the peoples of the world - "a world without annexation (i.e., without the seizure of foreign lands, without the forcible annexation of foreign nationalities) and without indemnities (military contributions)."'
  "No indemnities (military contributions)?" Such news should be taken with attention.
  Further - more. In any case, - more specifically.
  "On July 4, 1918 at the Fifth Congress of Soviets G. V. Chicherin, the People's Commissar Of foreign Affairs, made a report on the foreign policy of the Soviet Republic. And in this report a lot of words are devoted the China. G. V. Chicherin said:
  "We have notified China that we refuse of the occupations of the imperial government in Manchuria and we restore the sovereign rights of China in that territory across which the major trade artery lies - the East Chinese railroad, the property of the Chinese and Russian people, which has absorbed many millions of national money and therefore belonging only to these two nations and nobody more. And even further, we believe that if a part of the money of the Russian people invested on construction of this road to it is compensated by China, China can redeem it, without waiting for the terms of the contract, imposed by the force to him. (...) We are ready to refuse such indemnities (military contributions) which under different pretexts have been imposed on the peoples of China, Mongolia and Persia by the former Russian government. We would only want that these millions of national money have gone for cultural development of a peoples and for business of rapprochement of east democracies with Russian"."
  Well... If the railroad is the "ownership" of "two peoples"...
  I suppose that the respected Sun Yat-sen, who himself loved and had the creative potential to read and write theoretical works, made up his opinion about the psychology of the people who were the authors of this report.
  "... I would like to come into personal contact with you .... I am extremely interested in your work, in particular the organization of your Councils, your army and education.
  With the best wishes to you and my friend Lenin and all who have very much made for human freedom -
  Sincerely yours, Sun Yat-sen."
  "We need of the close business contact with the Russians. The Russians made a revolution and survived a four-year civil war. More a foreign troops have intruded in Russia, than ever were in China. And yet the Russians won! Because they had a people's army, a new army created during the revolution, and this army was led into battle by party people, revolutionaries.'
  About the thought of the "new" army ... this approval is true, but only partly ... Say that about 40 percent of the officers of the Russian Imperial army were mobilized to the Red army... And they were people, nevertheless, with a certain worldview, education, traditions, skills of participation in the huge modern war...
  "Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] couldn't but recognize that if to fight for a revolution victory "in Chinese", then results will always be negative because militarists will be stronger and will always manage to buy up those military with whom Kuomintang leaders are cooperating. It is necessary to fight "in Russian", applying experience of the Soviet Russia, experience of the organization of the Red Army to become independent of militaristic groups. It is necessary to study at Russians."
  Probably, someone will have an opinion: Practical Western politicians ... Sun Yat-sen and other practical Chinese politicians...
  New actors in the global process are emerging in the political arena. "Soviet Russia is the only major state, which is ready to support in every possible way the China's full sovereignty in all respects and the full flourishing of the China's independent development.''
  "At this difficult time, Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] came to the final conclusion that the practice of alliances with various militarists should be abandoned and that it is necessary to start organizing a revolutionary army and creating revolutionary command personnel.'
  "We need a revolutionary, loyal to the people officer corps, therefore, we need the our own revolutionary military school. Who is able to help in the creation of such a school? There can be no dispute here: only Soviet Russia. On her all the hopes.'
  "On Chinese New year's day, addressing the people, Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] said:
  - From now on we don't look at the western countries any more. Our eyes are turned towards Russia ..."
  - He was living not without usefulness, - a philosophical comment was announced from some of the listeners.
  - Practical politicians are distinguished by propensity to a practical actions, - the Readeress confirmed.
  "Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] told A.A. Ioffe about the plans to reorganize the Kuomintang and about intention to send special military-political delegation to Moscow in order that ... to agree about emergency aid to the Chinese revolutionary movement."
  "Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] ... said that it would probably be very useful if Moscow sent military and political advisers to him. Ioffe promised to inform Moscow in detail about the content of their conversation. Have agreed to publish the Joint statement on negotiations. The joint statement was signed by A. A. Ioffe and Sun Yat-sen on January 26, and published in the Chinese and Soviet press on January 28, 1923. It was the first state act of friendship and cooperation between the Soviet country and the revolutionary forces of China.'
  "The new head of the mission, Lev Karakhan, has arrived."
  "Dear Dr. Sun Yat-sen, You are an old friend of the New Russia, and I hope on your support in my responsible work on the close rapprochement of our two peoples...
  L. Karakhan."
  17 September 1923
  Dear comrade Karakhan!
  I hardly need to say that you can count on me in the sense of the help, that I can provide to move forward the cause of your mission in China.
  Capitalist powers will try to put through Beijing and by means of Beijing a new diplomatic defeat of the Soviet Russia. But always keep in mind that I am ready and have now the opportunity to crush any such attempt to humiliate you and your government.
  Absolutely sincerely yours
  Sun Yat-sen".
  The Readeress paused and took a sip of coffee. Then she explained:
  "Sun Wen [Sun Yat-sen] felt his strength had increased to tenfold."
  The Readeress took a piece of bread from a saucer and bit off a little. She looked at the sauerkraut...
  - What further? - the question from audience was heard.
  - I continue to read, - the Readeress has explained.
  - It is time to get back to reading! - the listeners have rustled.
  The break has come to the end.
  The readers of the café-library returned toward their books.
  July 12, 2018 12:02
  Translation from Russian into English: July 12, 2018 - July 13, 2018. Владимир Владимирович Залесский 'Монолог о расчёте товарища Карахана на поддержку'.
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